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What's The Big Data?

AI-Automation_potentialMGI:

Overall, we estimate that about half of the activities that people are paid almost $15 trillion to do in the global economy have the potential to be automated by adapting currently demonstrated technology…

All occupations will be affected. Only a small proportion of all occupations, about 5%, consist of 100% of activities that are fully automatable using currently demonstrated technologies. However, we find that about 30% of the activities in 60% of all occupations could be automated. This means that many workers will work alongside rapidly evolving machines, which will require worker skills also [to] evolve. This rapid evolution in the nature of work will affect everyone from welders to landscape gardeners, mortgage brokers—and CEOs; we estimate about 25% of CEOs’ time is currently spent on activities that machines could do, such as analyzing reports and data to inform decisions.

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Ultra-Pure Melatonin Product Helps Maintain Sleep for Up to 7 Hours

Curator: Gail S. Thornton, M.A.

Co-Editor: The VOICES of Patients, Hospital CEOs, HealthCare Providers, Caregivers and Families: Personal Experience with Critical Care and Invasive Medical Procedures

 

The role of melatonin is important in regulating natural sleep and wake cycles. Typically, melatonin levels decline with age, significantly decreasing after age 40. An estimated 50 to 70 million Americans are affected by sleep difficulties – a process regulated by melatonin — and long-term sleep deprivation has been associated with negative health consequences, including an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart attack, stroke, obesity, and depression.

Clinical data from a new pharmacokinetic study suggests that REMfresh®, the first and only continuous release and absorption melatonin (CRA-melatonin), helps maintain sleep for up to 7 hours. REMfresh® contains 99 percent ultra-pure melatonin and is sourced in Western Europe, a factor that is significant and important to many sleep specialists.

Three research abstracts on the REMfresh® data were published in an online supplement in the journal, Sleep, and were presented recently at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies LLC (APSS).

REMfresh Photo

Image SOURCE: Photograph courtesy of Physician’s Seal®

How REMfresh® Works

REMfresh® (CRA-melatonin) mimics the body’s own 7-hour Mesa Wave™, a natural pattern of melatonin blood levels during a normal night’s sleep cycle.

The study demonstrated the continuous release and absorption of 99 percent ultra-pure melatonin in REMfresh® (CRA-melatonin) was designed to induce sleep onset and provide continuous, lasting restorative sleep over 7 hours.

The scientifically advanced, patented formulation, called Ion Powered Pump (IPP™) technology, replicates the way in which the body naturally releases and absorbs melatonin, unlike conventional melatonin sleep products.

Since REMfresh® (CRA-melatonin) is not a drug, there is no drug hangover.

REMfresh MesaCurveNew-1

Image SOURCE: Diagram courtesy of Physician’s Seal®

 

Data Based on Scientifically Advanced Delivery Technology

According to the primary study author, David C. Brodner, M.D., “These study results represent an unparalleled breakthrough in drug-free, sleep maintenance that physicians and patients have been waiting for in a sleep product.” Dr. Brodner is a sleep specialist who is double board-certified in Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery and Sleep Medicine and is the founder and principle physician at the Center for Sinus, Allergy, and Sleep Wellness in Palm Beach County, Florida.

Dr. Brodner said, “Melatonin products have been used primarily as a chronobiotic to address sleep disorders, such as jet lag and shift work. The patented delivery system in REMfresh mimics the body’s own natural sleep pattern, so individuals may experience consistent, restorative sleep and have an improved quality of life with this drug-free product.”

Study Findings With REMAKT

The study findings are based on REMAKT™ (REM Absorption Kinetics Trial), a U.S.-based randomized, crossover pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluation study in healthy, non-smoking adults that compared REMfresh® (CRA-melatonin) with a market-leading, immediate-release melatonin (IR-melatonin).

The study found that melatonin levels with REMfresh® exceeded the targeted sleep maintenance threshold for a median of 6.7 hours, compared with 3.7 hours with the leading IR-melatonin. Conversely, the levels of the market-leading IR-melatonin formulation dramatically increased 23 times greater than the targeted levels of exogenous melatonin for sleep maintenance and had a rapid decline in serum levels that did not allow melatonin levels to be maintained beyond 4 hours.

Additional analysis presented showed that REMfresh® (CRA-melatonin) builds upon the body of evidence from prolonged-release melatonin (PR-M), which demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled studies, statistically significant improvement in sleep quality, morning alertness, sleep latency and quality of life in patients aged 55 years and older compared with placebo.

REMfresh® (CRA-melatonin) was designed to overcome the challenges of absorption in the intestines, thereby extending the continual and gradual release pattern of melatonin through the night (known as the Mesa Wave™, a flat-topped hill with steep sides). There was a faster time to Cmax, which is anticipated to result in improved sleep onset, while the extended median plateau time to 6.7 hours and rapid fall-off in plasma levels at the end of the Mesa Wave™ may help to improve sleep maintenance and morning alertness.

REFERENCE/SOURCE

Physician’s Seal® and REMfresh® (www.remfresh.com)

REMfresh® press release, June 5, 2017 (http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/scientifically-advanced-delivery-technology-in-sleep-management-debuts-at-sleep-2017-with-clinical-data-showing-remfresh-the-first-and-only-continuous-release-and-absorption-melatonin-helps-maintain-sleep-for-up-to-7-hours-300468218.html)

Dr. David C. Brodner, Center for Sinus, Allergy, and Sleep Wellness  (http://www.brodnermd.com/sleep-hygiene.html)

Other related articles published in this Open Access Online Scientific Journal include the following:

2017

Sleep Research Society announces 2017 award recipients including Thomas S. Kilduff, PhD, Director, Center for Neuroscience at SRI International in Menlo Park, California

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/04/28/sleep-research-society-announces-2017-award-recipients-including-thomas-s-kilduff-phd-director-center-for-neuroscience-at-sri-international-in-menlo-park-california/

2016

Sleep Science

Genetic link to sleep and mood disorders

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/02/27/genetic-link-to-sleep-and-mood-disorders/

2015

Sleep quality, amyloid and cognitive decline

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/10/31/sleep-quality-amyloid-and-cognitive-decline/

2013

Day and Night Variation in Melatonin Level affects Plasma Membrane Redox System in Red Blood Cells

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/02/23/httpwww-ncbi-nlm-nih-govpubmed22561555/

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City of Hope, Duarte, California – Combining Science with Soul to Create Miracles at a Comprehensive Cancer Center designated by the National Cancer InstituteAn Interview with the Provost and Chief Scientific Officer of City of Hope, Steven T. Rosen, M.D.

Author: Gail S. Thornton, M.A.

Co-Editor: The VOICES of Patients, Hospital CEOs, HealthCare Providers, Caregivers and Families: Personal Experience with Critical Care and Invasive Medical Procedures

 

City of Hope (https://www.cityofhope.org/homepage), a world leader in the research and treatment of cancer, diabetes, and other serious diseases, is an independent, biomedical research institution and comprehensive cancer center committed to researching, treating and preventing cancer, with an equal commitment to curing and preventing diabetes and other life-threatening diseases. Founded in 1913, City of Hope is one of only 47 comprehensive cancer centers in the nation, as designated by the National Cancer Institute.

City of Hope possesses flexibility that larger institutions typically lack. Innovative concepts move quickly from the laboratory to patient trials — and then to market, where they benefit patients around the world.

As a founding member of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, their research and treatment protocols advance care throughout the nation. They are also part of ORIEN (Oncology Research Information Exchange Network), the world’s largest cancer research collaboration devoted to precision medicine. And they continue to receive the highest level of accreditation by the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer for their exceptional level of cancer care.

