Archive for the ‘Nanotechnology for Drug Delivery’ Category

Nanoparticles Could Boost Effectiveness of Allergy Shots

Reporter : Irina Robu, PhD

Immunotherapy is a preventive treatment for allergic reactions to substances such as grass pollens, house dust mites and bee venom. The only existing therapy that treats their causes is allergen-specific immunotherapy or allergy shots which can cause severe side effects. For many people, allergies are a seasonal annoyance. But for others, exposure to a particular allergen can cause antagonistic reactions such as itching, breathing problems or even death. Allergy shots can diminish sensitivity by gradually ramping up exposure to the offending substance. Each allergy shot contains a tiny amount of the specific substance or substances that trigger your allergic reactions.

Holger Frey and colleagues report in Biomacromolecules the development of a potentially better allergy shot that uses nanocarriers to address these unwanted issues. In order to develop a safer, cause-based therapy scientist have developed nanoparticles that enclose an allergen and deliver it to specific cells. However, these nanocarriers degrade slowly, hindering the efficiency of the treatment.

Nanocarriers offer the following potential advantages: site-specific delivery of drugs, peptides, and genes, improved in-vitro and in-vivo stability and reduced side effect profile. However, nanoparticles are usually first picked up by the phagocytic cells of the immune system which may promote inflammatory disorders. In order to overcome the limitations, the researchers designed a novel type of nanocarrier created on the biocompatible molecule poly (ethylene glycol) that releases its cargo only in targeted immune cells.

This approach could be used not only for allergies but also can be used for other immunotherapies such as cancer and AIDS.



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Extraordinary Breakthrough in Artificial Eyes and Artificial Muscle Technology

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

Metalens, flat surface that use nanostructures to focus light promise to transform optics by replacing the bulky, curved lenses presently used in optical devices with a simple, flat surface.

Scientists at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences designed metalens who are mainly focused on light and minimizes spherical aberrations through a dense pattern of nanostructures, since the information density in each lens will be high due to nanostructures being small.

According to Federico Capasso, “This demonstrates the feasibility of embedded optical zoom and auto focus for a wide range of applications, including cell phone cameras, eyeglasses, and virtual and augmented reality hardware. It also shows the possibility of future optical microscopes, which operate fully electronically and can correct many aberrations simultaneously.”

However, when scientists tried to scale up the lens, the file size of the design alone would balloon up to gigabytes or even terabytes. And as a result, create a new algorithm in order to shrivel the file size to make the metalens flawless with the innovation currently used to create integrated circuits. Afterward, scientists follow the large metalens to an artificial muscle without conceding its ability to focus light. In the human eye, the lens is enclosed by ciliary muscle, which stretches or compresses the lens, changing its shape to adjust its focal length. Scientists at that moment choose a thin, transparent dielectric elastomer with low to attach to the lens.

Within the experiment, when the voltage is applied to elastomers, it stretches, the position of nanopillars on the surface of the lens shift. The scientists as a result show that the lens can focus instantaneous, control abnormalities triggered by astigmatisms, and achieve image shift. Since the adaptive metalens is flat, you can correct those deviations and assimilate diverse optical capabilities onto a single plane of control.


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Original Tweets Re-Tweets and Likes by @pharma_BI and @AVIVA1950 at #kisymposium for 17th annual Summer Symposium: Breakthrough Cancer Nanotechnologies: Koch Institute, MIT Kresge Auditorium, June 15, 2018, 9AM-4PM


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SYNOPSIS – 17th annual Summer Symposium: Breakthrough Cancer Nanotechnologies: Koch Institute, MIT Kresge Auditorium, June 15, 2018, 9AM-4PM


Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN,

Founder and Director of LPBI Group will be in attendance covering the event in





All TWEETS from LPBI’s handles at


  • Friday, June 15, 2018
8:00 AM – 9:00 AM Registration/Check-In


9:00 AM – 9:10 AM Introductory Remarks: Tyler Jacks and Sangeeta Bhatia


o   Sangeeta Bhatia,

  • Challenge meet Opportunity – Future Cancer Research Priorities
  • Prevention and early detection of Cancer for improved outcomes
  • Global cancer burden – Cancer diagnosis in Low-resources settings
  • 2000 microchip became nanoscale – other materials in nanoscale: 1994 – Present advancement in material and devices

o   Tyler Jacks

  • Nanotech, Diagnostics, Therapeutics, Cancer Care, Cancer Biology
  • New Center for NanoMedicine @MIT aka, @MIT.NANO
  • Sponsored: J&J, Sanofi, Thermo Scientific


