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  1. Lungs can supply blood stem cells and also produce platelets: Lungs, known primarily for breathing, play a previously unrecognized role in blood production, with more than half of the platelets in a mouse’s circulation produced there. Furthermore, a previously unknown pool of blood stem cells has been identified that is capable of restoring blood production when bone marrow stem cells are depleted.

 

  1. A new drug for multiple sclerosis: A new multiple sclerosis (MS) drug, which grew out of the work of UCSF (University of California, San Francisco) neurologist was approved by the FDA. Ocrelizumab, the first drug to reflect current scientific understanding of MS, was approved to treat both relapsing-remitting MS and primary progressive MS.

 

  1. Marijuana legalized – research needed on therapeutic possibilities and negative effects: Recreational marijuana will be legal in California starting in January, and that has brought a renewed urgency to seek out more information on the drug’s health effects, both positive and negative. UCSF scientists recognize marijuana’s contradictory status: the drug has proven therapeutic uses, but it can also lead to tremendous public health problems.

 

  1. Source of autism discovered: In a finding that could help unlock the fundamental mysteries about how events early in brain development lead to autism, researchers traced how distinct sets of genetic defects in a single neuronal protein can lead to either epilepsy in infancy or to autism spectrum disorders in predictable ways.

 

  1. Protein found in diet responsible for inflammation in brain: Ketogenic diets, characterized by extreme low-carbohydrate, high-fat regimens are known to benefit people with epilepsy and other neurological illnesses by lowering inflammation in the brain. UCSF researchers discovered the previously undiscovered mechanism by which a low-carbohydrate diet reduces inflammation in the brain. Importantly, the team identified a pivotal protein that links the diet to inflammatory genes, which, if blocked, could mirror the anti-inflammatory effects of ketogenic diets.

 

  1. Learning and memory failure due to brain injury is now restorable by drug: In a finding that holds promise for treating people with traumatic brain injury, an experimental drug, ISRIB (integrated stress response inhibitor), completely reversed severe learning and memory impairments caused by traumatic brain injury in mice. The groundbreaking finding revealed that the drug fully restored the ability to learn and remember in the brain-injured mice even when the animals were initially treated as long as a month after injury.

 

  1. Regulatory T cells induce stem cells for promoting hair growth: In a finding that could impact baldness, researchers found that regulatory T cells, a type of immune cell generally associated with controlling inflammation, directly trigger stem cells in the skin to promote healthy hair growth. An experiment with mice revealed that without these immune cells as partners, stem cells cannot regenerate hair follicles, leading to baldness.

 

  1. More intake of good fat is also bad: Liberal consumption of good fat (monounsaturated fat) – found in olive oil and avocados – may lead to fatty liver disease, a risk factor for metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Eating the fat in combination with high starch content was found to cause the most severe fatty liver disease in mice.

 

  1. Chemical toxicity in almost every daily use products: Unregulated chemicals are increasingly prevalent in products people use every day, and that rise matches a concurrent rise in health conditions like cancers and childhood diseases, Thus, researcher in UCSF is working to understand the environment’s role – including exposure to chemicals – in health conditions.

 

  1. Cytomegalovirus found as common factor for diabetes and heart disease in young women: Cytomegalovirus is associated with risk factors for type 2 diabetes and heart disease in women younger than 50. Women of normal weight who were infected with the typically asymptomatic cytomegalovirus, or CMV, were more likely to have metabolic syndrome. Surprisingly, the reverse was found in those with extreme obesity.

