Advertisements
Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Archive for the ‘Artificial Intelligence in Medicine – Application for Diagnosis’ Category


Artificial Intelligence and Cardiovascular Disease

Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

 

Cardiology is a vast field that focuses on a large number of diseases specifically dealing with the heart, the circulatory system, and its functions. As such, similar symptomatologies and diagnostic features may be present in an individual, making it difficult for a doctor to easily isolate the actual heart-related problem. Consequently, the use of artificial intelligence aims to relieve doctors from this hurdle and extend better quality to patients. Results of screening tests such as echocardiograms, MRIs, or CT scans have long been proposed to be analyzed using more advanced techniques in the field of technology. As such, while artificial intelligence is not yet widely-used in clinical practice, it is seen as the future of healthcare.

 

The continuous development of the technological sector has enabled the industry to merge with medicine in order to create new integrated, reliable, and efficient methods of providing quality health care. One of the ongoing trends in cardiology at present is the proposed utilization of artificial intelligence (AI) in augmenting and extending the effectiveness of the cardiologist. This is because AI or machine-learning would allow for an accurate measure of patient functioning and diagnosis from the beginning up to the end of the therapeutic process. In particular, the use of artificial intelligence in cardiology aims to focus on research and development, clinical practice, and population health. Created to be an all-in-one mechanism in cardiac healthcare, AI technologies incorporate complex algorithms in determining relevant steps needed for a successful diagnosis and treatment. The role of artificial intelligence specifically extends to the identification of novel drug therapies, disease stratification or statistics, continuous remote monitoring and diagnostics, integration of multi-omic data, and extension of physician effectivity and efficiency.

 

Artificial intelligence – specifically a branch of it called machine learning – is being used in medicine to help with diagnosis. Computers might, for example, be better at interpreting heart scans. Computers can be ‘trained’ to make these predictions. This is done by feeding the computer information from hundreds or thousands of patients, plus instructions (an algorithm) on how to use that information. This information is heart scans, genetic and other test results, and how long each patient survived. These scans are in exquisite detail and the computer may be able to spot differences that are beyond human perception. It can also combine information from many different tests to give as accurate a picture as possible. The computer starts to work out which factors affected the patients’ outlook, so it can make predictions about other patients.

 

In current medical practice, doctors will use risk scores to make treatment decisions for their cardiac patients. These are based on a series of variables like weight, age and lifestyle. However, they do not always have the desired levels of accuracy. A particular example of the use of artificial examination in cardiology is the experimental study on heart disease patients, published in 2017. The researchers utilized cardiac MRI-based algorithms coupled with a 3D systolic cardiac motion pattern to accurately predict the health outcomes of patients with pulmonary hypertension. The experiment proved to be successful, with the technology being able to pick-up 30,000 points within the heart activity of 250 patients. With the success of the aforementioned study, as well as the promise of other researches on artificial intelligence, cardiology is seemingly moving towards a more technological practice.

 

One study was conducted in Finland where researchers enrolled 950 patients complaining of chest pain, who underwent the centre’s usual scanning protocol to check for coronary artery disease. Their outcomes were tracked for six years following their initial scans, over the course of which 24 of the patients had heart attacks and 49 died from all causes. The patients first underwent a coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) scan, which yielded 58 pieces of data on the presence of coronary plaque, vessel narrowing and calcification. Patients whose scans were suggestive of disease underwent a positron emission tomography (PET) scan which produced 17 variables on blood flow. Ten clinical variables were also obtained from medical records including sex, age, smoking status and diabetes. These 85 variables were then entered into an artificial intelligence (AI) programme called LogitBoost. The AI repeatedly analysed the imaging variables, and was able to learn how the imaging data interacted and identify the patterns which preceded death and heart attack with over 90% accuracy. The predictive performance using the ten clinical variables alone was modest, with an accuracy of 90%. When PET scan data was added, accuracy increased to 92.5%. The predictive performance increased significantly when CCTA scan data was added to clinical and PET data, with accuracy of 95.4%.

 

Another study findings showed that applying artificial intelligence (AI) to the electrocardiogram (ECG) enables early detection of left ventricular dysfunction and can identify individuals at increased risk for its development in the future. Asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction (ALVD) is characterised by the presence of a weak heart pump with a risk of overt heart failure. It is present in three to six percent of the general population and is associated with reduced quality of life and longevity. However, it is treatable when found. Currently, there is no inexpensive, noninvasive, painless screening tool for ALVD available for diagnostic use. When tested on an independent set of 52,870 patients, the network model yielded values for the area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 0.93, 86.3 percent, 85.7 percent, and 85.7 percent, respectively. Furthermore, in patients without ventricular dysfunction, those with a positive AI screen were at four times the risk of developing future ventricular dysfunction compared with those with a negative screen.

 

In recent years, the analysis of big data database combined with computer deep learning has gradually played an important role in biomedical technology. For a large number of medical record data analysis, image analysis, single nucleotide polymorphism difference analysis, etc., all relevant research on the development and application of artificial intelligence can be observed extensively. For clinical indication, patients may receive a variety of cardiovascular routine examination and treatments, such as: cardiac ultrasound, multi-path ECG, cardiovascular and peripheral angiography, intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography, electrical physiology, etc. By using artificial intelligence deep learning system, the investigators hope to not only improve the diagnostic rate and also gain more accurately predict the patient’s recovery, improve medical quality in the near future.

