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Health Care & Medical Practices need to overcome the status quo: The Medical science is saying we need to do things differently: The Premise of Molecular Diagnostics and Precision Medicine

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

Medical science is more advanced than at any point in history. Yet the health care system — medical science applied to actual patients — still leaves many people without the best and latest treatments.

 

The Way Medicine Is Going

https://www.genomeweb.com/scan/way-medicine-going?utm_source=SilverpopMailing&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Scan%20Blog:%20Op-Ed%20Calls%20for%20Biotech%20Patent%20Court,%20This%20Week%27s%20PNAS,%20Personalized%20Medicine,%20more%20-%2008/23/2016%2001:30:00%20PM

 

FOCUS: MAKING MEDICINE MORE PRECISE, ACCESSIBLE

Scientists, doctors working to customize treatments — and get those treatments to greater numbers of people

 

Euan Ashley, a Stanford University Medical Center associate professor of medicine and genetics, in an article last week in Nature Reviews Genetics.

https://www.dropbox.com/s/wssyl00tysnyyb3/Towards%20Precision%20Medicine%20-%20Euan%20Ashley.pdf?dl=0

The California program’s website is www.ciapm.org.

At the federal level, Obama’s campaign, called the Precision Medicine Initiative, was unveiled in January 2015.

The initiative’s website is whitehouse.gov/pmi.

The Clearity Foundation, a San Diego nonprofit,Clearity provides these services free of charge, specializes in matching the best drugs to ovarian cancer patients with recurrent tumors. Through partners, Clearity arranges for tumor samples to be genetically analyzed and compared with those of others in a tumor database of hundreds of tumor samples.

NOTABLE NAMES IN PRECISION MEDICINE

*ERIC DISHMAN — Director of the National Institutes of Health’s program linked to President Barack Obama’s Precision Medicine Initiative.

*DR. ELIZABETH BACA — Senior health adviser to the California Governor’s Office of Planning and Research who helps coordinate the California Initiative to Advance Precision Medicine.

*DR. ERIC TOPOL — Director of the Scripps Translational Science Institute and chief academic officer for the San Diego-based Scripps Health network. He is leading a national project, backed by $120 million in federal funding, to enroll 1 million volunteers in a study to deeply explore their health. The aim is to get more data to customize patient care.

*DR. STEPHEN KINGSMORE — Diagnoses genetic childhood diseases at Rady Children’s Hospital-San Diego as president and CEO of the Rady Children’s Institute for Genomic Medicine.

*J. CRAIG VENTER — Genomics pioneer based in La Jolla. Beyond his eponymously named institute, Venter is co-founder of Human Longevity, a company aiming to sequence the DNA of hundreds of thousands of people.

*JAY FLATLEY — Executive chairman of Illumina in San Diego, the world’s leader in making systems that sequence DNA in high volume.

*LAURA SHAWVER — Founder of The Clearity Foundation in San Diego, which uses precision medicine to help match ovarian-cancer patients with drugs targeted to their various types of tumors.

*DR. ATUL BUTTE — Professor at UC San Francisco and principal investigator for the California Initiative to Advance Precision Medicine.

SOURCE

http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/2016/aug/22/precision-customized-personalized-medicine/


Cell & Gene Therapy BioProcessing & Commercialization

Cell Therapy Bioprocessing – Innovations in Process Technologies, Friday, October 7, 2016, Boston Convention and Exhibition Center

Informa Life Sciences lead the market in providing quality, expert-led conferences; delivering the expert knowledge our clients need to excel in their professional roles and guaranteeing a competitive advantage for their organisations.

Our diverse portfolio covers the Pharmaceutical (Drug Discovery, Clinical Development, Regulatory Affairs, Biopharmaceutical, Generics and Business Strategy), Medical Devices and Diagnostics, Fine Chemicals and Agrochemicals and Veterinary Medicine arenas

http://www.informa-ls.com/

8 am 5 mins

Chairperson’s Remarks

  • Jon A. Rowley, Ph.D., RoosterBio Inc.

