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Archive for the ‘Drug Development Process’ Category


Advancing Drug Development – 12/12/2019, 8:30AM – 8:30PM at The University of Massachusetts Club, One Beacon Street, Boston, MA

 

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

4th Advancing Drug Development Forum – Making the Impossible Possible – Harnessing Small Molecule Drug Development scheduled to take place December 12th, 2019 at The University of Massachusetts Club, in Boston, Massachusetts from 8:30 AM – 8:30 PM.

http://advdrug.com/agenda/

 

Scientists are more than just chipping away and kicking down the barricades to develop complex small molecule products better and faster.  Successful companies are spending quality time finding novel and clever approaches and powerful technologies to better support their knowledgeable teams.  Often it takes establishing strong partnerships with 1 or more specialized service providers, cleverly combining resources – always striving to raise the bar in order to make life threatening diseases more of a chronic and tolerable disease or eradicated completely.

Hear from key opinion leaders in pharma, biotech, the investment community and innovative service providers on how they are meeting the challenges. Keep in mind, it takes being open-minded, flexible and willing sometimes to redesigning a new formulation that better enhances bioavailability, optimizes drug-delivery profiles, reduces dosing frequency, or improves the patient experience to have the potential to deliver quicker returns on investments than developing a completely new drug.

PROGRAM AGENDA Thursday, December 12, 2019
8:30 AM Registration and Networking Continental Breakfast
9:00 AM Welcome Address and Opening Remarks
Kevin Bittorf, Ph.D., & Shelly Amster
9:15 AM Opening VC Keynote
9:45 AM Bridging the Gap between Experimentation and Implementation
Panel Discussion
10:15 AM Refreshment Break
10:45 AM Cross-Talk Between Clin-Ops and Tech-Ops
Panel Discussion
11:15 AM The Cost of Speed and Value in Drug Development
Panel Discussion
12:00 PM Networking Luncheon
1:00 PM Advances in the Delivery of Therapeutics to the Brain
Academic Keynote
Mansoor M. Amiji, Ph.D., University Distinguished Professor, Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Professor of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University
1:30 PM Advancing Drug Delivery and Controlled Release
Panel Discussion
2:00 PM Drowning in DATA
2:30 PM Disruptive AI Technologies Improving Drug Development
3:00 PM Refreshment Break
3:30 PM Small Specialty VS Full Service – What Makes Sense for US?
Panel Discussion
4:00 PM Fireside Chat
Michael Bonney, Executive Chair, Kaleido Biosciences
Heinrich Schlieker, Ph.D., SVP Technical Operations, Sage Therapeutics
5:00 PM – 8:00 PM Networking Social
Direct electronic communication with Shelly Amster

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eProceedings – Day 1: Charles River Laboratories – 3rd World Congress, Delivering Therapies to the Clinic Faster, September 23 – 24, 2019, 25 Edwin H. Land Boulevard, Cambridge, MA

 

https://events.criver.com/event/9eab0ee1-982e-42c6-a4cd-fb43f9f2f1d0/confirmation:7c68cf9b-c599-469e-b602-42178c77e4f9

 

ANNOUNCEMENT

 

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence (LPBI) Group will cover this event in Real Time for pharmaceuticalintelligence.com 

Confirmation Number: 8ZNCBYNGHCK

In attendance generating in realtime event’s eProceeding and social media coverage by

 

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Director & Founder

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence (LPBI) Group, Boston

Editor-in-Chief

http://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com 

e-Mail: avivalev-ari@alum.berkeley.edu

(M) 617-775-0451

https://cal.berkeley.edu/AvivaLev-Ari,PhD,RN

SkypeID: HarpPlayer83          LinkedIn Profile        Twitter Profile

#crlworldcon

@CRiverLabs

@pharma_BI

@AVIVA1950

 

 

Join us this year as we explore novel approaches to drug development that effectively reduce program timelines and accelerate delivery to the clinic. Using a variety of case studies, our speakers will illustrate methods that successfully cut time to market and highlight how artificial intelligence and genomics are expediting target discovery and drug development. In an agenda that includes presentations, panel discussions, and short technology demonstrations, you will learn how the latest science and regulatory strategies are helping us get drugs to patients faster than ever.

AGENDA

Day One, September 23, 2019

  • Novel approaches to silence disease drivers
  • The role of AI in expediting drug discovery

Monday, September 23

8:30 – 9:00 a.m. Introduction and Welcome Remarks James C. Foster, Chairman of the Board, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Charles River
9:00 – 9:30 a.m. 2019 Award Winner: A Silicon Valley Approach to Understanding and Treating Disease Matt Wilsey, Chairman, President, and Co-Founder, Grace Science Foundation
9:30 – 10:15 a.m. Keynote Session Brian Hubbard, PhD, Chief Executive Officer, Dogma Therapeutics
10:15 – 10:30 a.m. Break
10:30 – 11:15 a.m. Novel Approaches to Silence Disease Drivers Systemic Delivery of Investigational RNAi Therapeutics: Safety Considerations and Clinical Outcomes Peter Smith, PhD, Senior Vice President, Early Development, Alnylam Pharmaceuticals
11:15 a.m. – 12:00 p.m. Novel Approaches to Silence Disease Drivers: Considerations for Viral Vector Manufacturing to Support Product Commercialization Richard Snyder, PhD, Chief Scientific Officer and Founder, Brammer Bio
12:00 – 1:00 p.m. Lunch
1:00 – 1:45 p.m. Accelerating Drug Discovery Through the Power of Microscopy Images Anne E. Carpenter, Ph.D., Institute Scientist, Sr. Director, Imaging Platform, Merkin Institute Fellow, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT
1:45 – 2:30 p.m. The Role of AI in Expediting Drug Discovery Target Identification for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Using Machine Learning: The Case for nference Tyler Wagner PhD, Head of Cardiovascular Research, nference
2:30 – 2:45 p.m. Break
2:45 – 3:30 p.m. Technobite Sessions with Emulate Bio and University of Pittsburgh Drug Discovery Institute

Kyung Jin H Jang, VP of Bio Product development, Emulate, Inc.

Albert Gough, PhD, U Pittsburg School of Medicine

3:30 – 4:15 p.m. Artificial Intelligence Panel Discussion: Real World Applications from Discovery to Clinic Moderated by Carey Goldberg, WBUR
4:15 – 4:45 p.m. Jack’s Journey Jake and Elizabeth Burke, Cure NF with Jack
4:45 – 5:00 p.m. Closing Remarks
5:00 – 6:00 p.m. Networking Reception

 

 

Day Two – September 24, 2019

  • How genomics is expediting drug discovery
  • Accelerating therapies through the regulatory process

Tuesday, September 24

8:45 – 9:00 a.m. Opening Remarks and Recap James C. Foster, Chairman of the Board, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Charles River
9:00 – 9:30 a.m. 2018 Award Winner Update David Hysong, Patient Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Shepherd Therapeutics William Siders, CDO, Shepherd Therapeutics
9:30 – 10:15 a.m. Advances in Human Genetics and Therapeutic Modalities Enable Novel Therapies Eric Green, Vice President of Research and Development, Maze Therapeutics
10:15 – 11:00 a.m. How Genomics is Expediting Drug Discovery Manuel Rivas, Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Data Science, Stanford University
11:00 – 11:15 a.m. Break
11:15 a.m. – 12:00 p.m. Genomics Panel Discussion: Signposting Targets That Will Speed the Path to Market Moderated by Martin Mackay, Co-Founder, RallyBio
12:00 – 1:00 p.m. Lunch
1:00 – 1:45 p.m Truly Personalized Medicines for Ultra-rare Diseases: New Opportunities in Genomic Medicine Timothy Yu, Attending Physician, Division of Genetics and Genomics and Assistant Professor in Pediatrics, Boston Children’s Hospital
1:45 – 2:30 p.m. Application of Machine Learning Technology for the Assessment of Bulbar Symptoms in ALS Fernando Vieira, Chief Scientific Officer, ALS Therapy Development Institute
2:30 – 2:45 p.m. Break
2:45 – 3:30 p.m. Accelerating Rare Disease Therapies Through the Regulatory Process Martine Zimmermann, Senior Vice President and Head of Global Regulatory Affairs, Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
3:30 – 4:00 p.m. Wearing ALL the Hats: From Impossible to Possible Allyson Berent, Chief Operating Officer, GeneTx Biotherapeutics
4:00 – 4:15 p.m. Closing Remarks

 

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  • Find a cause and work with passion
  • CVD increased 53% from 2005 to 2016
  • Cholesterol, LDL receptor and CV disease
  • Genetics  evolution and discovery of PCSK9
  1. A PCSK9 Variant lowers CV risk
  2. complete lack of PCSK9 is safe – protects from CVD
  • LDL receptor
  • Statins do not work on LDL receptor if the mutation exists
  • Antibody and antisense for the PCSK9 mutation – Inexpensive Oral Medications can change Global Diseases
  • Dogma of Drug DIscovery: Approach a Patent vs Approach a Disease
  • Ligands bind within a cryptic binding pocket adjacent to a novel PCSK9 polymorphism

12 years of drug discovery

  1. 2003: PCSK9 mutation discovered
  2. 2005:
  3. 2006:
  4. 2012;
  5. 2012: Dogma Scientists begin
  6. compound found binds to primates
  7. 2015:
  8. 2018: Efficiency DGM-4403 lowers LDL-c by 55% 0ver 14 days
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  • 2014 – @Moderna, mRNA
  • 2017 – Alnylam

