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Archive for the ‘3D Printing for Medical Application’ Category


Tumor Organoids Used to Speed Cancer Treatment

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

Collecting cancer cells from patients and growing them into 3-D mini tumors could make it possible to quickly screen large numbers of potential drugs for ultra-rare cancers. Preliminary success with a new high-speed, high-volume approach is already guiding treatment decisions for some patients with recurring hard-to-treat cancers.

A London-based team labelled how a “tumor-in-a-dish” approach positively forecasted drug responses in cancer patients who previously took part in clinical trials. That study was a major development in a new research area focused on “organoids” — tiny 3-D versions of the brain, gut, lung and other organs grown in the lab to probe basic biology or test drugs.

UCLA cancer biologist Alice Soragni and her colleagues developed a high-volume, automated method to rapidly study drug responses in tumor organoids grown from patient cells. By studying mini tumors grown on a plate with 96 tiny test tubes, her team can screen hundreds of compounds at once and classify promising candidates within a time frame that is therapeutically actionable. According to Dr. Soragni, the method seemed to work for various kinds of ovarian cancer. It was shown that the lab-grown organoids mimicked how tumors in the body look and behave. And even in cases when mini tumors had a hard time growing in a dish, scientists still acknowledged potential drug candidates.
Up to now, the UCLA team has produced organoids from 35 to 40 people with various types of sarcoma which will allow them to classify tumors that won’t respond to conventional therapy. This proves useful for people with recurrent metastases, where it’s not clear if we’re doing anything for their overall survival or giving them more toxicity.

Source

https://www.sciencenews.org/article/tumor-organoids-may-speed-cancer-treatment

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New 3D-printed Device could Help Treat Spinal Cord Injuries

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

Every ten minutes, a person is added to the national transplant waiting list in the US alone, where on average 20 people die each day while waiting for a transplant. The shortage of organ donors is not just confined to the US and scientists are turning to technology for help against this worldwide issue.

Bioprinting sounds innovative, but it has a potential to be the next big thing in healthcare and the hope is that printing and transplanting an organ will take a few hours without any risk of rejection from the body. These printed organs are created from the very cells of the body they will re-enter, matching the exact size, specifications and requirements of each individual patient. The artificial creation of human skin, tissue and internal organs sounds like something from the distant future, nevertheless much of it is happening right now in research facilities around the globe and providing new options for treatment.

Medical researchers and engineers at University of Minnesota created a groundbreaking 3-D printed device that could help patients with long term spinal injuries regain some function. A 3-D printed silicone guide, serves as a
platform for specialized cells that are then 3-D printed on top of it. The guide would be surgically implanted into the injured area of the spinal cord where it would serve as a “bridge” between living nerve cells above and below the area of injury.

According to Dr. Ann Parr “This is a very exciting first step in developing a treatment to help people with spinal cord injuries.” The expectation is that this would help patients alleviate pain as well as regain some functions like control of muscles, bowel and bladder. In the current experiments developed at University of Minnesota, years, researchers start with any kind of cell from an adult, such as a skin cell or blood cell which then use to reprogram the cells into neuronal stem cells. The engineers print these cells onto a silicone guide using an exclusive 3-D-printing technology in which the same 3-D printer is used to print both the guide and the cells. The guide keeps the cells alive and allows them to change into neurons. The team developed a prototype guide that would be surgically implanted into the damaged part of the spinal cord and help connect living cells on each side of the injury.

Despite all of these complexities, the hardest part of the entire procedure is being able to keep about 75% of cells during the 3-D printing process. But even with the latest technology, developing the prototype guides wasn’t easy. But although the research is very exciting, we need to be careful to offset expectations against reality. While the research still needs more work, there is no doubt that the future of healthcare and medicine will be very different thanks to this research.

Source

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180809093429.htm

 

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Live 11:00 AM- 12:00 Mediterranean Diet and Lifestyle: A Symposium on Diet and Human Health : Opening Remarks October 19, 2018

Reporter: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

11:00 Welcome

 

 

Prof. Antonio Giordano, MD, PhD.

Director and President of the Sbarro Health Research Organization, College of Science and Technology, Temple University

Welcome to this symposium on Italian lifestyle and health.  This is similar to a symposium we had organized in New York.  A year ago Bloomberg came out with a study on higher longevity of the italian population and this study was concluded that this increased longevity was due to the italian lifestyle and diet especially in the southern part of Italy, a region which is older than Rome (actually founded by Greeks and Estonians).  However this symposium will delve into the components of this healthy Italian lifestyle which contributes to this longevity effect.  Some of this work was done in collaboration with Temple University and sponsored by the Italian Consulate General in Philadelphia ( which sponsors programs in this area called Ciao Philadelphia).

