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Archive for the ‘Epigenetics and Environmental Factors’ Category


Live 12:00 – 1:00 P.M  Mediterranean Diet and Lifestyle: A Symposium on Diet and Human Health : October 19, 2018

Reporter: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

12.00 The Italian Mediterranean Diet as a Model of Identity of a People with a Universal Good to Safeguard Health?

Prof. Antonino De Lorenzo, MD, PhD.

Director of the School of Specialization in Clinical Nutrition, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”

It is important to determine how our bodies interacts with the environment, such as absorption of nutrients.

Studies shown here show decrease in life expectancy of a high sugar diet, but the quality of the diet, not just the type of diet is important, especially the role of natural probiotics and phenolic compounds found in the Mediterranean diet.

The WHO report in 2005 discusses the unsustainability of nutrition deficiencies and suggest a proactive personalized and preventative/predictive approach of diet and health.

Most of the noncommunicable diseases like CV (46%) cancer 21% and 11% respiratory and 4% diabetes could be prevented and or cured with proper dietary approaches

Italy vs. the US diseases: in Italy most disease due to environmental contamination while US diet plays a major role

The issue we are facing in less than 10% of the Italian population (fruit, fibers, oils) are not getting the proper foods, diet and contributing to as we suggest 46% of the disease

The Food Paradox: 1.5 billion are obese; we notice we are eating less products of quality and most quality produce is going to waste;

  •  growing BMI and junk food: our studies are correlating the junk food (pre-prepared) and global BMI
  • modern diet and impact of human health (junk food high in additives, salt) has impact on microflora
  • Western Diet and Addiction: We show a link (using brain scans) showing correlation of junk food, sugar cravings, and other addictive behaviors by affecting the dopamine signaling in the substantia nigra
  • developed a junk food calculator and a Mediterranean diet calculator
  • the intersection of culture, food is embedded in the Mediterranean diet; this is supported by dietary studies of two distinct rural Italian populations (one of these in the US) show decrease in diet
  • Impact of diet: have model in Germany how this diet can increase health and life expectancy
  • from 1950 to present day 2.7 unit increase in the diet index can increase life expectancy by 26%
  • so there is an inverse relationship with our index and breast cancer

Environment and metal contamination and glyphosate: contribution to disease and impact of maintaining the healthy diet

  • huge problem with use of pesticides and increase in celiac disease

12:30 Environment and Health

Dr. Iris Maria Forte, PhD.

National Cancer Institute “Pascale” Foundation | IRCCS · Department of Research, Naples, Italy

Cancer as a disease of the environment.  Weinberg’s hallmarks of Cancer reveal how environment and epigenetics can impact any of these hallmarks.

Epigenetic effects

  • gene gatekeepers (Rb and P53)
  • DNA repair and damage stabilization

Heavy Metals and Dioxins:( alterations of the immune system as well as epigenetic regulations)

Asbestos and Mesothelioma:  they have demonstrated that p53 can be involved in development of mesothelioma as reactivating p53 may be a suitable strategy for therapy

Diet, Tomato and Cancer

  • looked at tomato extract on p53 function in gastric cancer: tomato extract had a growth reduction effect and altered cell cycle regulation and results in apoptosis
  • RBL2 levels are increased in extract amount dependent manner so data shows effect of certain tomato extracts of the southern italian tomato (     )

Antonio Giordano: we tested whole extracts of almost 30 different varieties of tomato.  The tomato variety  with highest activity was near Ravela however black tomatoes have shown high antitumor activity.  We have done a followup studies showing that these varieties, if grow elsewhere lose their antitumor activity after two or three generations of breeding, even though there genetics are similar.  We are also studying the effects of different styles of cooking of these tomatoes and if it reduces antitumor effect

please see post https://news.temple.edu/news/2017-08-28/muse-cancer-fighting-tomatoes-study-italian-food

 

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BIO 2018! June 4-7, 2018 at Boston Convention & Exhibition Center

LIVE 2018 The 21st Gabay Award to LORENZ STUDER, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, contributions in stem cell biology and patient-specific, cell-based therapy

HUBweek 2018, October 8-14, 2018, Greater Boston – “We The Future” – coming together, of breaking down barriers, of convening across disciplinary lines to shape our future

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Decline in Sperm Count – Epigenetics, Well-being and the Significance for Population Evolution and Demography

 

Dr. Marc Feldman, Expert Opinion on the significance of Sperm Count Decline on the Future of Population Evolution and Demography

Dr. Sudipta Saha, Effects of Sperm Quality and Quantity on Human Reproduction

Dr. Aviva Lev-Ari, Psycho-Social Effects of Poverty, Unemployment and Epigenetics on Male Well-being, Physiological Conditions affecting Sperm Quality and Quantity

 

UPDATED on 2/3/2018

Nobody Really Knows What Is Causing the Overdose Epidemic, But Here Are A Few Theories

https://www.buzzfeed.com/danvergano/whats-causing-the-opioid-crisis?utm_term=.kbJPMgaQo4&utm_source=BrandeisNOW%2BWeekly&utm_campaign=58ada49a84-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_01_29&utm_medium=email#.uugW6mx1dG

 

Recent studies concluded via rigorous and comprehensive analysis found that Sperm Count (SC) declined 52.4% between 1973 and 2011 among unselected men from western countries, with no evidence of a ‘leveling off’ in recent years. Declining mean SC implies that an increasing proportion of men have sperm counts below any given threshold for sub-fertility or infertility. The high proportion of men from western countries with concentration below 40 million/ml is particularly concerning given the evidence that SC below this threshold is associated with a decreased monthly probability of conception.

1.Temporal trends in sperm count: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis 

Hagai Levine, Niels Jørgensen, Anderson Martino‐Andrade, Jaime Mendiola, Dan Weksler-Derri, Irina Mindlis, Rachel Pinotti, Shanna H SwanHuman Reproduction Update, July 25, 2017, doi:10.1093/humupd/dmx022.

Link: https://academic.oup.com/humupd/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/humupd/dmx022.