As an innovator, City of Hope is a pioneer in bone marrow and stem cell transplants with one of the largest and most successful of its kind in the world. Other examples of its leadership and innovation include,

  • Numerous breakthrough cancer drugs, including Herceptin, Rituxan, Erbitux, and Avastin, are based on technology pioneered by City of Hope and are saving lives worldwide.
  • To date, City of Hope surgeons have performed more than 10,000 robotic procedures for prostate, kidney, colon, liver, bladder, gynecologic, oral and other cancers.
  • They are a national leader in islet cell transplantation, which has the potential to reverse type 1 diabetes, and also provide islet cells for research at other institutions throughout the U.S.
  • Millions of people with diabetes benefit from synthetic human insulin, developed through research conducted at City of Hope.
  • Their scientists are pioneering the application of blood stem cell transplants to treat patients with HIV- and AIDS related lymphoma. Using a new form of gene therapy, their researchers achieved the first long-term persistence of anti-HIV genes in patients with AIDS-related lymphoma — a treatment that may ultimately cure lymphoma and HIV/AIDS.

 

Additionally, City of Hope has three on-campus manufacturing facilities producing biologic and chemical compounds to good manufacturing practice (GMP) standards.

City of Hope launched its Alpha Clinic, thanks to an $8 million, five-year grant from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM). The award is part of CIRM’s Alpha Stem Cell Clinics program, which aims to create one-stop centers for clinical trials focused on stem cell treatments for currently incurable diseases. The Alpha Clinics Network is already running 35 different clinical trials involving hundreds of patients, 17 of which are being conducted at City of Hope. Current clinical trials include transplants of blood stem cells modified to treat patients with AIDS and lymphoma, neural stem cells to deliver drugs directly to cancers hiding in the brain, and T cell immunotherapy trials.

Located just northeast of Los Angeles, landscaped gardens and open spaces surround City of Hope’s leading-edge medical and research facilities at its main campus in Duarte, California. City of Hope also has 14 community practice clinics throughout Southern California.

COH robotic (1)COH Helford H (1)COH1 Dr__Rosen_Clinic-2 (2)COH8 Janice_Huss-7COH7 COH_1369COH6 GMP_0454COH4 DSC_9279

Image SOURCE: Photographs courtesy of City of Hope, Duarte, California. Interior and exterior photos of the City of Hope, including Dr. Steven T. Rosen and his team.

 

Below is my interview with the Provost and Chief Scientific Officer of City of Hope, Steven T. Rosen, M.D., which occurred in April, 2017.

 

What sets City of Hope apart from other hospitals and research centers?

Dr. Rosen: City of Hope offers a unique blend of compassionate care and research innovation that simply can’t be found anywhere else.

We’re more than a medical center, and more than a research facility. We take the most compassionate patient-focused care available, combine it with today’s leading-edge medical advances, and infuse both with a quest to deliver better outcomes.

I’m proud to say that we’re known for rapidly translating scientific research into new treatments and cures, and that our technology has led to the development of four of the most widely used cancer-fighting drugs, Herceptin (trastuzumab), Avastin (bevacizumab), Erbitux (cetuximab), and Rituxin (rituximab).

City of Hope is a family. Our special team of experts treats the whole person and the family, not just a body, or a case or a disease. In fact, some of our patients have shared their stories of success. It is gratifying for me and our many health professionals to be able to make a positive difference in their lives.

Eleven years ago, Los Angeles firefighter Gus Perez was facing a battle far greater than any he’d ever known. He was diagnosed with CML (chronic myelogenous leukemia). Gus began receiving the drug Gleevec, which put him into remission. Given the drug’s success, he almost resigned himself to staying on it, yet was drawn to another option: undergoing a bone marrow transplant at City of Hope. “I went to my favorite ocean spot,” Gus recalls. “I put on my wetsuit, like I’ve done thousands of times, and paddled out. Every wave was special because I wasn’t sure if I was ever going to be back. And I remember getting out of the water and counting the steps to my car, thinking, ‘I’m going to beat this. I’m going to retrace those steps.’ And I’m happy to say I was able to do it.” Gus and his family recently celebrated the 10th anniversary of his bone marrow transplant. “City of Hope is more than just medical treatment,” Gus says. “They have to put you back together from the ground up. And to me, that’s truly a miracle.”

 

As an active 14-year-old, Nicole Schulz loved cheerleading and hanging out with her friends. Then her whole world changed. Nicole learned that her fatigue and other symptoms weren’t “just the flu,” but the effects of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), an aggressive disease that rendered her bone marrow 97 percent cancerous. Nicole spent the next three and a half months at City of Hope, fighting the cancer with a daily regimen of chemotherapy and blood and platelet transfusions. “It put me into remission,” Nicole says. “But I wasn’t cured. And I wanted a cure.” Fortunately, Nicole was a candidate for a bone marrow transplant. Her malfunctioning marrow cells would be replaced with healthy marrow from a matching unrelated donor. “I never gave up — and neither did City of Hope,” Nicole says. After two bone marrow transplants and tremendous perseverance, Nicole is back to living the life she once knew and quickly making up for lost time.

 

When Jim Murphy’s doctor called and asked to see him on Christmas Eve, Jim knew it wasn’t going to be good news. And he was right. “The diagnosis was esophageal cancer,” Jim says. “Once they tell you that, there’s nothing you can do but formulate your action plan.” Jim would need to undergo chemotherapy, radiation and surgery to remove the tumor from his esophagus. It would require taking two-thirds of his esophagus and a third of his stomach. Despite the intense treatment, Jim was determined to keep his life as normal as possible. Throughout his chemotherapy and radiation therapy, he never missed a day of work, even riding his mountain bike to and from City of Hope to take his treatments. “I needed to show myself one victory after another,” Jim says. “I know City of Hope appreciated the fact that I was fighting as hard as they were.” Now cancer-free for several years, Jim credits City of Hope with giving him the best chance to fight his disease. “What really impressed me was that the research was right there at City of Hope. If they have something experimental, it goes from the researcher, right to the doctor and right to you. It’s the ultimate weapon — doctors reaching out for researchers, researchers reaching out for doctors. And the patient wins.”

 

City of Hope is a pioneer in the fields of bone marrow transplantation, diabetes and breakthrough cancer drugs based on technology developed at the institution.  How are you transforming the future of health care by turning science into a practical benefit for patients? 

Dr. Rosen: This is a distinctive place where brilliant research moves rapidly from concept to cure. That’s what we do—we speed breakthroughs in the lab to benefit patients in the clinic

Many know us for our leadership in fighting cancer, but fighting cancer is only part of our story. For decades, we’ve been making history in the fight against diabetes and other life-threatening illnesses that can be just as dangerous, and shattering, to patients and their families.

Every year, we conduct 400+ clinical trials, enrolling 6,000+ patients; hold 300+ patents and submit nearly 30 applications to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for investigational new drugs; and offer comprehensive assistance for patients and their families, including patient education, support groups, social resources, mind-body therapies and patient navigators.

We also translate breakthrough laboratory findings into real, lifesaving treatments and cures, and manufacture them at three on-campus facilities. Our goal is to get patients the treatments they need as fast as humanly possible.

We are in the race to save lives – and win. In our research efforts, we are teaching immune cells to attack tumors and Don J. Diamond [Ph.D.], Vincent Chung, [M.D.], and other City of Hope researchers launched a clinical trial seeking ways to effectively activate a patient’s own immune system to fight his or her cancer. The team is combining an immune-boosting vaccine with a drug that inhibits tumor cells’ ability to grow — to encourage immune cells to attack and eliminate tumors such as non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, triple-negative breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma and many other cancer types.