RNAi – delivery is the most difficult

  • gene silencing changes medicine and diseases
  • Small Interfeering RNA (siRNA) Therapeutics
  • Delivery challenges – stability and targeting
  • RNA Interference (RNAi) – Onpattro (patisiran)
  • GalNAc-siRNA Conjugates – delivery to the hepatocytes
  • N-Acetyl Galactosamine (GalNACc-siRNA conjugates
  • Hepatocyte specific : Liver across species: ASGPR expression
  • Metabolic Stability: Chemistry to Improve siRNA
  • Platform for genetic diseases
  • Evolution of COnjugate Design: GalNAc-siRNA – enhanced stabilization chemistry
  • ALN-TTRSC02 compared to Revusiran
  • ALN-TTRsc02 (advanced) –  – tetrameric protein binds transports serum retinol binding
  • AL Amyloidosis
  • ApoA1 Amyloidosis
  • ATTR Amyloidosis – manufacture in the Liver: Hereditery vs non-hereditary – Wild-Type
  • Patisiran Therapeutic Hypothesis – siRNA targeting TTR formulated
  • Pharmacology of TTR siRNA in Animal Model
  • V30M TTR Transgenic Mouse Model: Patisiran Phase 1 Study to Phase 3 APOLLA Study Design for any TTR mutation – Prior tetramer stabilizer used permitted
  • hATTR Amyloidosis and APOLLO Assessment: Phase 3 is Global – Cardiomyopathy – potential,
  • Patisiran met all secondary Endpoints: Canadian, Japanese approval – US approved indication, European approved
  • Alnylam Investigational RNAi Therapeutics:
  • Pipeline: Genetic medicines
  • Hepatic Infectious diseases
  • CNS & Ocular
  • Cardiovascular
11:15 AM-12:00 PM
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  • Viral-Vector-mediated in vivo Gene Therapy
  • VVS Viral Vector Platforms:
  1. Adenovirus immunogenicity
  2. Lentivirus
  3. Retrovirus
  4. Herpes
  5. Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors: Glybera, Luxturna
  6. Zolgenzma
  • Establish the product specifications based on data (CQAs)
  • Is the vector product: parenteral or anciliary material

Considerations:

  • Large scall vs small
  • lot demand vs platform choice
  • Proof of concept
  • Own/License the manufacturing reagents (portability) vs reliance on providers
  • Process and Analytical Design & Development: Cell line: Mamalian, others
  • Raw materials: Viral clearance steps – cell banks generation
  • impurity profiles
  • Cell Substrates
  • Cell clone screening
  • Preclinical/Clinical, Alachua, FL; Phase III/Commercial: Cambridge & Lexington
  • Biologics Upstream Process Flow: Master cell banks
  • Transient Transfection Process (Lenti and AAV)
  • rAAV Proviral cell line
  • Production Vector-based Process (Baculo or HSV)
  • Product purification: Filtration methods, Chromatography, centrifugal separation: Concentration/filtration
  • Formulation
  • Compatibility wiht vial: Glass, CZ, COP: absorption vs Inactivation
  • Single use
  • Frozen storage
  • Storage, Packing and Distribution
  • Technology Transfer: Research vs Mature Process (Qualified cell bank)
  • Plasmids: E.coli MCB backbone
  • Analytics Design & Development: Testing: Nucleic-acid based, protein-based
  1. AAV Vector Lot Release Assays
  2. Lentivirus
  • QA: QA Management System –
  • Analytical Assays
  • FDA Issues SIX New Draft Guidance Documents in 7/2018
  • Process Validation: Life cycle approach: Process caracterizationProcess performance qualification
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  • assayGene clusterbased on morphological similarity: Express each gene, gene painting Image analysis, cluster morphological profiles
  • identification of allelle that are not constitutively activating mutants.
  • weakly supervised deep learning to extract features
  • identify similarities and differences among treatments at the same population level
  • Predict many distinct expensive assays on a huge compound library using a single cell painting
  1. Test 5,000 compounds in the assay of interest as well as cell painting
  2. Find combination of iamge-based features that predict in the assay of interest
  3. Predict “hit” from existing 1Million compound cell paining data set
The Role of AI in Expediting Drug Discovery Target Identification for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Using Machine Learning: The Case for nference
Tyler Wagner PhD, Head of Cardiovascular Research, nference
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  • Lung-Chip Applications
  • Pulmonary inflammation
  • Intestine-chip Applications
  • Liver-Chip: Building Tissue Complexity: Co-culture, tri-culture, quatro-culture, Transcriptomic Analysis
  • Liver-Chip: Kupffer cells Characterization
  • Stellate Cells
  • parenchymal channel, non-parenchymal channel
  • Liver Chip: Predicting species differences in liver toxicity: Effects of Bosentan on Albumin secretion
  • Acetaminophen Toxicity in Liver-Chip: APAP Metabolism: detected changes in morphology, ATP, GSH – Dosepdependent increase of ROS
  • Steatosis and Stellate Cell Activation: and Species difference in Toxicity Liver chip data correlates with in vivo data
  • Predict Human safety risks with liver chip
Albert Gough, PhD, U Pittsburg School of Medicine
  • Approaches for repurposing drugs:
  1. Integrated, fluidic organ MPD,
  2. cells, 3D structures,
  3. O2 Modulation & Sensing
  4. Biosensors
  5. secretome
  • Higher Biomimetic content Higher throughput
  • regulatory liver-pancreas axis in Type 2 Diabetes model
  • Estradiol-Induced proliferation of mutants in Breast Cancer varies from 2D monoculture to 3D LAMP
  • MPS Models:
  1. celle and organ Structure in MPS
  2. Single organ MPS & Coupled organ
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Carey Goldberg, WBUR
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September 24, 2019

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Pfizer buys out Array BioPharma for $11.4 Billion to beef up its oncology offerings

Reporter: Stephen J. Williams, PhD

As reported in FiercePharma.com:

by Angus Liu |

Three years after purchasing Medivation for $14.3 billion, Pfizer is back with another hefty M&A deal. And once again, it’s betting on oncology.

In the first big M&A deal under new CEO Albert Bourla, Pfizer has agreed to buy oncology specialist Array BioPharma for a total value of about $11.4 billion, the two companies unveiled Monday. The $48-per-share offer represents a premium of about 62% to Array stock’s closing price on Friday.

With the acquisition, Pfizer will beef up its oncology offerings with two marketed drugs, MEK inhibitor Mektovi and BRAF inhibitor Braftovi, which are approved as a combo treatment for melanoma and recently turned up positive results in colon cancer.

The buy will enhance the Pfizer innovative drug business’ “long-term growth trajectory,” Bourla said in a Monday statement, dubbing Mektovi-Braftovi “a potentially industry-leading franchise for colorectal cancer.”

RELATED: Array’s ‘extremely compelling’ new colon cancer data spark blockbuster talk

In a recent interim analysis of a trial in BRAF-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer, the pair, used in tandem with Eli Lilly and Merck KGaA’s Erbitux, produced a benefit in 26% of patients, versus the 2% that chemotherapy helped. The combo also showed it could reduce the risk of death by 48%. SVB Leerink analysts at that time called the data “extremely compelling.”

Right now, one in every three new patients with mutated metastatic melanoma is getting the combo, despite its third-to-market behind combos from Roche and Novartis, Andy Schmeltz, Pfizer’s oncology global president, said during an investor briefing on Monday.

It is being studied in more than 30 clinical studies across several solid tumor indications. Moving forward, Pfizer believes the combo could potentially be used in the adjuvant setting to prevent tumor recurrence after surgery, Pfizer’s chief scientific officer, Mikael Dolsten, said on the call. The company is also keen to know how it could be paired up with Pfizer’s own investigational PD-1, he said, as the combo is already in studies with other PD-1/L1s.

But as Pfizer execs have previously said, the company’s current business development strategy no longer centers on adding revenues “now or soon,” but rather on strengthening Pfizer’s pipeline with earlier-stage assets. And Array can help there, too.

“We are very excited by Array’s impressive track record of successfully discovering and developing innovative small-molecules and targeted cancer therapies,” Dolsten said in a statement.

On top of Mektovi and Braftovi, Array has a long list of out-licensed drugs that could generate big royalties over time. For example, Vitrakvi, the first drug to get an initial FDA approval in tumors with a particular molecular feature regardless of their location, was initially licensed to Loxo Oncology—which was itself snapped up by Eli Lilly for $8 billion—but was taken over by pipeline-hungry Bayer. There are other drugs licensed to the likes of AstraZeneca, Roche, Celgene, Ono Pharmaceutical and Seattle Genetics, among others.

Those drugs are also a manifestation of Array’s strong research capabilities. To keep those Array scientists doing what they do best, Pfizer is keeping a 100-person team in Colorado as a standalone research unit alongside Pfizer’s existing hubs, Schmeltz said.

Pfizer is counting on Array to augment its leadership in breast cancer, an area championed by Ibrance, and prostate cancer, the pharma giant markets Astellas-partnered Xtandi. For 2018, revenues from the Pfizer oncology portfolio jumped to $7.20 billion—up from $6.06 billion in 2017—mainly thanks to those two drugs.

Source: https://www.fiercepharma.com/pharma/pfizer-never-say-never-m-a-buys-oncology-innovator-array-for-11-4b

 

About Array BioPharma

Array markets BRAFTOVI® (encorafenib) capsules in combination with MEKTOVI® (binimetinib)  tablets for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma with a BRAFV600E or BRAFV600K  mutation in the United States and with partners in other major worldwide markets.* Array’s lead clinical programs, encorafenib and binimetinib, are being investigated in over 30 clinical trials across a number of solid tumor indications, including a Phase 3 trial in BRAF-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer. Array’s pipeline includes several additional programs being advanced by Array or current license-holders, including the following programs currently in registration trials: selumetinib (partnered with AstraZeneca), LOXO-292 (partnered with Eli Lilly), ipatasertib (partnered with Genentech), tucatinib (partnered with Seattle Genetics) and ARRY-797. Vitrakvi® (larotrectinib, partnered with Bayer AG) is approved in the United States and Ganovo® (danoprevir, partnered with Roche) is approved in China.

 

Other Articles of Note of Pfizer Merger and Acquisition deals on this Open Access Journal Include:

From Thalidomide to Revlimid: Celgene to Bristol Myers to possibly Pfizer; A Curation of Deals, Discovery and the State of Pharma

Pfizer Near Allergan Buyout Deal But Will Fed Allow It?

Pfizer offers legal guarantees over AstraZeneca bid

Re-Creation of the Big Pharma Model via Transformational Deals for Accelerating Innovations: Licensing vs In-house inventions

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LIVE 13th Annual BioPharma and Healthcare Summit, Thursday, May 9, 2019, Marriott Hotel, Cambridge, MA

 

http://www.usaindiachamber.org

8:40 AM – 9:10 AM Registration and Networking
9:10 AM – 9:20 AM Welcome addressKarun Rishi, President, USAIC

Opening comments: Dr Andrew Plump, President R&D and Director, Takeda Pharmaceuticals

9:20 AM – 9:40 AM Fireside Chat

  • Mark Abdoo, Acting Deputy Commissioner, U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • Dr Eswara Reddy, Drug Controller General of India, Central Drug Control Organization

Moderator: Sanat Chattopadhyay, President, Merck Manufacturing Division; Merck & Co.