 

The primary issue about using artificial intelligence in cardiology, or in any field of medicine for that matter, is the ethical issues that it brings about. Physicians and healthcare professionals prior to their practice swear to the Hippocratic Oath—a promise to do their best for the welfare and betterment of their patients. Many physicians have argued that the use of artificial intelligence in medicine breaks the Hippocratic Oath since patients are technically left under the care of machines than of doctors. Furthermore, as machines may also malfunction, the safety of patients is also on the line at all times. As such, while medical practitioners see the promise of artificial technology, they are also heavily constricted about its use, safety, and appropriateness in medical practice.

 

Issues and challenges faced by technological innovations in cardiology are overpowered by current researches aiming to make artificial intelligence easily accessible and available for all. With that in mind, various projects are currently under study. For example, the use of wearable AI technology aims to develop a mechanism by which patients and doctors could easily access and monitor cardiac activity remotely. An ideal instrument for monitoring, wearable AI technology ensures real-time updates, monitoring, and evaluation. Another direction of cardiology in AI technology is the use of technology to record and validate empirical data to further analyze symptomatology, biomarkers, and treatment effectiveness. With AI technology, researchers in cardiology are aiming to simplify and expand the scope of knowledge on the field for better patient care and treatment outcomes.

 

References:

 

https://www.news-medical.net/health/Artificial-Intelligence-in-Cardiology.aspx

 

https://www.bhf.org.uk/informationsupport/heart-matters-magazine/research/artificial-intelligence

 

https://www.medicaldevice-network.com/news/heart-attack-artificial-intelligence/

 

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41569-019-0158-5

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5711980/

 

www.j-pcs.org/article.asp

http://www.onlinejacc.org/content/71/23/2668

http://www.scielo.br/pdf/ijcs/v30n3/2359-4802-ijcs-30-03-0187.pdf

 

https://www.escardio.org/The-ESC/Press-Office/Press-releases/How-artificial-intelligence-is-tackling-heart-disease-Find-out-at-ICNC-2019

 

https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03877614

 

https://www.europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com/news/82870/artificial-intelligence-ai-heart-disease/

 

https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/10067/current-and-future-role-of-artificial-intelligence-in-cardiac-imaging

 

https://www.news-medical.net/health/Artificial-Intelligence-in-Cardiology.aspx

 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/05/190513104505.htm

 

Advertisements

Read Full Post »


Multiple Barriers Identified Which May Hamper Use of Artificial Intelligence in the Clinical Setting

Reporter: Stephen J. Williams, PhD.

From the Journal Science:Science  21 Jun 2019: Vol. 364, Issue 6446, pp. 1119-1120

By Jennifer Couzin-Frankel

 

In a commentary article from Jennifer Couzin-Frankel entitled “Medicine contends with how to use artificial intelligence  the barriers to the efficient and reliable adoption of artificial intelligence and machine learning in the hospital setting are discussed.   In summary these barriers result from lack of reproducibility across hospitals. For instance, a major concern among radiologists is the AI software being developed to read images in order to magnify small changes, such as with cardiac images, is developed within one hospital and may not reflect the equipment or standard practices used in other hospital systems.  To address this issue, lust recently, US scientists and government regulators issued guidance describing how to convert research-based AI into improved medical images and published these guidance in the Journal of the American College of Radiology.  The group suggested greater collaboration among relevant parties in developing of AI practices, including software engineers, scientists, clinicians, radiologists etc. 

As thousands of images are fed into AI algorithms, according to neurosurgeon Eric Oermann at Mount Sinai Hospital, the signals they recognize can have less to do with disease than with other patient characteristics, the brand of MRI machine, or even how a scanner is angled.  For example Oermann and Mount Sinai developed an AI algorithm to detect spots on a lung scan indicative of pneumonia and when tested in a group of new patients the algorithm could detect pneumonia with 93% accuracy.  

However when the group from Sinai tested their algorithm from tens of thousands of scans from other hospitals including NIH success rate fell to 73-80%, indicative of bias within the training set: in other words there was something unique about the way Mt. Sinai does their scans relative to other hospitals.  Indeed, many of the patients Mt. Sinai sees are too sick to get out of bed and radiologists would use portable scanners, which generate different images than stand alone scanners.  

The results were published in Plos Medicine as seen below:

PLoS Med. 2018 Nov 6;15(11):e1002683. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002683. eCollection 2018 Nov.

Variable generalization performance of a deep learning model to detect pneumonia in chest radiographs: A cross-sectional study.

Zech JR1, Badgeley MA2, Liu M2, Costa AB3, Titano JJ4, Oermann EK3.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There is interest in using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to analyze medical imaging to provide computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). Recent work has suggested that image classification CNNs may not generalize to new data as well as previously believed. We assessed how well CNNs generalized across three hospital systems for a simulated pneumonia screening task.