City of Hope’s Diabetes & Metabolism Research Institute is committed to developing a cure for type 1 diabetes (T1D) within six years, fueled by a $50 million funding program led by the Wanek family. Research is already underway to unlock the immune system’s role in diabetes, including T cell modulation and stem cell-based therapies that may reverse the autoimmune attack on islet cells in the pancreas, which is the cause of T1D. City of Hope’s Bart Roep [Ph.D.], previously worked at Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands, where he was instrumental in launching a phase 1 clinical trial for a vaccine that aims to spur the immune system to fight, and possibly cure, T1D. Plans are developing for a larger, phase 2 trial to launch in the future at City of Hope.

 

What makes your recent alliance with Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) different from other efforts in precision medicine around the country and within our Government to identify treatments for cancer?

Dr. Rosen: Precision medicine is the future of cancer care. Since former Vice President’s Joe Biden’s Moonshot Cancer program was launched to achieve 10 years of progress in preventing, diagnosing and treating cancer, within five years, federal cancer funding has been prioritized to address these aims.

City of Hope and the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) have formed an alliance to fast-track the future of precision medicine for patients. Our clinical leadership as a comprehensive cancer center combined with TGen’s leadership in molecular cancer research will propel us to the forefront of precision medicine and is further evidence of our momentum in transforming the future of health.

In fact, most recently scientists at TGen have identified a potent compound in the fight for an improved treatment against glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and deadly type of adult brain cancer. This research could represent a breakthrough for us to find an effective long-term treatment. The compound prevents glioblastoma from spreading, and leaves cancer vulnerable to chemotherapy and radiation.  Aurintricarboxylic Acid (ATA) is a chemical compound that in laboratory tests was shown to block the chemical cascade that otherwise allows glioblastoma cells to invade normal brain tissue and resist both chemo and radiation therapy.

The goal is to accelerate the speed at which we advance research discoveries into the clinic to benefit patients worldwide.

 

As a prestigious Comprehensive Cancer Center, City of Hope was named this year as one of the top 20 cancer centers for the past 10 years. How do you achieve that designation year after year? And what specific collaborations, clinical trials and multidisciplinary research programs are under way that offer benefits to patients?

Dr. Rosen: It’s simple – we achieve this through the compassion, commitment and excellence of the City of Hope family, which includes our world-class physicians, staff, supporters and donors.

We look to find the best and brightest professionals and bring them to City of Hope to work with our amazing staff on research, treatments and cures that not only change people’s lives, but also change the world.

We also have a community of forward-looking, incredibly generous and deeply committed supporters and donors. People who get it. People who share our vision. People who take their capacity for business success and apply it to helping others. They provide the fuel that drives us forward, enabling us to do great things.

City of Hope has a long track record of research breakthroughs and is constantly working to turn novel scientific research into the most advanced medical services.

Right now, we have a number of collaborative programs underway, including: Our alliance with TGen to make precision medicine a reality for patients, The Wanek Family Project to Cure Type 1 Diabetes, and Immunotherapy and CAR-T cell therapy clinical trials, which aim to fight against brain tumors and blood cancers.

More specifically, our research team led by Hua Yu, [Ph.D.] and Andreas Herrmann, [Ph.D.], developed a drug to address the way in which cancer uses the STAT3 protein to “corrupt” the immune system. The drug, CpG-STAT3 siRNA, halts the protein’s ability to “talk” to the immune system. It blocks cancer cell growth while sending a message to surrounding immune cells to destroy a tumor, and it may also enhance the effectiveness of other immunotherapies, such as T-cell therapy.

We could also see a functional cure for HIV in the next 5 to 10 years. Gene therapy pioneer, John A. Zaia, [M.D.], the Aaron D. Miller and Edith Miller Chair in Gene Therapy, the director of the Center for Gene Therapy within City of Hope’s Hematologic Malignancies and Stem Cell Transplantation Institute, as well as principal director of our Alpha Clinic, and researchers are building on knowledge gained from the case of the so-called “Berlin patient” whose HIV infection vanished after receiving a stem cell transplant for treatment of leukemia. The donor’s CCR5 gene, HIV’s typical pathway into the body, had a mutation that blocked the virus. The team launched a clinical trial that used a zinc finger nuclease to “cut out” the CCR5 gene, leaving HIV with no place to go. Their goal: to someday deliver a one-time treatment that produces a lifetime change. Integral to the first-in-human trials are the nurses who understand the study protocols, potential side effects and symptoms.

 

Would you share some of the current science under way on breakthrough cures for cancer?

Dr. Rosen: We are achieving promising results in many innovative approaches – gene therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy and all aspects of precision medicine. We are also forging new partnerships and collaboration agreements around the world.

Let me share with you a few examples of our cutting-edge science.

City of Hope researchers identified a promising new strategy for dealing with PDAC, an aggressive form of pancreatic cancer. The bacterial-based therapy homes to tumors and provokes an extremely effective tumor-killing response.

Teams at City of Hope are working to load nanoparticles with small snippets of DNA molecules that can stimulate the immune system to attack tumor cells in the brain. This innovative approach can overcome the blood-brain barrier, which blocks many drugs from reaching the tumor site.

A pioneer in islet cell transplantation for the treatment of diabetes, City of Hope conducted a clinical trial to refine its transplantation protocol. Because this new protocol includes an ATG (antithymoglobulin) induction, the immune system will not harm the transplant. The immune-suppression strategy used in the trial is considered a significant improvement over the protocol used in previous islet cell transplant trials.

City of Hope physicians and scientists joined a multinational team in reporting the success of a phase II clinical trial of a novel drug against essential thrombocythemia (ET). ET patients make too many platelets (cells essential for blood clotting), which puts them at risk for abnormal clotting and bleeding. All 18 patients treated with the drug, imetelstat, exhibited decreased platelet levels, and 16 showed normalized blood cell counts.

Researchers found that the CMVPepVax vaccine — developed at City of Hope to boost cellular immunity against cytomegalovirus (CMV) — is safe and effective in stem cell transplant recipients. Building on this discovery, City of Hope and Fortress Biotech formed a company to develop two vaccines, PepVax and Triplex, against CMV, a life-threatening illness in people who have weakened or underdeveloped immune systems such as cancer patients and developing fetuses. The vaccines are the subjects of multisite clinical trials. These City of Hope vaccines could open the door to a new way of protecting cancer patients from CMV, a devastating infection that affects hundreds of thousands of people worldwide.

 

In what ways does the initial vision of Samuel H. Golter impact the work you are doing today? What does the tagline – “The Miracle of Science with Soul” – mean?

Dr. Rosen: 100+ years ago, Samuel Golter, one of the founders of City of Hope said: “There is no profit in curing the body if in the process we destroy the soul.” For decades, City of Hope has lived by this credo, providing a comprehensive, compassionate and research-based treatment approach.

“The Miracle of Science with Soul” refers to the lives that we save by uniting science and research with compassionate care.

“Miracle” represents what people with cancer and other deadly diseases say they want most of all.

“Science” speaks to the many innovations we’ve pioneered, which demonstrate that medical miracles happen here.

“Soul” represents our compassionate care. We’re an untraditional health system — and our people, culture and campus reflect this.

 

Can you please describe how City of Hope has evolved throughout its 100-year history from a tuberculosis sanitorium into a world-class research-centered institution? 

Dr. Rosen: City of Hope is a leading comprehensive cancer center and independent biomedical research institution. Over the years, our discoveries have changed the lives of millions of patients around the world.