10 am 30 mins

Applications for Use of the Lovo Cell Processing System in Cell Therapy Process Development and Manufacturing

  • Alaina C. Schlinker, Ph.D., Fresenius Kabi USA, LLC

10:30 am 30 mins

TBA

  • Philip G. Vanek, Ph.D., GE Healthcare

11 am 30 mins

Platform Processes for PSC Derived Product Manufacture

  • Nick Timmins

11:30 am 30 mins

Building the 3rd Pillar of Medicine: Bioprocessing for Cell Therapies

  • Steve K.W. Oh, Bioprocessing Technology Institute

12 pm 45 mins

Enabling Technologies for Efficient Downstream Processing of AAV Viral Vectors

  • Orjana Terova, Purification, Thermo Fisher Scientific

1:55 pm 5 mins

Chairperson’s Remarks

  • Dominic Clarke, Charter Medical

2 pm 30 mins

Innovative Device Development for Cell Therapies

  • Jamie Piret, Sc.D., The University of British Columbia

2:30 pm 30 mins

Applying Single-Use Technologies

  • Paula Alves, Ph.D., iBET, Portugal

3 pm 30 mins

Manufacturing Multiple Cell Based Products Simulaneously

  • Gail K. Naughton, Ph.D., Histogen Inc.

3:30 pm 30 mins

Scale Out iPSC Derivation and Differentiation Processes for Cell Therapy

  • Wen Bo Wang, Ph.D., Cellular Dynamics International, a FujiFilm company

SOURCE

https://lifesciences.knect365.com/cell-therapy-bioprocessing/agenda/3?stream=1


The more time a person spends sitting, the higher their risk of death from any cause

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

A very well-conducted study published in July in The Lancet. These authors took a fresh look at a massive load of data from 16 large studies and including over a million subjects. They aggregated the information, re-ran the analyses, and corrected for individual and population variations. What they found was that 60 to 75 minutes of moderate physical activity like walking to work, walking the dog, riding a stationary bike, line dancing, golf or softball, doubles tennis, or coaching sports eliminates the risk of death related to sitting, even from sitting for more than eight hours per day.

Can’t get in an hour or more of these types of activities per day? Just 25 minutes of moderate activity is somewhat protective, even for people who sit for eight or more hours per day. The way physical activity energy expenditure was calculated, vigorous activities count more, so less time of the most strenuous exercise is needed to be protective.

General Physical Activities Defined by Level of Intensity – CDC and ACSM guidelines

The following is in accordance with CDC and ACSM guidelines.

pa_intensity_table_2_1

http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/pdf/pa_intensity_table_2_1.pdf

Related Posts:

SOURCE

http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/get-stand-health-little-movement-offsets-lot-sitting-2016081810215?utm_source=SilverpopMailing&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=08.23.2016%20(1)


The Strategy of Precision Editing the Cancer Cell Glycocalyx using an “antibody–enzyme conjugate” for Cancer Immunotherapy: Research Beyond “augment the activator or remove inhibitor, or both”

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Significance

Successful tumors are able to evade the immune system, which is otherwise capable of killing transformed cells. Therapies that prevent this evasion have become revolutionary treatments for incurable cancers. One mechanism of evasion is the presentation of sugars, called sialic acids, within the cell surface’s sugar coating, or glycocalyx. Here, we designed biotherapeutic molecules, termed “antibody–enzyme conjugates,” that selectively remove sialic acids from tumor cells. The antibody directs the enzyme to the cancer cells, the enzyme cleaves the sugars, and then the antibody directs immune cells to kill the desialylated cancer cells. The conjugate increased tumor cell killing compared with the antibody alone. Editing the cancer cell glycocalyx with an antibody–enzyme conjugate represents a promising approach to cancer immune therapy.

SOURCE 

 

AUGUST 22, 2016

Stanford chemists develop a new method of cancer immunotherapy

A team of Stanford ChEM-H scientists has discovered a novel form of cancer immunotherapy, which works by removing certain sugars from the surface of cancer cells and making those cells visible to the immune system.

“All of the world of immune therapy is now thinking about the immune system as calculating pluses and minuses. If you want to tilt the scale toward immune activation, you can either augment the activator or remove inhibitor, or both,” said Bertozzi, who is also an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Current immunotherapies on the market work by blocking one of the inhibitory signals that are recognized by the adaptive immune system. Block those and the balance tilts in such a way that the immune system will attack the now recognizable cancer.

Bertozzi’s approach provides a second way of tiling the balance in favor of attack, this time for the innate immune system. She said this study shows just one example of how it could work, but her sugar-removing lawnmower could be used on a wide variety of cell types, not just those expressing HER2, and on different types of sugars.

“It’s almost always the case that you need a component of both the adaptive and innate immunity to get a robust reaction against infectious pathogens, such as during vaccination,” said Bertozzi. “The smart money suggests that the same will be true with tumors.”