METHODS AND FINDINGS:

A cross-sectional design with multiple model training cohorts was used to evaluate model generalizability to external sites using split-sample validation. A total of 158,323 chest radiographs were drawn from three institutions: National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (NIH; 112,120 from 30,805 patients), Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH; 42,396 from 12,904 patients), and Indiana University Network for Patient Care (IU; 3,807 from 3,683 patients). These patient populations had an age mean (SD) of 46.9 years (16.6), 63.2 years (16.5), and 49.6 years (17) with a female percentage of 43.5%, 44.8%, and 57.3%, respectively. We assessed individual models using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for radiographic findings consistent with pneumonia and compared performance on different test sets with DeLong’s test. The prevalence of pneumonia was high enough at MSH (34.2%) relative to NIH and IU (1.2% and 1.0%) that merely sorting by hospital system achieved an AUC of 0.861 (95% CI 0.855-0.866) on the joint MSH-NIH dataset. Models trained on data from either NIH or MSH had equivalent performance on IU (P values 0.580 and 0.273, respectively) and inferior performance on data from each other relative to an internal test set (i.e., new data from within the hospital system used for training data; P values both <0.001). The highest internal performance was achieved by combining training and test data from MSH and NIH (AUC 0.931, 95% CI 0.927-0.936), but this model demonstrated significantly lower external performance at IU (AUC 0.815, 95% CI 0.745-0.885, P = 0.001). To test the effect of pooling data from sites with disparate pneumonia prevalence, we used stratified subsampling to generate MSH-NIH cohorts that only differed in disease prevalence between training data sites. When both training data sites had the same pneumonia prevalence, the model performed consistently on external IU data (P = 0.88). When a 10-fold difference in pneumonia rate was introduced between sites, internal test performance improved compared to the balanced model (10× MSH risk P < 0.001; 10× NIH P = 0.002), but this outperformance failed to generalize to IU (MSH 10× P < 0.001; NIH 10× P = 0.027). CNNs were able to directly detect hospital system of a radiograph for 99.95% NIH (22,050/22,062) and 99.98% MSH (8,386/8,388) radiographs. The primary limitation of our approach and the available public data is that we cannot fully assess what other factors might be contributing to hospital system-specific biases.

CONCLUSION:

Pneumonia-screening CNNs achieved better internal than external performance in 3 out of 5 natural comparisons. When models were trained on pooled data from sites with different pneumonia prevalence, they performed better on new pooled data from these sites but not on external data. CNNs robustly identified hospital system and department within a hospital, which can have large differences in disease burden and may confound predictions.

PMID: 30399157 PMCID: PMC6219764 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002683

[Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

Images from this publication.See all images (3)Free text

 

 

Surprisingly, not many researchers have begun to use data obtained from different hospitals.  The FDA has issued some guidance in the matter but considers “locked” AI software or unchanging software as a medical device.  However they just announced development of a framework for regulating more cutting edge software that continues to learn over time.

Still the key point is that collaboration over multiple health systems in various countries may be necessary for development of AI software which is used in multiple clinical settings.  Otherwise each hospital will need to develop their own software only used on their own system and would provide a regulatory headache for the FDA.

 

Other articles on Artificial Intelligence in Clinical Medicine on this Open Access Journal include:

Top 12 Artificial Intelligence Innovations Disrupting Healthcare by 2020

The launch of SCAI – Interview with Gérard Biau, director of the Sorbonne Center for Artificial Intelligence (SCAI).

Real Time Coverage @BIOConvention #BIO2019: Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence #AI: Realizing Precision Medicine One Patient at a Time

50 Contemporary Artificial Intelligence Leading Experts and Researchers

 

Read Full Post »


Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk by Machine Learning (ML) Algorithm: Best performing algorithm by predictive capacity had area under the ROC curve (AUC) scores: 1st, quadratic discriminant analysis; 2nd, NaiveBayes and 3rd, neural networks, far exceeding the conventional risk-scaling methods in Clinical Use

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Best three machine-learning methods with the best predictive capacity had area under the ROC curve (AUC) scores of

  • 0.7086 (quadratic discriminant analysis),
  • 0.7084 (NaiveBayes) and
  • 0.7042 (neural networks)
  • the conventional risk-scaling methods—which are widely used in clinical practice in Spain—fell in at 11th and 12th places, with AUCs below 0.64.

 

Machine learning to predict cardiovascular risk

First published: 01 July 2019

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi:10.1111/ijcp.13389

Abstract

Aims

To analyze the predictive capacity of 15 machine learning methods for estimating cardiovascular risk in a cohort and to compare them with other risk scales.

Methods

We calculated cardiovascular risk by means of 15 machine‐learning methods and using the SCORE and REGICOR scales and in 38,527 patients in the Spanish ESCARVAL RISK cohort, with five‐year follow‐up. We considered patients to be at high risk when the risk of a cardiovascular event was over 5% (according to SCORE and machine learning methods) or over 10% (using REGICOR). The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) and the C‐index were calculated, as well as the diagnostic accuracy rate, error rate, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive likelihood ratio, and number of needed to treat to prevent a harmful outcome.