2. Sperm Counts Are Declining Among Western Men – Interview with Dr. Hagai Levine

https://news.afhu.org/news/sperm-counts-are-declining-among-western-men?utm_source=Master+List&utm_campaign=dca529d919-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_07_27&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_343e19a421-dca529d919-92801633

3. Trends in Sperm Count – Biological Reproduction Observations

Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

4. Long, mysterious strips of RNA contribute to low sperm count – Long non-coding RNAs can be added to the group of possible non-structural effects, possibly epigenetic, that might regulate sperm counts.

http://casemed.case.edu/cwrumed360/news-releases/release.cfm?news_id=689

https://scienmag.com/long-mysterious-strips-of-rna-contribute-to-low-sperm-count/

Dynamic expression of long non-coding RNAs reveals their potential roles in spermatogenesis and fertility

Published: 29 July 2017
Thus, we postulated that some lncRNAs may also impact mammalian spermatogenesis and fertility. In this study, we identified a dynamic expression pattern of lncRNAs during murine spermatogenesis. Importantly, we identified a subset of lncRNAs and very few mRNAs that appear to escape meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), an epigenetic process that leads to the silencing of the X- and Y-chromosomes at the pachytene stage of meiosis. Further, some of these lncRNAs and mRNAs show strong testis expression pattern suggesting that they may play key roles in spermatogenesis. Lastly, we generated a mouse knock out of one X-linked lncRNA, Tslrn1 (testis-specific long non-coding RNA 1), and found that males carrying a Tslrn1 deletion displayed normal fertility but a significant reduction in spermatozoa. Our findings demonstrate that dysregulation of specific mammalian lncRNAs is a novel mechanism of low sperm count or infertility, thus potentially providing new biomarkers and therapeutic strategies.

This article presents two perspectives on the potential effects of Sperm Count decline.

One Perspective identifies Epigenetics and male well-being conditions

  1. as a potential explanation to the Sperm Count decline, and
  2. as evidence for decline in White male longevity in certain geographies in the US since the mid 80s.

The other Perspective, evaluates if Sperm Count Decline would have or would not have a significant long term effects on Population Evolution and Demography.

The Voice of Prof. Marc Feldman, Stanford University – Long term significance of Sperm Count Decline on Population Evolution and Demography

Poor sperm count appears to be associated with such demographic statistics as life expectancy (1), infertility (2), and morbidity (3,4). The meta-analysis by Levine et al. (5) focuses on the change in sperm count of men from North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand, and shows a more than 50% decline between 1973 and 2011. Although there is no analysis of potential environmental or lifestyle factors that could contribute to the estimated decline in sperm count, Levine et al. speculate that this decline could be a signal for other negative changes in men’s health.

Because this study focuses mainly on Western men, this remarkable decline in sperm count is difficult to associate with any change in actual fertility, that is, number of children born per woman. The total fertility rate in Europe, especially Italy, Spain, and Germany, has slowly declined, but age at first marriage has increased at the same time, and this increase may be more due to economic factors than physiological changes.

Included in Levine et al.’s analysis was a set of data from “Other” countries from South America, Asia, and Africa. Sperm count in men from these countries did not show significant trends, which is interesting because there have been strong fertility declines in Asia and Africa over the same period, with corresponding increases in life expectancy (once HIV is accounted for).

What can we say about the evolutionary consequences for humans of this decrease? The answer depends on the minimal number of sperm/ml/year that would be required to maintain fertility (per woman) at replacement level, say 2.1 children, over a woman’s lifetime. Given the smaller number of ova produced per woman, a change in the ovulation statistics of women would be likely to play a larger role in the total fertility rate than the number of sperm/ejaculate/man. In other words, sperm count alone, absent other effects on mortality during male reproductive years, is unlikely to tell us much about human evolution.

Further, the major declines in fertility over the 38-year period covered by Levine et al. occurred in China, India, and Japan. Chinese fertility has declined to less than 1.5 children per woman, and in Japan it has also been well below 1.5 for some time. These declines have been due to national policies and economic changes, and are therefore unlikely to signal genetic changes that would have evolutionary ramifications. It is more likely that cultural changes will continue to be the main drivers of fertility change.

The fastest growing human populations are in the Muslim world, where fertility control is not nearly as widely practiced as in the West or Asia. If this pattern were to continue for a few more generations, the cultural evolutionary impact would swamp any effects of potentially declining sperm count.

On the other hand, if the decline in sperm count were to be discovered to be associated with genetic and/or epigenetic phenotypic effects on fetuses, newborns, or pre-reproductive humans, for example, due to stress or obesity, then there would be cause to worry about long-term evolutionary problems. As Levine et al. remark, “decline in sperm count might be considered as a ‘canary in the coal mine’ for male health across the lifespan”. But to date, there is little evidence that the evolutionary trajectory of humans constitutes such a “coal mine”.

References

  1. Jensen TK, Jacobsen R, Christensen K, Nielsen NC, Bostofte E. 2009. Good semen quality and life expectancy: a cohort study of 43,277 men. Am J Epidemiol 170: 559-565.
  2. Eisenberg ML, Li S, Behr B, Cullen MR, Galusha D, Lamb DJ, Lipshultz LI. 2014. Semen quality, infertility and mortality in the USA. Hum Reprod 29: 1567-1574.
  3. Eisenberg ML, Li S, Cullen MR, Baker LC. 2016. Increased risk of incident chronic medical conditions in infertile men: analysis of United States claims data. Fertil Steril 105: 629-636.
  4. Latif T, Kold Jensen T, Mehlsen J, Holmboe SA, Brinth L, Pors K, Skouby SO, Jorgensen N, Lindahl-Jacobsen R. Semen quality is a predictor of subsequent morbidity. A Danish cohort study of 4,712 men with long-term follow-up. Am J Epidemiol. Doi: 10.1093/aje/kwx067. (Epub ahead of print]
  5. Levine H, Jorgensen N, Martino-Andrade A, Mendiola J, Weksler-Derri D, Mindlis I, Pinotti R, Swan SH. 2017. Temporal trends in sperm count: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Hum Reprod Update pp. 1-14. Doi: 10.1093/humupd/dmx022.