We pioneered the research leading to the first synthetic insulin and the technology behind numerous cancer-fighting drugs, including Herceptin (trastuzumab), Avasatin (bevacizumab), Erbitux (cetuximab), and Rituxin (rituximab).

As previously mentioned, we hold 300+ patents, have numerous potential therapies in the pipeline at any given time, and treat 1,000+ patients a year in therapeutic clinical trials.

These numbers reflect our commitment to innovation and rapid translation of science into therapies to benefit patients.

We are home to Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, the first of only five Beckman Research Institutes established by funding from the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation. It is responsible for fundamentally expanding the world’s understanding of how biology affects diseases such as cancer, HIV/AIDS and diabetes.

Recognizing our team’s accomplishments in cancer research, treatment, patient care, education and prevention, the National Cancer Institute has designated City of Hope as a comprehensive cancer center. This is an honor reserved for only 47 institutions nationwide. Our five Cancer Center Research Programs run the gamut from basic and translational studies, to Phase I and II clinical protocols and follow-up studies in survivorship and symptom management.

City of Hope’s Diabetes & Metabolism Research Institute offers a broad diabetes and endocrinology program combining groundbreaking research, unique treatments and comprehensive education to help people with diabetes and other endocrine diseases live longer, better lives.

Our dedicated, multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals at the Hematologic Malignancies & Stem Cell Institute combine innovative research discoveries with superior clinical treatments to improve outcomes for patients with hematologic cancers.

Working closely with the City of Hope comprehensive cancer center’s Developmental Cancer Therapeutics Program and other cancer centers, the Medical Oncology & Therapeutics Research multidisciplinary program includes basic, translational and clinical research and fosters collaborations among scientists and clinicians.

City of Hope’s Radiation Oncology Department is on the forefront of improving patient care, and our staff is constantly studying new research technologies, clinical trials and treatment methods that can lead to better outcomes and quality of life for our patients.

What attracted you to City of Hope? And how do you define success in your present role as provost and CSO?

Dr. Rosen: Helping cancer patients and their families gives me a sense of purpose. I encourage everyone to find a passion and find an organization that fits their passion. City of Hope is a special place. What we do is bigger than ourselves.

I define success as finding cures and helping patients live stronger, better lives. I am focused on leading a diverse team of scientists, clinicians and administrative leaders committed to discovering breakthroughs and specialized therapies.

COH2 Dr__Steve_Rosen_

Image SOURCE: Photograph of Provost and Chief Scientific Officer Steven T. Rosen, M.D., courtesy of City of Hope, Duarte, California.

 

Steven T. Rosen, M.D.
Provost and Chief Scientific Officer

City of Hope
Duarte, California

Steven T. Rosen, M.D., is provost and chief scientific officer for City of Hope and a member of City of Hope’s Executive Team. He also is director of the Comprehensive Cancer Center and holds the Irell & Manella Cancer Center Director’s Distinguished Chair, and he is director of Beckman Research Institute (BRI) and the Irell & Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences.

Dr. Rosen sets the scientific direction of City of Hope, shaping the research and educational vision for the biomedical research, treatment and education institution. Working closely and collaboratively with City of Hope’s scientists, clinicians and administrative leaders, he develops strategies that contribute to the organization’s mission.

As director of BRI, he works with faculty across the institution to help shape and direct the scientific vision for BRI while leading the vital basic and translational research that is fundamental to our strategic plan and mission. He focuses on opportunities for expanding and integrating our research initiatives; recruiting and leading talented scientists; helping our talented researchers achieve national and international recognition; and promoting our national standing as a premier scientific organization.

Prior to joining City of Hope, Dr. Rosen was the Genevieve Teuton Professor of Medicine at the Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University in Chicago. He served for 24 years as director of Northwestern’s Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center. Under his leadership, the center received continuous National Cancer Institute (NCI) funding beginning in 1993 and built nationally recognized programs in laboratory sciences, clinical investigations, translational research and cancer prevention and control. The center attained comprehensive status in 1997.

Dr. Rosen has published more than 400 original reports, editorials, books and book chapters. His research has been funded by the National Cancer Institute, American Cancer Society, Leukemia & Lymphoma Society of America and Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation.

Dr. Rosen also has served as an adviser for several of these organizations and on the external advisory boards of more than a dozen NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers. He is the current editor-in-chief of the textbook series “Cancer Treatment & Research.”

Recognized as one of the Best Doctors in America, Dr. Rosen is a recipient of the Martin Luther King Humanitarian Award from Northwestern Memorial Hospital and the Man of Distinction Award from the Israel Cancer Research Fund. He earned his bachelor’s degree and medical degree with distinction from Northwestern University from which he also earned the Alumni Merit Award, and is a member of the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society.

Editor’s Note: 

We would like to thank Mary-Fran Faraji, David Caouette, and Chantal Roshetar of the Communications and Public Affairs department at the City of Hope, for the gracious help and invaluable support they provided during this interview.

 

REFERENCE/SOURCE

The City of Hope (https://www.cityofhope.org/homepage), Duarte, California.

Other related articles

Retrieved from https://www.cityofhope.org/people/rosen-steven

Retrieved from https://www.cityofhope.org/research/beckman-research-institute

Retrieved from https://www.cityofhope.org/research/comprehensive-cancer-center

Retrieved from https://www.cityofhope.org/research/research-overview/diabetes-metabolism-research-institute

Retrieved from https://www.cityofhope.org/patients/departments-and-services/hematologic-malignancies-and-stem-cell-transplantation-institute

Retrieved from https://www.cityofhope.org/patients/departments-and-services/medical-oncology-and-therapeutics-research/medical-oncology-research

Retrieved from https://www.cityofhope.org/patients/cancers-and-treatments/departments-and-services/radiation-oncology/radiation-oncology-research

                        

Other related articles were published in this Open Access Online Scientific Journal include the following: 

2017

Expedite Use of Agents in Clinical Trials: New Drug Formulary Created – The NCI Formulary is a public-private partnership between NCI, part of the National Institutes of Health, and pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/01/12/expedite-use-of-agents-in-clinical-trials-new-drug-formulary-created-the-nci-formulary-is-a-public-private-partnership-between-nci-part-of-the-national-institutes-of-health-and-pharmaceutical-and/

The top 15 best-selling cancer drugs in 2022 & Projected Sales in 2020 of World’s Top Ten Oncology Drugs

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/01/03/projected-sales-in-2020-of-worlds-top-ten-oncology-drugs/

2016

Funding Opportunities for Cancer Research

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/12/08/funding-opportunities-for-cancer-research/

Recent Breakthroughs in Cancer Research at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology- 2015

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/02/03/recent-breakthroughs-in-cancer-research-at-the-technion-israel-institute-of-technology-2015/

New York Times Articles on Cancer Immunotherapy and Cancer Treatment Options

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/08/09/new-york-times-articles-on-immunotherapy-and-cancer-treatment-options/

  • Cancer Biology & Genomics for Disease Diagnosis, on Amazon since 8/11/2015

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B013RVYR2K

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/biomed-e-books/series-c-e-books-on-cancer-oncology/volume-2-immunotherapy-in-oncology/

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Severe IBS Symptoms: Clinical Trial results on delivery of peppermint oil to the small intestine through a system (IBgard®)

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/07/08/severe-ibs-symptoms-clinical-trial-results-on-delivery-of-peppermint-oil-to-the-small-intestine-through-a-system-ibgard/

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

UPDATED on 5/10/2017 

Reporter: Gail S. Thornton, MA

Additional Data Analysis from an IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) Clinical Trial Demonstrate IBgard® Delivered Unprecedented Symptom Reduction in the Largest and Most Dissatisfied Group of IBS Patients  

  • Groundbreaking clinical results presented in Chicago at the world’s premier gastroenterology meeting, Digestive Disease Week (DDW), show dramatic symptom reduction among IBS-M (mixed diarrhea and constipation) patients, who experience a high burden in terms of symptoms and quality of life
  • Patients with IBS-M are the most challenging and difficult to diagnose and manage
  • Additional data analysis of only IBS-M patients showed IBgard®, compared to placebo, significantly reduced Total IBS Symptom Score (TISS) and showed favorable effects on all 8 measured individual IBS symptoms, including constipation, diarrhea and abdominal pain

 

CHICAGO – (May 10, 2017) –  The more recent scientific understanding of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) having multiple causes, including reversible, low-grade inflammation, resulting in abdominal pain, constipation and/or diarrhea in some patients, received further support during Digestive Disease Week (DDW). This is the premier annual meeting of gastroenterologists in Chicago and this subject was discussed on May 9, 2017.