Results

The method with the greatest predictive capacity was quadratic discriminant analysis, with an AUC of 0.7086, followed by NaiveBayes and neural networks, with AUCs of 0.7084 and 0.7042, respectively. REGICOR and SCORE ranked 11th and 12th, respectively, in predictive capacity, with AUCs of 0.63. Seven machine learning methods showed a 7% higher predictive capacity (AUC) as well as higher sensitivity and specificity than the REGICOR and SCORE scales.

Conclusions

Ten of the 15 machine learning methods tested have a better predictive capacity for cardiovascular events and better classification indicators than the SCORE and REGICOR risk assessment scales commonly used in clinical practice in Spain. Machine learning methods should be considered in the development of future cardiovascular risk scales.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

SOURCE

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ijcp.13389

Read Full Post »


Tweets, Pictures and Retweets at 18th Annual Cancer Research Symposium – Machine Learning and Cancer, June 14, 2019, MIT by @pharma_BI and @AVIVA1950 for #KIsymposium PharmaceuticalIntelligence.com and Social Media

 

Pictures taken in Real Time

 

Notification from Twitter.com on June 14, 2019 and in the 24 hours following the symposium

 

     liked your Tweet

    3 hours ago

  1.  Retweeted your Tweet

    5 hours ago

    1 other Retweet

  2.  liked your Tweets

    11 hours ago

    2 other likes

     and  liked a Tweet you were mentioned in

    11 hours ago

     liked your reply

    12 hours ago

  3. Replying to 

    It was an incredibly touching and “metzamrer” surprise to meet you at MIT

  4.  liked your Tweets

    13 hours ago

    3 other likes

     liked your reply

    15 hours ago

    Amazing event @avivregev @reginabarzilay 2pharma_BI Breakthrough in

     and  liked a Tweet you were mentioned in

    17 hours ago

  5. ‘s machine learning tool characterizes proteins, which are biomarkers of disease development and progression. Scientists can know more about their relationship to specific diseases and can interview earlier and precisely. ,

  6. learning and are undergoing dramatic changes and hold great promise for cancer research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. @KIinstitute by

     liked your Tweet

    Jun 16

     Retweeted your Retweet

    Jun 16

     liked your Retweet

    Jun 15

     Retweeted your Tweet

    Jun 15

     Retweeted your Tweet

    Jun 15

     Retweeted your Retweet

    Jun 15

     and 3 others liked your reply

    Jun 15

     and  Retweeted your Tweet

    Jun 14

     and  liked your Tweet

    Jun 14

     and  Retweeted your Tweet

    Jun 14

     liked your Tweet

    Jun 14

  7.  liked your Tweets

    Jun 14

    2 other likes

     liked your Tweet

    Jun 14

     Retweeted your Retweet

    Jun 14

     liked your Tweet

    Jun 14

     and  Retweeted your Tweet

    Jun 14

     liked your Tweet

    Jun 14

     liked your Tweet

    Jun 14

  8. identification in the will depend on highly

  9.  liked your Tweets

    Jun 14

    2 other likes

     Retweeted your Tweet

    Jun 14

     liked your Tweet

    Jun 14

     and 3 others liked your reply

    Jun 14

     liked your Retweet

    Jun 14

  10. this needed to be done a long time ago

     Retweeted your Tweet

    Jun 14

     and  Retweeted your reply

    Jun 14

     liked your Tweet

    Jun 14

     liked your reply

    Jun 14

     Retweeted your reply

    Jun 14

 

Tweets by @pharma_BI and by @AVIVA1950

&

Retweets and replies by @pharma_BI and @AVIVA1950

eProceedings 18th Symposium 2019 covered in Amazing event, Keynote best talks @avivregev ’er @reginabarzelay

  1. Top lectures by @reginabarzilay @avivaregev

  2. eProceeding 2019 Koch Institute Symposium – 18th Annual Cancer Research Symposium – Machine Learning and Cancer, June 14, 2019, 8:00 AM-5:00 PMET MIT Kresge Auditorium, 48 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA via

  1.   Retweeted

    eProceedings 18th Symposium 2019 covered in Amazing event, Keynote best talks @avivregev ’er @reginabarzelay

  2. Top lectures by @reginabarzilay @avivaregev

  3. eProceeding 2019 Koch Institute Symposium – 18th Annual Cancer Research Symposium – Machine Learning and Cancer, June 14, 2019, 8:00 AM-5:00 PMET MIT Kresge Auditorium, 48 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA via

  4. eProceedings & eProceeding 2019 Koch Institute Symposium – 18th Annual Cancer Research Symposium – Machine Learning and Cancer, June 14, 2019, 8:00 AM-5:00 PMET MIT Kresge Auditorium, 48 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA via

  5.   Retweeted
  6.   Retweeted

    Einstein, Curie, Bohr, Planck, Heisenberg, Schrödinger… was this the greatest meeting of minds, ever? Some of the world’s most notable physicists participated in the 1927 Solvay Conference. In fact, 17 of the 29 scientists attending were or became Laureates.