9:40 AM – 10:00 AM Presentation on CAR (chimeric antigen receptor) T-cell Therapies
Dr. Carl June, Director of Translational Research, Abramson Cancer Center University of Pennsylvania Moderator: Dr. Raju Kucherlapati, Professor of Genetics, Harvard Medical School
10:00 AM – 10:50 AM Panel Discussion: Oncology – The Emperor of BioPharma Development

Panelists:

Moderator: Dr. Christiana Bardon, Managing Director, MPM Capital

10:50 AM – 11:20 AM Networking Break
11:20 AM – 12:10 PM Panel Discussion: Future of Clinical Trials and Drug Development

Panelists:

Moderator: Dr. William Chin, Professor of Medicine, Emeritus, Harvard Medical School

12:10 PM – 1:00 PM Panel Discussion: Manufacturing in the Future

Panelists:

  • Hari Bhartia, Founder and Co-Chairman, Jubilant Bhartia Group
  • Mark Abdoo, Acting Deputy Commissioner, U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • Dr. Paul McKenzie, Executive Vice President, Pharma Operations & Technology, Biogen
  • Sanat Chattopadhyay, President, Merck Manufacturing Division; Merck & Co.
  • Vinay Ranade, Chief Executive Officer, Reliance Life Sciences

Moderator: Professor N. Venkat Venkatraman, Boston University Questrom School of Business

1:00 PM – 1:50 PM Lunch
1:50 PM – 1:55 PM Video message from Suresh Prabhu, Hon’ble Minister of Commerce & Industry, Gov. of India
1:55 PM – 2:45 PM Panel Discussion: One in a million – Emerging trends in Rare Diseases

Panelists:

Moderator: Dr. Samarth Kulkarni, Chief Executive Officer, CRISPR Therapeutics

2:45 PM – 3:20 PM Networking & Tea Break
3:20 PM – 3:50 PM Fireside Chat: Value and Access – The ongoing debate

Moderator: Dr Andrew Plump, President R&D, Takeda Pharmaceuticals

3:50 PM – 4:10 PM India update on Clinical Trial Regulations

  • Arun Singhal, Additional Secretary, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, India
  • Dr Eswara Reddy, Drug Controller General of India, Central Drug Control Organization
4:10 PM – 5:00 PM Panel Discussion: Research and Development Strategies and Trends

Panelists:

Moderator: Dr. Martin Mackay, Co-Founde, Rallybio

5:00 PM – 5:05 PM Closing Remarks
5:05 PM – 6:15 PM Cocktails & Networking Reception

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN & Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence (LPBI) Group

will cover the event in Real Time

REAL TIME COVERAGE USING SOCIAL MEDIA

 

LIVE Images taken by @AVIVA1950

 

 

 

9:10 AM – 9:20 AM

Welcome addressKarun Rishi, President, USAIC

Opening comments: Dr Andrew Plump, President R&D and Director, Takeda Pharmaceuticals

  • tomorrow announcement @Shire
  • India 1.3Billion in India, each person is a potential patient in the largest democracy in the World
  • China – transformation takes place every day
  • The Patient and the Pricing of Drugs the biggest issue missing the ball dialoguing on Panel today

9:20 AM – 9:40 AM

Fireside Chat

  • Mark Abdoo, Acting Deputy Commissioner, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • Dr Eswara Reddy, Drug Controller General of India (DCGI), Central Drug Control Organization

Moderator: Sanat Chattopadhyay, President, Merck Manufacturing Division; Merck & Co.

9:40 AM – 10:00 AM Presentation on CAR (chimeric antigen receptor) T-cell Therapies
Dr. Carl June, Director of Translational Research, Abramson Cancer Center University of Pennsylvania Moderator: Dr. Raju Kucherlapati, Professor of Genetics, Harvard Medical School

  • Video on child with recurrent twice of leukhimia
  • T-cell HIV Virus infect

 

10:00 AM – 10:50 AM

Panel Discussion: Oncology – The Emperor of BioPharma Development

Panelists:

  1. solid vs blood tumors
  2. T-Cells amplification microenvironment and biology
  3. PD-1 in combination therapies thousand Trials
  4. Biomarker allows to check response in conjunction with genomics data brings insights
  5. Tumors World, Biomarkers in Immuno oncology respond to PD-1 no response to other drug
  6. stratify patients
  1. Protein experimental data compound design from simulations of VIRTUAL compounds,
  2. how to incentivise to take on new innovations
  1. more that one single administration by injection
  2. response rates different even in one patient let alone among patients
  3. detection gene
  4. CAR-T glioblastoma
  5. pancreatic cancer good responses in combination therapies
  6. immunr repertoire biology so complex that biomarkers are limited

Moderator: Dr. Christiana Bardon, Managing Director, MPM Capital

  • 30% patinets with complete cure

10:50 AM – 11:20 AM Networking Break11:20 AM – 12:10 PM

Panel Discussion: Future of Clinical Trials and Drug Development

Panelists:

  1. endpoints need to be redefined it effect price of drug development
  2. in Oncology – Basket and Umbrellas Trial – two stufies approval for melanoma, biomarker
  3. Is response rate is 30% va 50% and Phase 3 is negative Kertuda when worked at Merck dose ranging last phase when response dropped from 60% to 30% in the case of Study C3
  4. 30% of the cost of the study – 30% was translational
  5. CRO model appropriate oversite vs douplication of tasks
  • Dr. Bruce Chabner, Director of Clinical Research, Mass General Hospital Cancer Center
  1. Old paradigm Phase 1,2,3 – off the board now, New drugs do not need the old paradigm
  2. Phase i1 changed if genomics is involved multiple cohorts at same time
  3. FDA play amazing role
  4. patient selection is key
  5. mutations in rare disease vs mutations in cancer
  6. immunotherapy and endogenic drugs with chemo in RENAL cancer
  7. check-points – lung cancer understood money spent to find responders
  8. HOW to select which cheno therapy — no improvement today vs past
  9. 40 drugs approved by accelerated approval one came back on the market
  10. Financial burden of being in a clinical trial
  11. Foundation gives money to Institutions to reimburse patients for flights, meals, acommodation, Pharma are reluctant to participants due to potential accusation of bias id Pharma pays Patients that participate in Clinical Trials
  1. FDA recognizes approval process – systems involved AFTER approval for reimbursement and monitoring after market
  2. regulatory by countires are different
  3. which factors are sacrifiable in the long tern in clinical trial design
  1. Safety – benefit risk is what physicians work with every day
  2. Drugs paradign of small molecules does not hold is you have a drug that deliver entire organelle – how you dose for half life how you prive the rate of replication in the body
  3. Surrogate markers
  4. Taking a drug off the market ->>  conditional approvals [approval can be taken back or require additional studies] not a favorable view of Pharma in the present to support Conditional approval vs accelerated approval

 

  1. speed
  2. differentiation from competition
  3. drug development in crisis is CVD not cancer, US and the rest of the world – lowest investment in drugs is CVD
  4. Studies designed by Physicians using SAME design
  5. need to create experts to use ML in the course of clinical trial design
  6. regulators as Partners not as Barriers
  7. Proof of efficacy is a burden on the developers of the drug not on the Regulatory
  8. Increase use of advertising to recruit
  9. 70% OF PATIENTS WILLING TO PARTICIPATE  lives to far from site of trials
  10. Telecommunication between administrators of study ans clinical Trials participants
  11. Back when I was at Pfizer, designing study – patients burden relieved more willingness to participate
  12. Preferrs to run studies in house vs use CRO they are not effective in monitoring like study run in house

Moderator: Dr. William Chin, Professor of Medicine, Emeritus, Harvard Medical School

  • Probability of success to clinic has not changed
  • challenge is design and execution in clinical trials
  • changes in drug modalities: RNA, DNA,
  • which combination to use
  • how to find the many patients needed
  • Basket and Umbrellas Trial

12:10 PM – 1:00 PM

Panel Discussion: Manufacturing in the Future

Panelists:

  • Hari Bhartia, Founder and Co-Chairman, Jubilant Bhartia Group
  1. supply change
  2. blockchain
  3. quality by design
  4. CPK
  5. productivity will go up variability will decrease
  6. manufacturng must happen in India
  7. Genetics price selection
  8. Secure system, data quality the data logic and the analytics
  9. infrastructure in manufacturing is not completed yet
  10. Training by augmented reality Turnover high in India
  11. cyber security – digitization and central control
  12. demonstration data offense
  • Mark Abdoo, Acting Deputy Commissioner, U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  1. next 10 years India and China will improve regulatory activities and match better the US requirements
  2. review foreign hosts
  3. skills and location of hosts:
  4. India: Standards and unannounced inspections and
  5. China: same
  6. Blockchain is experienced as experimentation at FDA across each all parts of the Agency
  • Dr. Paul McKenzie, Executive Vice President, Pharma Operations & Technology, Biogen
  1. raw material to patients: Pharma very slow than other industries Reliable needs be very high, relationships
  2. Hurrican in PortoRIco affected supply chain
  3. Reality, every one HAVE to be in China
  4. Platforming for each modality for Scaling out vs Scaling up
  5. diversify vs modality x
  6. build capacity and capabilities customization of ultra filtration different in two plants lowers standardizations
  7. Training on Demand, Virtually, documnetation needs to change to electronic
  8. Continueous manufacturing Academic contribution
  • Vinay Ranade, Chief Executive Officer, Reliance Life Sciences
  1. Pharma was slow in India the manufacturing
  2. infantile diarreha vaccine 70,000 in 4 years needs that drug,
  3. massive intellectual capital in India
  4. How to implement and make best use of data to improve processes
  5. cyber security was not experiences
  1. Phase 1 scaling out vs up – it is different in vaccine field
  2. ML, Block chain, supply chain and manufacturing will be adapted in supply chain
  3. Apply analytics and relationships in manufacturing
  4. obsolescence and upgrades
  5. capture data electronically
  6. cyber security can be a hazard hard to mitigate when all systems are down
  7. significant challenges in manufacturing and data security

Moderator: Professor N. Venkat Venkatraman, Boston University Questrom School of Business

  • How can Pharma become leaner
  • heterogenuious environment for production
  • cyber security

1:00 PM – 1:50 PMLunch1:50 PM – 1:55 PM Video message from Suresh Prabhu, Hon’ble Minister of Commerce & Industry, Gov. of India1:55 PM – 2:45 PM

Panel Discussion: One in a million – Emerging trends in Rare Diseases

Panelists:

  1. worked with Academic community on how to treat rare disease in the future
  1. Show clinical benefit and impact multiplemyeloma
  2. patients becoming activists
  3. access
  4. foundation by patients
  5. Patient to get cloud
  • Dr. Dhaval Patel, Executive Vice President  and Chief Scientific Officer, UCB
  1. if a modality will cure a disease justify innovation Model for payment: Mortgage Model
  2. Access INDEX pricing – US will benchmark the price in other parts of the world
  3. Gene therapy is not only got monognenic diseases but for
  4. decrease work involved in development of drugs
  • Dr. James Wilson, Director – Gene Therapy Program, University of Pennsylvania
  1. tension between physicians and development of the perfect drug.
  2. AV
  3. Protein replacement therapy repeated infusion gene therapy infrastructure develop in China for China, Develop in India for India vs develop in US for India or China
  4. Cost of manufacturing to decrease
  • Dr. Timothy Yu, Assistant Professor in Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School
  1. Scalability beyond the one case: the mechanism for the drug has generability for other aptients iwth same mutation the method has no limit
  2. Molecular type of mutation Spice Switching strategy, just-in-time manufacturing

Moderator: Dr. Samarth Kulkarni, Chief Executive Officer, CRISPR Therapeutics

  1. Rare diseases, potential for cure
  2. Academia, Hospitals, biotech
  3. commercial model of the disease

2:45 PM – 3:20 PMNetworking & Tea Break3:20 PM – 3:50 PM

Fireside Chat: Value and Access – The ongoing debate

  1. since 2003 testify in the House, against Canadian  David Brenner was asked about importation from Canada of breast cancer tamoxiphen at a lower price than in the US.
  2. From importation crisis to Obama Care – stable system Medicare Part D – drug coverage for Olderly
  3. After Obama – Price is part of doing business REBATES $100Billion the valur of REBATES
  4. Co-Insurance
  1. right for innovation will be preserved
  2. price increase
  3. give and take
  4. Co-pay – We need lower co-pay
  5. with current administration, sink finding the Well instead of Well funding the sick
  6. CHange is coming, co-pay will change
  1. Genzyme days vs 2019
  2. changes how drugs are priced?
  3. Flaws of the system:Gevernment induce prices that will change
  4. $800,000 drug is now $80 [ala Regeneron] – R&D was $2Billion
  5. CO-pay for hospital stay is lower than co-pay on drugs – 10% twice a year

Moderator: Dr Andrew Plump, President R&D, Takeda Pharmaceuticals

3:50 PM – 4:10 PM

India update on Clinical Trial Regulations

  • Arun Singhal, Additional Secretary, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, India
  1. Each patient deserve access to healthcare in India
  2. experimenting
  • Dr Eswara Reddy, Drug Controller General of India, Central Drug Control Organization
  1. Time line for Application approval for drugs, if approved in another country 60 days
  2. Gov’t hospitals can import New drugs which have not been permitted in India

4:10 PM – 5:00 PM

Panel Discussion: Research and Development Strategies and Trends

Panelists:

  1. Neuroscience – Pharma understand biomarkers and now genetics
  2. Vaccines – across species in the animal WORLD
  1. Attempt not to tweak the PIPELINE: CVD, NEUROSCIENCE AND CANCER
  2. 485 Teams doing R&D convluence of interests to develop cure
  3. Modularity – BioMolecule — multimodality biophysical biochemical protein degradation – rewire disease cells with biomolecules combing propertitie of permiability of small molecules
  4. PHARMACOLOGICAL PREVENTION – biotech is inspiring only Pharma can solve
  1. immunooncology – mutation signature – marker protein signature — that group of diseases respond to
  2. colon cancer and multiple myeloma — understanding of the biology was deep

Moderator: Dr. Martin Mackay, Co-Founder, Rallybio

5:00 PM – 5:05 PM Closing Remarks

5:05 PM – 6:15 PM Cocktails & Networking Reception

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Celgene Triumphs in Legal Battle over Revlimid Patent: Curation of Patents, Litigations, and Impact on Drug Pricing

Curator: Stephen J. Williams, PhD

From Celgene

REVLIMID® (lenalidomide) in combination with dexamethasone is indicated for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). as maintenance therapy in patients with MM following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT). and indicated for the treatment of patients with transfusion-dependent anemia due to low- or intermediate-1–risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) associated with a deletion 5q cytogenetic abnormality with or without additional cytogenetic abnormalities.

REVLIMID is also indicated for the treatment of patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) whose disease has relapsed or progressed after two prior therapies, one of which included bortezomib.

REVLIMID® sales for the fourth quarter 2018 increased 16 percent to $2,549 million. Fourth quarter U.S. sales of $1,729 million and international sales of $820 million increased 17 percent and 15 percent, respectively. REVLIMID® sales growth was driven by increases in treatment duration and market share. Full year REVLIMID® sales were $9,685 million, an increase of 18 percent year-over-year. (from Celgene press release)

However, Celgene’s Revlimid basically has no competition in the multiple myeloma market and there are no generics of Revlimid, even though Revlimid is a conger of thalidomide, the 1950 era drug developed for depression and resulted in the infamous thalidomide baby cases.

The problem is highlighted in two reports:

As seen in Fortune: Celgene Boosted Price of Top Cancer Drug on Day of Mega Deal

By BLOOMBERG

January 4, 2019

On the same day Celgene Corp. was announcing that it would be acquired by Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. in the biggest pharma deal ever, the company was also raising the price of its blockbuster cancer drug. The Summit, New Jersey-based biotechnology company, which has routinely increased the prices of its top-selling drugs, boosted the price of a 10-milligram dose of Revlimid by 3.5 percent to $719.82 effective Jan. 3, according to price data compiled by Bloomberg Intelligence and First Databank. Cancer patients need many doses of Revlimid a year, and the overall cost can approach $200,000. The same dose cost $247.28 at the end of 2007.

As reported on NPR by Alison Kodjak: Celgene’s Patent Fortress Protects Revlimid, Thalidomide: How A DrugMaker Gamed the Patent System to Keep Generic Competition Away

When Celgene Corp. first started marketing the drug Revlimid to treat multiple myeloma in 2006, the price was $6,195 for 21 capsules, a month’s supply.By the time David Mitchell started taking Revlimid in November 2010, Celgene had bumped the price up to about $8,000 a month. When he took his last month’s worth of pills in April 2016, the sticker price had reached $10,691. By last March, the list price had reached $16,691. Revlimid appears to have caught the attention of Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar, who used it as an example Wednesday — without naming it outright — of how some drug’s prices rise with impunity. He said the copay for the average senior taking the drug rose from $115 to about $690 per month in the last year. Celgene can keep raising the price of Revlimid because the drug has no competition. It’s been around for more than a decade and its original patent expires next year. But today it looks like another four years could pass with no generic competitor to Revlimid.

 

Therefore, when the European company Alvogen tired to produce a generic version of this drug and took Celgene to court, Celgene quickly shored up its patent fight as outlined below.

As reported in Biopharmadive.com:

 

Celgene dodges Alvogen bid to overturn Revlimid patent

Here is Celgene’s patent on Revlimid (thalidomide).

Some notes:

  • notice the multiple congeners, chemical derivatives
  • notice the multiple drug combination claims especially with using other antibodies with thalidomide (second active ingredient)
  • note multiple dosage forms

Methods for treatment of multiple myeloma using 3-(4-amino-1-oxo-1,3-dihydro-isoindol-2-yl)-piperidine-2,6-dione

Abstract
Methods of treating, preventing and/or managing cancer as well as and diseases and disorders associated with, or characterized by, undesired angiogenesis are disclosed. Specific methods encompass the administration of an immunomodulatory compound alone or in combination with a second active ingredient. The invention further relates to methods of reducing or avoiding adverse side effects associated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, biological therapy or immunotherapy which comprise the administration of an immunomodulatory compound. Pharmaceutical compositions, single unit dosage forms, and kits suitable for use in methods of the invention are also disclosed.

Images (1)

Classifications
A61K31/454 Non condensed piperidines, e.g. piperocaine containing further heterocyclic ring systems containing a five-membered ring with nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. pimozide, domperidone
View 21 more classifications

US7968569B2

United States

Inventor
Jerome B. Zeldis
Current Assignee
Celgene Corp

Worldwide applications

Application US10/438,213 events
2002-05-17
Priority to US38084202P
2011-06-28
Application granted
Application status is Active
Adjusted expiration
Show all events

Description

This application claims the benefit of U.S. provisional application No. 60/380,842, filed May 17, 2002, and No. 60/424,600, filed Nov. 6, 2002, the entireties of which are incorporated herein by reference.

1. FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to methods of treating, preventing and/or managing specific cancers, and other diseases including, but not limited to, those associated with, or characterized by, undesired angiogenesis, by the administration of one or more immunomodulatory compounds alone or in combination with other therapeutics. In particular, the invention encompasses the use of specific combinations, or “cocktails,” of drugs and other therapy, e.g., radiation to treat these specific cancers, including those refractory to conventional therapy. The invention also relates to pharmaceutical compositions and dosing regimens.

2. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

2.1 Pathobiology of Cancer and Other Diseases

Cancer is characterized primarily by an increase in the number of abnormal cells derived from a given normal tissue, invasion of adjacent tissues by these abnormal cells, or lymphatic or blood-borne spread of malignant cells to regional lymph nodes and to distant sites (metastasis). Clinical data and molecular biologic studies indicate that cancer is a multistep process that begins with minor preneoplastic changes, which may under certain conditions progress to neoplasia. The neoplastic lesion may evolve clonally and develop an increasing capacity for invasion, growth, metastasis, and heterogeneity, especially under conditions in which the neoplastic cells escape the host’s immune surveillance. Roitt, I., Brostoff, J and Kale, D., Immunology, 17.1-17.12 (3rd ed., Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1993).

There is an enormous variety of cancers which are described in detail in the medical literature. Examples includes cancer of the lung, colon, rectum, prostate, breast, brain, and intestine. The incidence of cancer continues to climb as the general population ages, as new cancers develop, and as susceptible populations (e.g., people infected with AIDS or excessively exposed to sunlight) grow. A tremendous demand therefore exists for new methods and compositions that can be used to treat patients with cancer.

Many types of cancers are associated with new blood vessel formation, a process known as angiogenesis. Several of the mechanisms involved in tumor-induced angiogenesis have been elucidated. The most direct of these mechanisms is the secretion by the tumor cells of cytokines with angiogenic properties. Examples of these cytokines include acidic and basic fibroblastic growth factor (a,b-FGF), angiogenin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and TNF-α. Alternatively, tumor cells can release angiogenic peptides through the production of proteases and the subsequent breakdown of the extracellular matrix where some cytokines are stored (e.g., b-FGF). Angiogenesis can also be induced indirectly through the recruitment of inflammatory cells (particularly macrophages) and their subsequent release of angiogenic cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, bFGF).