9:10 AM – 10:40 AM Session I: Imaging and Diagnostics

·       Sanjiv Sam Gambhir, MD, PhD, Stanford University

Bubble Based Nanodiagnostics

  • Companies involved: Endra Inc, Bracco, Visualsonics
  • Canary Center Vision: Imaging: identify, isolate, Intervene
  • Value of early cancer detection: Survival is high ONLY in very very early vs tail of the distribution where 90% of funds goes for therapy: Prostate and Breast cancers — ARE detected early
  • Technology: Ultrasound Imaging ($1500 – low cost solution, for molecular level
  • Bubble based Nanodiognostics: Molecular level, gas pore shell made of lipids or albomin – provide information on location of cancer – molecular events, atomical modelity
  • Bubble size nanobubbles vs microbubbles targeted for Vascular Endothilium In vivo
  • Angiogenesis: KDR (molecule)/VEGFR2 (receptor)- over expressed only in neovascularized: Molecular targer is KDR – over expressed in ovarian and breast cancers
  • ability of bubbles to identify cancer, toxicity monitored , bubble arrive, bind, cleared
  • blind to histology – examine the binding, blind pathology
  • bubbles well correlated
  • histological diagnosis few mm to few cm — correlation of lesions benign
  • 1 cm lesion targeted present in KDR, normal tissue clears more rapidly vs in malignant tissue: ductal adenocarcenoma – 11 minutes after injection
  • Duration of US Molecular Imaging Signal
  • First-in-man – Bubble Transrectal US Photoaccustic detection modality
  • Enzyme activation nanobubbles – nano microbubbles to aggregate and create mass impact vs nanobubbles that are weak in signal potential
  • Synthesis of PA/US nanosize RF-acoustic imaging  – target Saline nanodroplets

·       Ralph Weissleder Developing Next Generation Diagnostics for Cancer @MGH

  • translational diagnostics: Precision oncology (1) Imaging (2) Tumor biopsy (3) Liquid biopsy
  • Enable earlier detection
  • Visualization for affordable cost
  • NEW Technologies at MGH with use of AI
  1. Rapid cellular protein profiling – Fine needle aspirates (FNA): DNA Barcode: Epitope – monoclonal antibodies: Sampling, Barcoding, Imaging, Analysis with AI: Pathways in single cells – protein level in different patient:

x axis patient number

y-axis: Protein type

Vesicles from Host vs from Tumor

2, Exosome

surface – Label-free detection and molecualr profiling of exosome : Pancreatic cancer detection – vesicle express  – they are heteroginous micro vesicles

3. POC testing (AI- Defraction Analysis)

Remote diagnosis:

  • Molecular diagnosis – 2015 (PNAS) – nano bids defract patterns – smart phone vs proprietary box – BioMed Eng
  • Algorithms – identify molecules and decision tree Clinical Trial at MGH: 24 Lymphoma patients, rest no-Lymphoma, higher precision than microspectrometry
  • Automated diagnosis – aspirate – subject to dioagnosis in the Box
  • From tissue to single cell
  • multiplex pathways
  • early detection
  • affordability
  • visualization/connectivity for interpretation

·       Angela Belcher New Approaches for Finding Tiny Tumors: Towards Early Detection and Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

  • Nano material and Biomaterial the intersection of
  • Genetic control of materials
  • Carbon nano tubes – Using Bacteriophage or phage – A virus that infect bacteria
  • from DNA to devices
  • Lincoln Labs + MGH + MIT – Carbon Nanotubes used in inexpensive diagnostics: Biomedical imaging: MI, PET: Optical imaging in vivo: Trade-fee: Resolution vs Depth
  • Ovarian Cancer: Minimal increase in overall survival over 30 years : Fallopian tubesmaximum reduction in tumor better survival rate
  • submillimiter detection: Carbon nanotube multiple tubes
  • Pre-surgical planning locates hard-to-detect ovarian tumor – find tumors that are hidden
  • Detection od Optically Luminescent – RT tracking T-cells in Cancer Immmunotherapy – following injection in mice remain for 2 days