  7.   Retweeted

    identification in the will depend on highly

  8. eProceeding 2019 Koch Institute Symposium – 18th Annual Cancer Research Symposium – Machine Learning and Cancer, June 14, 2019, 8:00 AM-5:00 PMET MIT Kresge Auditorium, Cambridge, MA via

 

Read Full Post »


Real Time Coverage @BIOConvention #BIO2019: Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence: Realizing Precision Medicine One Patient at a Time

Reporter: Stephen J Williams, PhD @StephenJWillia2

The impact of Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) during the last decade has been tremendous. With the rise of infobesity, ML/AI is evolving to an essential capability to help mine the sheer volume of patient genomics, omics, sensor/wearables and real-world data, and unravel the knot of healthcare’s most complex questions.

Despite the advancements in technology, organizations struggle to prioritize and implement ML/AI to achieve the anticipated value, whilst managing the disruption that comes with it. In this session, panelists will discuss ML/AI implementation and adoption strategies that work. Panelists will draw upon their experiences as they share their success stories, discuss how to implement digital diagnostics, track disease progression and treatment, and increase commercial value and ROI compared against traditional approaches.

  • most of trials which are done are still in training AI/ML algorithms with training data sets.  The best results however have been about 80% accuracy in training sets.  Needs to improve
  • All data sets can be biased.  For example a professor was looking at heartrate using a IR detector on a wearable but it wound up that different types of skin would generate a different signal to the detector so training sets maybe population biases (you are getting data from one group)
  • clinical grade equipment actually haven’t been trained on a large set like commercial versions of wearables, Commercial grade is tested on a larger study population.  This can affect the AI/ML algorithms.
  • Regulations:  The regulatory bodies responsible is up to debate.  Whether FDA or FTC is responsible for AI/ML in healtcare and healthcare tech and IT is not fully decided yet.  We don’t have the guidances for these new technologies
  • some rules: never use your own encryption always use industry standards especially when getting personal data from wearables.  One hospital corrupted their system because their computer system was not up to date and could not protect against a virus transmitted by a wearable.
  • pharma companies understand they need to increase value of their products so very interested in how AI/ML can be used.

Please follow LIVE on TWITTER using the following @ handles and # hashtags:

@Handles

@pharma_BI

@AVIVA1950

@BIOConvention

# Hashtags

#BIO2019 (official meeting hashtag)

Read Full Post »


AI in Psychiatric Treatment – Using Machine Learning to Increase Treatment Efficacy in Mental Health

Reporter: Aviva Lev- Ari, PhD, RN

Featuring Start Up: aifred

www.aifredhealth.com

About Us

The inability to predict any given individual’s unique response to psychiatric treatment is a huge bottleneck to recovery from mental health conditions.
To address this challenge, we are creating a deep-learning based clinical decision tool for physicians to bring personalized medicine to psychiatry.
Initially, we will be focusing on treatments for depression, but we plan to scale Aifred to encompass all mental health conditions in order to amplify clinical utility. At its core, aifred is leveraging the collective intelligence of the scientific and medical community to bring better healthcare to all.
We are a proud official IBM Watson AI XPrize team, headquartered in Montreal, Canada.

Read more about us:

Deep Learning


Something unique to every machine learning company is the precise nature of their hyperparameter optimization and goals of their model. We will optimize aifred with the help of a distributed network of domain experts in psychiatry — a collaboration unique to aifred health. We are implementing attention networks responsible for removing the “black-box” nature of neural networks. As well, we are analyzing the quality of model predictions, allowing both for greater interpretability of model decisions and the generation of new basic research questions, which are going to be unique to the data-set and optimization techniques we develop in-house. By training aifred on reliable datasets, we are able to ensure quality input to our model. De-identified patient outcomes will feed back into our neural networks to continuously improve aifred’s predictive power. Feature engineering is an important part of determining which inputs go into a network and varies how it’s done for every team- once again, this will be undertaken with the support of diverse group of experts we are recruiting.

Our Product


Treatment Prediction

The aifred solution makes use of innovative and powerful machine learning techniques predict treatment efficacy based on an array of patient characteristics.

Interpretability

Forget the blackbox! Our system will provide a report highlighting the most significant features that led to a treatment prediction.

Patient Data Tracking

Track patient symptoms and test results to monitor outcomes or make new predictions. Banks of standardized questionnaires, data visualization, scheduling software — all of it modular and capable of being tailored to clinicians’ needs.

Electronic Patient Record

Keep all important patient information in one place, and get insights using our analytics.

 

In the News:

Montreal Gazette article written about our startup:

https://montrealgazette.com/news/local-news/a-software-tool-to-improve-treatment-of-depression-was-developed-in-montreal

Press about us winning first place globally in the IBM Watson AI XPrize milestone competition

http://www.concordia.ca/news/stories/2018/12/07/Aifred-Health-and-Nectar-take-home-top-honours-at-the-ibm-Watson-ai-xprize-milestone-competition.html

Forbes article that features our CTO, Robert Fratila:

https://www.forbes.com/sites/insights-intelai/2018/11/29/5-entrepreneurs-on-the-rise-in-ai/

Post about our graduation from the prestigious creative destruction lab program:

https://medium.com/@aifred/aifred-health-graduates-from-the-creative-destruction-lab-500e4b2a83c?fbclid=IwAR2qz9iQf8-4B07ljB1ZP3GAUCGZcK-CyxgG9cu1jtN8moEDSexvZeEcN7c