SOURCE

From: Marcus W Feldman <mfeldman@stanford.edu>

Date: Monday, July 31, 2017 at 8:10 PM

To: Aviva Lev-Ari <aviva.lev-ari@comcast.net>

Subject: Fwd: text of sperm count essay

Psycho-Social Effects of Poverty, Unemployment and Epigenetics on Male Well-being, Physiological Conditions as POTENTIAL effects on Sperm Quality and Quantity and Evidence of its effects on Male Longevity

The Voice of Carol GrahamSergio Pinto, and John Juneau II , Monday, July 24, 2017, Report from the Brookings Institute

  1. The IMPACT of Well-being, Stress induced by Worry, Pain, Perception of Hope related to Employment and Lack of employment on deterioration of Physiological Conditions as evidence by Decrease Longevity

  2. Epigenetics and Environmental Factors

The geography of desperation in America

Carol GrahamSergio Pinto, and John Juneau II Monday, July 24, 2017, Report from the Brookings Institute

In recent work based on our well-being metrics in the Gallup polls and on the mortality data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we find a robust association between lack of hope (and high levels of worry) among poor whites and the premature mortality rates, both at the individual and metropolitan statistical area (MSA) levels. Yet we also find important differences across places. Places come with different economic structures and identities, community traits, physical environments and much more. In the maps below, we provide a visual picture of the differences in in hope for the future, worry, and pain across race-income cohorts across U.S. states. We attempted to isolate the specific role of place, controlling for economic, socio-demographic, and other variables.

One surprise is the low level of optimism and high level of worry in the minority dense and generally “blue” state of California, and high levels of pain and worry in the equally minority dense and “blue” states of New York and Massachusetts. High levels of income inequality in these states may explain these patterns, as may the nature of jobs that poor minorities hold.

We cannot answer many questions at this point. What is it about the state of Washington, for example, that is so bad for minorities across the board? Why is Florida so much better for poor whites than it is for poor minorities? Why is Nevada “good” for poor white optimism but terrible for worry for the same group? One potential issue—which will enter into our future analysis—is racial segregation across places. We hope that the differences that we have found will provoke future exploration. Readers of this piece may have some contributions of their own as they click through the various maps, and we welcome their input. Better understanding the role of place in the “crisis” of despair facing our country is essential to finding viable solutions, as economic explanations, while important, alone are not enough.

https://www.brookings.edu/research/the-geography-of-desperation-in-america/?utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook&utm_campaign=global

 

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Trends in Sperm Count

Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

 

There has been a genuine decline in semen quality over the past 50 years. There is lot of controversy about this as there are limitations in studies that have attempted to address it. Sperm count is of considerable public health importance for several reasons. First, sperm count is closely linked to male fecundity and is a crucial component of semen analysis, the first step to identify male factor infertility.

Reduced sperm count is associated with cryptorchidism, hypospadias and testicular cancer. It may be associated with multiple environmental influences, including endocrine disrupting chemicals, pesticides, heat and lifestyle factors, including diet, stress, smoking and BMI. Therefore, sperm count may sensitively reflect the impacts of the modern environment on male health throughout the life span.

This study provided a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of recent trends in sperm counts as measured by sperm concentration (SC) and total sperm count (TSC), and their modification by fertility and geographic group. Analyzing trends by birth cohorts instead of year of sample collection may aid in assessing the causes of the decline (prenatal or in adult life) but was not feasible owing to lack of information.

This rigorous and comprehensive analysis found that SC declined 52.4% between 1973 and 2011 among unselected men from western countries, with no evidence of a ‘leveling off’ in recent years. Declining mean SC implies that an increasing proportion of men have sperm counts below any given threshold for sub-fertility or infertility. The high proportion of men from western countries with concentration below 40 million/ml is particularly concerning given the evidence that SC below this threshold is associated with a decreased monthly probability of conception.

Declines in sperm count have implications beyond fertility and reproduction. The decline reported in this study is consistent with reported trends in other male reproductive health indicators, such as testicular germ cell tumors, cryptorchidism, onset of male puberty and total testosterone levels. The public health implications are even wider. Recent studies have shown that poor sperm count is associated with overall morbidity and mortality. While the current study is not designed to provide direct information on the causes of the observed declines, sperm count has been plausibly associated with multiple environmental and lifestyle influences, both prenatally and in adult life. In particular, endocrine disruption from chemical exposures or maternal smoking during critical windows of male reproductive development may play a role in prenatal life, while lifestyle changes and exposure to pesticides may play a role in adult life.

These findings strongly suggest a significant decline in male reproductive health, which has serious implications beyond fertility concerns. Research on causes and implications of this decline is urgently needed.

 

REFERENCES

Temporal trends in sperm count: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis 

Hagai Levine, Niels Jørgensen, Anderson Martino‐Andrade, Jaime Mendiola, Dan Weksler-Derri, Irina Mindlis, Rachel Pinotti, Shanna H Swan. Human Reproduction Update, July 25, 2017, doi:10.1093/humupd/dmx022.

Link: https://academic.oup.com/humupd/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/humupd/dmx022.

Sperm Counts Are Declining Among Western Men – Interview with Dr. Hagai Levine

https://news.afhu.org/news/sperm-counts-are-declining-among-western-men?utm_source=Master+List&utm_campaign=dca529d919-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_07_27&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_343e19a421-dca529d919-92801633

J Urol. 1983 Sep;130(3):467-75.

A critical method of evaluating tests for male infertility.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6688444

Hum Reprod. 1993 Jan;8(1):65-70.

Estimating fertility potential via semen analysis data.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8458929

Lancet. 1998 Oct 10;352(9135):1172-7.

Relation between semen quality and fertility: a population-based study of 430 first-pregnancy planners.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9777833

Hum Reprod Update. 2010 May-Jun;16(3):231-45. doi: 10.1093/humupd/dmp048. Epub 2009 Nov 24.

World Health Organization reference values for human semen characteristics.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19934213

J Nutr. 2016 May;146(5):1084-92. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.226563. Epub 2016 Apr 13.

Intake of Fruits and Vegetables with Low-to-Moderate Pesticide Residues Is Positively Associated with Semen-Quality Parameters among Young Healthy Men.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075904

Reprod Toxicol. 2003 Jul-Aug;17(4):451-6.

Semen quality of Indian welders occupationally exposed to nickel and chromium.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12849857

Fertil Steril. 1996 May;65(5):1009-14.

Semen analyses in 1,283 men from the United States over a 25-year period: no decline in quality.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8612826

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Ido Sagi – PhD Student @HUJI, 2017 Kaye Innovation Award winner for leading research that yielded the first successful isolation and maintenance of haploid embryonic stem cells in humans.