 

References:

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/12/409241/most-popular-science-stories-2017

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/03/406111/surprising-new-role-lungs-making-blood

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/03/406296/new-multiple-sclerosis-drug-ocrelizumab-could-halt-disease

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/06/407351/dazed-and-confused-marijuana-legalization-raises-need-more-research

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/01/405631/autism-researchers-discover-genetic-rosetta-stone

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/09/408366/how-ketogenic-diets-curb-inflammation-brain

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/07/407656/drug-reverses-memory-failure-caused-traumatic-brain-injury

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/05/407121/new-hair-growth-mechanism-discovered

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/06/407536/go-easy-avocado-toast-good-fat-can-still-be-bad-you-research-shows

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/06/407416/toxic-exposure-chemicals-are-our-water-food-air-and-furniture

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/02/405871/common-virus-tied-diabetes-heart-disease-women-under-50

 

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Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

 

The trillions of microbes in the human gut are known to aid the body in synthesizing key vitamins and other nutrients. But this new study suggests that things can sometimes be more adversarial.

 

Choline is a key nutrient in a range of metabolic processes, as well as the production of cell membranes. Researchers identified a strain of choline-metabolizing E. coli that, when transplanted into the guts of germ-free mice, consumed enough of the nutrient to create a choline deficiency in them, even when the animals consumed a choline-rich diet.

 

This new study indicate that choline-utilizing bacteria compete with the host for this nutrient, significantly impacting plasma and hepatic levels of methyl-donor metabolites and recapitulating biochemical signatures of choline deficiency. Mice harboring high levels of choline-consuming bacteria showed increased susceptibility to metabolic disease in the context of a high-fat diet.

 

DNA methylation is essential for normal development and has been linked to everything from aging to carcinogenesis. This study showed changes in DNA methylation across multiple tissues, not just in adult mice with a choline-consuming gut microbiota, but also in the pups of those animals while they developed in utero.

 

Bacterially induced reduction of methyl-donor availability influenced global DNA methylation patterns in both adult mice and their offspring and engendered behavioral alterations. This study reveal an underappreciated effect of bacterial choline metabolism on host metabolism, epigenetics, and behavior.

 

The choline-deficient mice with choline-consuming gut microbes also showed much higher rates of infanticide, and exhibited signs of anxiety, with some mice over-grooming themselves and their cage-mates, sometimes to the point of baldness.

 

Tests have also shown as many as 65 percent of healthy individuals carry genes that encode for the enzyme that metabolizes choline in their gut microbiomes. This work suggests that interpersonal differences in microbial metabolism should be considered when determining optimal nutrient intake requirements.

 

References:

 

https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2017/11/harvard-research-suggests-microbial-menace/

 

http://www.cell.com/cell-host-microbe/fulltext/S1931-3128(17)30304-9

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23151509

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25677519

 

http://mbio.asm.org/content/6/2/e02481-14

 


Energy dysfunction detected in skin cells a possible additional explanation of the Alzheimer’s disease’s hallmark Dementia

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

A team at Harvard-affiliated McLean Hospital tested the cells of late-onset Alzheimer’s patients and found malfunctions in their energy production, including problems with the health of their mitochondria, the cellular power plants that provide most of their energy.

The brain, because it is the body’s most energy-hungry organ, demanding as much as 20 times the energy of other tissues. Such a malfunction, he said, could damage or kill nerve cells and help explain the cognitive decline associated with the disease.

McLean researchers detect dysfunction in cells’ energy production in late-onset patients

“Although people hope with a lot of these conditions we study — normal or abnormal — that there are going to be simple answers … it’s never simple, it’s always all kinds of factors interacting to determine whether you get lucky or not, whether you get sick or not,” Cohen said.

The next step, Cohen said, will be to do a similar study on the neurons and other brain cells of Alzheimer’s patients, to see whether the energy dysfunction detected in skin cells is replicated there. Even if medical understanding of the disease remains imperfect, Cohen said the ultimate hope is to find an intervention that interrupts Alzheimer’s most devastating effects.

“You don’t have to fix everything to keep somebody from getting sick,” Cohen said. “The reason somebody gets sick is you’re unlucky five different ways and it all combines to tip you over the edge. Maybe you only need to fix one of them and you don’t tip over the edge anymore.”