A variety of other diseases and disorders are also associated with, or characterized by, undesired angiogenesis. For example, enhanced or unregulated angiogenesis has been implicated in a number of diseases and medical conditions including, but not limited to, ocular neovascular diseases, choroidal neovascular diseases, retina neovascular diseases, rubeosis (neovascularization of the angle), viral diseases, genetic diseases, inflammatory diseases, allergic diseases, and autoimmune diseases. Examples of such diseases and conditions include, but are not limited to: diabetic retinopathy; retinopathy of prematurity; corneal graft rejection; neovascular glaucoma; retrolental fibroplasia; and proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

Accordingly, compounds that can control angiogenesis or inhibit the production of certain cytokines, including TNF-α, may be useful in the treatment and prevention of various diseases and conditions.

2.2 Methods of Treating Cancer

Current cancer therapy may involve surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and/or radiation treatment to eradicate neoplastic cells in a patient (see, for example, Stockdale, 1998, Medicine, vol. 3, Rubenstein and Federman, eds., Chapter 12, Section IV). Recently, cancer therapy could also involve biological therapy or immunotherapy. All of these approaches pose significant drawbacks for the patient. Surgery, for example, may be contraindicated due to the health of a patient or may be unacceptable to the patient. Additionally, surgery may not completely remove neoplastic tissue. Radiation therapy is only effective when the neoplastic tissue exhibits a higher sensitivity to radiation than normal tissue. Radiation therapy can also often elicit serious side effects. Hormonal therapy is rarely given as a single agent. Although hormonal therapy can be effective, it is often used to prevent or delay recurrence of cancer after other treatments have removed the majority of cancer cells. Biological therapies and immunotherapies are limited in number and may produce side effects such as rashes or swellings, flu-like symptoms, including fever, chills and fatigue, digestive tract problems or allergic reactions.

With respect to chemotherapy, there are a variety of chemotherapeutic agents available for treatment of cancer. A majority of cancer chemotherapeutics act by inhibiting DNA synthesis, either directly, or indirectly by inhibiting the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate precursors, to prevent DNA replication and concomitant cell division. Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman’s: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Tenth Ed. (McGraw Hill, New York).

Despite availability of a variety of chemotherapeutic agents, chemotherapy has many drawbacks. Stockdale, Medicine, vol. 3, Rubenstein and Federman, eds., ch. 12, sect. 10, 1998. Almost all chemotherapeutic agents are toxic, and chemotherapy causes significant, and often dangerous side effects including severe nausea, bone marrow depression, and immunosuppression. Additionally, even with administration of combinations of chemotherapeutic agents, many tumor cells are resistant or develop resistance to the chemotherapeutic agents. In fact, those cells resistant to the particular chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment protocol often prove to be resistant to other drugs, even if those agents act by different mechanism from those of the drugs used in the specific treatment. This phenomenon is referred to as pleiotropic drug or multidrug resistance. Because of the drug resistance, many cancers prove refractory to standard chemotherapeutic treatment protocols.

Other diseases or conditions associated with, or characterized by, undesired angiogenesis are also difficult to treat. However, some compounds such as protamine, hepain and steroids have been proposed to be useful in the treatment of certain specific diseases. Taylor et al., Nature 297:307 (1982); Folkman et al., Science 221:719 (1983); and U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,001,116 and 4,994,443. Thalidomide and certain derivatives of it have also been proposed for the treatment of such diseases and conditions. U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,593,990, 5,629,327, 5,712,291, 6,071,948 and 6,114,355 to D’Amato.

Still, there is a significant need for safe and effective methods of treating, preventing and managing cancer and other diseases and conditions, particularly for diseases that are refractory to standard treatments, such as surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, while reducing or avoiding the toxicities and/or side effects associated with the conventional therapies.

2.3 IMIDS™

A number of studies have been conducted with the aim of providing compounds that can safely and effectively be used to treat diseases associated with abnormal production of TNF-α See, e.g., Marriott, J. B., et al., Expert Opin. Biol. Ther. 1(4):1-8 (2001); G. W. Muller, et al., Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 39(17): 3238-3240 (1996); and G. W. Muller, et al, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 8: 2669-2674 (1998). Some studies have focused on a group of compounds selected for their capacity to potently inhibit TNF-α production by LPS stimulated PBMC. L. G. Corral, et al., Ann. Rheum. Dis. 58:(Suppl I) 1107-1113 (1999). These compounds, which are referred to as IMiDS™ (Celgene Corporation) or Immunomodulatory Drugs, show not only potent inhibition of TNF-α but also marked inhibition of LPS induced monocyte IL1β and IL12 production. LPS induced IL6 is also inhibited by immunomodulatory compounds, albeit partially. These compounds are potent stimulators of LPS induced IL10. Id. Particular examples of IMiD™s include, but are not limited to, the substituted 2-(2,6-dioxopiperidin-3-yl) phthalimides and substituted 2-(2,6-dioxopiperidin-3-yl)-1-oxoisoindoles described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,281,230 and 6,316,471, both to G. W. Muller, et al.

3. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This invention encompasses methods of treating and preventing certain types of cancer, including primary and metastatic cancer, as well as cancers that are refractory or resistant to conventional chemotherapy. The methods comprise administering to a patient in need of such treatment or prevention a therapeutically or prophylactically effective amount of an immunomodulatory compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, hydrate, stereoisomer, clathrate, or prodrug thereof. The invention also encompasses methods of managing certain cancers (e.g., preventing or prolonging their recurrence, or lengthening the time of remission) which comprise administering to a patient in need of such management a prophylactically effective amount of an immunomodulatory compound of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, hydrate, stereoisomer, clathrate, or prodrug thereof.

In particular methods of the invention, an immunomodulatory compound is administered in combination with a therapy conventionally used to treat, prevent or manage cancer. Examples of such conventional therapies include, but are not limited to, surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, biological therapy and immunotherapy.

This invention also encompasses methods of treating, managing or preventing diseases and disorders other than cancer that are associated with, or characterized by, undesired angiogenesis, which comprise administering to a patient in need of such treatment, management or prevention a therapeutically or prophylactically effective amount of an immunomodulatory compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, hydrate, stereoisomer, clathrate, or prodrug thereof.

In other methods of the invention, an immunomodulatory compound is administered in combination with a therapy conventionally used to treat, prevent or manage diseases or disorders associated with, or characterized by, undesired angiogenesis. Examples of such conventional therapies include, but are not limited to, surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, biological therapy and immunotherapy.

This invention encompasses pharmaceutical compositions, single unit dosage forms, dosing regimens and kits which comprise an immunomodulatory compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, hydrate, stereoisomer, clathrate, or prodrug thereof, and a second, or additional, active agent. Second active agents include specific combinations, or “cocktails,” of drugs.

4. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF FIGURE

FIG. 1 shows a comparison of the effects of 3-(4-amino-1-oxo-1,3-dihydro-isoindol-2-yl)-piperidine-2,6-dione (Revimid™) and thalidomide in inhibiting the proliferation of multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines in an in vitro study. The uptake of [3H]-thymidine by different MM cell lines (MM. 1S, Hs Sultan, U266 and RPMI-8226) was measured as an indicator of the cell proliferation.

5. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

A first embodiment of the invention encompasses methods of treating, managing, or preventing cancer which comprises administering to a patient in need of such treatment or prevention a therapeutically or prophylactically effective amount of an immunomodulatory compound of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, hydrate, stereoisomer, clathrate, or prodrug thereof.

In particular methods encompassed by this embodiment, the immunomodulatory compound is administered in combination with another drug (“second active agent”) or method of treating, managing, or preventing cancer. Second active agents include small molecules and large molecules (e.g., proteins and antibodies), examples of which are provided herein, as well as stem cells. Methods, or therapies, that can be used in combination with the administration of the immunomodulatory compound include, but are not limited to, surgery, blood transfusions, immunotherapy, biological therapy, radiation therapy, and other non-drug based therapies presently used to treat, prevent or manage cancer.

Another embodiment of the invention encompasses methods of treating, managing or preventing diseases and disorders other than cancer that are characterized by undesired angiogenesis. These methods comprise the administration of a therapeutically or prophylactically effective amount of an immunomodulatory compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, hydrate, stereoisomer, clathrate, or prodrug thereof.

Examples of diseases and disorders associated with, or characterized by, undesired angiogenesis include, but are not limited to, inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases, viral diseases, genetic diseases, allergic diseases, bacterial diseases, ocular neovascular diseases, choroidal neovascular diseases, retina neovascular diseases, and rubeosis (neovascularization of the angle).

In particular methods encompassed by this embodiment, the immunomodulatory compound is administer in combination with a second active agent or method of treating, managing, or preventing the disease or condition. Second active agents include small molecules and large molecules (e.g., proteins and antibodies), examples of which are provided herein, as well as stem cells. Methods, or therapies, that can be used in combination with the administration of the immunomodulatory compound include, but are not limited to, surgery, blood transfusions, immunotherapy, biological therapy, radiation therapy, and other non-drug based therapies presently used to treat, prevent or manage disease and conditions associated with, or characterized by, undesired angiogenesis.

The invention also encompasses pharmaceutical compositions (e.g., single unit dosage forms) that can be used in methods disclosed herein. Particular pharmaceutical compositions comprise an immunomodulatory compound of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, hydrate, stereoisomer, clathrate, or prodrug thereof, and a second active agent.

5.1 Immunomodulatory Compounds

Compounds used in the invention include immunomodulatory compounds that are racemic, stereomerically enriched or stereomerically pure, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates, hydrates, stereoisomers, clathrates, and prodrugs thereof. Preferred compounds used in the invention are small organic molecules having a molecular weight less than about 1,000 g/mol, and are not proteins, peptides, oligonucleotides, oligosaccharides or other macromolecules.

As used herein and unless otherwise indicated, the terms “immunomodulatory compounds” and “IMiDs™” (Celgene Corporation) encompasses small organic molecules that markedly inhibit TNF-α, LPS induced monocyte IL1β and IL12, and partially inhibit IL6 production. Specific immunomodulatory compounds are discussed below.

TNF-α is an inflammatory cytokine produced by macrophages and monocytes during acute inflammation. TNF-α is responsible for a diverse range of signaling events within cells. TNF-α may play a pathological role in cancer. Without being limited by theory, one of the biological effects exerted by the immunomodulatory compounds of the invention is the reduction of synthesis of TNF-α. Immunomodulatory compounds of the invention enhance the degradation of TNF-αmRNA.