McGill University article featuring us:

https://www.mcgill.ca/giving/why-giving-matters/2019/02/05/taking-depression-using-ai?fbclid=IwAR1NN_ID04IJMto97cT-28fDfVxg1rbp7c7arbGf48MrzL4_Q4EaEzmegj8

 

REFERENCE

The Incredible Ways Artificial Intelligence Is Now Used In Mental Health

Bernard Marr 12:23 am

https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2019/05/03/the-incredible-ways-artificial-intelligence-is-now-used-in-mental-health/amp/?__twitter_impression=true

4 Benefits of using AI to help solve the mental health crisis

There are several reasons why AI could be a powerful tool to help us solve the mental health crisis. Here are four benefits:

  1.      Support mental health professionals

As it does for many industries, AI can help support mental health professionals in doing their jobs. Algorithms can analyze data much faster than humans, can suggest possible treatments, monitor a patient’s progress and alert the human professional to any concerns. In many cases, AI and a human clinician would work together.

  1.      24/7 access

Due to the lack of human mental health professionals, it can take months to get an appointment. If patients live in an area without enough mental health professionals, their wait will be even longer. AI provides a tool that an individual can access all the time, 24/7 without waiting for an appointment.

  1.      Not expensive

The cost of care prohibits some individuals from seeking help. Artificial intelligent tools could offer a more accessible solution.

  1.      Comfort talking to a bot

While it might take some people time to feel comfortable talking to a bot, the anonymity of an AI algorithm can be positive. What might be difficult to share with a therapist in person is easier for some to disclose to a bot.

Other related articles published in this Open Access Online Scientific Journal include the following:

Resources on Artificial Intelligence in Health Care and in Medicine:

Articles of Note at PharmaceuticalIntelligence.com @AVIVA1950 @pharma_BI

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/resources-artificial-intelligence-health-care-note-lev-ari-phd-rn/

R&D for Artificial Intelligence Tools & Applications: Google’s Research Efforts in 2018

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/01/16/rd-for-artificial-intelligence-tools-applications-googles-research-efforts-in-2018/

 

McKinsey Top Ten Articles on Artificial Intelligence: 2018’s most popular articles – An executive’s guide to AI

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/01/21/mckinsey-top-ten-articles-on-artificial-intelligence-2018s-most-popular-articles-an-executives-guide-to-ai/

 

LIVE Day Three – World Medical Innovation Forum ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Boston, MA USA, Monday, April 10, 2019

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/04/10/live-day-three-world-medical-innovation-forum-artificial-intelligence-boston-ma-usa-monday-april-10-2019/

 

LIVE Day Two – World Medical Innovation Forum ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Boston, MA USA, Monday, April 9, 2019

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/04/09/live-day-two-world-medical-innovation-forum-artificial-intelligence-boston-ma-usa-monday-april-9-2019/

 

LIVE Day One – World Medical Innovation Forum ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Boston, MA USA, Monday, April 8, 2019

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/04/08/live-day-one-world-medical-innovation-forum-artificial-intelligence-westin-copley-place-boston-ma-usa-monday-april-8-2019/

The Regulatory challenge in adopting AI

Author and Curator: Dror Nir, PhD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/04/07/the-regulatory-challenge-in-adopting-ai/

 

VIDEOS: Artificial Intelligence Applications for Cardiology

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/03/11/videos-artificial-intelligence-applications-for-cardiology/

 

Artificial Intelligence in Health Care and in Medicine: Diagnosis & Therapeutics

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/01/21/artificial-intelligence-in-health-care-and-in-medicine-diagnosis-therapeutics/

 

World Medical Innovation Forum, Partners Innovations, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE | APRIL 8–10, 2019 | Westin, BOSTON

https://worldmedicalinnovation.org/agenda/

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/02/14/world-medical-innovation-forum-partners-innovations-artificial-intelligence-april-8-10-2019-westin-boston/

 

Digital Therapeutics: A Threat or Opportunity to Pharmaceuticals

Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/03/18/digital-therapeutics-a-threat-or-opportunity-to-pharmaceuticals/

 

The 3rd STATONC Annual Symposium, April 25-27, 2019, Hilton Hartford, CT, 315 Trumbull St., Hartford, CT 06103

Reporter: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/02/26/the-3rd-stat4onc-annual-symposium-april-25-27-2019-hilton-hartford-connecticut/

 

2019 Biotechnology Sector and Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/05/10/2019-biotechnology-sector-and-artificial-intelligence-in-healthcare/

 

The Journey of Antibiotic Discovery

Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/05/19/the-journey-of-antibiotic-discovery/

 

Artificial intelligence can be a useful tool to predict Alzheimer

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/01/26/artificial-intelligence-can-be-a-useful-tool-to-predict-alzheimer/

 

HealthCare focused AI Startups from the 100 Companies Leading the Way in A.I. Globally

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/01/18/healthcare-focused-ai-startups-from-the-100-companies-leading-the-way-in-a-i-globally/

 

2018 Annual World Medical Innovation Forum Artificial Intelligence April 23–25, 2018 Boston, Massachusetts | Westin Copley Place

https://worldmedicalinnovation.org/

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/01/18/2018-annual-world-medical-innovation-forum-artificial-intelligence-april-23-25-2018-boston-massachusetts-westin-copley-place/

 

MedCity Converge 2018 Philadelphia: Live Coverage @pharma_BI

Reporter: Stephen J. Williams

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/07/11/medcity-converge-2018-philadelphia-live-coverage-pharma_bi/

 

IBM’s Watson Health division – How will the Future look like?