Greetings: Fucsia Nissoli Fitzgerald, Deputy elected in the Foreign Circumscription – North and Central America Division

Speaking for the Consulate General is Francesca  Cardurani-Meloni.   I would like to talk briefly about the Italian cuisine and its evolution, from the influence of the North and South Italy, economic factors, and influence by other cultures.  Italian cooking is about simplicity, cooking with what is in season and freshest.  The meal is not about the food but about comfort around the table, and comparible to a cullinary heaven, about sharing with family and friends, and bringing the freshest ingredients to the table.

Consul General, Honorable Pier Attinio Forlano, General Consul of Italy in Philadelphia

 

11:30 The Impact of Environment and Life Style in Human Disease

Prof. Antonio Giordano MD, PhD.

 

 

 

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3D Print Shape-Shifting Smart Gel

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

Hydrogel scaffolds that mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM) environment play a crucial role in tissue engineering and they are ubiquitously in our lives, including in contact lenses, diapers and the human body.

Researchers at Rutgers have invented a printing method for a smart gel that can be used to create materials for transporting small molecules like drugs to human organs. The approach includes printing a 3D object with a hydrogel that changes shape over time when temperature changes. The potential of the smart hydrogels could be to create a new are of soft robotics and enable new applications in flexible sensors and actuators, biomedical devices and platforms or scaffolds for cells to grow.

Rutgers engineers operated with a hydrogel that has been in use for decades in devices that generate motion and biomedical applications such as scaffolds for cells to grow on. The engineers learned how to precisely control hydrogel growth and shrinkage. In temperatures below 32 degrees Celsius, the hydrogel absorbs more water and swells in size. When temperatures exceed 32 degrees Celsius, the hydrogel begins to expel water and shrinks, the study showed.

According to the Rutgers engineers, the objects they can produce with the hydrogel range from the width of a human hair to several millimeters long. The engineers also showed that they can grow one area of a 3D-printed object by changing temperatures.

Source

https://news.rutgers.edu/rutgers-engineers-3d-print-shape-shifting-smart-gel/20180131

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New Liver Tissue Implants Showing Potential

Reporter: Irina Robu,PhD

To develop new tissues, researchers at the Medical Research Council Center for Regenerative Medicine at the University of Edinburgh have found that stem cells transformed into 3-D liver tissue can support liver function when implanted into the mice suffering with a liver disease.

The scientists stimulated human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells to mature pluripotent stem cells into liver cells, hepatocytes. Hepatocytes are the chief functional cells of the liver and perform an astonishing number of metabolic, endocrine and secretory functions. Hepatocytes are exceptionally active in synthesis of protein and lipids for export. The cells are grown in 3-D conditions as small spheres for over a year. However, keeping the stem cells as liver cells for a long time is very difficult, because the viability of hepatocytes decreases in-vitro conditions.

Succeeding the discovery, the team up with materials chemists and engineers to detect appropriate polymers that have already been approved for human use that can be developed into 3-D scaffolds. The best material to use a biodegradable polyester, called polycaprolactone (PCL).PCL is degraded by hydrolysis of its ester linkages in physiological conditions (such as in the human body) and it is especially interesting for the preparation of long term implantable devices, owing to its degradation which is even slower than that of polylactide. They spun the PCL into microscopic fibers that formed a scaffold one centimeter square and a few millimeters thick.

At the same time, hepatocytes derived from embryonic cells had been grown in culture for 20 days and were then loaded onto the scaffolds and implanted under the skin of mice.Blood vessels successfully grew on the scaffolds with the mice having human liver proteins in their blood, demonstrating that the tissue had successfully integrated with the circulatory system. The scaffolds were not rejected by the animals’ immune systems.

The scientists tested the liver tissue scaffolds in mice with tyrosinaemia,a potentially fatal genetic disorder where the enzymes in the liver that break down the amino acid tyrosine are defective, resulting in the accumulation of toxic metabolic products. The implanted liver tissue aided the mice with tyrosinaemia to break down tyrosine and the mice finally lost less weight, had less buildup of toxins in the blood and exhibited fewer signs of liver damage than the control group that received empty scaffolds.

According to Rob Buckle, PhD, Chief Science Officer at the MRC, “Showing that such stem cell-derived tissue is able to reproduce aspects of liver function in the lab also offers real potential to improve the testing of new drugs where more accurate models of human tissue are needed”. It is believed that the discovery could be the next step towards harnessing stem cell reprogramming technologies to provide renewable supplies of liver tissue products for transplantation.