·       Angela Belcher,

·       Sanjiv Sam Gambhir,

·       Ralph Weissleder

10:40 AM – 11:00 AM Coffee Break


11:00 AM – 12:30 PM Session II: Therapeutics

·       Mark Davis Designing Nanoparticles to Safely Cross the Blood-Brain Barrier for Treating Brain Cancers

  • Engineer particles for treating solid tumors
  • Intracellular drug delivery
  • 30-50nm
  • Improve PK properties
  • Limit Toxicity
  • Cyclodex
  • Interspecies translation – Nanoparticles can function to design in Humans
  • Combination of Avastin and nanoparticle component
  • PARP Inhibitor + CRLX101 – in clinical trial by AstraZeneka
  • PK in human been presicted if PK known in non-humans
  • Therapeutic escape from the exosome polymer end group chemistry
  • Tumor localization of Nanoparticles
  • Nanoparticles can function in Human NOT in the brain
  • better clinical trial design and combination drugs in small clinical trials
  • Brain primary vs mestasis in th ebrain
  • 50% HER2 positive will have metastesis in the brain
  • BBB TfP Receptor-mediate Transcytosis : Antibody affinity, monodenriate
  • Nanoparticles behave similarity to antibodies in the brain Nanoparticles characteristics: decreased
  • Improved Uptake of Nanoparticles  – fast release of NP during transcytosis
  • bring nanoparticles in combination therapy to the brain using transcytosis

·       Suzie Pun Modulating Tumor-Associated Macrophage

  • TAM – Targeting Tumor-associated macrophages
  • blood monocytes, immunosuppression, metastasis, invasion
  • Can we potentiated therapeutics delivery using TAM
  • wiin tumors, M2pep is internalized by TAMs
  • Cytotoxic KLA peptide – reduce inflammatory of the tumor – M2pepKLA reduces tumor growth rate and improves survival
  • increase avidity binding
  • Immunomodulation – Marophage targeting for
  • Targeting TAM for translation to Humans
  • improve drug potency
  • synthetic Nucleocapsids  —
  • Biomaterials for modulating tumor extracellular matrix
  • FSP integrates into fibrin, increasing its half-life – delay degradation of FSP-fibrin
  • Polymer cross linking – fibrin deposition in brain metastases
  • Fibrin stabilization by FSP alters TAM chronic FSP treatment increases brain metastasis

·       Daniel Anderson Nanoparticle Formulations for RNA Therapy and Gene Editing

  • can we make drugs to repair our DNA for therapy
  • barriers for systemic delivery of nanaoparticles
  • RNA THERAPEUTICS sIRNA – interference: Turning Genes Off: Modular Pharmacology: sequence Selection, Chemical Modification, Encapsulation (like artificial viruses)
  • What material can be used for RNA delivery? – How can we increase diversity?
  • combinatorial synthesis of lipid-like materials
  • RNA Interference – RNA Tx for Liver: Transthyretin-(TTR)
  • TTR in primates, in Humans – Delivery of sRNAi – new class of machines
  • Chylomicron metabolism: The rate of dietary : Mechanism of APoE mediated iLNP delivery
  • sRNAi are not limited for hypatocytes
  • One injection – 5 genes silencing in lung endothelial cells
  • Repaired liver cells in mouth: repopulation of the liver
  • How do we deliver Cas9 in vivo?
  • Modular Pharmacology: Deliver mRNA to inside cells? using nanoparticles
  • chemistry of nanoparticles will delivery to lungs not to liver or to liver not to lungs
  • inhaled nanoparticles for mRNA delivery
  • Cas9 – for gene editing – – Inject AAV-Virus — >> AAV +Cas( mRNA
  • Chemical modification for siRNA: guiding siRNA delivery
  • Guide RNA improve Genome editing
  • Full modification abolishes the function of sgRNA: Cas9-sgRNA
  • e-sgRNA – edited
  • PCKS9- hyperlipidemia — Nanoparticle for in vivo  Genome Editing
  • Delivery to Immune system – Genome editing in vivo of CAR-Ts