SOURCE

https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2017/11/new-clues-to-alzheimers-disease/

Other related articles on Mitochondria’s functions published in this Open Access Online Scientific Journal include the following:

Search all +5,200 Journal articles for “Mitochondria”

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/?s=Mitochondria

Proteomics, Metabolomics, Signaling Pathways, and Cell Regulation – Articles of Note, LPBI Group’s Scientists @ http://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/proteomics-metabolomics-signaling-pathways-cell-lev-ari-phd-rn/


Community Involvement and Marriage Relations are key to Longevity: Longitudinal nearly 80 years Study of surviving Crimson men, one of the world’s longest studies of adult life

 

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

“When the study began, nobody cared about empathy or attachment,” said Vaillant. “But the key to healthy aging is relationships, relationships, relationships.”

The study showed that the role of genetics and long-lived ancestors proved less important to longevity than the level of satisfaction with relationships in midlife, now recognized as a good predictor of healthy aging. The research also debunked the idea that people’s personalities “set like plaster” by age 30 and cannot be changed.

“Those who were clearly train wrecks when they were in their 20s or 25s turned out to be wonderful octogenarians,” he said. “On the other hand, alcoholism and major depression could take people who started life as stars and leave them at the end of their lives as train wrecks.”

Professor Robert Waldinger is director of the Harvard Study of Adult Development, one of the world’s longest studies of adult life. Rose Lincoln/Harvard Staff Photographer

The study’s fourth director, Waldinger has expanded research to the wives and children of the original men. That is the second-generation study, and Waldinger hopes to expand it into the third and fourth generations. “It will probably never be replicated,” he said of the lengthy research, adding that there is yet more to learn.

“We’re trying to see how people manage stress, whether their bodies are in a sort of chronic ‘fight or flight’ mode,” Waldinger said. “We want to find out how it is that a difficult childhood reaches across decades to break down the body in middle age and later.”

SOURCE

https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2017/04/over-nearly-80-years-harvard-study-has-been-showing-how-to-live-a-healthy-and-happy-life/


There may be a genetic basis to CAD and that CXCL5 may be of therapeutic interest

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

It may be possible to develop a drug that mimics the effects of CXCL5 or that increases the body’s natural CXCL5 production to help prevent CAD in people at high risk. The protein could even potentially be leveraged to develop a new, nonsurgical approach to help clear clogged arteries.

 

New Study Suggests Protein Could Protect Against Coronary Artery Disease

https://www.dicardiology.com/content/new-study-suggests-protein-could-protect-against-coronary-artery-disease


International Award for Human Genome Project

Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

 

The Thai royal family awarded its annual prizes in Bangkok, Thailand, in late January 2018 in recognition of advances in public health and medicine – through the Prince Mahidol Award Foundation under the Royal Patronage. This foundation was established in 1992 to honor the late Prince Mahidol of Songkla, the Royal Father of His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand and the Royal Grandfather of the present King. Prince Mahidol is celebrated worldwide as the father of modern medicine and public health in Thailand.

 

The Human Genome Project has been awarded the 2017 Prince Mahidol Award for revolutionary advances in the field of medicine. The Human Genome Project was completed in 2003. It was an international, collaborative research program aimed at the complete mapping and sequencing of the human genome. Its final goal was to provide researchers with fundamental information about the human genome and powerful tools for understanding the genetic factors in human disease, paving the way for new strategies for disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

 

The resulting human genome sequence has provided a foundation on which researchers and clinicians now tackle increasingly complex problems, transforming the study of human biology and disease. Particularly it is satisfying that it has given the researchers the ability to begin using genomics to improve approaches for diagnosing and treating human disease thereby beginning the era of genomic medicine.

 

National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) is devoted to advancing health through genome research. The institute led National Institutes of Health’s (NIH’s) contribution to the Human Genome Project, which was successfully completed in 2003 ahead of schedule and under budget. NIH, is USA’s national medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases.

