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Archive for the ‘Cancer – General’ Category


cell-free DNA (cfDNA) tests could become the ultimate “Molecular Stethoscope” that opens up a whole new way of practicing Medicine

 

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

The first commercial application of cfDNA sequencing debuted in 2011. New blood tests can identify Down’s syndrome and similar genetic conditions during the first months of pregnancy by checking the fetal DNA in the bloodstream of a pregnant woman. (Anywhere from 10 to 15 percent of the DNA in a pregnant woman’s blood comes from the placenta, which is genetically similar to the fetus.) These maternal blood tests are fast replacing less-accurate procedures, such as ultrasound plus blood analysis.

More recently, researchers have started looking at cfDNA to develop so-called liquid biopsies, which analyze a tumor’s genetic makeup or look for evidence of a cancer recurrence. Tumors often spill DNA into the blood as they grow and divide, and because they are usually riddled with mutations, their scrambled DNA is clearly different from that found in normal DNA fragments. The first liquid biopsy test was launched only three years ago; although they are not yet part of routine care, the field is growing quickly. One company says it will give liquid biopsy tests to one million people in the next five years, and another has raised nearly $1 billion for its studies.

A similar cfDNA method is being tested for newly transplanted organs, which are at risk of being rejected by the recipient’s immune system. Currently, transplant doctors check a transplanted organ’s health by performing repeated biopsies, which are expensive and invasive. After a transplant small amounts of donor DNA from the new heart or kidney, for example, circulate in the blood as part of the normal process of cell birth and death. If the host immune system attacks the foreign organ, the proportion of donor DNA increases as more and more foreign cells die. One company, CareDx, already sells a test that picks up on that change for people who have had kidney transplants.

The researchers invented a way to boost the signal by reducing human DNA in blood samples. Their spin-off company, Karius, launched a test earlier this year to identify bacteria, fungi, viruses or parasites in hospitalized patients. It can spot infections in organs that are too dangerous for biopsies, including the lung and the brain, Kertesz says—and it is most useful for people with mystery infections or who are too sick to endure a surgery.

cell-free DNA tests in the future include stroke, or autoimmune conditions such as lupus

 

SOURCE

One Test May Spot Cancer, Infections, Diabetes and More

Researchers are starting to diagnose more ailments using DNA fragments found in the blood

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/one-test-may-spot-cancer-infections-diabetes-and-more/

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First Haploid Human Stem Cells

Reported: Irina Robu, PhD

Most of the cells in our body are diploid, which indicate they carry two sets of chromosomes—one from each parent. So far, scientists have only succeeded in generating haploid embryonic stem cells—which comprise a single set of chromosomes in non-human mammals such as mice, rats and monkeys. Nevertheless, scientists have tried to isolate and duplicate these haploid ESCs in humans, which would allow them to work with one set of human chromosomes as opposed to a mixture from both parents.

Scientists from Hebrew from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute (NYSCF) were successful in generating a new type of embryonic stem cells that has a single copy of the human genome, instead of two copies which is typically found in normal stem cells.

This landmark was finally obtained by Ido Sagi, working as a PhD student at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem which was successful in isolating and maintaining haploid embryonic stem cells in humans. Unlike in mice, these haploid stem cells were capable to differentiate into various cell types such as brain, heart and pancreas, although holding a single set of chromosomes. Sagi and his advisor, Prof. Nissim Benvenisty showed that this new human stem cell type will play an important role in human genetic and medical research.  This new human cell type cell type will aid in understanding human development and it will make genetic screening simpler and more precise, by examining a single set of chromosomes.

Based on this research, the Technology Transfer arm of the Hebrew University, started a new company New Stem, which is developing a diagnostic kit for predicting resistance to chemotherapy treatments. By gathering a broad library of human pluripotent stem cells with various genetic makeups and mutations. The company is planning to use this kit for personalized medication and future therapeutic and reproductive products.

SOURCE

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-06-haploid-human-stem-cells-medical.html#jCp

Other related articles published in this Open Access Online Scientific Journal include the following:

Ido Sagi – PhD Student @HUJI, 2017 Kaye Innovation Award winner for leading research that yielded the first successful isolation and maintenance of haploid embryonic stem cells in humans.