·       Daniel Anderson,

·       Mark Davis,

·       Suzie Pun


12:30 PM – 2:00 PM Lunch Break


2:00 PM – 3:00 PM Panel ‘Translation of Nanomedicine to Patients’

Noubar Afeyan, John Maraganore, Bob Langer, Paula Hammond, Michelle Bradbury, Cristianne Rijcken

Moderated by Rebecca Spalding

Noubar Afeyan,

John Maraganore,

Bob Langer,

Paula Hammond,

Michelle Bradbury,

Cristianne Rijcken



3:00 PM – 4:30 PM Session III: Nanosystems and Devices

Sangeeta Bhatia Activity-based biomarkers for non invasive Cancer Detection, Classification and Monitoring

    • Biomarker paradigm for clinical decisions – Endogenous, singular, blood
    • Synthetic Biomarker paradigm for clinical decisions – Exogenous, multiples, urine
    • Endoprotease in Cancer: MMP9, MMP4
    • Synthetic Biomarkers: Sensitivity
    • Enzyme-responsive nanosensors and PK switch [acitvation fluorescence]
    • Benchmarking synthetic biomarkers against a blood biomarker: Urinary synthetic biomarkers outperform CEA
    • multi-compartment modeling for predicting PK
    • Enhancing sensitivity by nanosensor engineering for ovarian cancer detection
    • Mass barcodes enable multiplexing
    • Mass encoded synthetic biomarkers
    • Differentiating similar diseases with protease activity
    • Paper-based microfluidics in urine biomarker
    • synthetic breath biomarkers for lung disease
    • Protease-Responsive Imaging Sensor for Metastasis (PRISM) – localization of Tumor
    • In vivo Enzyme Profiling by Syntahtic Biomarkers

Rashid Bashir Micro and Nanotechnologies for Analysis of Tissues and Molecules

  • liquid biopsy, molecualar analysis of the tumor
  • spatial map of nuclei acids in tissue – Intra tumor heterogeniety
  • subclonal genetic diversity is important
  • laser capture microdissection
  • fluoresence in situ hybridization
  • Cryo-section on microwell array, pixelate and fix tissue inside wells amplification reagents loaded on chip – amplification reaction: Advantages over PCR
  • procees flow on chip
  • On-chip RT-LAMP: Spatial fluorescence analysis
  • ON CHIP RT-LAMP CONTROL: CANCER (red) VS NON-CANCER (blue)  – FTIR control same section
  • Single cell spatial RNA Seq
  • Hematology Analyzer – complete blood celll count  vs FLow cytometry
  • Cells and Proteins from a Drop of Blood

Convergence : The Future of Health – Cancer Center at Illinois

    • Medical Schools MUST Change  CurrentCurriculum vs Future Curriculum
    • NOW: Yr 1: Basic Science Yr 2: Basic Science Yr 3: Clinical Science +  Required rotation Yr 4: Clinical Science +  elective rotation

Jim Heath A Molecular View of Immuno-Oncology, Institute of System Biology

  • Analytical Chemistry challenge:
  • Fundamental Immunology
  • Challenge CRISPR knocking out genes not for knocking in genes
  • Mutated proteins and NEO antiagens: mostly a computational task


·       Rashid Bashir,

·       Sangeeta Bhatia,

·       James Heath

  • Personalized Immuno-Oncology


4:30 PM – 4:50 PM Vladimir Bulović: MIT.nano Nanoscale Discoveries for Transformative Breakthroughs


·       Vladimir Bulović

    • MIT.nano
    • color depend on the size of the molecule
    • Drugs & Vitamins are nano-sized:
    • Scents are nano-sized – a fraction of an atom – ethylene – plant hormone – Pheromones – are nanosized
    • Nanoscale will define many future discoveries
    • 51% of the recently tenured SOS faculty – use nano
    • 67% of the recently tenured SOE faculty with benefits – use nano


4:50 PM – 5:00 PM Closing Remarks


·       Sangeeta Bhatia



Daniel Anderson

Nanoparticle Formulations for RNA Therapy and Gene Editing

Daniel Anderson, PhD
Samuel A. Goldblith Professor of Applied Biology, MIT
Associate Professor, Chemical Engineering and Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, MIT
Member, Koch Institute, MIT