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

Ido Sagi – PhD Student, Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, HUJI, Israel

  • Ido Sagi’s research focuses on studying genetic and epigenetic phenomena in human pluripotent stem cells, and his work has been published in leading scientific journals, including NatureNature Genetics and Cell Stem Cell.
  • Ido Sagi received BSc summa cum laude in Life Sciences from the Hebrew University, and currently pursues a PhD at the laboratory of Prof. Nissim Benvenisty at the university’s Department of Genetics in the Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences.

The Kaye Innovation Awards at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have been awarded annually since 1994. Isaac Kaye of England, a prominent industrialist in the pharmaceutical industry, established the awards to encourage faculty, staff and students of the Hebrew University to develop innovative methods and inventions with good commercial potential, which will benefit the university and society.

Publications – Ido Sagi

Comparable frequencies of coding mutations and loss of imprinting in human pluripotent cells derived by nuclear transfer and defined factors.
Cell Stem Cell 2014 Nov 6;15(5):634-42. Epub 2014 Nov 6.
The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute, New York, NY 10032, USA; Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center & Department of Pediatrics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:

November 2014

 



Stem cells: Aspiring to naivety.
Nature 2016 12 30;540(7632):211-212. Epub 2016 Nov 30.
The Azrieli Center for Stem Cells and Genetic Research, Department of Genetics, Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel.
November 2016

Download Full Paper

SOURCE

Other related articles on Genetic and Epigenetic phenomena in human pluripotent stem cells published by LPBI Group can be found in the following e-Books on Amazon.com

e-Books in Medicine

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    Etiologies of Cardiovascular Diseases: Epigenetics, Genetics and Genomics

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Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

During pregnancy, the baby is mostly protected from harmful microorganisms by the amniotic sac, but recent research suggests the baby could be exposed to small quantities of microbes from the placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood and fetal membranes. One theory is that any possible prenatal exposure could ‘pre-seed’ the infant microbiome. In other words, to set the right conditions for the ‘main seeding event’ for founding the infant microbiome.

When a mother gives birth vaginally and if she breastfeeds, she passes on colonies of essential microbes to her baby. This continues a chain of maternal heritage that stretches through female ancestry for thousands of generations, if all have been vaginally born and breastfed. This means a child’s microbiome, that is the trillions of microorganisms that live on and in him or her, will resemble the microbiome of his/her mother, the grandmother, the great-grandmother and so on, if all have been vaginally born and breastfed.

As soon as the mother’s waters break, suddenly the baby is exposed to a wave of the mother’s vaginal microbes that wash over the baby in the birth canal. They coat the baby’s skin, and enter the baby’s eyes, ears, nose and some are swallowed to be sent down into the gut. More microbes form of the mother’s gut microbes join the colonization through contact with the mother’s faecal matter. Many more microbes come from every breath, from every touch including skin-to-skin contact with the mother and of course, from breastfeeding.

With formula feeding, the baby won’t receive the 700 species of microbes found in breast milk. Inside breast milk, there are special sugars called human milk oligosaccharides (HMO’s) that are indigestible by the baby. These sugars are designed to feed the mother’s microbes newly arrived in the baby’s gut. By multiplying quickly, the ‘good’ bacteria crowd out any potentially harmful pathogens. These ‘good’ bacteria help train the baby’s naive immune system, teaching it to identify what is to be tolerated and what is pathogen to be attacked. This leads to the optimal training of the infant immune system resulting in a child’s best possible lifelong health.

With C-section birth and formula feeding, the baby is not likely to acquire the full complement of the mother’s vaginal, gut and breast milk microbes. Therefore, the baby’s microbiome is not likely to closely resemble the mother’s microbiome. A baby born by C-section is likely to have a different microbiome from its mother, its grandmother, its great-grandmother and so on. C-section breaks the chain of maternal heritage and this break can never be restored.

The long term effect of an altered microbiome for a child’s lifelong health is still to be proven, but many studies link C-section with a significantly increased risk for developing asthma, Type 1 diabetes, celiac disease and obesity. Scientists might not yet have all the answers, but the picture that is forming is that C-section and formula feeding could be significantly impacting the health of the next generation. Through the transgenerational aspect to birth, it could even be impacting the health of future generations.

References:

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/shortchanging-a-babys-microbiome/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23926244

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26412384

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25290507

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25974306

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24637604

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22911969

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25650398

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27362264

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27306663

http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/14/11/2036

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4464665/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24848255

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26412384

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28112736

http://ndnr.com/gastrointestinal/the-infant-microbiome-how-environmental-maternal-factors-influence-its-development/

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Real Time Coverage of the AGENDA for Powering Precision Health (PPH) with Science, 9/26/2016, Cambridge Marriott Hotel, Cambridge, MA

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Boston Marriott Cambridge – September 26, 2016

@PPHSUMMIT

7:00-8:15         Coffee & Registration

8:30-9:30         Opening
                         Kevin Hrusovsky
                         PPH Summit Founder and Chair, CEO Quanterix    

LIVE @ Marriott, Cambridge Aviva Lev-Ari streaming live from Powering Precision Health Summit

Apple and Steve Jobs – Returned to Apple after Pixar – Jobs has teamed up with Microsoft.

Innovations @Apple: iPhone, iPad, iPod, TV Apple,

Innovations @High Tech Industry in the World: Uber, Facebook, Robots,

Science – leads the revolution and DISRUPTIVE innovations

Medicine – Cardiology, Neurology, Oncology: INFLAMMATION markers

  • Speakers Affiliations
  • Collaborations
  • Leaders in the field
  • 5% Patient Advocacy; 10% Investors, 20% Providers, SCIENTISTS