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Ido Sagi – PhD Student @HUJI, 2017 Kaye Innovation Award winner for leading research that yielded the first successful isolation and maintenance of haploid embryonic stem cells in humans.

 

 

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Reporter and Curator: Irina Robu, PhD

Monitoring cancer patients and evaluating their response to treatment can sometimes involve invasive procedures, including surgery.

The liquid biopsies have become something of a Holy Grail in cancer treatment among physicians, researchers and companies gambling big on the technology. Liquid biopsies, unlike traditional biopsies involving invasive surgery — rely on an ordinary blood draw. Developments in sequencing the human genome, permitting researchers to detect genetic mutations of cancers, have made the tests conceivable. Some 38 companies in the US alone are working on liquid biopsies by trying to analyze blood for fragments of DNA shed by dying tumor cells.

Premature research on the liquid biopsy has concentrated profoundly on patients with later-stage cancers who have suffered treatments, including chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, immunotherapy or drugs that target molecules involved in the growth, progression and spread of cancer. For cancer patients undergoing treatment, liquid biopsies could spare them some of the painful, expensive and risky tissue tumor biopsies and reduce reliance on CT scans. The tests can rapidly evaluate the efficacy of surgery or other treatment, while old-style biopsies and CT scans can still remain inconclusive as a result of scar tissue near the tumor site.

As recently as a few years ago, the liquid biopsies were hardly used except in research. At the moment, thousands of the tests are being used in clinical practices in the United States and abroad, including at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston; the University of California, San Diego; the University of California, San Francisco; the Duke Cancer Institute and several other cancer centers.

With patients for whom physicians cannot get a tissue biopsy, the liquid biopsy could prove a safe and effective alternative that could help determine whether treatment is helping eradicate the cancer. A startup, Miroculus developed a cheap, open source device that can test blood for several types of cancer at once. The platform, called Miriam finds cancer by extracting RNA from blood and spreading it across plates that look at specific type of mRNA. The technology is then hooked up at a smartphone which sends the information to an online database and compares the microRNA found in the patient’s blood to known patterns indicating different type of cancers in the early stage and can reduce unnecessary cancer screenings.

Nevertheless, experts warn that more studies are essential to regulate the accuracy of the test, exactly which cancers it can detect, at what stages and whether it improves care or survival rates.

SOURCE

https://www.fastcompany.com/3037117/a-new-device-can-detect-multiple-types-of-cancer-with-a-single-blood-test

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4356857/

Other related articles published in this Open Access Online Scientific Publishing Journal include the following:

Liquid Biopsy Chip detects an array of metastatic cancer cell markers in blood – R&D @Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Micro and Nanotechnology Lab

Reporters: Tilda Barliya, PhD and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/12/28/liquid-biopsy-chip-detects-an-array-of-metastatic-cancer-cell-markers-in-blood-rd-worcester-polytechnic-institute-micro-and-nanotechnology-lab/

Liquid Biopsy Assay May Predict Drug Resistance

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/11/06/liquid-biopsy-assay-may-predict-drug-resistance/

One blood sample can be tested for a comprehensive array of cancer cell biomarkers: R&D at WPI

Curator: Marzan Khan, B.Sc

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/01/05/one-blood-sample-can-be-tested-for-a-comprehensive-array-of-cancer-cell-biomarkers-rd-wpi

 

 

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Cancer: It’s Geography Mapping by CDC

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

THIS IS A SEMINAL STUDY BY CDC.GOV ON THE LONGITUDINAL, DEMOGRAPHICAL AND SPATIAL DIMENSIONS OF CANCER IN THE US by State. It is recommended to the eReader to go directly to the original study by cdc.gov

Cancer Rates by U.S. State

https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/dcpc/data/state.htm

Click on all links on the left hand side of this webpage

In addition, review the following:

http://www.businessinsider.com/map-of-cancer-rates-in-the-united-states-2017-5/#the-page-also-provided-breakdowns-of-the-leading-new-cancer-cases-alongside-the-10-types-of-cancer-that-caused-the-highest-rate-of-cancer-deaths-in-2013-lung-and-bronchial-cancer-was-the-leading-cause-of-cancer-deaths-for-both-men-and-women-while-the-highest-rates-of-new-cancer-were-breast-for-women-and-prostate-for-men-7

The CDC mapped out where people with cancer live in the US — here’s what it found

 

This map looks at the rate of new cancer cases by state per 100,000 people. This is specifically looking at 2013, which is the most recent year available. The darker the color, the higher the rate.