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/04/24/ibms-watson-health-division-how-will-the-future-look-like/

 

Live Coverage: MedCity Converge 2018 Philadelphia: AI in Cancer and Keynote Address

Reporter: Stephen J. Williams, PhD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/07/11/live-coverage-medcity-converge-2018-philadelphia-ai-in-cancer-and-keynote-address/

 

HUBweek 2018, October 8-14, 2018, Greater Boston – “We The Future” – coming together, of breaking down barriers, of convening across disciplinary lines to shape our future

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/10/08/hubweek-2018-october-8-14-2018-greater-boston-we-the-future-coming-together-of-breaking-down-barriers-of-convening-across-disciplinary-lines-to-shape-our-future/

 

Role of Informatics in Precision Medicine: Notes from Boston Healthcare Webinar: Can It Drive the Next Cost Efficiencies in Oncology Care?

Reporter: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/01/03/role-of-informatics-in-precision-medicine-can-it-drive-the-next-cost-efficiencies-in-oncology-care/

 

Gene Editing with CRISPR gets Crisper

Curators: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/05/03/gene-editing-with-crispr-gets-crisper/

 

Disease related changes in proteomics, protein folding, protein-protein interaction

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/05/13/disease-related-changes-in-proteomics-protein-folding-protein-protein-interaction/

 

Can Blockchain Technology and Artificial Intelligence Cure What Ails Biomedical Research and Healthcare

Curator: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/12/10/can-blockchain-technology-and-artificial-intelligence-cure-what-ails-biomedical-research-and-healthcare/

 

N3xt generation carbon nanotubes

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/12/14/n3xt-generation-carbon-nanotubes/

 

Healthcare conglomeration to access Big Data and lower costs

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/01/13/healthcare-conglomeration-to-access-big-data-and-lower-costs/

 

Mindful Discoveries

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/01/28/mindful-discoveries/

 

Synopsis Days 1,2,3: 2018 Annual World Medical Innovation Forum Artificial Intelligence April 23–25, 2018 Boston, Massachusetts | Westin Copley Place

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/04/26/synopsis-days-123-2018-annual-world-medical-innovation-forum-artificial-intelligence-april-23-25-2018-boston-massachusetts-westin-copley-place/

 

Unlocking the Microbiome

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/02/07/unlocking-the-microbiome/

 

Linguamatics announces the official launch of its AI self-service text-mining solution for researchers.

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/05/10/linguamatics-announces-the-official-launch-of-its-ai-self-service-text-mining-solution-for-researchers/

 

Novel Discoveries in Molecular Biology and Biomedical Science

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/05/30/novel-discoveries-in-molecular-biology-and-biomedical-science/

 

Biomarker Development

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/11/16/biomarker-development/

 

Imaging of Cancer Cells

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/04/20/imaging-of-cancer-cells/

 

Future of Big Data for Societal Transformation

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/12/14/future-of-big-data-for-societal-transformation/

 

mRNA Data Survival Analysis

Curators: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/06/18/mrna-data-survival-analysis/

 

Applying AI to Improve Interpretation of Medical Imaging

Author and Curator: Dror Nir, PhD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2019/05/28/applying-ai-to-improve-interpretation-of-medical-imaging/

Read Full Post »


Applying AI to Improve Interpretation of Medical Imaging

Author and Curator: Dror Nir, PhD

 

 

images

The idea that we can use machines’ intelligence to help us perform daily tasks is not an alien any more. As consequence, applying AI to improve the assessment of patients’ clinical condition is booming. What used to be the field of daring start-ups became now a playground for the tech-giants; Google, Amazon, Microsoft and IBM.

Interpretation of medical-Imaging involves standardised workflows and requires analysis of many data-items. Also, it is well established that human-subjectivity is a barrier to reproducibility and transferability of medical imaging results (evident by the reports on high intraoperative variability in  imaging-interpretation).Accepting the fact that computers are better suited that humans to perform routine, repeated tasks involving “big-data” analysis makes AI a very good candidate to improve on this situation.Google’s vision in that respect: “Machine learning has dozens of possible application areas, but healthcare stands out as a remarkable opportunity to benefit people — and working closely with clinicians and medical providers, we’re developing tools that we hope will dramatically improve the availability and accuracy of medical services.”

