Advertisements
Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Archive for the ‘3D Printing for Medical Application’ Category


Development of 3D Human Tissue Models Awarded NIH Grants Worth $15M

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

NIH has awarded $15 million for Tissue Chip for Disease Modeling and Efficacy Testing to develop 3D human tissue models. The 3D platforms, also called tissue chips support living cells and human tissues, it mimics the complex biological functions of organs/tissues and at the same time provide a new way to test potential drugs and their effectiveness. The awards will allow scientists to study and understand diseases mechanism and forecast how patients respond and is part of the first phase of a five-year program.  According to NCATS Director, Dr. Christopher P. Austin “these tissue chips to provide more accurate platforms to understand diseases, and to be more predictive of the human response to drugs than current research models, thereby improving the success rate of candidate drugs in human clinical trials”.

The awards will be used to study common and rare diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, influenza A, kidney disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, and hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Award recipients are Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Columbia University, Duke University, Harvard University, Northwestern University, University of California Davis, University of California Irvine, University of Pittsburgh, University of Rochester, University of Washington Seattle and Vanderbilt University.

SOURCE

https://www.mdtmag.com/news/2017/09/nih-grants-15m-development-3d-human-tissue-models

 

Advertisements

Read Full Post »


Brain Surgeons Use 3D printing to Practice

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

Mechanical thrombectomy is a hopeful new modality of interventional stroke treatment. The countless devices on the market differ with regard to where they apply force on the thrombus, taking a proximal approach such as aspiration devices or a distal approach such as basket-like devices. In 2012, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved mechanical thrombectomy – using a wire to pull clots out of the brains of stroke victims. At the end of the wire a trap exists which is like a noose that that captures the clot. Considering that the mechanical thrombectomy is a very risky procedure, interventional radiologists and neurosurgeons need to train extensively before they work on a real person.

Because of the procedure is very risky, a UConn Health radiologist and medical physicist made it easier for surgeons to practice first before the actual procedure. The team made a life size model of the arteries that the wire must pass through using brain scans and a 3D printer. The life size model will allow the surgeon to be more confident when guiding the wire and will give them the basic techniques on how to move the catheter. Holding the life size model of arteries, brings home how small they are even in an adult man. According to Dr. Ketan Bulsara, this life size model will be used a training model to learn mechanical thrombectomy and being able to model the tumor in advance could personalize and advance patient care.

SOURCE

https://www.mdtmag.com/news/2017/09/uconn-healths-new-3-d-printed-model-allows-brain-surgeons-practice

 

Read Full Post »


3D-printed body parts could replace cadavers for medical training

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

Even though, the 3-D printing based tissue modeling is still in early phases it is considered a promising approach for anatomy training. Models that are produced on a computer screen can be reproduced as tangible objects that students can examine and even dissect. According to a recent report in Medical Science Educator, the latest advancement in 3D printing can revolutionize how anatomy students learn.

For now, human cadavers have been the norm for studying human anatomy but they come with financial and logistical concerns both on storage and disposal. However, with the advancement of custom designed 3D organs, made possible by using 3D printing the need to keep large collection of physical models are reduced. With just a 3D printer, a digital model of the organ needed to study can be reproduced either with resin, thermoplastics, photopolymers and other material. Different materials can be used to allow construction of complex models with hard, soft, opaque and transparent conditions. The printed body parts will look exactly the same as the real thing because they are falsely colored to help students distinguish between the different parts of the anatomy including ligaments, muscles and blood vessels. Medical schools and hospitals around the world would be able to buy just an arm or a foot or the entire body depending on their training need.

Furthermore, to customizing anatomy lessons, 3D printed models can be used for teaching pathology/radiology by comparing CT images of the organs to their 3D-printed counterparts which students can examine and understand. Yet, the methods of 3D printing vary by materials used, resolution accuracy, long term stability, cost, speed and more. The printer cost is still a concern at this point partly because 3D bioprinters cost thousands of dollars nonetheless the cost is dropping due to the introduction of innovative printing materials.

