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Archive for the ‘T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 infection’ Category


Comparing COVID-19 Vaccine Schedule Combinations, or “Com-COV” – First-of-its-Kind Study will explore the Impact of using eight different Combinations of Doses and Dosing Intervals for Different COVID-19 Vaccines

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

The UK’s COVID-19 vaccine rollout commenced in December, and requires an individual to receive two doses of the same vaccine, either Pfizer/BioNTech’s BNT162b2 or AstraZeneca/Oxford’s ChAdOx1, with a maximum interval of 12 weeks between doses. As of February 3, 10 million first doses have been administered.

Com-COV has been classified as an “Urgent Public Health” study by the National Institutes for Health and Research (NIHR), and it’s hoped that the data produced may offer greater flexibility for vaccine delivery going forward.

“Given the inevitable challenges of immunizing large numbers of the population against COVID-19 and potential global supply constraints, there are definitely advantages to having data that could support a more flexible immunization program, if ever needed and approved by the medicines regulator,” Jonathan Van-Tam, deputy chief medical officer and senior responsible officer for the study, said in a press release.

The study will run for a 13-month period and will recruit over 800 patients across eight sites in the UK, including London – St George’s and UCL, Oxford, Southampton, Birmingham, Bristol, Nottingham and Liverpool.

Com-COV has eight different arms that will test eight different combinations of doses and dose intervals. This is tentative and subject to change should more COVID-19 vaccines be approved for use in the UK. The eight arms include the following dose combinations:

  • Pfizer/BioNTech and Pfizer/BioNTech – 28 days apart
  • Pfizer/BioNTech and Pfizer/BioNTech – 12 weeks apart – (control group)
  • Oxford/AstraZeneca and Oxford/AstraZeneca – 28 days apart
  • Oxford/AstraZeneca and Oxford/AstraZeneca – 12 weeks apart – (control group)
  • Oxford/AstraZeneca and Pfizer/BioNTech – 28 days apart
  • Oxford/AstraZeneca and Pfizer/BioNTech – 12 weeks apart
  • Pfizer/BioNTech and Oxford/AstraZeneca – 28 days apart
  • Pfizer/BioNTech and Oxford/AstraZeneca – 12 weeks apart

Aside from the logistical benefits of using alternative vaccines, there is scientific value to exploring how different vaccines and doses affect the human immune system.

Dr Peter English, consultant in communicable disease control, pointed out that the antigen used across the currently authorized COVID-19 vaccines is the same Spike protein. Therefore, the immune system can be expected to respond just as well if a different product is used for boosting. “It is also the case that many vaccines work better if a different vaccine is used for boosting – an approach described as heterologous boosting,” English said, referencing previously successful trials using Hepatitis B vaccines.

“It is also even possible that by combining vaccines, the immune response could be enhanced giving even higher antibody levels that last longer; unless this is evaluated in a clinical trial we just won’t know,” added Van-Tam.

If warranted by the study data, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency may consider reviewing and authorizing modifications to the UK’s vaccine regimen approach – but only time will tell.

“We need people from all backgrounds to take part in this trial, so that we can ensure we have vaccine options suitable for all. Signing up to volunteer for vaccine studies is quick and easy via the NHS Vaccine Research Registry,” Professor Andrew Ustianowski, national clinical lead for the NIHR COVID Vaccine Research Program, said

SOURCE

First-of-its-Kind Study Will Test Combination of Different COVID-19 Vaccines | Technology Networks

https://www.technologynetworks.com/biopharma/news/first-of-its-kind-study-will-test-combination-of-different-covid-19-vaccines-345245?utm_campaign=NEWSLETTER_TN_Biopharma

WATCH VIDEO

Different Types of COVID-19 Vaccines With Dr Seth Lederman Video | Technology Networks

https://www.technologynetworks.com/biopharma/videos/different-types-of-covid-19-vaccines-with-dr-seth-lederman-345207

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Rise of a trio of mutated viruses hints at an increase in transmissibility, speeding the virus’ leaps from one host to the next

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

“We have uncontrolled viral spread in much of the world,” says Adam Lauring, an infectious disease physician and virologist at the University of Michigan. “So the virus has a lot of opportunity to evolve.”

“The variants may be more transmissible, but physics has not changed,” says Müge Çevik, an infectious disease physician at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland.

Many changes don’t affect the virus’ function, and some even harm SARS-CoV-2’s ability to multiply, but they keep happening. “Viruses mutate; that’s what they do,” says Akiko Iwasaki, an immunologist at Yale School of Medicine in Connecticut.

U.K., Brazil, and South Africa. In the United Kingdom, variant B.1.1.7 likely drove the region’s record-setting spike of COVID-19 cases in January. The variant is now circulating in more than 60 countries, including the United States—and projections suggest it will become the most common virus variety in the U.S. by mid-March.

An independently arising lineage called P.1 might also be driving a wave of cases in Manaus, Brazil, where it accounted for nearly half of new COVID-19 infections in December. On January 26, Minnesotan officials reported the first U.S. case of P.1 in a resident who previously traveled to Brazil. And a third lineage raising alarms, known as B.1.351, was first spotted amid a December wave of infections in South Africa. On January 28, the first known U.S. cases of the variant were reported in South Carolina.

One specific mutation, known as N501Y, popped up independently in all three variants, suggesting it could provide an advantage to the virus. “That’s a sign that there is natural selection going on,” Lauring says. The N501Y mutation affects the virus’ spike protein, which is the key it uses to unlock entry into its host’s cells.

Another possibility is that new variants cause people who are infected to harbor more copies of the virus. This results in greater viral “shedding” in airborne droplets spewed when people talk, sing, cough, and breath.

mutations in 501Y.V2 could diminish the effectiveness of antibodies in the blood of people previously infected with the virus. But understanding whether that could lead to more re-infections, or if it could affect vaccine efficacy.