Brooks D. Cash, M.D., A.G.A.F., Professor of Medicine at the University of South Alabama in Mobile, Ala., and Chief of the USA Gastroenterology Division, was the lead presenter of an additional clinical analysis of the IBSREST™ study, a randomized clinical trial (RCT) previously presented at DDW, where IBgard® showed significant efficacy in a combined group of IBS-M (mixed diarrhea and constipation) and IBS-D (diarrhea predominant) patients at 24 hours and at 4 weeks.

Additional analysis of only the IBS-M patients in IBSREST™ demonstrated that there was a statistically significant reduction vs. placebo in the Total IBS Symptom Score (TISS) at 4 weeks. TISS is a composite score of the eight individual IBS symptoms. When evaluating the individual symptoms at 4 weeks, there was a favorable reduction on both major types of bowel dysfunction (diarrhea and constipation) and favorable reduction in viscerosensory symptoms, including abdominal pain and other IBS symptoms.

IBS-M is a challenging and difficult to diagnose and treat sub-type of IBS and represents an area of high unmet need. Most individuals with IBS (74 percent of those medically diagnosed and 63 percent not medically diagnosed) reported variable symptoms of constipation and diarrhea.[1]  There are no FDA-approved interventions for IBS-M.

It has been posited that l-Menthol, the principal component found in IBgard®, works via several different mechanisms of action in the gut, including exerting anti-inflammatory, smooth muscle relaxing and anti-nociceptive effects. Immune-activated gut barrier disturbance in the small intestine is believed to be another possible source of IBS-related altered stool form, as well as abdominal pain and other IBS symptoms.

IBgard® is specially formulated for the dietary management of IBS and is the first product using a patented, breakthrough technology called Site Specific Targeting (SST®) to deliver individually triple-coated, solid-state, sustained release microspheres of Ultramen®, an ultra-purified peppermint oil, quickly and reliably to the small intestine where its actions help manage IBS.

According to Ali Rezaie, M.D., assistant director, Gastrointestinal Motility Program at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, “Alternating bowel habits can happen on a daily basis… Intervals between the patterns [IBS-D and IBS-C] can vary widely.” He added, “I have patients who say they have constipation in the morning, and then, by evening, they have loose watery stools. Even with the same bowel movement, some patients may start with hard stool that has to be pushed, and by the end, it will be watery.”[2]

“Over the last several years, we in the gastroenterology community have tended to bracket IBgard® as an anti-spasmodic for IBS-D, similar to prescription antispasmodics, but with minimal side effects,” said Dr. Cash. “The current findings raise the possibility that there may be broader clinical applications for IBgard® in reducing IBS-M symptoms as well. This is an important observation that needs further research in terms of the most important mechanisms of action of l-Menthol.”

“We are gaining a great understanding of the underlying causation of IBS,” said Michael S. Epstein, M.D., F.A.C.G., A.G.A.F., a leading gastroenterologist and Chief Medical Advisor for IM HealthScience®, the innovators of IBgard®. “The largest and most dissatisfied group of IBS patients should start seeing the benefit of recent advances in IBS science.”

Gut Mucosal Barrier Dysfunction Is Key Factor in IBS

As a complex and multifactorial disorder, IBS involves several factors that interact in the body to produce, at various times, digestive tract symptoms, including constipation, diarrhea, bloating, abdominal pain and discomfort.

As new diagnostic tools help advance science in gastrointestinal disorders, gut mucosal barrier dysfunction associated with reversible and low-grade inflammation is now becoming better accepted as a root cause.

Overview of Clinical Sub-Analysis of IBS-M in IBSREST RCT

As mentioned earlier, the IBSREST™ RCT had already shown favorable results in a combined group of IBS-D and IBS-M patients.

In view of the unmet need in IBS-M, researchers performed an additional analysis to test the efficacy of IBgard® in patients with IBS-M in the IBSREST™ study. The analysis showed that in the composite score of all eight symptoms measured, IBgard® demonstrated a significant reduction vs. placebo. It also showed favorable results in individual IBS symptoms, including diarrhea and constipation, where it showed significance (P=0.0085) despite the smaller sample size.

More specifically, the analysis of IBS-M patients in the IBSREST™ study showed that after four weeks of daily intake of IBgard®, patients experienced the following:

Reduction in Total IBS Symptom Score (TISS):

  • 3% reduction of Total IBS Symptom Score (TISS) from baseline. Statistically significant compared to placebo (P=0.0298).
  • 1% reduction in frequency of IBS symptoms from baseline. Statistically significant compared to placebo (P=0.0349).
  • 2% reduction in intensity of IBS symptoms from baseline. Near significance compared to placebo (P=0.0528).

Reduction in Overall Constipation Score:

  • 1% reduction in overall constipation symptoms from baseline. Statistically significant compared to placebo (P=0.0085).
  • 3% reduction in frequency of constipation from baseline. Statistically significant compared to placebo (P=0.0137).
  • 64% reduction in intensity of constipation from baseline. Statistically significant compared to placebo (P=0.0221).

 

Reduction across the Syndrome of Symptoms (abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating or distention, diarrhea, constipation, feeling of incomplete evacuation, urgency, pain at evacuation and gas or mucus):

  • Greater reduction in all eight symptoms of IBS comprising the TISS, compared to placebo, with significance reached in abdominal pain (P=0.0426), constipation (P=0.0085), urgency (P=0.0364), and sense of incomplete evacuation (P=0.0422).
  • The largest reduction was seen with constipation versus placebo (P=0.0085).
  • Numerical reduction versus placebo in both constipation (P=0.0085) and diarrhea (P=0.2296) in IBS-M.
  • Pain at evacuation was numerically superior (P=0.0720).

IBSREST™ Study Design

To qualify for entry in the IBSREST™ study, the participants had to meet Rome III criteria for IBS-M. They had to have average daily IBS-related abdominal pain of ≥ 4 on a 0-10 scale, and a TISS of ≥ 2 on a 0-4 scale.

In the study, there were 34 IBS-M participants, 16 who received IBgard® and 18 who received placebo. Study participants were randomly allocated to receive IBgard® 180 mg TID or identical placebo for four weeks. Primary analysis was based on the TISS score. Additional assessments included change from baseline in frequency and intensity of individual IBS symptoms.

About Irritable Bowel Syndrome
One in six Americans experience Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), a frustrating, under-diagnosed and under-treated condition characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, often associated with alteration in stool frequency and/or form. Bloating is also a common symptom experienced by patients with IBS. Recent understanding regarding the multiple etiologies of IBS point to gut mucosal barrier dysfunction associated with reversible, low-grade inflammation as a potential contributor to abdominal pain and altered stool form symptoms of IBS.