 

Building on the foundation laid by the sequencing of the human genome, NHGRI’s work now encompasses a broad range of research aimed at expanding understanding of human biology and improving human health. In addition, a critical part of NHGRI’s mission continues to be the study of the ethical, legal and social implications of genome research.

 

References:

 

https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/human-genome-project-awarded-thai-2017-prince-mahidol-award-field-medicine

 

http://www.mfa.go.th/main/en/news3/6886/83875-Announcement-of-the-Prince-Mahidol-Laureates-2017.html

 

http://www.thaiembassy.org/london/en/news/7519/83884-Announcement-of-the-Prince-Mahidol-Laureates-2017.html

 

http://englishnews.thaipbs.or.th/us-human-genome-project-influenza-researchers-win-prince-mahidol-award-2017/

 

http://genomesequencing.com/the-human-genome-project-is-awarded-the-thai-2017-prince-mahidol-award-for-the-field-of-medicine-national-institutes-of-health-press-release/

 


2018 National Academy of Sciences AWARDS on April 29 during the Academy’s 155th annual meeting

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

The National Academy of Sciences will honor the following individuals with awards in recognition of their extraordinary scientific achievements in a wide variety of fields. These awards will be presented to on April 29 during the Academy’s 155th annual meeting.

NAS Public Welfare Medal
Paul Farmer
For pioneering enduring, community-based treatment strategies that demonstrate the delivery of high-quality health care in resource-poor settings in the U.S. and other countries.

The NAS Public Welfare Medal is the Academy’s most prestigious award and is presented annually to honor extraordinary use of science for the public good.

Alexander Agassiz Medal
Dean Roemmich
For his leadership in understanding the ocean’s roles in climate variability and change.

Atkinson Prize in Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
Barbara Dosher
For her groundbreaking work on human memory, attention, and learning.

Atkinson Prize in Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
Richard M. Shiffrin
For pioneering contributions to the investigation of memory and attention.

Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal
Günter Wagner
For his book “Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation,” which makes fundamental contributions to our understanding of the evolution of complex organisms.

Gilbert Morgan Smith Medal
Mark E. Hay
For his research into algal science, with implications for the world’s imperiled coral reefs.

J. Lawrence Smith Medal
Kevin D. McKeegan
For discoveries related to the oxygen isotopic composition of the sun.

James Craig Watson Medal
Ewine F. van Dishoeck
For improving our understanding of how molecules, stars, and planets form.

Jessie Stevenson Kovalenko Medal
James P. Allison
For important medical discoveries related to the body’s immune response to tumors.

John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science
David M. Kreps, Paul R. Milgrom, Robert B. Wilson
For using game theory to help solve real-world problems.

Michael and Sheila Held Prize
Prasad Raghavendra and David Steurer
For revolutionizing our understanding of optimization and complexity in computer science.

NAS Award for Scientific Reviewing
Adriaan Bax
For contributions that have greatly impacted the field of structural biology.

NAS Award in Chemical Sciences
Jennifer A. Doudna
For co-inventing the technology for efficient site-specific genome engineering using CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases.

NAS Award in Molecular Biology
Howard Y. Chang
For the discovery of long noncoding RNAs and the invention of genomic technologies.

NAS Prize in Food and Agriculture Sciences
Rodolphe Barrangou
For his discovery of the genetic mechanisms and proteins driving CRISPR-Cas systems.

Pradel Research Award
Silvia Arber
For her groundbreaking research on the organization and function of circuits regulating motor behavior.

Troland Research Award
Marlene R. Cohen
For her pioneering studies of how neurons in the brain process visual information.

Troland Research Award
Josh McDermott
For groundbreaking research into how humans hear and interpret sound.

William and Katherine Estes Award
Etel Solingen
For pathbreaking work on nuclear proliferation and reducing the risks of nuclear war.

SOURCE

http://www.nasonline.org/programs/awards/2018-awards.html?referrer=http://news.berkeley.edu/story_jump/national-academy-of-sciences-honors-raghavendra-doudna/