Dramatically scale up production of high-filtration masks for the general public.

Based on:

Why some coronavirus variants are more contagious‹and how we can stop them

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2021/01/why-some-coronavirus-variants-are-more-contagious/?cmpid=org=ngp::mc=crm-email::src=ngp::cmp=editorial::add=SpecialEdition_20210129

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Inflammation and potential links with the microbiome: Mechanisms of infection by SARS-CoV-2

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Mechanisms of infection by SARS-CoV-2, inflammation and potential links with the microbiome

Published Online:https://doi.org/10.2217/fvl-2020-0310

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first isolated from patients with the common cold in the 1960s [1–3]. Seven HCoVs known to cause disease in humans have since been identified: HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and the novel SARS-CoV-2 [4]. The latter was identified after a spike in cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China during December 2019 and was initially named novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) [5,6]. The virus was renamed SARS-CoV-2 according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses classification criteria due to its genomic closeness to SARS-CoV; the disease caused by this virus was named coronavirus disease (COVID-19) according to the WHO criteria for naming emerging diseases [7]. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the genera Betacoronavirus and shares a different degree of genomic similarity with the other two epidemic coronaviruses: SARS-CoV (∼79%) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (∼50%) [8].

COVID-19 has caused considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide and has become the central phenomenon that is shaping our current societies. Human-to-human transmission is the main route of spread of the virus, mainly through direct contact, respiratory droplets and aerosols [9–12]. Management of COVID-19 has been extremely challenging due to its high infectivity, lack of effective therapeutics and potentially small groups of individuals (i.e., asymptomatic or mild disease) rapidly spreading the disease [13–17]. Although research describing COVID-19 and the mechanisms of infection by SARS-CoV-2 and its pathogenesis has expanded rapidly, there is still much to be learnt. Important gaps in knowledge which remain to be elucidated are the dynamic and complex interactions between the virus and the host’s immune system, as well as the potential interspecies communications occurring between ecological niches encompassing distinct microorganisms in both healthy individuals and persons living with chronic diseases, and how these interactions could determine or modulate disease progression and outcomes.

In this review, we describe recent insights into these topics, as well as remaining questions whose answers will allow us to understand how interactions between the virus, the immune system and microbial components could possibly be related to disease states in patients with COVID-19, as well as existing studies of the microbiome in patients with COVID-19.

SOURCE

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COVID-19 T-cell immune response map, immunoSEQ T-MAP COVID for research of T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 infection

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

Read our latest blog | T cells: Understanding Exposure and Immunity to COVID-19 by Adaptive Co-Founder and CSO, Harlan Robins. Read here

Watch the video

T cells are the adaptive immune system’s first responders to any virus, circulating in the blood to detect and quickly multiply to attack the virus, often before symptoms appear. Adaptive Biotechnologies’ unique MIRA Technology and immunoSEQ Technology has enabled us to create a comprehensive view of the T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This data has been made public as part of the ImmuneCODE Initiative in order to help propel drug, vaccine, and clinical trial research. We are launching immunoSEQ T-MAP COVID with the tools to study and analyze the COVID-19 T-cell immune response map.

SARS-CoV-2-specific Antigen-TCR sequence-level data
Quantitative sequence level data for TCR repertoires for SARS-CoV-2 specific antigens
Monitor immunologic response to SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccine
Track COVID-19 specific TCR sequences longitudinally
Dive into Patient, Population, or Cohort-level data
Determine TCR clones shared between cohorts & those that are Public vs Private clones

 

Learn more about the science behind the ImmuneCODE database in our first publication (Nolan et al.) and to discover initial COVID-19 data insights, read our recently updated pre-print publication (Snyder et al.)

A large-scale database of T-cell receptor beta (TCRβ) sequences and binding associations from natural and synthetic exposure to SARS-CoV-2

Magnitude and Dynamics of the T-Cell Response to SARS-CoV-2 Infection at Both Individual and Population Levels

End-to-end solution; from experimental design to publication ready data

SARS-CoV-2-specific TCR repertoire sequences & antigen data

✔  Validated TCR-antigen data from over 70 MIRA experiments

✔  In vivo identified SARS-CoV-2-specific TCR sequences

✔  TCR-Antigen sequence level data with the PCR, bias-controlled, reproducible immunoSEQ Assay

Data analysis through the immunoSEQ Analyzer or Computational Biology Services

✔  Explore SARS-CoV-2-specific TCR-Antigen sequence data in the immunoSEQ Analyzer

✔  Compare your COVID-19 samples against our COVID-19 samples to identify public vs private clones

✔  Computational Biology Services for COVID-19 data and Metadata analysis

Comprehensive COVID-19 TCR-Antigen sequence database

✔  Providing you a comprehensive view of SARS-CoV-2-specific antigen and TCR level data

✔  Database will constantly be updated with new findings and TCR-Antigen sequence data

 

Check out the publications below to learn how researchers are propelling their COVID-19 research by leveraging immunoSEQ T-MAP COVID and the ImmuneCODE COVID-19 database

Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell receptors in ImmuneCode reveals cross-reactivity to immunodominant Influenza M1 epitope

 

Watch our video, about how the immunoSEQ Technology and immunoSEQ T-MAP COVID can be used to better understand the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

 

Ready to learn more about how our immunoSEQ T-MAP COVID service can help you propel your research forward? Contact us below to speak with one of our experts.

SOURCE

https://ww2.adaptivebiotech.com/immunoseq-TMAP-COVID?utm_source=genomeweb&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=dailynews

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