About IBgard®  

IBgard® is a medical food specially formulated for the dietary management of IBS. IBgard® capsules contain solid state microspheres of peppermint oil, including its principal component l-Menthol, plus fiber and amino acids (from gelatin protein), in a unique delivery system.

With its patented Site Specific Targeting (SST®) technology, pioneered by IM HealthScience®, IBgard® capsules release Ultramen®, an ultra-purified peppermint oil, quickly and reliably to the small intestine, where its actions help manage IBS. The food nutrients in IBgard® (peppermint oil along with fiber and amino acids) may help reduce the low-grade, reversible inflammation found in some IBS and help normalize gut mucosal barrier function. Additionally, peppermint oil has also been shown to help normalize intestinal transit time.

IBgard® was studied in a pivotal, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, multi-center trial called the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Reduction Evaluation and Safety Trial™ (IBSREST).  Patients suffering from IBS-M and IBS-D were included in the study. The study findings were accepted and published in the February 2016 issue of Digestive Diseases and Sciences, a leading, peer-reviewed scientific journal. The data showed that IBgard® demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the Total IBS Symptom Score (TISS) in as early as 24 hours and at four weeks. The TISS represents a composite score of eight individual IBS symptoms. Currently, there are limited options for patients with IBS that offer effective and rapid relief, especially during flare-ups.

Over 10,000 healthcare practitioners, including 3,000 gastroenterologists, are estimated to have already used IBgard® for their patients. In a recent nationwide survey of gastroenterologists, IBgard® is the number one recommended peppermint oil for IBS among gastroenterologists for the second consecutive year by an overwhelming margin. Like all medical foods, IBgard® does not require a prescription, but it must be used under medical supervision. Only doctors can diagnose IBS. The usual adult dose of IBgard® is 1-2 capsules as needed, up to three times a day, not to exceed 8 capsules per day.

IBgard® is available to patients in the digestive aisle at most Walmart, CVS/pharmacy, Walgreens and Rite Aid stores nationwide as well as in independent drug stores and grocery stores across the country.

About IM HealthScience®

IM HealthScience® (IMH) is the innovator of IBgard® for the dietary management of irritable bowel syndrome. It is a privately held company based in Boca Raton, Florida, that is also the innovator of FDgard® for the dietary management of functional dyspepsia. It was founded in 2010 by a team of highly experienced pharmaceutical research and development and management executives. The company is dedicated to developing products to address gastrointestinal issues where there is a high unmet need. The IM HealthScience® advantage comes from developing products based on its patented, targeted-delivery technologies called Site Specific Targeting (SST®). For more information, visit www.imhealthscience.com to learn about the company, or www.IBgard.com or www.FDgard.com.

Data Presented at DDW Poster Session on Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Tuesday, May 9, 2017

  • (Poster Session #Tu1601) In Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Mixed (IBS-M), a Novel Peppermint Oil Formulation Designed for Site Specific Targeting (PO-SST), in the Small Intestine, Improves the 8 Symptoms that Comprise the Total IBS Symptoms Score (TISS). 
    • Brooks Cash, Dr. Michael Epstein and Dr. Syed Shah
  •  (Poster Session #Tu1600) Patient Responder Analysis for a Total IBS Symptom Score (TISS) and Abdominal Pain with a Novel Peppermint Oil Site Specific Targeting (PO-SST) Formulation from the US-based IBSREST Randomized Controlled Trial
    • Brooks Cash, Dr. Michael Epstein and Dr. Syed Shah

For more information about featured studies, as well as a schedule of availability for featured researchers, please visit www.ddw.org/press.

About Digestive Disease Week® (DDW)

Digestive Disease Week® (DDW) is the largest international gathering of physicians, researchers and academics in the fields of gastroenterology, hepatology, endoscopy and gastrointestinal surgery. Jointly sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) Institute, the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) and the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract (SSAT), DDW takes place May 6-9, 2017, at McCormick Place, Chicago, IL. The meeting showcases more than 5,000 abstracts and hundreds of lectures on the latest advances in GI research, medicine and technology. More information can be found at www.ddw.org.

Regulation of Medical Foods

IBgard® is a medical food product and not a drug or dietary supplement.  A medical food is defined by section 5(b)(3) of the Orphan Drug Act (21 U.S.C, 360ee (b)(3) as a “food which is formulated to be consumed or administered internally under the supervision of a physician and which is intended for the specific dietary management of a disease or condition for which distinct nutritional requirements, based on scientific principles, are established by medical evaluation.” Medical foods do not require prior approval by the FDA and are in a unique category separate from drugs or dietary supplements. Medical foods must contain ingredients that are “Generally Recognized As Safe” (GRAS), or are approved food additives, as defined under sections 201(s) and 409 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

REFERENCE/SOURCE

[1] Hungin, A.P.S., Chang, L., Locke, G.R., Dennis, E.H. & Barghout, V. (2005, June 2). Irritable bowel syndrome in the United States: prevalence, symptom patterns and impact. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 21 (11): 1365-1375.  doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02463.x.

[2] Swift, D. & Bilal, M. (2016, December 15). IBS Purgatory: Mixed Irritable Bowel Syndrome – Symptoms can fluctuate rapidly, and psychological burden is onerous. Retrieved from http://www.medpagetoday.com/reading-room/aga/lower-gi/62101.

SOURCE

http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/additional-data-analysis-from-an-ibs-irritable-bowel-syndrome-clinical-trial-demonstrate-ibgard-delivered-unprecedented-symptom-reduction-in-the-largest-and-most-dissatisfied-group-of-ibs-patients-300454295.html

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The Rutgers Global Health Institute, part of Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey – A New Venture Designed to Improve Health and Wellness Globally  

Author: Gail S. Thornton, M.A.

Co-Editor: The VOICES of Patients, Hospital CEOs, HealthCare Providers, Caregivers and Families: Personal Experience with Critical Care and Invasive Medical Procedures

 

The newly formed Rutgers Global Health Institute, part of Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences (RBHS) of Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (http://rbhs.rutgers.edu/), represents a new way of thinking by providing positive health outcomes to potential patients around the world affected by disease and/or by a negative environmental impact. The goal of the Institute is three-fold:

  • to improve the health and wellness of individuals and populations around the world,
  • to create a healthier world through innovation, engineering, and technology, and
  • to educate involved citizens and effective leaders in global health.

Richard G. Marlink, M.D., a former Harvard University professor recognized internationally for research and leadership in the fight against AIDS, was recently appointed as the inaugural Henry Rutgers Professor of Global Health and Director of the Rutgers Global Health Institute.

The Rutgers Global Health Institute was formed last year after research by the University into the most significant health issues affecting under-served and under-developed populations. While conducting research for its five-year strategic plan, the RBHS looked for bold and ambitious ways that they could take advantage of the changing health care environment and band together to tackle the world’s leading health and environmental causes, contributing to the betterment of society. One of the results was the formation of the Rutgers Global Health Institute, supporting cross-functionally Rutgers faculty, scientists, and clinicians who represent the best in their respective fields of health innovation, research and patient care related to global health.

More broadly, the RBHS, created in 2013, is one of the nation’s leading – and largest — academic health centers that provides health care education, research and clinical service and care. It is an umbrella organization that encompasses eight schools – Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, New Jersey Medical School, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers School of Dental Medicine, School of Health Professions, School of Nursing and School of Public Health.