Bertozzi said the approach also highlights the importance of paying attention to the much ignored glycocalyx.

SOURCE

Stanford chemists develop a new method of cancer immunotherapy

http://news.stanford.edu/2016/08/22/new-method-cancer-immunotherapy/

 

immobilization-ok

A symbolic representation of a glycocalyx chain attached to a cytoskeleton.

IMAGE SOURCE: google images

 

glycocalyx-145E1F0C801699F8CFE

image glycocalyx

IMAGE SOURCE: google images

Glycocalyx

Glycocalyx – www.futura-sciences.us576 × 284Search by image

The carbohydrates, glycoproteins and proteoglycans making up the glycocalyx

IMAGE SOURCE: google images

PNAS – Original Article

Precision glycocalyx editing as a strategy for cancer immunotherapy

  1. Han Xiaoa,b,1,
  2. Elliot C. Woodsa,b,1,
  3. Petar Vukojicica,b, and
  4. Carolyn R. Bertozzia,b,2
  1. Edited by Laura L. Kiessling, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, and approved July 11, 2016 (received for review May 24, 2016)

Abstract

Cell surface sialosides constitute a central axis of immune modulation that is exploited by tumors to evade both innate and adaptive immune destruction. Therapeutic strategies that target tumor-associated sialosides may therefore potentiate antitumor immunity. Here, we report the development of antibody–sialidase conjugates that enhance tumor cell susceptibility to antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by selective desialylation of the tumor cell glycocalyx. We chemically fused a recombinant sialidase to the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-specific antibody trastuzumab through a C-terminal aldehyde tag. The antibody–sialidase conjugate desialylated tumor cells in a HER2-dependent manner, reduced binding by natural killer (NK) cell inhibitory sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec) receptors, and enhanced binding to the NK-activating receptor natural killer group 2D (NKG2D). Sialidase conjugation to trastuzumab enhanced ADCC against tumor cells expressing moderate levels of HER2, suggesting a therapeutic strategy for cancer patients with lower HER2 levels or inherent trastuzumab resistance. Precision glycocalyx editing with antibody–enzyme conjugates is therefore a promising avenue for cancer immune therapy.

SOURCE 

Anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs (TNF inhibitors) is the treatment for otulipenia, a new inflammatory disease discovered by NIH researchers using NGS – Inflammation

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

NIH researchers discover otulipenia, a new inflammatory disease – Rare and sometimes lethal disease affects young children

An international network of scientists studying inflammatory diseases identified four children from Pakistani and Turkish families with unexplained skin rashes and inflamed joints. NIH scientists then searched for disease-causing genes using next-generation DNA sequencing, technology that allows researchers to sequence DNA quickly and economically.

Once they found that the OTULIN gene was abnormal in the sick children, they studied the immune pathway in order to understand the mechanisms of disease and to improve treatment of these patients. They discovered a problem in the processing of a small protein, ubiquitin, which is critical to the regulation of many other proteins in the body, including immune molecules. In the affected children, the inability to remove the ubiquitin proteins from various molecules resulted in an increased production of chemical messengers that lead to inflammation (inflammatory cytokines).

The researchers determined that the children with otulipenia might respond to drugs that turned off tumor necrosis factor, a chemical messenger involved in systemic inflammation. Inflammation subsided in the children who had been treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs (TNF inhibitors). TNF inhibitors are also used to treat chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

SOURCE

https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nih-researchers-discover-otulipenia-new-inflammatory-disease


Biological Pathways

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

Biological Pathways

View larger

SOURCE

https://www.genome.gov/27530687/biological-pathways-fact-sheet/

Figure 3: Examples of biological pathways that are regulated by selective mRNA export.

FromControl of mammalian gene expression by selective mRNA export

Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology
16,
431–442
(2015)
doi:10.1038/nrm4010

Top 15 US Universities and a 121 Medal Count at the 2016 Rio Olympics

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

  • Stanford University – 27 Medals
  • University of California – 22 Medals
  • USC – 21 Medals

 

Screen Shot 2016-08-22 at 1.25.36 PM

SOURCE

From: Marcus W Feldman <mfeldman@stanford.edu>

Date: Monday, August 22, 2016 at 4:35 PM

To: Aviva Lev-Ari <AvivaLev-Ari@alum.berkeley.edu>

Subject: Fwd: Something to celebrate

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