PRECISION HEALTH: DIGITAL REVOLUTION AND HEALTH

  • lower costs on HC 40%, shift to prevention, 60% better access
  • Sick care: Japan and France HC more productive – Life expectency is 8 yrs hight than the US
  • Cancer, diabetes, In the US 31 out of 100,ooo reaches +100 yrs of age
  • Cancer Women: BRCA
  • Cancer Men: Prostate Cancer: PSA >10 – riskhigher
  • Sugar consumption in the USA  – 216 Liters/person
  • Obesity and Diabetes
  • Food addiction: Salt, fat, sugar: 2/3 of the populations are obese
  • Omega 6 overload – inflammation
  • Neurological disease:
  1. AD starts at 50 in some cases
  2. Concussions in Sports 5-10% – leading to neurodegenerative diseases
  3. Bicycle accidents at kids: no monitoring
  4. Drug as environmental factor – TOXICITY: depression, Schisophrenia, cardiac Arythmia
  • Digitizing biomarkers & Analytics: extreme specificity and sensitivity of Inflammation markers: Lowest DETECTION marker levels
  • LIQUID BIOPSY – ACCURATE NON-INVASIVE – 20B THE MARKET FOR LIQUID BIOPSY
  • Epigenetics: Twin Studies: Proteins – detections –
  1. Suppression Inflammation Surveilence
  2. Braf mutations – therapy
  3. Cardiology: Mediteranean diet
  4. Troponin-I: Can be seen before symptoms emerges
  5. WEARABLE DEVICES: Detection >> Prevention >> Treatment Sick Care >>> HealthCare
  6. unique opportunity to REVOLUTIONIZE MEDICINE – help patients sooner

Powering Precision Health with Science                          
Compelling technological and scientific advances are fueling a proposition that today’s healthcare can be radically improved and made more effective, accessible and economical by deploying disruptive technologies to carefully guide healthy living.  The potential for shifting our innovation focus from disease diagnostics and treatment (sick care) to early detection and disease prevention (precision healthcare) will be explored in oncology, neurology and cardiology as well as their underlying inflammation pathways.  Mobilizing this transformation requires the democratization of health assessments with digital technology, big data and wellness studies coupled with comprehensive policy and provider reconfiguration that incentivizes healthy living and “accountable” care.  Significant precision health advances are being realized in certain parts of the world and providing a credible blueprint for its potential.   Catalyzing our Precision Health initiative requires scientists, innovators, physicians, providers, regulators, investors and patient advocates to unite and build a collective vision for Precision Health.

Oncology                                         
9:30-10:45
9:30- 9:40       Introductions: Oncology Innovator Panel
                        Kevin Hrusovsky PPH Summit Founder and Chair, CEO Quanterix

 David Walt, PhD, Tufts University

Infectious disease 

  1. Single molecule array (simoa) – digitization of signals beads in Alisas – beads loaded on disc array
  2. Serum Cytokines – IL-10 and IL-8: at sub-femtomolar concentrations

Vaccination study: injection of these Cytokines: Human serum cytokine, baseline – COntrol Healthy Samples

Variation inter subjects in cytokine levels: Day One response evolution of th eImmune response

  • day reported illness
  • cytokine fluctuation
  • cytokine expression levels
  • IgG Simoa sensitivity (secondary infection); IgM (primary infection)

ONCOLOGY: Early Detection of Breast Cancer

Future technology:

  • sensitive detection for BRCA
  • 6-12% false positive in Mamography
  • Breast cancer Biomarkers: Singleplex Simeo assays
  • 8X-1000X improved sensitivity
  • Assay tested in commercial kits
  • SimOa for miRNA detection: 66 patients tested, prior to therapy: Marker 1,2,3

Individual protein assay were multiplexed

  1. Three protein Signature: PLS-DA Classification: 84% precision Health vs BRCA Stage II
  2. Sensitivity/specificity: on Biomarkers in BLOOD: 95.9% accuraccy Health vs. diagnosed BRCA

Protein Biomarkers in serum samples – cells secret, cells are invovled with mutations

  • find binding agents

                                                   

Robert Weinberg, PhD,  MIT /Whitehead Institute

  •  Early detection in colonoscopy is significant
  • Breast CA – early detection  and effect on mortality: 705 OF WOMEN AT 85 have BRCA
  • response to drugs in Cancer; diagnosis of relapse
  • reduce Cancer Mortality ONLY by reduction of inscidence not early detection which – DX and TX does not change mortality – acquired somatic mutation
  • Circulating tumor Cells & CIrculating DNA – Sequencing is very limited in its applicability for BRCA
  • Genomics data integration iwth gene expression
  • Reincentivise the young  – Pharma and Diagnostics — need to fund Postdocs in Academia

John Houston, PhD
                         Formerly SVP Bristol Myers Squibb   

  • What is real and what is doable
  • Advanced   Melanoma: markable accomplishments
  • why some patients respond and why others do not – Biomarkers
  • Combination drug  therapy in Oncology
  • signature for response and non-response is critical
  • Platform to capture data in retrospect

Phil Stephens, PhD
Foundation Medicine

  1. 10,000 patients with cancer mutations
  2. biomarkers for Target Therapy
  3. combinations need be Target and immuno
  4. Bladder Cancer is example were sequencing did help
  5. RNA and DNA and beyond: making sequencing data on metastatic disease
  6. diagnostic Industry needs regulation – Some Texts are not accurate and do not assists

Discussion Moderator: Kevin   – Biomarkers other Technologies mRNA, Liquid Biopsy                                      
                                                                                                                
9:40-10:00       Keynote Address Oncology:
                         David Walt, PhD
                         Tufts University

Beyond Genomics: Disruptive Approaches to Cancer and Infectious Disease Diagnostics
We have used the single molecule array  technology to screen dozens of potential biomarkers for their ability to diagnose various diseases and predict clinical outcomes.  The single molecule array technology has been used primarily for protein detection but is also applicable to the detection of nucleic acids, including DNA, mRNA, and microRNA, without any amplification.  Ultra-high sensitivity enables the detection of both protein and nucleic acid biomarkers at concentrations previously undetectable in blood. After measuring the candidate biomarkers, we employ classification algorithms to down-select the most informative biomarkers that correlate with the clinical information.  We have employed this approach to discover serum biomarkers for monitoring individuals over extended periods for infectious disease and for early detection of breast cancer.