The page also provided breakdowns of the leading new cancer cases alongside the 10 types of cancer that caused the highest rate of cancer deaths in 2013. Lung and bronchial cancer was the leading cause of cancer deaths for both men and women, while the highest rates of new cancer were breast for women and prostate for men.

SOURCES

CDC.gov

http://www.businessinsider.com/map-of-cancer-rates-in-the-united-states-2017-5/#the-page-also-provided-breakdowns-of-the-leading-new-cancer-cases-alongside-the-10-types-of-cancer-that-caused-the-highest-rate-of-cancer-deaths-in-2013-lung-and-bronchial-cancer-was-the-leading-cause-of-cancer-deaths-for-both-men-and-women-while-the-highest-rates-of-new-cancer-were-breast-for-women-and-prostate-for-men-7

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Liquid Biopsy Chip detects an array of metastatic cancer cell markers in blood – R&D @Worcester Polytechnic Institute,  Micro and Nanotechnology Lab

Reporters: Tilda Barliya, PhD and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
bold face added by ALA

Static micro-array isolation, dynamic time series classification, capture and enumeration of spiked breast cancer cells in blood: the nanotube–CTC chip

Farhad Khosravi1, Patrick J Trainor2, Christopher Lambert3, Goetz Kloecker4, Eric Wickstrom5, Shesh N Rai2,6 and Balaji Panchapakesan1

Published 29 September 2016© 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd
Nanotechnology, Volume 27, Number 44

Nanotechnology (2016). DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/27/44/44LT03

Researchers build liquid biopsy chip that detects metastatic cancer cells in blood: One blood sample can be tested for a comprehensive array of cancer cell markers.

“Imagine going to the doctor for your yearly physical,” he said. “You have blood drawn and that one can be tested for a comprehensive array of cancer cell markers. Cancers would be caught at their earliest stage and other stages of development, and doctors would have the necessary protein or genetic information from these captured to customize your treatment based on the specific markers for your cancer. This would really be a way to put your health in your own hands.”

[T]he WPI device is also highly effective in separating cancer cells from the other cells and material in the blood through differential settling.

“White blood cells, in particular, are a problem, because they are quite numerous in blood and they can be mistaken for cancer cells,” he said. “Our device uses what is called a passive leukocyte depletion strategy. Because of density differences, the tend to settle to the bottom of the wells (and this only happens in a narrow window), where they encounter the antibodies. The remainder of the blood contents stays at the top of the wells and can simply be washed away.”

In addition to capturing tumor cells, Panchapakesan says the chip will also latch on to tiny structures called exosomes, which are produced by cancers cells and carry the same markers. “These highly elusive 3-nanometer structures are too small to be captured with other types of liquid biopsy devices, such as microfluidics, due to shear forces that can potentially destroy them,” he noted. “Our chip is currently the only device that can potentially capture circulating tumor cells and exosomes directly on the chip, which should increase its ability to detect metastasis. This can be important because emerging evidence suggests that tiny proteins excreted with exosomes can drive reactions that may become major barriers to effective cancer drug delivery and treatment.”

The device developed by Panchapakesan’s team includes an array of tiny elements, each about a tenth of an inch (3 millimeters) across. Each element has a well, at the bottom of which are antibodies attached to carbon nanotubes. Each well holds a specific antibody that will bind selectively to one type of cancer cell type, based on genetic markers on its surface. By seeding elements with an assortment of antibodies, the device could be set up to capture several different cancer cells types using a single blood sample. In the lab, the researchers were able to fill a total of 170 wells using just under 0.3 fluid ounces (0.85 milliliter) of blood. Even with that small sample, they captured between one and a thousand cells per device, with a capture efficiency of between 62 and 100 percent.