Further, without being limited by theory, immunomodulatory compounds used in the invention may also be potent co-stimulators of T cells and increase cell proliferation dramatically in a dose dependent manner. Immunomodulatory compounds of the invention may also have a greater co-stimulatory effect on the CD8+ T cell subset than on the CD4+ T cell subset. In addition, the compounds preferably have anti-inflammatory properties, and efficiently co-stimulate T cells.

Specific examples of immunomodulatory compounds of the invention, include, but are not limited to, cyano and carboxy derivatives of substituted styrenes such as those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,929,117; 1-oxo-2-(2,6-dioxo-3-fluoropiperidin-3-yl) isoindolines and 1,3-dioxo-2-(2,6-dioxo-3-fluoropiperidine-3-yl) isoindolines such as those described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,874,448; the tetra substituted 2-(2,6-dioxopiperdin-3-yl)-1-oxoisoindolines described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,798,368; 1-oxo and 1,3-dioxo-2-(2,6-dioxopiperidin-3-yl) isoindolines (e.g., 4-methyl derivatives of thalidomide and EM-12), including, but not limited to, those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,635,517; and a class of non-polypeptide cyclic amides disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,698,579 and 5,877,200; analogs and derivatives of thalidomide, including hydrolysis products, metabolites, derivatives and precursors of thalidomide, such as those described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,593,990, 5,629,327, and 6,071,948 to D’Amato; aminothalidomide, as well as analogs, hydrolysis products, metabolites, derivatives and precursors of aminothalidomide, and substituted 2-(2,6-dioxopiperidin-3-yl) phthalimides and substituted 2-(2,6-dioxopiperidin-3-yl)-1-oxoisoindoles such as those described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,281,230 and 6,316,471; isoindole-imide compounds such as those described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/972,487 filed on Oct. 5, 2001, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/032,286 filed on Dec. 21, 2001, and International Application No. PCT/US01/50401 (International Publication No. WO 02/059106). The entireties of each of the patents and patent applications identified herein are incorporated herein by reference. Immunomodulatory compounds of the invention do not include thalidomide.

Other specific immunomodulatory compounds of the invention include, but are not limited to, 1-oxo- and 1,3 dioxo-2-(2,6-dioxopiperidin-3-yl) isoindolines substituted with amino in the benzo ring as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,635,517 which is incorporated herein by reference. These compounds have the structure I:

Figure US07968569-20110628-C00001


in which one of X and Y is C═O, the other of X and Y is C═O or CH2, and Ris hydrogen or lower alkyl, in particular methyl. Specific immunomodulatory compounds include, but are not limited to:

  • 1-oxo-2-(2,6-dioxopiperidin-3-yl)-4-aminoisoindoline;
  • 1-oxo-2-(2,6-dioxopiperidin-3-yl)-5-aminoisoindoline;
  • 1-oxo-2-(2,6-dioxopiperidin-3-yl)-6-aminoisoindoline;
  • 1-oxo-2-(2,6-dioxopiperidin-3-yl)-7-aminoisoindoline;
  • 1,3-dioxo-2-(2,6-dioxopiperidin-3-yl)-4-aminoisoindoline; and
  • 1,3-dioxo-2-(2,6-dioxopiperidin-3-yl)-5-aminoisoindoline.

Other specific immunomodulatory compounds of the invention belong to a class of substituted 2-(2,6-dioxopiperidin-3-yl) phthalimides and substituted 2-(2,6-dioxopiperidin-3-yl)-1-oxoisoindoles, such as those described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,281,230; 6,316,471; 6,335,349; and 6,476,052, and International Patent Application No. PCT/US97/13375 (International Publication No. WO 98/03502), each of which is incorporated herein by reference. Compounds representative of this class are of the formulas:

Figure US07968569-20110628-C00002


wherein Ris hydrogen or methyl. In a separate embodiment, the invention encompasses the use of enantiomerically pure forms (e.g. optically pure (R) or (S) enantiomers) of these compounds.

Still other specific immunomodulatory compounds of the invention belong to a class of isoindole-imides disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 10/032,286 and 09/972,487, and International Application No. PCT/US01/50401 (International Publication No. WO 02/059106), each of which are incorporated herein by reference. Representative compounds are of formula II:

Figure US07968569-20110628-C00003

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, hydrates, solvates, clathrates, enantiomers, diastereomers, racemates, and mixtures of stereoisomers thereof, wherein:

one of X and Y is C═O and the other is CHor C═O;

Ris H, (C1-C8)alkyl, (C3-C7)cycloalkyl, (C2-C8)alkenyl, (C2-C8)alkynyl, benzyl, aryl, (C0-C4)alkyl-(C1-C6)heterocycloalkyl, (C0-C4)alkyl-(C2-C5)heteroaryl, C(O)R3, C(S)R3, C(O)OR4, (C1-C8)alkyl-N(R6)2, (C1-C8)alkyl-OR5, (C1-C8)alkyl-C(O)OR5, C(O)NHR3, C(S)NHR3, C(O)NR3R3′, C(S)NR3R3′ or (C1-C8)alkyl-O(CO)R5;

Ris H, F, benzyl, (C1-C8)alkyl, (C2-C8)alkenyl, or (C2-C8)alkynyl;

Rand R3′ are independently (C1-C8)alkyl, (C3-C7)cycloalkyl, (C2-C8)alkenyl, (C2-C8)alkynyl, benzyl, aryl, (C0-C4)alkyl(C1-C6)heterocycloalkyl, (C0-C4)alkyl-(C2-C5)heteroaryl, (C0-C8)alkyl-N(R6)2, (C1-C8)alkyl-OR5, (C1-C8)alkyl-C(O)OR5, (C1-C8)alkyl-O(CO)R5, or C(O)OR5;

Ris (C1-C8)alkyl, (C2-C8)alkenyl, (C2-C8)alkynyl, (C1-C4)alkyl-OR5, benzyl, aryl, (C0-C4)alkyl-(C1-C6)heterocycloalkyl, or (C0-C4)alkyl-(C2-C5)heteroaryl;

Ris (C1-C8)alkyl, (C2-C8)alkenyl, (C2-C8)alkynyl, benzyl, aryl, or (C2-C5)heteroaryl;

each occurrence of Ris independently H, (C1-C8)alkyl, (C2-C8)alkenyl, (C2-C8)alkynyl, benzyl, aryl, (C2-C5)heteroaryl, or (C0-C8)alkyl-C(O)O—Ror the R6groups can join to form a heterocycloalkyl group;

n is 0 or 1; and

* represents a chiral-carbon center.

In specific compounds of formula II, when n is 0 then Ris (C3-C7)cycloalkyl, (C2-C8)alkenyl, (C2-C8)alkynyl, benzyl, aryl, (C0-C4)alkyl-(C1-C6)heterocycloalkyl, (C0-C4)alkyl-(C2-C5)heteroaryl, C(O)R3, C(O)OR4, (C1-C8)alkyl-N(R6)2, (C1-C8)alkyl-OR5, (C1-C8)alkyl-C(O)OR5, C(S)NHR3, or (C1-C8)alkyl O(CO)R5;

Ris H or (C1-C8)alkyl; and

Ris (C1-C8)alkyl, (C3-C7)cycloalkyl, (C2-C8)alkenyl, (C2-C8)alkynyl, benzyl, aryl, (C0-C4)alkyl-(C1-C6)heterocycloalkyl, (C0-C4)alkyl-(C2-C5)heteroaryl, (C5-C8)alkyl-N(R6)2; (C0-C8)alkyl-NH—C(O)O—R5; (C1-C8)alkyl-OR5, (C1-C8)alkyl-C(O)OR5, (C1-C8)alkyl-O(CO)R5, or C(O)OR5; and the other variables have the same definitions.

In other specific compounds of formula II, Ris H or (C1-C4)alkyl.

In other specific compounds of formula II, Ris (C1-C8)alkyl or benzyl.

In other specific compounds of formula II, Ris H, (C1-C8)alkyl, benzyl, CH2OCH3, CH2CH2OCH3, or

Figure US07968569-20110628-C00004

In another embodiment of the compounds of formula II, Ris

Figure US07968569-20110628-C00005


wherein Q is O or S, and each occurrence of Ris independently H, (C1-C8)alkyl, benzyl, CH2OCH3, or CH2CH2OCH3.

In other specific compounds of formula II, Ris C(O)R3.

In other specific compounds of formula II, Ris (C0-C4)alkyl-(C2-C5)heteroaryl, (C1-C5)alkyl, aryl, or (C0-C4)alkyl-OR5.

In other specific compounds of formula II, heteroaryl is pyridyl, furyl, or thienyl.

In other specific compounds of formula II, Ris C(O)OR4.

In other specific compounds of formula II, the H of C(O)NHC(O) can be replaced with (C1-C4)alkyl, aryl, or benzyl.

Still other specific immunomodulatory compounds of the invention belong to a class of isoindole-imides disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/781,179, International Publication No. WO 98/54170, and U.S. Pat. No. 6,395,754, each of which are incorporated herein by reference. Representative compounds are of formula III:

Figure US07968569-20110628-C00006


and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, hydrates, solvates, clathrates, enantiomers, diastereomers, racemates, and mixtures of stereoisomers thereof, wherein:

one of X and Y is C═O and the other is CHor C═O;

R is H or CH2OCOR′;

(i) each of R1, R2, R3, or R4, independently of the others, is halo, alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, or alkoxy of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or (ii) one of R1, R2, R3, or Ris nitro or —NHRand the remaining of R1, R2, R3, or Rare hydrogen;

Ris hydrogen or alkyl of 1 to 8 carbons

Rhydrogen, alkyl of 1 to 8 carbon atoms, benzo, chloro, or fluoro;

R′ is R7—CHR10—N(R8R9);

Ris m-phenylene or p-phenylene or —(CnH2n)— in which n has a value of 0 to 4;

each of Rand Rtaken independently of the other is hydrogen or alkyl of 1 to 8 carbon atoms, or Rand Rtaken together are tetramethylene, pentamethylene, hexamethylene, or —CH2CH2[X]X1CH2CH2— in which [X]Xis —O—, —S—, or —NH—;

R10 is hydrogen, alkyl of to 8 carbon atoms, or phenyl; and

* represents a chiral-carbon center.