10:00-10:45     Oncology Innovator Panel Discussion
Revolutionizing Oncology with Disruptive Technologies to Prevent, Detect, and Treat Cancer

10:45-11:15      Coffee break

Neurology                                       
11:15-12:30     Introductions: Neurology Innovator Panel
                      Kevin Hrusovsky
                      PPH Summit Founder and Chair, CEO Quanterix

Robert Stern, PhD
Boston University, School of Medicine, BU Alzheimer’s Disease and CTE Center
                                               

Doug Cole, MD – Neurologist and investor – Flagship Ventures
                                              

  1. no powerful tools to understand AD 20 years ago,
  2. Tools are now available – in 5-20 years tools will allow for Treatment development
  3. Societal issue – leadership at University Presidents, Sports organization – grass root pressure like with No Smoking
  4. commonality needs be explore across diseases to establish syndroms shared that will enable development of disease management and treatment

 

Jesse M. Cedarbaum, MD – Biogen 
                                                

  1. Neurologist – worked with MS, Parkinson, AD – did not work with CTE
  2. Soccer – Contact with the ball  – effect the structure of exon, synapsis, beta protein
  3. TOOLS: Genetic risk allowing to play short or long durations
  4. Football, soccer, baseball and tennis
  5. WE NEED LARGE POOLS OF NEUROLOGICAL DISEASES IN PATIENTS – BECAUSE  there are common proteins involved and comorbidities vs present participation in clinical trials by diagnosis
  6. all studies for Parkinson are not analysed in the context of AD
  7. PCP needs tool to diagnose AD better than today the diagnosis is done
  8. in Military training vibrations that causes CTE
                                                 

Tim Fox
                                               Former NFL Safety, Sports Commentator                                                  
           Peter Cronin
                                               Former NFL Linebacker                                       

11:15-11:25     Tim Fox
                       Former NFL Safety, Sports Commentator  
                       Personal Perspective on The Impact of Repeated Concussions and CTE                 

11:25-11:45      Keynote Address Neurology:
                        Robert Stern, PhD
                        Boston University, School of Medicine, BU Alzheimer’s Disease and CTE Center

Diagnosing Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) During Life: Potential Fluid and Neuroimaging Biomarkers                           
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a unique neurodegenerative disease associated with a history of repetitive head impacts, including concussive and sub-concussive trauma, such as that experienced by contact sport athletes (e.g., American football players, boxers). Currently CTE can only be diagnosed through postmortem neuropathological examination demonstrating the pathognomonic lesions of perivascular phosphorylated tau (p-tau) at the depths of the cortical sulci. The ability to diagnose CTE during life is critically important to understanding the epidemiology of the disease, as well as the examination of specific risk factors (e.g., head impact exposure, genetics) and the ability to conduct clinical trials for treatment and prevention. This talk will describe recent findings in the development of possible in vivo biomarkers for CTE, including Simoa plasma total tau, plasma exosomal tau, as well as tau PET imaging.

LIVE @PPHSUMMIT 

  • $60Million NIH Grants
  • Awareness, Prevention, Management
  • Repetitive Head Impacts vs Concussions
  1. effect on neuronal functioning
  2. even one season causes cognitive, physiological changes in the brain
  3. Boxing for long time
  4. long time consecquences – Neuropathology
  5. CTE – brain trauma, leads to progressive neuro-degeneration
  • post consussion disease without symptoms of concussion
  • like AD, microtubule-Associated Protein Tau – misfolded hyperphosphorilated form of tau (p-tau): Perivascular and Depth of Solci — >>>> Spread of areas with distruction
  • Why it was not commonly observed ??
  • CTE and Public Health: Contact Sports – REPETITIVE IMPACT
  • Exposure: Severity and type of trauma
  • rest between hits
  • CTE vs PTSD, other injuries
  • Diagnose during life: develop in vivo biomarkers
  • How to create Biomarkers: DETECT Study: 100 NFL players vs Control – no sport involvement
  • All imaging were not specific to Tau detection –
  • Brain PET Tau Imaging developed: Invasive, expensive, we need a blood test
  • Tau deposits
  • Blood based Biomarkers for CTE – high sensitivity — FOllow up blood screening
  • Plasma Exosomal Tau: Exosomes are cell-derived nanovescicles: Blood, saliva, urine
  • generation of Neuronal Exosomes – extracellular space
  • Exosomes isolation required – Measure Tau in Blood
  • Quanterix_ Plasma total Tau – simoa HD-1
  • Results: plasma T-Tau – difference NFL and control – NFL – Extreme T-Tau COncentration
  • How to refine and validate Plasma T-Tau?
  • relevance to AD – modify early predict sympthoms – Using DIgital Biomarkers
  • Precision Health: Prevention and Tx of CTE:
  • Concussions & subconclusive Hits >>> PreClinical, >>> Clinical CTE not dimented >> CTE Dementia= synaptic loss

11:45-11:55        Peter Cronin
Former NFL Linebacker
Personal Perspective on The Urgent Need For Detection and Treatment of CTE

  • concussion with memory loss, mood changes,

11:55-12:30     Neurology Innovator Panel Discussion
Revolutionizing Neurology with Disruptive Technologies: Prevent, Detect and Treat
Concussions/CTE

  • AD – we know what the proteins are, subtype of diseases – tools and technology
  • Advancement when a test will allow to discern

 

 

12:30-1:15       Buffet style lunch

1:15-3:30         Scientific Tracks

Track 1 – Neurology – not attended
1:15-1:40         Jessica Gill, PhD, RN                 The Role of Proteomic Biomarkers of Brain Injuries
                         National Institute of Health
1:40-2:05         Danielle Graham, PhD               Accelerating exploratory fluid biomarker assay development in
Biogen                                       Neurodegenerative Disease
2:05-2:25         Alison Joyce, PhD                      Development of a Sensitive Homebrew Simoa Assay to Detect
Pfizer Inc                                    Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2)
2:25–3:00         Cheryl Wellington, PhD              Toward Precision Medicine in Canada: Two vignettes
                         University of British Columbia                   
3:00-3:25         Miriam Moscovitch-Lopatin       An Ultra-Sensitive Simoa Immunoassay for Quantifying BDNF
                          MGH                                          Levels in CSF in Early Huntington Disease: A Longitudinal PRE-
CELL Biomarker Study

Track 2 – Cardiology, Oncology, Inflammation, Infectious Disease

1:30-2:00         Ralph McDade, PhD      Ex-Luminex    Myriad RBM     

Triphase approach to biomarker pattern discovery for cancer immunotherapy and autoimmune disease

  • Bi-Polar vs Depression – Diagnosis
  • nostics for Depression Kit to determine which anti-depressant drug to prescribe
  • xMAP Technology – immuno-assays
  • 96 well plate
  • robotic liquid handling – assay precision and reproducability
  • proprietary matrix blockers
  • Myriad Genetics is the Parent company
  • Validation Parameters
  • CLIA certified ELISA Amono assay
  • Analyte: TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma (no marker in RA), IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-17A
  • DIsease state samples – RA – IL-1Betta
  • Multiplexing
                                                             