The carbon nanotubes used in the device act as semiconductors. When a cancer cell binds to one of the attached antibodies, it creates an electrical signature that can be detected. These signals can be used to identify which of the elements in the array have captured cancer cells. Those individual arrays can then be removed and taken to a lab, where the captured cells can be stained and identified under a microscope. In the lab, the binding and electrical signature generation process took just a few minutes, suggesting the possibility of getting same-day results from a blood test using the chip, Panchapakesan says.

SOURCE

https://genesisnanotech.wordpress.com/2016/12/27/researchers-build-liquid-biopsy-chip-that-detects-metastatic-cancer-cells-in-blood-one-blood-sample-can-be-tested-for-a-comprehensive-array-of-cancer-cell-markers/

Balaji Panchapakesan – List of Recent Publications

 

Static micro-array isolation, dynamic time series classification, capture and enumeration of spiked breast cancer cells in blood: the nanotube–CTC chip

F Khosravi, PJ Trainor, C Lambert, G Kloecker, E Wickstrom, SN Rai, …
Nanotechnology 27 (44), 44LT03
  2016
A Thermoacoustic Model for High Aspect Ratio Nanostructures

MS Loeian, RW Cohn, B Panchapakesan
Actuators 5 (4), 23
  2016
Spatially Nonuniform Heating and the Nonlinear Transient Response of Elastomeric Photomechanical Actuators

RW Cohn, B Panchapakesan
Actuators 5 (2), 16
  2016
Ultraflexible nanostructures and implications for future nanorobots

RW Cohn, B Panchapakesan
SPIE Commercial+ Scientific Sensing and Imaging, 98590B-98590B-7
  2016
Label-free capture of breast cancer cells spiked in buffy coats using carbon nanotube antibody micro-arrays

F Khosravi, P Trainor, SN Rai, G Kloecker, E Wickstrom, …
Nanotechnology 27 (13), 13LT02
2 2016
Chromatic Mechanical Response in 2-D Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenide (TMDs) based Nanocomposites

V Rahneshin, F Khosravi, DA Ziolkowska, JB Jasinski, B Panchapakesan
Scientific Reports 6
  2016
Classification of biosensor time series using dynamic time warping: applications in screening cancer cells with characteristic biomarkers

SN Rai, PJ Trainor, F Khosravi, G Kloecker, B Panchapakesan
Open access medical statistics 2016 (6), 21
1 2016
STIMULI-RESPONSIVE POLYMER COMPOSITES

J Loomis, B Panchapakesan
US Patent 20,150,361,241
  2015
MoS2 actuators: reversible mechanical responses of MoS2-polymer nanocomposites to photons

X Fan, F Khosravi, V Rahneshin, M Shanmugam, M Loeian, J Jasinski, …
Nanotechnology 26 (26), 261001
6 2015
Programmable Skins based on Core-Shell Microsphere/Nanotube/Polymer Composites

B Panchapakesan, C Onal, J Loomis
MRS Proceedings 1800, mrss15-2136299
  2015
Photothermal nanopositioners based on graphene nanocomposites

J Loomis, B Panchapakesan
SPIE NanoScience+ Engineering, 91700B-91700B-9
  2014
Nanotube liquid crystal elastomers: photomechanical response and flexible energy conversion of layered polymer composites

X Fan, BC King, J Loomis, EM Campo, J Hegseth, RW Cohn, E Terentjev, …
Nanotechnology 25 (35), 355501
6 2014
Vacuum filtration based formation of liquid crystal films of semiconducting carbon nanotubes and high performance transistor devices

B King, B Panchapakesan
Nanotechnology 25 (17), 175201
15 2014
2013 Index IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine Vol. 7

C Chen, H Chen, L Chen, C Chng, M Chua, C Chui, J Gao, V Gau, …
  2014
Nanotube Devices for Digital Profiling: A focus on cancer biomarkers and circulating tumor cells.