The most preferred immunomodulatory compounds of the invention are 4-(amino)-2-(2,6-dioxo(3-piperidyl))-isoindoline-1,3-dione and 3-(4-amino-1-oxo-1,3-dihydro-isoindol-2-yl)-piperidine-2,6-dione. The compounds can be obtained via standard, synthetic methods (see e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,635,517, incorporated herein by reference). The compounds are available from Celgene Corporation, Warren, N.J. 4-(Amino)-2-(2,6-dioxo(3-piperidyl))-isoindoline-1,3-dione (ACTIMID™) has the following chemical structure:

Figure US07968569-20110628-C00007


The compound 3-(4-amino-1-oxo-1,3-dihydro-isoindol-2-yl)-piperidine-2,6-dione (REVIMID™) has the following chemical structure:

Figure US07968569-20110628-C00008

Compounds of the invention can either be commercially purchased or prepared according to the methods described in the patents or patent publications disclosed herein. Further, optically pure compounds can be asymmetrically synthesized or resolved using known resolving agents or chiral columns as well as other standard synthetic organic chemistry techniques.

As used herein and unless otherwise indicated, the term “pharmaceutically acceptable salt” encompasses non-toxic acid and base addition salts of the compound to which the term refers. Acceptable non-toxic acid addition salts include those derived from organic and inorganic acids or bases know in the art, which include, for example, hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, methanesulphonic acid, acetic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, citric acid, malic acid, maleic acid, sorbic acid, aconitic acid, salicylic acid, phthalic acid, embolic acid, enanthic acid, and the like.

Compounds that are acidic in nature are capable of forming salts with various pharmaceutically acceptable bases. The bases that can be used to prepare pharmaceutically acceptable base addition salts of such acidic compounds are those that form non-toxic base addition salts, i.e., salts containing pharmacologically acceptable cations such as, but not limited to, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal salts and the calcium, magnesium, sodium or potassium salts in particular. Suitable organic bases include, but are not limited to, N,N-dibenzylethylenediamine, chloroprocaine, choline, diethanolamine, ethylenediamine, meglumaine (N-methylglucamine), lysine, and procaine.

As used herein and unless otherwise indicated, the term “prodrug” means a derivative of a compound that can hydrolyze, oxidize, or otherwise react under biological conditions (in vitro or in vivo) to provide the compound. Examples of prodrugs include, but are not limited to, derivatives of immunomodulatory compounds of the invention that comprise biohydrolyzable moieties such as biohydrolyzable amides, biohydrolyzable esters, biohydrolyzable carbamates, biohydrolyzable carbonates, biohydrolyzable ureides, and biohydrolyzable phosphate analogues. Other examples of prodrugs include derivatives of immunomodulatory compounds of the invention that comprise —NO, —NO2, —ONO, or —ONOmoieties. Prodrugs can typically be prepared using well-known methods, such as those described in 1 Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, 172-178, 949-982 (Manfred E. Wolff ed., 5th ed. 1995), and Design of Prodrugs (H. Bundgaard ed., Elselvier, N.Y. 1985).

As used herein and unless otherwise indicated, the terms “biohydrolyzable amide,” “biohydrolyzable ester,” “biohydrolyzable carbamate,” “biohydrolyzable carbonate,” “biohydrolyzable ureide,” “biohydrolyzable phosphate” mean an amide, ester, carbamate, carbonate, ureide, or phosphate, respectively, of a compound that either: 1) does not interfere with the biological activity of the compound but can confer upon that compound advantageous properties in vivo, such as uptake, duration of action, or onset of action; or 2) is biologically inactive but is converted in vivo to the biologically active compound. Examples of biohydrolyzable esters include, but are not limited to, lower alkyl esters, lower acyloxyalkyl esters (such as acetoxylmethyl, acetoxyethyl, aminocarbonyloxymethyl, pivaloyloxymethyl, and pivaloyloxyethyl esters), lactonyl esters (such as phthalidyl and thiophthalidyl esters), lower alkoxyacyloxyalkyl esters (such as methoxycarbonyl-oxymethyl, ethoxycarbonyloxyethyl and isopropoxycarbonyloxyethyl esters), alkoxyalkyl esters, choline esters, and acylamino alkyl esters (such as acetamidomethyl esters). Examples of biohydrolyzable amides include, but are not limited to, lower alkyl amides, α-amino acid amides, alkoxyacyl amides, and alkylaminoalkylcarbonyl amides. Examples of biohydrolyzable carbamates include, but are not limited to, lower alkylamines, substituted ethylenediamines, amino acids, hydroxyalkylamines, heterocyclic and heteroaromatic amines, and polyether amines.

Various immunomodulatory compounds of the invention contain one or more chiral centers, and can exist as racemic mixtures of enantiomers or mixtures of diastereomers. This invention encompasses the use of stereomerically pure forms of such compounds, as well as the use of mixtures of those forms. For example, mixtures comprising equal or unequal amounts of the enantiomers of a particular immunomodulatory compounds of the invention may be used in methods and compositions of the invention. These isomers may be asymmetrically synthesized or resolved using standard techniques such as chiral columns or chiral resolving agents. See, e.g., Jacques, J., et al., Enantiomers, Racemates and Resolutions(Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1981); Wilen, S. H., et al., Tetrahedron 33:2725 (1977); Eliel, E. L., Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds (McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1962); and Wilen, S. H., Tables of Resolving Agents and Optical Resolutions p. 268 (E. L. Eliel, Ed., Univ. of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, Ind., 1972).

As used herein and unless otherwise indicated, the term “stereomerically pure” means a composition that comprises one stereoisomer of a compound and is substantially free of other stereoisomers of that compound. For example, a stereomerically pure composition of a compound having one chiral center will be substantially free of the opposite enantiomer of the compound. A stereomerically pure composition of a compound having two chiral centers will be substantially free of other diastereomers of the compound. A typical stereomerically pure compound comprises greater than about 80% by weight of one stereoisomer of the compound and less than about 20% by weight of other stereoisomers of the compound, more preferably greater than about 90% by weight of one stereoisomer of the compound and less than about 10% by weight of the other stereoisomers of the compound, even more preferably greater than about 95% by weight of one stereoisomer of the compound and less than about 5% by weight of the other stereoisomers of the compound, and most preferably greater than about 97% by weight of one stereoisomer of the compound and less than about 3% by weight of the other stereoisomers of the compound. As used herein and unless otherwise indicated, the term “stereomerically enriched” means a composition that comprises greater than about 60% by weight of one stereoisomer of a compound, preferably greater than about 70% by weight, more preferably greater than about 80% by weight of one stereoisomer of a compound. As used herein and unless otherwise indicated, the term “enantiomerically pure” means a stereomerically pure composition of a compound having one chiral center. Similarly, the term “stereomerically enriched” means a stereomerically enriched composition of a compound having one chiral center.

It should be noted that if there is a discrepancy between a depicted structure and a name given that structure, the depicted structure is to be accorded more weight. In addition, if the stereochemistry of a structure or a portion of a structure is not indicated with, for example, bold or dashed lines, the structure or portion of the structure is to be interpreted as encompassing all stereoisomers of it.

5.2 Second Active Agents

Immunomodulatory compounds can be combined with other pharmacologically active compounds (“second active agents”) in methods and compositions of the invention. It is believed that certain combinations work synergistically in the treatment of particular types of cancer and certain diseases and conditions associated with, or characterized by, undesired angiogenesis. Immunomodulatory compounds can also work to alleviate adverse effects associated with certain second active agents, and some second active agents can be used to alleviate adverse effects associated with immunomodulatory compounds.

One or more second active ingredients or agents can be used in the methods and compositions of the invention together with an immunomodulatory compound. Second active agents can be large molecules (e.g., proteins) or small molecules (e.g., synthetic inorganic, organometallic, or organic molecules).

Examples of large molecule active agents include, but are not limited to, hematopoietic growth factors, cytokines, and monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Typical large molecule active agents are biological molecules, such as naturally occurring or artificially made proteins. Proteins that are particularly useful in this invention include proteins that stimulate the survival and/or proliferation of hematopoietic precursor cells and immunologically active poietic cells in vitro or in vivo. Others stimulate the division and differentiation of committed erythroid progenitors in cells in vitro or in vivo. Particular proteins include, but are not limited to: interleukins, such as IL-2 (including recombinant IL-II (“rIL2”) and canarypox IL-2), IL-10, IL-12, and IL-18; interferons, such as interferon alfa-2a, interferon alfa-2b, interferon alfa-n1, interferon alfa-n3, interferon beta-I a, and interferon gamma-I b; GM-CF and GM-CSF; and EPO.

Particular proteins that can be used in the methods and compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to: filgrastim, which is sold in the United States under the trade name Neupogen® (Amgen, Thousand Oaks, Calif.); sargramostim, which is sold in the United States under the trade name Leukine® (Immunex, Seattle, Wash.); and recombinant EPO, which is sold in the United States under the trade name Epogen® (Amgen, Thousand Oaks, Calif.).

Recombinant and mutated forms of GM-CSF can be prepared as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,391,485; 5,393,870; and 5,229,496; all of which are incorporated herein by reference. Recombinant and mutated forms of G-CSF can be prepared as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,810,643; 4,999,291; 5,528,823; and 5,580,755; all of which are incorporated herein by reference.

This invention encompasses the use of native, naturally occurring, and recombinant proteins. The invention further encompasses mutants and derivatives (e.g., modified forms) of naturally occurring proteins that exhibit, in vivo, at least some of the pharmacological activity of the proteins upon which they are based. Examples of mutants include, but are not limited to, proteins that have one or more amino acid residues that differ from the corresponding residues in the naturally occurring forms of the proteins. Also encompassed by the term “mutants” are proteins that lack carbohydrate moieties normally present in their naturally occurring forms (e.g., nonglycosylated forms). Examples of derivatives include, but are not limited to, pegylated derivatives and fusion proteins, such as proteins formed by fusing IgG1 or IgG3 to the protein or active portion of the protein of interest. See, e.g., Penichet, M. L. and Morrison, S. L., J. Immunol. Methods 248:91-101 (2001).

Antibodies that can be used in combination with compounds of the invention include monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Examples of antibodies include, but are not limited to, trastuzumab (Herceptin®), rituximab (Rituxan®), bevacizumab (Avastin™), pertuzumab (Omnitarg™), tositumomab (Bexxar®), edrecolomab (Panorex®), and G250. Compounds of the invention can also be combined with, or used in combination with, anti-TNF-α antibodies.