Therefore, in order for 3-D printing to become more widely used, costs must be reduced while resolution must continue to improve. Instructors can potentially print one model per student in a material of their choosing that can be dissected. And no matter how much medical science moves with the times, there would always be the requisite skeleton model in the corner of most anatomy rooms.

SOURCE

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-07-22/an-3d-body-parts-could-replace-cadavers-for-medical-training/5615210

 

Additional Resources

Medical Science Educator, June 2015, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 183–194| Cite as

Anatomical Models: a Digital Revolution

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40670-015-0115-9/fulltext.html

 

Goodbye to Cadavers?

https://consultqd.clevelandclinic.org/2015/09/goodbye-to-cadavers/

 

3-D Printing: Innovation Allows Customized Airway Stents

https://consultqd.clevelandclinic.org/2014/12/3-d-printing-innovation-allows-customized-airway-stents/

 

Exploring 3-D Printing’s Potential in Renal Surgery

https://consultqd.clevelandclinic.org/2015/06/exploring-3-d-printings-potential-in-renal-surgery/

 

How 3-D Printing Is Revolutionizing Medicine at Cleveland Clinic

https://consultqd.clevelandclinic.org/2015/11/how-3-d-printing-is-revolutionizing-medicine-at-cleveland-clinic/

Read Full Post »


First 3D Printed Tibia Replacement

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

Current advances have allowed 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Thanks to 3D printing, an Australian man got to keep his leg. The man, Reuben Lichter nearly lost his leg above the knee due to a bacterial infection. Doctors told him that he had osteomyelitis which infected his entire bone. Lichter’s bacterial disease of osteomyelitis affects 2 in every 10,000 people in the United States. He had two choices: an experimental procedure using the 3D printed bone or lose his leg. For Lichter, the choice was easy.

Michael Wagels who served as the lead surgeon performed the world’s first-ever transplant surgery using a 3D printed bone. The scaffold was initially modeled at Queensland University of Technology. Biomedical engineers designed the scaffold to promote bone growth around it and then slowly dissolve over time. To have the body successfully grow around the scaffold, the team introduced tissue and blood vessels from both of Lichter’s legs to the scaffold. The surgery itself happened over five operations at Brisbane’s Princess Alexandra Hospital.

However, the next major challenge for biomedical engineers is how to successfully 3D print organs.

SOURCE

https://interestingengineering.com/australian-man-gets-worlds-first-3d-printed-tibia-replacement

Read Full Post »


3-D Printing in Water using Novel Hybrid Nanoparticles

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

3D printing has become an essential tool for fabricating different organic based materials, but printing structures in water has been thought-provoking due to lack of water soluble molecules known as photo initiators. The photo initiator can induce chemical reactions needed to form solid printed material by light.  However, researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem’s Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology have developed a new type of photo initiator for three-dimensional printing in water. This innovative nanoparticle allows the creating of bio-friendly 3D structures.

By 3D printing in water, it also opens up the digital light processing method to medical applications, leading toward a competitive response for patient specific implants and tissues because the photo initiators cause rapid solidification of a liquid material that can create faster reactions when exposed to light. 3D printing in water opens up innovative ways for tailored fabrication of medical devices and for printing hydrogels or bio-scaffolds that are typical used in tissue engineering.

The challenge of 3D printing in water is finding an initiator that is not consumed by irradiation. However, unlike regular photo initiators, the novel hybrid nanoparticles developed by Prof. Magdassi present tunable properties, wide excitation window in the UV and visible range, high light sensitivity, and their ability to split water, and absorb oxygen molecules that typically inhibit the performance of the process. The particles added as photo initiator are semi conductive hybrid nanoparticles and are used to create high resolution 3D objects at sub-microscopic scale.

Therefore, 3-D printing in water could allow personalized fabrication of joint replacements, heart valves, artificial tendons and ligaments etc.