2:00-2:30         John Yan                                     An Ultrasensitive Assay Format for Detecting PD/Biomarkers in
Takeda Pharmaceutical Co          Cell and Xenograft Tumor

  • ULK1 important Autophage Initiating Kinase
  • mTOR – -/+mTor treated with ULK1

                       
2:30-3:00         Rama Boyanapalli, PhD              The long and winding road to a highly sensitive RANKL Assay
                         Shire Company

  • RANKL IS A PART OF THE NECROTIC FACTOR (TNF)
  • PROTEIN BIOMARKER RANKL AND BONE STRENGTH (bone resorption) and bone formation – Vitamin D PGE@
  • Commercial Kits available:Recombinant and Serum based
  • IMOA technology ultrasensitive
  • Antibody Selection: R&D System DUoSet human RANKL ELISA selection-
  1. Capture Ab sonjugate to beads – MOUSE MONCLONAL
  2. Detector Ab – GOAT POLYCLONAL
  3. tested 12 commercially available Abs
  4. Additional assay optimization
  5. Criteria for QUALIFYING AN ASSAY:
  • ASSAY SPECIFICITY
  • MINIMUM REQUIRED DILUTION
  • PRECISION
  • Calibration curves with varying calibrator levels – for precision studies
  • Comparing Simoa to ELISA Kit: RANKL concentration

 

3:00-3:30         Bonnie J. Howell, PhD                 Ultrasensitive Detection of Viral p24 Following Reactivation of
Merck                                          Latent HIV

  • HIV Biology
  • tratment
  • reservoir detection
  • HIV — affects t-Cells — AIDS
  • life cycle of HIV-1
  • Viral RNA, recapaged to virom and start another cycle of infection
  • Treatment of ANtiviral therapies (ART)
  • Persistent replication of the virus
  • HIV Vure Means?
  • Sterilization / eradicated of HIV free
  • Remission/Functional
  • get of ART for few years
  • latent vells survuve deceased activation
  • latent reservoir homeostatic proliferation
  • latent cell reactivation
  • reactivation
  • Where do they hide?
  • HIV – CNS, Gut, GI, GU, Bone marrow,
  • Estimation 1 per million resting CD4 – Quantifying the HIV Rservoir
  1. different PCR- and Culture based assays used to measure reservoir
  2. poor correlation between assay
  3. >95% provirus is defective – does not produce Vyron
  4. Quanterix SImoa digital ELISA for ultrasensitive HIV p24 protein detection
  5. serum convert stage – makes measurement of reservoir difficult
  6. Merck optimized ultrasensitive p24 immunoasay
  7. p24 detectd in gnotypically diverse HIV clinical isolates
  8. HIV-1, CPZ, HIV-2, SIV-MM
  9. Virus to kill strategy: IMMUNO-therapy – measuring protein so importent
  10. Shock and kill
  • Cells with latent HIV with
  • cells with activated HIV
  • Induction in ART-suppresant
  • T-cell activation with stimulation Suppresant p24 Increases with reservoir size in most pt.
  • PMA/Ionomycin, CD4+ T-cell Lysate as measured by TILDA
  • HDACi induces p24 Expression in ART Suppressed HIV + Patients CD4+
  • Latency-Reversing Agents
  • Treatment with Multiple doses of Vorinostat
  • Gag RNA – Assay: Baseline vs Post-VOR – HIV pt received 10 doses VOR administared in 72 hours
  • Two doses of Vorinostat
  • Dilution series

SUMMARY

p24 digital ELISA improves assay sensitivity and selectivity

p24 detected in genotypically diverse HIV clinical isolates
                         
3:30-4:00         Coffee Break

 

Cardiology and Inflammation

                                     
4:00-4:10         Introductions: Cardiology/Inflammation Panel
                         Kevin Hrusovsky
PPH Summit Founder and Chair

                                                  Dennis Ausiello, MD
                                                  Mass General HospitalEmeritus
                                                   Petr Jarolim, MD, PhD
 
Brigham and Women’s HospitalDana Farber Cancer Institute 
Grace Colon, PhD
 InCarda Therapeutics, Inc. and ProterixBio, Inc.                                                            

4:10-4:30        Keynote Address Cardiology/Inflammation
                        Dennis Ausiello, MD
                        Mass General HospitalEmeritus

Mobilizing Precision Health is Within Reach
The data revolution, from genetic to digital, has provided a compelling need to assess wellness and its progression to disease. This is in direct contrast to the long standing approach in medicine of episodic and symptomatic measurement of disease and its progression to morbidity and mortality. Compelling data and science are fueling a proposition that today’s healthcare can be radically improved and made more effective, accessible and economical by deploying disruptive technologies to carefully monitor and guide healthy living.  We will explore the real potential of pre-symptomatic assessment of the human condition independent of time and place, with an improvement in disease prevention. Democratizing health assessments and monitoring with mobile devices, smart phones and community drug stores is an important opportunity for enabling early detection, preventative medicine and precision health.  Establishing disruptive detection technology and sampling strategies across multiple biomarker panels is key to enabling this vision.

4:30 -5:15        Cardiology and Inflammation Innovator Panel Discussion
Revolutionizing Cardiology with Disruptive Technologies: Prevent, Detect and Treat Cardiovascular
Disorders and Diabetes

5:15-5:30         Chair Summary and Summit Close

5:30-7:30         Cocktail Reception

SOURCE

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Milestones in Physiology & Discoveries in Medicine and Genomics: Request for Book Review Writing on Amazon.com


physiology-cover-seriese-vol-3individualsaddlebrown-page2

Milestones in Physiology

Discoveries in Medicine, Genomics and Therapeutics

Patient-centric Perspective 

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B019VH97LU 

2015

 

 

Author, Curator and Editor

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

Chief Scientific Officer

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence

Larry.bernstein@gmail.com

Preface

Introduction 

Chapter 1: Evolution of the Foundation for Diagnostics and Pharmaceuticals Industries

1.1  Outline of Medical Discoveries between 1880 and 1980

1.2 The History of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology in the late 19th and 20th Century

1.3 The Classification of Microbiota

1.4 Selected Contributions to Chemistry from 1880 to 1980

1.5 The Evolution of Clinical Chemistry in the 20th Century

1.6 Milestones in the Evolution of Diagnostics in the US HealthCare System: 1920s to Pre-Genomics

 