F Khosravi, B King, S Rai, G Kloecker, E Wickstrom, B Panchapakesan
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine 7 (4), 20-26
4 2013
Nanotube devices for digital profiling of cancer biomarkers and circulating tumor cells

F Khosravi, B King, B Panchapakesan, S Rai, G Kloecker, E Wickstrom
The 7th IEEE International Conference on Nano/Molecular Medicine and …
1 2013
Graphene/elastomer composite-based photo-thermal nanopositioners

J Loomis, X Fan, F Khosravi, P Xu, M Fletcher, RW Cohn, …
Scientific reports 3
32 2013
Methods for fabricating polymer composites

B Panchapakesan
US Patent App. 13/889,121
1 2013
Stimuli-responsive transformation in carbon nanotube/expanding microsphere? polymer composites

J Loomis, P Xu, B Panchapakesan
Nanotechnology 24 (18), 185703
9 2013
Synergism in Binary (MWNT, SLG) Nano-carbons in Polymer Nano-composites: A Raman Study

P Xu, J Loomis, B King, B Panchapakesan
MRS Proceedings 1505, mrsf12-1505-w17-01
  2013
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p53 mutation – Li-Fraumeni Syndrome – Likelihood of Genetic or Hereditary conditions playing a role in Intergenerational incidence of Cancer

 

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

THIS ARTICLE IS RECOMMENDED READING TO ALL OUR e-Readers

because it is a REAL story of a high school student fighting Brain Cancer, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)

it presents the FRONTIER OF GENOMICS, PRECISION MEDICINE, Interventional Radiology and Interventional ONCOLOGY at

Stanford University, Canary Center at Stanford for Early Cancer Detection, Stanford Medical Center and Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital

I was exposed to Li-Fraumeni Syndrome in the following article:

‘And yet, you try’ – A father’s quest to save his son

http://stanmed.stanford.edu/2016fall/milan-gambhirs-li-fraumeni-syndrome.html

 

Li-Fraumeni syndrome

Other Names for This Condition

  • LFS
  • Sarcoma family syndrome of Li and Fraumeni
  • Sarcoma, breast, leukemia, and adrenal gland (SBLA) syndrome
  • SBLA syndrome

LFS is a rare disorder that greatly increases the risk of developing several types of cancer, particularly in children and young adults.

The cancers most often associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome include breast cancer, a form of bone cancer called osteosarcoma, and cancers of soft tissues (such as muscle) called

Soft tissue sarcoma forms in soft tissues of the body, including muscle, tendons, fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and tissue around joints.


(small hormone-producing glands on top of each kidney). Several other types of cancer also occur more frequently in people with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

A very similar condition called Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome shares many of the features of classic Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Both conditions significantly increase the chances of developing multiple cancers beginning in childhood; however, the pattern of specific cancers seen in affected family members is different.

Genetic Changes

The CHEK2 and TP53 genes are associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

More than half of all families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome have inherited mutations in the gene. TP53 is a tumor suppressor gene, which means that it normally helps control the growth and division of cells. Mutations in this gene can allow cells to divide in an uncontrolled way and form tumors. Other genetic and environmental factors are also likely to affect the risk of cancer in people with TP53 mutations.

A few families with cancers characteristic of Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome do not have TP53 mutations, but have mutations in the CHEK2 gene. Like the TP53 gene, CHEK2 is a tumor suppressor gene. Researchers are uncertain whether CHEK2 mutations actually cause these conditions or are merely associated with an increased risk of certain cancers (including breast cancer).

Inheritance Pattern

Li-Fraumeni syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to increase the risk of developing cancer. In most cases, an affected person has a parent and other family members with cancers characteristic of the condition.