SOURCE

  1. https://phys-org.cdn.ampproject.org/c/s/phys.org/news/2017-08-rapid-d-hybrid-nanoparticles.amp
  2. Amol Ashok Pawar et al. Rapid Three-Dimensional Printing in Water Using Semiconductor–Metal Hybrid Nanoparticles as Photoinitiators, Nano Letters (2017)

 

 

Read Full Post »


3-D Printed Ovaries Produce Healthy Offspring

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

 

Each year about 120,000 organs are transplanted from one human being to another and most of the time is a living volunteer. But lack of suitable donors, predominantly means the supply of such organs is inadequate. Countless people consequently die waiting for a transplant which has led researchers to study the question of how to build organs from scratch.

One promising approach is to print them, but “bioprinting” remains largely experimental. Nevertheless, bioprinted tissue is before now being sold for drug testing, and the first transplantable tissues are anticipated to be ready for use in a few years’ time. The first 3D printed organ includes bioprosthetic ovaries which are constructed of 3D printed scaffolds that have immature eggs and have been successful in boosting hormone production and restoring fertility was developed by Teresa K. Woodruff, a reproductive scientist and director of the Women’s Health Research Institute at Feinberg School of Medicine, at Northwestern University, in Illinois.

What sets apart these bioprosthetic ovaries is the architecture of the scaffold. The material is made of gelatin made from broken-down collagen that is safe to humans which is self-supporting and can lead to building multiple layers.

The 3-D printed “scaffold” or “skeleton” is implanted into a female and its pores can be used to optimize how follicles, or immature eggs, get wedged within the scaffold. The scaffold supports the survival of the mouse’s immature egg cells and the cells that produce hormones to boost production. The open construction permits room for the egg cells to mature and ovulate, blood vessels to form within the implant enabling the hormones to circulate and trigger lactation after giving birth. The purpose of this scaffold is to recapitulate how an ovary would function.
The scientists’ only objective for developing the bioprosthetic ovaries was to help reestablish fertility and hormone production in women who have suffered adult cancer treatments and now have bigger risks of infertility and hormone-based developmental issues.

 

SOURCES

Printed human body parts could soon be available for transplant
https://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21715638-how-build-organs-scratch

 

3D printed ovaries produce healthy offspring giving hope to infertile women

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2017/05/16/3d-printed-ovaries-produce-healthy-offspring-giving-hope-infertile/

 

Brave new world: 3D-printed ovaries produce healthy offspring

http://www.naturalnews.com/2017-05-27-brave-new-world-3-d-printed-ovaries-produce-healthy-offspring.html

 

3-D-printed scaffolds restore ovary function in infertile mice

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/317485.php

 

Our Grandkids May Be Born From 3D-Printed Ovaries

http://gizmodo.com/these-mice-gave-birth-using-3d-printed-ovaries-1795237820

 

Read Full Post »


Nanostraws Developed at Stanford Sample a Cell’s Contents without Damage

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

Cells within our bodies change over time and divide, with thousands of chemical reactions happening within cell daily. Nicholas Melosh, Associate Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, developed a new, non-destructive system for sampling cells with nanoscale straws which could help uncover mysteries about how cells function.

Currently, cells are sampled via lysing which ruptures the cell membrane which means that it can’t ever be sampled again. The sample system that Dr. Melosh invented banks on, on tiny tubes 600 times smaller than a strand of hair that allow researchers to sample a single cell at a time. The nanostraws penetrate a cell’s outer membrane, without damaging it, and draw out proteins and genetic material from the cell’s salty interior.

The Nanostraw sampling technique, according to Melosh, will knowingly impact our understanding of cell development and could result to much safer and operational medical therapies because the technique allows for long term, non-destructive monitoring. The sampling technique could also inform cancer treatments and answer questions about why some cancer cells are resistant to chemotherapy while others are not. The sampling platform on which the nanostraws are grown is tiny, similar to the size of a gumball. It’s called the Nanostraw Extraction (NEX) sampling system, and it was designed to mimic biology itself.

The goal of developing this technology was to make an impact in medical biology by providing a platform that any lab could build.

SOURCE

http://news.stanford.edu/2017/02/20/minuscule-nanostraws-sample-cells-contents-without-damage

Read Full Post »

Older Posts »