Rashid Bashir

Micro and Nanotechnologies for Analysis of Tissues and Molecules

Rashid Bashir, PhD
Executive Associate Dean and Chief Diversity Officer, Carle Illinois College of Medicine
Grainger Distinguished Chair in Engineering, Professor of Bioengineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Mechanical Science and Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, and Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Angela Belcher

New Approaches for Finding Tiny Tumors: Towards Early Detection and Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

Angela Belcher, PhD
James Mason Crafts Professor and Professor of Biological Engineering, MIT
Member, Koch Institute, MIT

Sangeeta Bhatia

Protease Nanosensors for Cancer Detection, Classification and Monitoring

Sangeeta Bhatia, MD, PhD
Director, Marble Center for Cancer Nanomedicine
John J. and Dorothy Wilson Professor of Health Sciences and Technology and of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, MIT
Member, Koch Institute, MIT
Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Vladimir Bulović, PhD

Nanoscale Discoveries for Transformative Breakthroughs

Vladimir Bulović, PhD
Director, MIT.nano
Associate Dean for Innovation, MIT School of Engineering
Fariborz Maseeh (1990) Professor of Emerging Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), MIT

Mark E. Davis, PhD

Designing Nanoparticles to Safely Cross the Blood-Brain Barrier for Treating Brain Cancers

Mark E. DavisPhD  
Warren and Katharine Schlinger Professor of Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology
Member of the City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center
Member of the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center

Sanjiv Sam Gambhir, MD, PhD

Bubble Based Nanodiagnostics

Sanjiv Sam GambhirMD, PhD  
Virginia and D.K. Ludwig Professor for Clinical Investigation in Cancer Research, Professor of Bioengineering, Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University

James R. Heath

A Molecular View of Immuno-Oncology

James R. Heath, PhD
President and Professor, Institute for Systems Biology
Professor of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA

Suzie H. Pun

Modulating Tumor-Associated Macrophage

Suzie H. Pun, PhD
Robert F. Rushmer Professor of Bioengineering, Adjunct Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington

Ralph Weissleder

Developing Next Generation Diagnostics for Cancer

Ralph Weissleder, MD, PhD
Thrall Professor of Radiology and Professor of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School
Director of the Center for Systems Biology at Massachusetts General Hospital


Panelists: Translation of Nanomedicine to Patients

Noubar Afeyan

Noubar Afeyan, PhD
Founder and CEO, Flagship Pioneering

Michelle S. Bradbury, MD, PhD

Michelle S. Bradbury, MD, PhD
Co-Director, MSK-Cornell Center for Translation of Cancer Nanomedicines & Director, Intraoperative Imaging Program
Member, Molecular Pharmacology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute
Attending, Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Professor, Gerstner Sloan Kettering Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences & Weill Medical College of Cornell University

Paula Hammond

Paula Hammond, PhD
Head, Department of Chemical Engineering, MIT
David H. Koch Professor of Engineering, MIT
Member, Koch Institute, MIT

Robert Langer

Robert Langer, ScD
David H. Koch Institute Professor
Member, Koch Institute, MIT

John Maraganore

John Maraganore, PhD
CEO and Director, Alnylam

Cristianne Rijcken

Cristianne Rijcken, PhD
Founder and Chief Scientific Officer, Cristal Therapeutics

Rebecca Spalding


Rebecca Spalding
Biotech Reporter, Bloomberg

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Ferritin Cage Enzyme Encapsulation as a New Platform for Nanotechnology

 Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

In bionanotechnology, biological systems such as viruses, protein complexes, lipid vesicles and artificial cells, are being developed for applications in medicine and materials science.  However, the paper published by Stephan Tetter and Donald Hilvert in Angewandte Chemie International Edition show that it is possible to encapsulate proteins such as ferritin by manipulating electrostatic interactions with the negatively charged interior of the cage.The primary role of ferritin is to protect cells from the damage caused by the Fenton reaction; where, in oxidizing conditions, free Fe(II) produces harmful reactive oxygen species that can damage the cellular machinery.