Google’s commitment to their vision is evident by their TensorFlow initiative. “TensorFlow is an end-to-end open source platform for machine learning. It has a comprehensive, flexible ecosystem of tools, libraries and community resources that lets researchers push the state-of-the-art in ML and developers easily build and deploy ML powered applications.” Two recent papers describe in length the use of TensorFlow in retrospective studies (supported by Google AI) in which medical-images (from publicly accessed databases) where used:

Prediction of cardiovascular risk factors from retinal fundus photographs via deep learning, Nature Biomedical Engineering, Authors: Ryan Poplin, Avinash V. Varadarajan, Katy Blumer, Yun Liu, Michael V. McConnell, Greg S. Corrado, Lily Peng, and Dale R. Webster

As a demonstrator to the expected benefits the use of AI in interpretation of medical-imaging entails this is a very interesting paper. The authors show how they could extract information that is relevant for the assessment of the risk for having an adverse cardiac event from retinal fundus images collected while managing a totally different medical condition.  “Using deep-learning models trained on data from 284,335 patients and validated on two independent datasets of 12,026 and 999 patients, we predicted cardiovascular risk factors not previously thought to be present or quantifiable in retinal images, such as age (mean absolute error within 3.26 years), gender (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.97), smoking status (AUC = 0.71), systolic

blood pressure (mean absolute error within 11.23 mmHg) and major adverse cardiac events (AUC = 0.70).”

 

Screenshot 2019-05-28 at 10.07.21Screenshot 2019-05-28 at 10.09.40

Clearly, if such algorithm would be implemented as a generalised and transferrable medical-device that can be used in routine practice, it will contribute to the cost-effectiveness of screening programs.

 

End-to-end lung cancer screening with three-dimensional deep learning on low-dose chest computed tomography, Nature Medicine, Authors: Diego Ardila, Atilla P. Kiraly, Sujeeth Bharadwaj, Bokyung Choi, Joshua J. Reicher, Lily Peng, Daniel Tse , Mozziyar Etemadi, Wenxing Ye, Greg Corrado, David P. Naidich and Shravya Shetty.

This paper is in line of many previously published works demonstrating how AI can increase the accuracy of cancer diagnosis in comparison to current state of the art: “Existing challenges include inter-grader variability and high false-positive and false-negative rates. We propose a deep learning algorithm that uses a patient’s current and prior computed tomography volumes to predict the risk of lung cancer. Our model achieves a state-of-the art performance (94.4% area under the curve) on 6,716 National Lung Cancer Screening Trial cases, and performs similarly on an independent clinical validation set of 1,139 cases.”

Screenshot 2019-05-28 at 10.22.06Screenshot 2019-05-28 at 10.23.48

The benefit of using an AI based application for lung cancer screening (If and when such algorithm is implemented as a generalised and transferable medical device) is well summarised by the authors: “The strong performance of the model at the case level has important potential clinical relevance. The observed increase in specificity could translate to fewer unnecessary follow up procedures. Increased sensitivity in cases without priors could translate to fewer missed cancers in clinical practice, especially as more patients begin screening. For patients with prior imaging exams, the performance of the deep learning model could enable gains in workflow efficiency and consistency as assessment of prior imaging is already a key component of a specialist’s workflow. Given that LDCT screening is in the relatively early phases of adoption, the potential for considerable improvement in patient care in the coming years is substantial. The model’s localization directs follow-up for specific lesion(s) of greatest concern. These predictions are critical for patients proceeding for further work-up and treatment, including diagnostic CT, positron emission tomography (PET)/CT or biopsy. Malignancy risk prediction allows for the possibility of augmenting existing, manually created interpretation guidelines such as Lung-RADS, which are limited to subjective clustering and assessment to approximate cancer risk.

BTW: The methods section in these two papers is detailed enough to allow any interested party to reproduce the study.

For the sake of balance-of-information, I would like to note that:

  • Amazon is encouraging access to its AI platform Amazon SageMaker “Amazon SageMaker provides every developer and data scientist with the ability to build, train, and deploy machine learning models quickly. Amazon SageMaker is a fully-managed service that covers the entire machine learning workflow to label and prepare your data, choose an algorithm, train the model, tune and optimize it for deployment, make predictions, and take action. Your models get to production faster with much less effort and lower cost.” Amazon is offering training courses to help programmers get proficiency in Machine-Learning using its AWS platform: “We offer 30+ digital ML courses totaling 45+ hours, plus hands-on labs and documentation, originally developed for Amazon’s internal use. Developers, data scientists, data platform engineers, and business decision makers can use this training to learn how to apply ML, artificial intelligence (AI), and deep learning (DL) to their businesses unlocking new insights and value. Validate your learning and your years of experience in machine learning on AWS with a new certification.”
  • IBM is offering a general-purpose AI platform named Watson. Watson is also promoted as a platform to develop AI applications in the “health” sector with the following positioning: “IBM Watson Health applies data-driven analytics, advisory services and advanced technologies such as AI, to deliver actionable insights that can help you free up time to care, identify efficiencies, and improve population health.”
  • Microsoft is offering its AI platform as a tool to accelerate development of AI solutions. They are also offering an AI school : “Dive in and learn how to start building intelligence into your solutions with the Microsoft AI platform, including pre-trained AI services like Cognitive Services and Bot Framework, as well as deep learning tools like Azure Machine Learning, Visual Studio Code Tools for AI and Cognitive Toolkit. Our platform enables any developer to code in any language and infuse AI into your apps. Whether your solutions are existing or new, this is the intelligence platform to build on.”

Read Full Post »

Older Posts »