Other posts on Revlimid, Celgene, and other such Patent Litigation on this Open Access Journal Include:

From Thalidomide to Revlimid: Celgene to Bristol Myers to possibly Pfizer; A Curation of Deals, Discovery and the State of Pharma

REVLIMID® (Lenalidomide) Approved by the European Commission for the Treatment of Adult Patients with Previously Untreated Multiple Myeloma who are Not Eligible for Transplant

FDA: Rejects NDA filing: “clinical and non-clinical pharmacology sections of the application were not sufficient to complete a review”: Celgene’s Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis Drug – Ozanimod

The top 15 best-selling cancer drugs in 2022 & Projected Sales in 2020 of World’s Top Ten Oncology Drugs

Monoclonal antibody treatment of Multiple Myeloma

At California Central District Court Juno Therapeutics, Inc. et al v. Kite Pharma, Inc. – Multi-party Patent Infringement

 

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A Timeline of Dr. Gottlieb’s Tenure at the FDA: 2017-2019

Reporter: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

 

From FiercePharma.com

FDA chief Scott Gottlieb steps down, leaving pet projects behind

Scott Gottlieb FDA
FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb was appointed by President Trump in 2017. (FDA)

Also under his command, the FDA took quick and decisive action on drug costs. The commissioner worked to boost generic approvals and crack down on regulatory “gaming” that stifles competition. He additionally blamed branded drug companies for an “anemic” U.S. biosimilars market and recently blasted insulin pricing.

His sudden departure will likely leave many agency efforts to lower costs up in the air. After the news broke, many pharma watchers posted on Twitter that Gottlieb’s resignation is a loss for the industry.

During his tenure as FDA commissioner, Gottlieb’s name had been floated for HHS chief when former HHS secretary Tom Price resigned due to a travel scandal, but Gottlieb said he was best suited for the FDA commissioner job. Now, former Eli Lilly executive Alex Azar serves as HHS secretary, and on Tuesday afternoon, Azar praised Gottlieb for his work at the agency.

Also read from FiercePharma:

Gottlieb’s quick goodbye triggers investor panic, biopharma bewilderment and at least one good riddance

AUDIT Podcast

An emergency Scott Gottlieb podcast

 

Why is Scott Gottlieb quitting the FDA? Who will replace him?

 

A Timeline of Dr. Gottlieb’s Tenure at the FDA

From FiercePharma.com

New FDA commissioner Gottlieb unveils price-fighting strategies

Scott Gottlieb
New FDA commissioner Scott Gottlieb laid out some approaches the agency will take to fight high prices.

UPDATED 3/19/2019

Dr. Norman E. Sharpless was named acting commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration on Tuesday. For the last 18 months, he had been director of the National Cancer Institute.CreditTom Williams/CQ Roll Call, via Getty Images
Image
Dr. Norman E. Sharpless was named acting commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration on Tuesday. For the last 18 months, he had been director of the National Cancer Institute.CreditCreditTom Williams/CQ Roll Call, via Getty Images

WASHINGTON — Dr. Norman E. (Ned) Sharpless, director of the National Cancer Institute, will serve as acting commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, Alex M. Azar III, secretary of health and human services, announced on Tuesday.

Dr. Sharpless temporarily will fill the post being vacated by Dr. Scott Gottlieb, who stunned public health experts, lawmakers and consumer groups last week when he abruptly announced that he was resigningfor personal reasons.

Dr. Sharpless has been director of the cancer center, part of the National Institutes of Health, since October 2017. He is also chief of the aging biology and cancer section in the National Institute on Aging’s Laboratory of Genetics and Genomics. His research focuses on the relationship between aging and cancer, and development of new treatments for melanoma, lung cancer and breast cancer.

“Dr. Sharpless’s deep scientific background and expertise will make him a strong leader for F.D.A.,” said Mr. Azar, in a statement. “There will be no let up in the agency’s focus, from ongoing efforts on drug approvals and combating the opioid crisis to modernizing food safety and addressing the rapid rise in youth use of e-cigarettes.”

Dr. Douglas Lowy, known for seminal research on the link between human papillomavirus and multiple cancer types including cervical, and ultimately leading to development of a vaccine, will be named head of the NCI to replace Dr. Sharpless. Dr. Lowy currently is Deputy Director of the NCI.

Other posts on the Food and Drug Administration and FDA Approvals during Dr. Gotlieb’s Tenure on this Open Access Journal Include:

 

Regulatory Affairs: Publications on FDA-related Issues – Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

FDA Approves La Jolla’s Angiotensin 2

In 2018, FDA approved an all-time record of 62 new therapeutic drugs (NTDs) [Not including diagnostic imaging agents, included are combination products with at least one new molecular entity as an active ingredient] with average Peak Sales per NTD $1.2Billion.

Alnylam Announces First-Ever FDA Approval of an RNAi Therapeutic, ONPATTRO™ (patisiran) for the Treatment of the Polyneuropathy of Hereditary Transthyretin-Mediated Amyloidosis in Adults

FDA: Rejects NDA filing: “clinical and non-clinical pharmacology sections of the application were not sufficient to complete a review”: Celgene’s Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis Drug – Ozanimod

Expanded Stroke Thrombectomy Guidelines: FDA expands treatment window for use (Up to 24 Hours Post-Stroke) of clot retrieval devices (Stryker’s Trevo Stent) in certain stroke patients

In 2017, FDA approved a record number of 19 personalized medicines — 16 new molecular entities and 3 gene therapies – PMC’s annual analysis, titled Personalized Medicine at FDA: 2017 Progress Report

FDA Approval marks first presentation of bivalirudin in frozen, premixed, ready-to-use formulation

Skin Regeneration Therapy One of First Tissue Engineering Products Evaluated by FDA

FDA approval on 12/1/2017 of Amgen’s evolocumb (Repatha) a PCSK9 inhibitor for the prevention of heart attacks, strokes, and coronary revascularizations in patients with established cardiovascular disease

FDA Approval of Anti-Depression Digital Pill Tracks Use When Swallowed and transmits to MDs Smartphone – A Breakthrough in Medication Remote Compliance Monitoring

Medical Devices Early Feasibility FDA’s Pathway – Accelerated Recruitment for Randomized Clinical Trials: Replacement and Repair of Mitral Valves

Novartis’ Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel), FDA approved genetically engineered immune cells, would charge $475,000 per patient, will use Programs that Payers will pay only for Responding Patients 

FDA has approved the world’s first CAR-T therapy, Novartis for Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel) and Gilead’s $12 billion buy of Kite Pharma, no approved drug and Canakinumab for Lung Cancer (may be?)

FDA: CAR-T therapy outweigh its risks tisagenlecleucel, manufactured by Novartis of Basel – 52 out of 63 participants — 82.5% — experienced overall remissions – young patients with Leukaemia [ALL]

‘Landmark FDA approval bolsters personalized medicine’ by Edward Abrahams, PhD, President, PMC

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Drug Repurposing Hub Library @broadinstitute @MIT @Harvard

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN and Irina Robu, PhD

CLAIMER: most valuable information for Drug Repurposing is found in the following LPBI Group three Intellectual Property Asset Classes

Our intellectual property “IP” consists of three classes of assets as described in detail within live links in the below, listed article.

  • First, the Journal, an ongoing journal of curated, current biomedical research;
  • Second, the books, a collection of 16 volumes of e-books available via Amazon in five specialties of Medicine: Cardiovascular, Genomics, Cancer, Immunology and Precision Medicine; and
  • Third, real-time curation of biotech and medical conferences yielding an e-Proceedings at the end of the conference in One-click operation.

These three IP asset classes are described in details with live links in

eScientific Publishing a Case in Point: Evolution of Platform Architecture Methodologies and of Intellectual Property Development (Content Creation by Curation) Business Model

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/02/04/escientific-publishing-a-case-in-point-evolution-of-platform-architecture-methodologies-and-of-intellectual-property-development-content-creation-by-curation-business-model/

 

The Drug Repurposing Hub: A next-generation drug library and information resource

M Corsello, Steven & A Bittker, Joshua & Liu, Zihan & Gould, Joshua & McCarren, Patrick & E Hirschman, Jodi & E Johnston, Stephen & Vrcic, Anita & Wong, Bang & Khan, Mariya & Asiedu, Jacob & Narayan, Rajiv & C Mader, Christopher & Subramanian, Aravind & R Golub, Todd. (2017). The Drug Repurposing Hub: A next-generation drug library and information resource. Nature Medicine. 23. 405-408. 10.1038/nm.4306.

… Published on January 3, 2018 as DOI: 10.1124/mol.117. Downloaded from additional source, we used data from the Broad repurposing hub ( Corsello et al, 2017), which employed high throughput screening to characterize drug-target interactions of approved drugs, natural products and nutraceuticals along with other entities. Our analysis yielded a list of currently ‘druggable’ GPCRs and the drugs that target them. …
… Using a range of ~500 (conservative estimate) to ~700 GPCR-targeted drugs, we estimate that between ~25% and ~36% of approved drugs target GPCRs, with the upper figure the more likely. As additional studies such as the Broad repurposing initiative ( Corsello et al, 2017) characterize GPCR-drug interactions in more detail, we anticipate a growth in this number, as secondary interactions between GPCRs and drugs are defined ( Allen and Roth, 2011). IUPHAR lists more druggable GPCRs than CHEMBL or DRUGBANK but has the smallest number of GPCR-related and overall approved drugs ( Figure 3C shows the number of GPCR-targeted drugs based on target-ligand interactions annotated by either IUPHAR or CHEMBL; of the 476 such drugs listed in one or both sources, only a portion are common to both (50%). …

 

Drug Repurposing Hub Library @broadinstitute  @MIT @Harvard

To date there has not been a systematic effort to identify such opportunities, limited in part by the lack of a comprehensive library of clinical compounds suitable for testing. To address this challenge, we hand-curated a collection of 4,707 compounds, experimentally confirmed their identity, and annotated them with literature-reported targets. The collection includes 3,422 drugs that are marketed around the world or that have been tested in human clinical trials. Compounds were obtained from more than 50 chemical vendors and the purity of each sample was established. We have thus established a blueprint for others to easily assemble such a repurposing library, and we have created an online Drug Repurposing Hub (www.broadinstitute.org/repurposing) containing detailed annotation for each of the compounds.

SOURCE

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5568558/

. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 Aug 23.
Published in final edited form as:
PMCID: PMC5568558
NIHMSID: NIHMS893143
PMID: 28388612

The Drug Repurposing Hub: a next-generation drug library and information resource

SOURCE
Other Resources

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