Chapter 2. The search for the evolution of function of proteins, enzymes and metal catalysts in life processes

2.1 The life and work of Allan Wilson
2.2  The  evolution of myoglobin and hemoglobin
2.3  More complexity in proteins evolution
2.4  Life on earth is traced to oxygen binding
2.5  The colors of life function
2.6  The colors of respiration and electron transport
2.7  Highlights of a green evolution

 

Chapter 3. Evolution of New Relationships in Neuroendocrine States
3.1 Pituitary endocrine axis
3.2 Thyroid function
3.3 Sex hormones
3.4 Adrenal Cortex
3.5 Pancreatic Islets
3.6 Parathyroids
3.7 Gastointestinal hormones
3.8 Endocrine action on midbrain
3.9 Neural activity regulating endocrine response

3.10 Genomic Promise for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Dementias, Autism Spectrum, Schizophrenia, and Serious Depression

 

Chapter 4.  Problems of the Circulation, Altitude, and Immunity

4.1 Innervation of Heart and Heart Rate
4.2 Action of hormones on the circulation
4.3 Allogeneic Transfusion Reactions
4.4 Graft-versus Host reaction
4.5 Unique problems of perinatal period
4.6. High altitude sickness
4.7 Deep water adaptation
4.8 Heart-Lung-and Kidney
4.9 Acute Lung Injury

4.10 Reconstruction of Life Processes requires both Genomics and Metabolomics to explain Phenotypes and Phylogenetics

 

Chapter 5. Problems of Diets and Lifestyle Changes

5.1 Anorexia nervosa
5.2 Voluntary and Involuntary S-insufficiency
5.3 Diarrheas – bacterial and nonbacterial
5.4 Gluten-free diets
5.5 Diet and cholesterol
5.6 Diet and Type 2 diabetes mellitus
5.7 Diet and exercise
5.8 Anxiety and quality of Life
5.9 Nutritional Supplements

 

Chapter 6. Advances in Genomics, Therapeutics and Pharmacogenomics

6.1 Natural Products Chemistry

6.2 The Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance

6.3 Viruses, Vaccines and immunotherapy

6.4 Genomics and Metabolomics Advances in Cancer

6.5 Proteomics – Protein Interaction

6.6 Pharmacogenomics

6.7 Biomarker Guided Therapy

6.8 The Emergence of a Pharmaceutical Industry in the 20th Century: Diagnostics Industry and Drug Development in the Genomics Era: Mid 80s to Present

6.09 The Union of Biomarkers and Drug Development

6.10 Proteomics and Biomarker Discovery

6.11 Epigenomics and Companion Diagnostics

 

Chapter  7

Integration of Physiology, Genomics and Pharmacotherapy

7.1 Richard Lifton, MD, PhD of Yale University and Howard Hughes Medical Institute: Recipient of 2014 Breakthrough Prizes Awarded in Life Sciences for the Discovery of Genes and Biochemical Mechanisms that cause Hypertension

7.2 Calcium Cycling (ATPase Pump) in Cardiac Gene Therapy: Inhalable Gene Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Percutaneous Intra-coronary Artery Infusion for Heart Failure: Contributions by Roger J. Hajjar, MD

7.3 Diagnostics and Biomarkers: Novel Genomics Industry Trends vs Present Market Conditions and Historical Scientific Leaders Memoirs

7.4 Synthetic Biology: On Advanced Genome Interpretation for Gene Variants and Pathways: What is the Genetic Base of Atherosclerosis and Loss of Arterial Elasticity with Aging

7.5 Diagnosing Diseases & Gene Therapy: Precision Genome Editing and Cost-effective microRNA Profiling

7.6 Imaging Biomarker for Arterial Stiffness: Pathways in Pharmacotherapy for Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia Management

7.7 Neuroprotective Therapies: Pharmacogenomics vs Psychotropic drugs and Cholinesterase Inhibitors

7.8 Metabolite Identification Combining Genetic and Metabolic Information: Genetic association links unknown metabolites to functionally related genes

7.9 Preserved vs Reduced Ejection Fraction: Available and Needed Therapies

7.10 Biosimilars: Intellectual Property Creation and Protection by Pioneer and by

7.11 Demonstrate Biosimilarity: New FDA Biosimilar Guidelines

 

Chapter 7.  Biopharma Today

8.1 A Great University engaged in Drug Discovery: University of Pittsburgh

8.2 Introduction – The Evolution of Cancer Therapy and Cancer Research: How We Got Here?

8.3 Predicting Tumor Response, Progression, and Time to Recurrence

8.4 Targeting Untargetable Proto-Oncogenes

8.5 Innovation: Drug Discovery, Medical Devices and Digital Health

8.6 Cardiotoxicity and Cardiomyopathy Related to Drugs Adverse Effects

8.7 Nanotechnology and Ocular Drug Delivery: Part I

8.8 Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) system and nanotechnology: Part II

8.9 The Delicate Connection: IDO (Indolamine 2, 3 dehydrogenase) and Cancer Immunology

8.10 Natural Drug Target Discovery and Translational Medicine in Human Microbiome

8.11 From Genomics of Microorganisms to Translational Medicine

8.12 Confined Indolamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO) Controls the Homeostasis of Immune Responses for Good and Bad

 

Chapter 9. BioPharma – Future Trends

9.1 Artificial Intelligence Versus the Scientist: Who Will Win?

9.2 The Vibrant Philly Biotech Scene: Focus on KannaLife Sciences and the Discipline and Potential of Pharmacognosy

9.3 The Vibrant Philly Biotech Scene: Focus on Computer-Aided Drug Design and Gfree Bio, LLC

9.4 Heroes in Medical Research: The Postdoctoral Fellow

9.5 NIH Considers Guidelines for CAR-T therapy: Report from Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee

9.6 1st Pitch Life Science- Philadelphia- What VCs Really Think of your Pitch

9.7 Multiple Lung Cancer Genomic Projects Suggest New Targets, Research Directions for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

9.8 Heroes in Medical Research: Green Fluorescent Protein and the Rough Road in Science

9.9 Issues in Personalized Medicine in Cancer: Intratumor Heterogeneity and Branched Evolution Revealed by Multiregion Sequencing

9.10 The SCID Pig II: Researchers Develop Another SCID Pig, And Another Great Model For Cancer Research

Epilogue

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