In addition, the RBHS encompasses six centers and institutes that provide cancer treatment and research, neuroscience, advanced biotechnology and medicine, environmental and occupational health and health care policy and aging research. Those centers and institutes are the Brain Health Institute, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging Research, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, and Rutgers Institute for Translational Medicine and Research. And lastly, the RBHS includes the University Behavioral Health Care.

 

Rutgers Institute For Health Building

Image SOURCE: Photograph courtesy of the Rutgers Global Health Institute, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.   

 

Below is my interview with the Inaugural Henry Rutgers Professor of Global Health and Director of the Rutgers Global Health Institute Richard G. Marlink, M.D., which occurred in April, 2017.

You were recently appointed as the inaugural Henry Rutgers Professor of Global Health and Director of the new Rutgers Global Health Institute at Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences (RBHS). What are the goals of the new Institute?

Dr. Marlink: The overarching goal of the Rutgers Global Health Institute is to improve the health and wellness of individuals and populations in need both here and around the world, to create a healthier world through innovation, engineering, and technology, and to educate involved citizens and effective leaders in global health. We will do that by building on the aspiration of our originating organization — RBHS, which is to be recognized as one of the best academic health centers in the U.S., known for its education, research, clinical care, and commitment to improving access to health care and reducing health care disparities.

As the newly formed Rutgers Global Health Institute, we are embarking on an ambitious agenda to take advantage of the changing health care environment. Working across schools and disciplines at Rutgers University, we plan to have a significant impact within at least four signature programs identified by RBHS, which are cancer, environmental and occupational health, infection and inflammation, and public health. We also will include all other parts of Rutgers, as desired, beyond RBHS.

My background as a global health researcher, physician, and leader of grassroots health care delivery will help develop programs to undertake global health initiatives that assist populations locally and around the world. I believe that involved citizens, including students, can greatly impact major societal issues.

A key role in the strategic growth of Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences – an umbrella organization for eight schools, four centers and institutes and a behavioral health network — is to broaden the Rutgers University’s presence in the public health community globally to improve health and wellness. How will the new Rutgers Global Health Institute be part of this growth?

Dr. Marlink: Our RBHS Chancellor Brian Strom [M.D., M.P.H.] believes that we are positioned to become one of the finest research universities in the country, working cross-functionally with our three campuses in Newark, Camden and New Brunswick. In developing the strategic plan, Dr. Strom notes that we become much stronger and more capable and productive by leveraging our strengths to collaborate and working together across disciplines to best serve the needs of our community locally and globally.

Specifically, we are formulating plans to focus on these areas: old and new infectious disease epidemics; the expanding burden of noncommunicable diseases in poor populations; the social and environmental threats to health, poverty and humanitarian crises; and inadequate local and developing country health systems. We will support the development of global health research programs university-wide, the recruitment of faculty with interests in global health, and the creation of a web-based global health resource center for faculty and students with interests in these areas.

We are still a very young part of RBHS, and of Rutgers overall, so our plans are a work in progress. As tangible examples of our commitment to improving health and wellness globally, we plan to enhance global public health by establishing links between global public health and environmental and occupational health faculty in studies related to air pollution, climate change, and pesticide health.

Another example the Institute has in the works is expanding links with the School of Engineering. In fact, we are creating a senior-level joint faculty position with the School of Engineering and Rutgers-New Brunswick. Still other plans involve forging collaborative relationships between the Rutgers Cancer Program, under the auspices of Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is New Jersey’s only National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated comprehensive cancer center, and other organizations and partners around the world, especially in poor and less-developed countries.

How is the Rutgers Global Health Institute strategically prepared for changing the health care paradigm?

Dr. Marlink: We intend to be an international global health leader in the health sciences, in public health, and in other related, but non-biomedical professions. This means that we will incorporate our learnings from laboratory sciences and the clinical, behavioral, and public health sciences, as well as from engineering, business, economics, law, and social sciences. This broad approach is critical in this health care environment as accountability for patient care is shifting to large groups of providers. Health care will be more value-driven and our health care teams must work collaboratively to be innovative. Our focus on health care is now also population-based, rather than only individual-based, and we are moving from large regional centers toward community centers, even in small and remote areas of the world. We are encouraged by rapid changes in technology that will provide new opportunities for shared knowledge, patient care and research.

Additionally, we are exploring ways to identify and recruit key faculty who will increase our breadth and depth of key disease areas as well as provide guidance on how to pursue science grants from the National Institute of Health (NIH)-funded program project grants and specialized research programs.

Currently, Rutgers University receives NIH funding for research in public health, population health, health promotion, wellness, health behavior, preventive medicine, and global health.

As a researcher, scholar and leader of grassroots health care delivery, how have your past positions prepared you for this new challenge? Your last position was the Bruce A. Beal, Robert L. Beal, and Alexander S. Beal Professor of the Practice of Public Health at Harvard University’s T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Executive Director of the Harvard AIDS Initiative.

Dr. Marlink: I have been a global health practitioner, researcher, and executive leader for almost three decades. I am trained in medical oncology and HIV medicine and have conducted clinical, epidemiological and implementation research in Africa since 1985. I was first introduced to global health when finishing my Hematology/Oncology fellowship at what is now the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in the mid-1980’s in Boston.

During my Hematology/Oncology fellowship and after the co-organizing the first, hospital-based AIDS care clinic in the New England region, I was trying to learn the ropes in virology and molecular biology in the laboratory group of Max Essex at Harvard University. During that time in the mid-1980s, our laboratory group along with Senegalese and French collaborators discovered the first evidence for the existence of a new human retrovirus, HIV-2, a distinct second type of human AIDS virus, with its apparent origins in West Africa.

As a clinician, I was able to assist in Senegal, helping set up clinical care and create a research cohort in Dakar for hundreds of women sex workers infected with this new human retrovirus and care for them and their families. I discovered that a little can go a long way in poor settings, such as in Senegal. I became hooked on helping create solutions to help people in poor settings in Africa and elsewhere. Long-term partnerships and friendships have subsequently been made in many developing countries. Throughout my career, I have built successful partnerships with many governments, companies, and non-profit organizations, and those relationships have been the foundation to build successful public health partnerships in poor regions of the world.

In the 1990s, I helped create the Botswana-Harvard Partnership for HIV Research and Education (BHP). Through this partnership, the Government of Botswana and BHP have worked together to combat the AIDS epidemic in Botswana. Under my direction, and in partnership with the Botswana Ministry of Health, BHP launched the KITSO AIDS Training Program in 1999. Kitso is the Setswana word for ‘knowledge.”

KITSO is the national training program for physicians, nurses, and pharmacists, which has trained more than 14,000 health professionals in HIV/AIDS care and antiretroviral treatment. KITSO training modules address issues, such as antiretroviral therapy, HIV/AIDS-related disease management, gender-specific HIV issues, task-sharing, supportive and palliative care, and various psychosocial and counseling themes.

In addition, I was the Botswana County Director for Harvard Chan School’s 3-country President’s Emergency Plan AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) grant, The Botswana PEPFAR effort includes a Clinical and Laboratory Master Training Program and the creation of the Botswana Ministry of Health’s Monitoring and Evaluation Unit. Concurrently, I was the Principal Investigator of Project HEART in five African countries with the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation.

Also in Botswana, in 2000, I was a co-founder of a distinct partnership involving a large commitment to the Government of Botswana from the Bill and Melinda Gates and Merck Foundations.  This commitment continues as an independent non-governmental organization (NGO) to provide support for various AIDS prevention and care efforts in Botswana and the region.

All these global health experiences, it seems, have led me to my new role at the Rutgers Global Health Institute.