Diagnosis and Management

These resources address the diagnosis or management of Li-Fraumeni syndrome:

References on LFS

SOURCE

https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/li-fraumeni-syndrome

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The Strategy of Precision Editing the Cancer Cell Glycocalyx using an “antibody–enzyme conjugate” for Cancer Immunotherapy: Research Beyond “augment the activator or remove inhibitor, or both”

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Significance

Successful tumors are able to evade the immune system, which is otherwise capable of killing transformed cells. Therapies that prevent this evasion have become revolutionary treatments for incurable cancers. One mechanism of evasion is the presentation of sugars, called sialic acids, within the cell surface’s sugar coating, or glycocalyx. Here, we designed biotherapeutic molecules, termed “antibody–enzyme conjugates,” that selectively remove sialic acids from tumor cells. The antibody directs the enzyme to the cancer cells, the enzyme cleaves the sugars, and then the antibody directs immune cells to kill the desialylated cancer cells. The conjugate increased tumor cell killing compared with the antibody alone. Editing the cancer cell glycocalyx with an antibody–enzyme conjugate represents a promising approach to cancer immune therapy.

SOURCE 

 

AUGUST 22, 2016

Stanford chemists develop a new method of cancer immunotherapy

A team of Stanford ChEM-H scientists has discovered a novel form of cancer immunotherapy, which works by removing certain sugars from the surface of cancer cells and making those cells visible to the immune system.

“All of the world of immune therapy is now thinking about the immune system as calculating pluses and minuses. If you want to tilt the scale toward immune activation, you can either augment the activator or remove inhibitor, or both,” said Bertozzi, who is also an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Current immunotherapies on the market work by blocking one of the inhibitory signals that are recognized by the adaptive immune system. Block those and the balance tilts in such a way that the immune system will attack the now recognizable cancer.

Bertozzi’s approach provides a second way of tiling the balance in favor of attack, this time for the innate immune system. She said this study shows just one example of how it could work, but her sugar-removing lawnmower could be used on a wide variety of cell types, not just those expressing HER2, and on different types of sugars.

“It’s almost always the case that you need a component of both the adaptive and innate immunity to get a robust reaction against infectious pathogens, such as during vaccination,” said Bertozzi. “The smart money suggests that the same will be true with tumors.”

Bertozzi said the approach also highlights the importance of paying attention to the much ignored glycocalyx.

SOURCE

Stanford chemists develop a new method of cancer immunotherapy

http://news.stanford.edu/2016/08/22/new-method-cancer-immunotherapy/

 

immobilization-ok

A symbolic representation of a glycocalyx chain attached to a cytoskeleton.

IMAGE SOURCE: google images

 

glycocalyx-145E1F0C801699F8CFE

image glycocalyx

IMAGE SOURCE: google images

Glycocalyx

Glycocalyx – www.futura-sciences.us576 × 284Search by image

The carbohydrates, glycoproteins and proteoglycans making up the glycocalyx

IMAGE SOURCE: google images

PNAS – Original Article

Precision glycocalyx editing as a strategy for cancer immunotherapy

  1. Han Xiaoa,b,1,
  2. Elliot C. Woodsa,b,1,
  3. Petar Vukojicica,b, and
  4. Carolyn R. Bertozzia,b,2
  1. Edited by Laura L. Kiessling, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, and approved July 11, 2016 (received for review May 24, 2016)

Abstract

Cell surface sialosides constitute a central axis of immune modulation that is exploited by tumors to evade both innate and adaptive immune destruction. Therapeutic strategies that target tumor-associated sialosides may therefore potentiate antitumor immunity. Here, we report the development of antibody–sialidase conjugates that enhance tumor cell susceptibility to antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by selective desialylation of the tumor cell glycocalyx. We chemically fused a recombinant sialidase to the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-specific antibody trastuzumab through a C-terminal aldehyde tag. The antibody–sialidase conjugate desialylated tumor cells in a HER2-dependent manner, reduced binding by natural killer (NK) cell inhibitory sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec) receptors, and enhanced binding to the NK-activating receptor natural killer group 2D (NKG2D). Sialidase conjugation to trastuzumab enhanced ADCC against tumor cells expressing moderate levels of HER2, suggesting a therapeutic strategy for cancer patients with lower HER2 levels or inherent trastuzumab resistance. Precision glycocalyx editing with antibody–enzyme conjugates is therefore a promising avenue for cancer immune therapy.

SOURCE 

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