The ferritin family proteins are protein nanocages that evolved to safely store iron in an oxidizing world. Since ferritin family proteins are able to mineralize and store metal ions, they have been the focus of much research for the production of metal nanoparticles and as prototypes for semiconductor production. The ferritin cage itself is highly symmetrical, and is made up of 24 subunits arranged in an octahedral symmetry. Ferritins are smaller than other protein used for protein   encapsulation.   Their  outer  diameter is only 12 nm, whereas engineered lumazine synthase variants form cages with diameters ranging from about 20 to 60 nm.The ferritin cage displays remarkable thermal and chemical stability it is likely to modify the surface of the ferritin cage through the addition of peptide and protein tags. These characteristics have made ferritins attractive vectors for the delivery of drug molecules and as scaffolds for vaccine design.

In summary, the paper published in Angewandte Chemie International Edition is the first example of protein incorporation by a ferritin.  Dr. Donald Hilvert and colleagues have shown that AfFtn not only complexes positively charged guest proteins within its naturally negatively charged luminal cavity, but that the in vitro mixing technique can be extended to the encapsulation and protection of other functional  fusion proteins.

Hence, the recent discovery of encapsulated ferritins has identified an exciting new platform for use in bio nanotechnology. The use of synthetic biology tools will allow their rapid implementation in materials science, bio-nanotechnology and medical applications.


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Novel Blood Substitute – ErythroMer

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

For years, scientists have tried ineffectively to create an artificial molecule that emulates the oxygen-carrying function of human red blood cell but the efforts failed because of oxygen delivery and safety issues. Now, a group of researchers led by Dr. Alan Doctor at Washington University in Saint Louis, are trying to resuscitate blood substitutes with a new nanotechnology-based, artificial red blood cell may overcome the problems that killed products designed by a team of companies such as BiopureAlliance PharmaceuticalsNorthfield Labs and even Baxter. Dr. Alan Doctor’s new company, Kalocyte is advancing the development of the

The donut-shaped artificial cells, ErythroMer are one-fiftieth the size of human red blood cells. ErythroMer is a novel blood substitute composed of a patented nanobialys nanoparticle. A special lining and control system tied to changes in blood Ph allows Erythromer to grab onto oxygen in the lungs and then dispense the oxygen in tissues where it is needed. The new artificial cells are intended to sidestep problems with vasoconstriction or narrowing of blood vessels.

Erythromer is stored freeze dried and reconstituted with water when needed but it can also be stored at room temperature which makes it for military and civilian trauma.

Trials have been successful in rats, mice, and rabbits, and human trials are planned. However, moving Erythromer into human clinical trials is still 8-10 years away.


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Walking DNA Nanorobot

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

New research from California Institute of Technology headed by Anupama Thubagere and Lulu Qian built robots from DNA and programmed them to sort and deliver molecules to a specified location. These robots can potentially transform the drug delivery field to how body fights infections to how microscopic measurements are made. The dominant premise of DNA robots is that rather than creating molecular devices from scratch, we can use the power of molecular machinery by building microscopic-size robots and send them to places that are then impossible to reach, such as a cell or a hard-to-reach cancerous tumor. These robots demonstrated the ability to perform simple tasks, however this latest effort ramped up a path by programming DNA robots to perform a cargo‐sorting task and possibly many other tasks.

Each robot was built from a single-stranded DNA molecule of just 53 nucleotides equipped with “legs” for walking and “arms” for picking up objects. The robot are 20 nanometers tall and their walking strides measures six nanometers long, where one nanometer is a billionth of a meter. For the cargo, the researchers used two types of molecules, each being a distinct single-stranded piece of DNA. For the tests, the researchers placed the cargo onto a random location along the surface of a two-dimensional origami DNA test platform. The walking DNA robots moved in parallel along this surface, hunting for their cargo.

To see if a robot successfully picked up and dropped off the right cargo at the right location, the researchers used two fluorescent dyes to differentiate the molecules.

The researchers guess that each DNA robot took around 300 steps to complete its task, or roughly ten times more than in previous efforts. Though, more work is needed to figure out how these DNA robots perform under different environmental conditions. This new study suggests a worthwhile methodology for scientists to continue pursuing.



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