What is your advice for ways that the business community or university students can positively impact major societal issues?

Dr. Marlink: My advice is to be optimistic and follow that desire to want to make a difference. Margaret Mead, the American cultural anthropologist, said years ago, “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it’s the only thing that ever has.” I believe that to be our guiding principle as we embark on this new initiative.

I also believe that students should become specialized in specific areas prior to going fully into “global health,” as they develop in their careers, since they will then add more value later. For example, students should be grounded in the theory of global health in their undergraduate studies and then develop a specialization, such as becoming a statistician, economist, or medical doctor, to make a longer and greater impact in improving global health. As for the business community, we are looking for committed individuals who are specialized in specific areas to bring their knowledge to our organization, as partners in the fight against disease, improving the environment, or helping with humanitarian issues. We are committed to improving health and wellness, increasing access to the best health care, and reducing health disparities.

What is it about your current role that you enjoy the most?

Dr. Marlink: I enjoy building research, learning, and clinical programs, as I have in the HIV arena since the early 1980s. At that time, there were limited resources and funding, but a willingness among universities, non-governmental organizations, hospitals and the pharmaceutical industry to make a difference. Today in my new role, I’d like all of us to have an impact on health and wellness for those in need – to build programs from the ground up while partnering with organizations with the same goal in mind. I know it can be done.

Over my career, when I have a patient here or in a developed country who has been diagnosed with cancer, but is cured or in remission, that puts a huge smile on my face and in my heart. It also impacts you for the rest of your life. Or when I see an infant born without HIV because of the local country programs that are put in place, that also makes me feel so fulfilled, so happy.

I have worked with many talented individuals who have become great friends and partners over my career who have helped create a positive life for under-served populations around the world. We need to remember that progress happens with one person at a time or one program at a time. That’s how you truly improve health around the world.

 

Headshot - 2016

Image SOURCE: Photograph of Inaugural Henry Rutgers Professor of Global Health and Director of the Rutgers Global Health Institute at Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, courtesy of Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Richard G. Marlink, M.D.
Inaugural Henry Rutgers Professor of Global Health

Director of the Rutgers Global Health Institute

Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences

Richard G. Marlink, M.D., a Harvard University professor recognized internationally for research and leadership in the fight against AIDS, was recently appointed as the inaugural Henry Rutgers Professor of Global Health and Director of a new Rutgers Global Health Institute at Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences (RBHS). His role is to develop the strategic growth of RBHS by broadening the Rutgers University’s presence in the public health community to improve health and wellness.

Previously, Dr. Marlink was the Bruce A. Beal, Robert L. Beal, and Alexander S. Beal Professor of the Practice of Public Health at Harvard’s T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Executive Director of the Harvard AIDS Initiative.

At the start of the AIDS epidemic, Dr. Marlink was instrumental in setting up the first, hospital-based HIV/AIDS clinic in Boston, Massachusetts, and studied the impact of the HIV virus in west and central Africa. After helping to start the Botswana-Harvard Partnership in 1996, he founded the Kitso AIDS Training Program, which would become Botswana’s national AIDS training program. Kitso means knowledge in the local Setswana language.

Dr. Marlink was the principal investigator for the Tshepo Study, the first large-scale antiretroviral treatment study in Botswana, in addition to conducting other clinical and epidemiological studies in the region. Also in Botswana, he was the country director for Harvard’s contribution to the joint Botswana and United States governments’ HIV/AIDS and TB training, monitoring and evaluation PEPFAR effort.

In the mid-1980s in Senegal, Dr. Marlink was part of the team of Senegalese, French and American researchers who discovered and then studied the second type of human AIDS virus, HIV-2. Since then, he has been involved in multiple HIV/AIDS care, treatment and prevention programs in many African countries, including in Botswana, Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. He has also organized initiatives to enhance HIV/AIDS care in Brazil, Puerto Rico and Thailand.

Dr. Marlink has served as the scientific director, the vice president for implementation and the senior adviser for medical and scientific affairs at the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation, where he was principal investigator of Project HEART, a five-country CDC/PEPFAR effort in Africa. That project began in 2004 and by 2011 had placed more than 1 million people living with HIV into care clinics. More than 565,000 of these people were placed on life-saving antiretroviral treatment.

Since 2000, Dr. Marlink has been the founding member of the board of directors of the African Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnerships, a public-partnership among the government of Botswana and the Bill and Melinda Gates and Merck Foundations to provide ongoing support for numerous HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment efforts in that country.

He has authored or co-authored more than 130 scientific articles; written a textbook, Global AIDS Crisis: A Reference Handbook; and co-edited the book, AIDS in Africa, 2nd Edition. Additionally, he served as chief editor for two special supplements to the journal AIDS and as executive editor of the seminal 320-author, three-volume textbook, From the Ground Up: A Guide to Building Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Care Programs in Resource Limited Settings.

A trained fellow in hematology/oncology at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center at Harvard Medical School, Dr. Marlink received his medical degree from the University of New Mexico and his bachelor’s degree from Brown University.

 

Editor’s note:

We would like to thank Marilyn DiGiaccobe, head of Partnerships and Strategic Initiatives, at the Rutgers Global Health Institute, for the help and support she provided during this interview.

 

REFERENCE/SOURCE

Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences (http://rbhs.rutgers.edu/)

Other related articles

Retrieved from https://aids.harvard.edu/ 

Retrieved from http://b.3cdn.net/glaser/515eaa8068b5e71d44_mlbrof7xw.pdf 

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https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/04/16/crisprcas9-and-hiv1/

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Novel Discoveries in Molecular Biology and Biomedical Science

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/05/30/novel-discoveries-in-molecular-biology-and-biomedical-science/

Scientists eliminate HIV1 DNA from the genome and prevent reinfection

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/03/23/scientists-eliminate-hiv1-dna-from-the-genome-and-prevent-reinfection/

Double Downside of HIV CRISPR therapy

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/04/09/double-downside-of-hiv-crispr-therapy/

2015

Where Infection meets with Cancer: Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is the most common cancer in HIV-1-infected persons and is caused by one of only 7 human cancer viruses, i.e., human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/10/20/where-infection-meets-with-cancer-kaposis-sarcoma-ks-is-the-most-common-cancer-in-hiv-1-infected-persons-and-is-caused-by-one-of-only-7-human-cancer-viruses-i-e-human-herpesvirus-8-hhv/

Antibody shows promise as treatment for HIV

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/04/09/antibody-shows-promise-as-treatment-for-hiv/

2014

AIDS: Origin of HIV pandemic ‘was 1920s Kinshasa’

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/10/10/aids-origin-of-hiv-pandemic-was-1920s-kinshasa/

2013

Scientists discover how AIDS virus enters key immune cells

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/31/scientists-discover-how-aids-virus-enters-key-immune-cells/

Heroes in Medical Research: Dr. Robert Ting, Ph.D. and Retrovirus in AIDS and Cancer

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/17/heroes-in-medical-research-dr-robert-ting-ph-d-and-retrovirus-in-aids-and-cancer/

2012

Nanotechnology and HIV/AIDS treatment

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/25/nanotechnology-and-hivaids-treatment/

HIV vaccine: Caltech puts us One step further

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/31/hiv-vaccine-caltech-puts-us-one-step-further/

Bone Marrow Transplant Eliminates Signs of HIV Infection

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/29/bone-marrow-transplant-eliminates-signs-of-hiv-infection/

Getting Better: Documentary Videos on Medical Progress — in Surgery, Leukemia, and HIV/AIDS

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/23/getting-better-documentary-videos-on-medical-progress-in-surgery-leukemia-and-hivaids/

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