SOURCE

https://www.rdmag.com/article/2018/08/new-liver-tissue-implants-showing-promise?et_cid=6438323

 

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  1. Lungs can supply blood stem cells and also produce platelets: Lungs, known primarily for breathing, play a previously unrecognized role in blood production, with more than half of the platelets in a mouse’s circulation produced there. Furthermore, a previously unknown pool of blood stem cells has been identified that is capable of restoring blood production when bone marrow stem cells are depleted.

 

  1. A new drug for multiple sclerosis: A new multiple sclerosis (MS) drug, which grew out of the work of UCSF (University of California, San Francisco) neurologist was approved by the FDA. Ocrelizumab, the first drug to reflect current scientific understanding of MS, was approved to treat both relapsing-remitting MS and primary progressive MS.

 

  1. Marijuana legalized – research needed on therapeutic possibilities and negative effects: Recreational marijuana will be legal in California starting in January, and that has brought a renewed urgency to seek out more information on the drug’s health effects, both positive and negative. UCSF scientists recognize marijuana’s contradictory status: the drug has proven therapeutic uses, but it can also lead to tremendous public health problems.

 

  1. Source of autism discovered: In a finding that could help unlock the fundamental mysteries about how events early in brain development lead to autism, researchers traced how distinct sets of genetic defects in a single neuronal protein can lead to either epilepsy in infancy or to autism spectrum disorders in predictable ways.

 

  1. Protein found in diet responsible for inflammation in brain: Ketogenic diets, characterized by extreme low-carbohydrate, high-fat regimens are known to benefit people with epilepsy and other neurological illnesses by lowering inflammation in the brain. UCSF researchers discovered the previously undiscovered mechanism by which a low-carbohydrate diet reduces inflammation in the brain. Importantly, the team identified a pivotal protein that links the diet to inflammatory genes, which, if blocked, could mirror the anti-inflammatory effects of ketogenic diets.

 

  1. Learning and memory failure due to brain injury is now restorable by drug: In a finding that holds promise for treating people with traumatic brain injury, an experimental drug, ISRIB (integrated stress response inhibitor), completely reversed severe learning and memory impairments caused by traumatic brain injury in mice. The groundbreaking finding revealed that the drug fully restored the ability to learn and remember in the brain-injured mice even when the animals were initially treated as long as a month after injury.

 

  1. Regulatory T cells induce stem cells for promoting hair growth: In a finding that could impact baldness, researchers found that regulatory T cells, a type of immune cell generally associated with controlling inflammation, directly trigger stem cells in the skin to promote healthy hair growth. An experiment with mice revealed that without these immune cells as partners, stem cells cannot regenerate hair follicles, leading to baldness.

 

  1. More intake of good fat is also bad: Liberal consumption of good fat (monounsaturated fat) – found in olive oil and avocados – may lead to fatty liver disease, a risk factor for metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Eating the fat in combination with high starch content was found to cause the most severe fatty liver disease in mice.

 

  1. Chemical toxicity in almost every daily use products: Unregulated chemicals are increasingly prevalent in products people use every day, and that rise matches a concurrent rise in health conditions like cancers and childhood diseases, Thus, researcher in UCSF is working to understand the environment’s role – including exposure to chemicals – in health conditions.

 

  1. Cytomegalovirus found as common factor for diabetes and heart disease in young women: Cytomegalovirus is associated with risk factors for type 2 diabetes and heart disease in women younger than 50. Women of normal weight who were infected with the typically asymptomatic cytomegalovirus, or CMV, were more likely to have metabolic syndrome. Surprisingly, the reverse was found in those with extreme obesity.

 

References:

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/12/409241/most-popular-science-stories-2017

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/03/406111/surprising-new-role-lungs-making-blood

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/03/406296/new-multiple-sclerosis-drug-ocrelizumab-could-halt-disease

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/06/407351/dazed-and-confused-marijuana-legalization-raises-need-more-research

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/01/405631/autism-researchers-discover-genetic-rosetta-stone

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/09/408366/how-ketogenic-diets-curb-inflammation-brain

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/07/407656/drug-reverses-memory-failure-caused-traumatic-brain-injury

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/05/407121/new-hair-growth-mechanism-discovered

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/06/407536/go-easy-avocado-toast-good-fat-can-still-be-bad-you-research-shows

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/06/407416/toxic-exposure-chemicals-are-our-water-food-air-and-furniture

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/02/405871/common-virus-tied-diabetes-heart-disease-women-under-50

 

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