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Archive for the ‘Genomic Testing: Methodology for Diagnosis’ Category


SNP-based Study on high BMI exposure confirms CVD and DM Risks – no associations with Stroke

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Genes Affirm: High BMI Carries Weighty Heart, Diabetes Risk – Mendelian randomization study adds to ‘burgeoning evidence’

by Crystal Phend, Senior Associate Editor, MedPage Today, July 05, 2017

 

The “genetically instrumented” measure of high BMI exposure — calculated based on 93 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with BMI in prior genome-wide association studies — was associated with the following risks (odds ratios given per standard deviation higher BMI):

  • Hypertension (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.48-1.83)
  • Coronary heart disease (CHD; OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.69)
  • Type 2 diabetes (OR 2.53, 95% CI 2.04-3.13)
  • Systolic blood pressure (β 1.65 mm Hg, 95% CI 0.78-2.52 mm Hg)
  • Diastolic blood pressure (β 1.37 mm Hg, 95% CI 0.88-1.85 mm Hg)

However, there were no associations with stroke, Donald Lyall, PhD, of the University of Glasgow, and colleagues reported online in JAMA Cardiology.

The associations independent of age, sex, Townsend deprivation scores, alcohol intake, and smoking history were found in baseline data from 119,859 participants in the population-based U.K. Biobank who had complete medical, sociodemographic, and genetic data.

“The main advantage of an MR approach is that certain types of study bias can be minimized,” the team noted. “Because DNA is stable and randomly inherited, which helps to mitigate errors from reverse causality and confounding, genetic variation can be used as a proxy for lifetime BMI to overcome limitations such as reverse causality and confounding, a process that hampers observational analyses of obesity and its consequences.”

 

Other related articles published in this Open Access Online Scientific Journal include the following:

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    Etiologies of Cardiovascular Diseases: Epigenetics, Genetics and Genomics

    Nov 28, 2015 | Kindle eBook

    by Justin D. Pearlman MD ME PhD MA FACC and Stephen J. Williams PhD
    Subscribers read for free.
    Auto-delivered wirelessly
    Sold by: Amazon Digital Services LLC
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    Perspectives on Nitric Oxide in Disease Mechanisms (Biomed e-Books Book 1)

    Jun 20, 2013 | Kindle eBook

    by Margaret Baker PhD and Tilda Barliya PhD
    Subscribers read for free.
    Auto-delivered wirelessly
    Sold by: Amazon Digital Services LLC
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    Cancer Therapies: Metabolic, Genomics, Interventional, Immunotherapy and Nanotechnology in Therapy Delivery (Series C Book 2)

    May 13, 2017 | Kindle eBook

    by Larry H. Bernstein and Demet Sag
    Subscribers read for free.
    Auto-delivered wirelessly
    Sold by: Amazon Digital Services LLC
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    Metabolic Genomics & Pharmaceutics (BioMedicine – Metabolomics, Immunology, Infectious Diseases Book 1)

    Jul 21, 2015 | Kindle eBook

    by Larry H. Bernstein MD FCAP and Prabodah Kandala PhD
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    Milestones in Physiology: Discoveries in Medicine, Genomics and Therapeutics (Series E: Patient-Centered Medicine Book 3)

    Dec 26, 2015 | Kindle eBook

    by Larry H. Bernstein MD FACP and Aviva Lev-Ari PhD RN
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    Sold by: Amazon Digital Services LLC
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    Genomics Orientations for Personalized Medicine (Frontiers in Genomics Research Book 1)

    Nov 22, 2015 | Kindle eBook

    by Sudipta Saha PhD and Ritu Saxena PhD
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    Auto-delivered wirelessly
    Sold by: Amazon Digital Services LLC
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    Cancer Biology and Genomics for Disease Diagnosis (Series C: e-Books on Cancer & Oncology Book 1)

    Aug 10, 2015 | Kindle eBook

    by Larry H Bernstein MD FCAP and Prabodh Kumar Kandala PhD
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    Regenerative and Translational Medicine: The Therapeutic Promise for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Dec 26, 2015 | Kindle eBook

    by Justin D. Pearlman MD ME PhD MA FACC and Stephen J. Williams
    Subscribers read for free.
    Auto-delivered wirelessly
    Sold by: Amazon Digital Services LLC
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    Cardiovascular Original Research: Cases in Methodology Design for Content Co-Curation: The Art of Scientific & Medical Curation

    Nov 29, 2015 | Kindle eBook

    by Larry H. Bernstein MD FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari PhD RN
    Subscribers read for free.
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Breakthroughs: Insights From the Personalized Medicine & Diagnostics Track at the 2017 BIO International Convention

Guest Author: David Davenport, Office Administrator, Personalized Medicine Coalition

 

“Health care today is reactive and costly … anything but personalized … but we are now entering a new era where health care is becoming proactive, preventive, highly personalized and most importantly predictive,” said J. Craig Venter, Ph.D., Founder, President, CEO, J. Craig Venter Institute, during his opening keynote at the Personalized Medicine and Diagnostics Track at the 2017 BIO International Convention in San Diego from June 21 – 22. The track, co-organized by PMC, brought together thought leaders to discuss breakthroughs in advancing personalized medicine. From those conversations several themes emerged:

Complex genetic data require a “knowledge network” to translate into personalized care.

During the session titled The Next Frontier: Navigating Clinical Adoption of Personalized Medicine, moderated by PMC Vice President for Science Policy Daryl Pritchard, Ph.D., panelists discussed how to accelerate the clinical adoption of innovative personalized therapies. Jennifer Levin Carter, M.D., Founder and Chief Medical Officer of N-of-One, a clinical diagnostic testing interpretation service company, explained that as data grows in complexity, there is a growing need for partnerships to efficiently analyze the data and develop effective targeted treatment plans. India Hook-Barnard, Ph.D., Director of Research Strategy, Associate Director of Precision Medicine, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), agreed and discussed the need to build a “knowledge network” that can harness data and expertise to inform provider-patient decision-making.

Discussing how personalized medicine can be integrated into community health centers lacking large research budgets, Lynn Dressler, Dr.P.H., Director of Personalized Medicine and Pharmacogenomics at Mission Health Systems, a rural community health care delivery system in Asheville, North Carolina, discussed the need to better educate physicians and patients as well as the role that a knowledge network could play in providing easy and cost-effective access to diagnostic testing services.

Delivering personalized medicine requires innovative partnerships involving industry, IT companies, providers, payers and the government.

During It’s a Converging World: Innovative Partnerships and Precision Medicine, a panel moderated by Kristin Pothier, Global Head of Life Sciences Strategy, Ernst & Young, discussed the need for “open data” where improved patient care is the shared goal, and how public-private partnerships that address education, evidence development and access to care can help foster personalized medicine.

During a session titled Nevada as a New Model for Population Health Study, Nevada-based health system Renown Health outlined a study in which it partnered with genetic testing company 23andMe to examine whether free access to genetic testing changes participants’ practices in managing their own health and facilitates the utilization of personalized medicine.

In the era of personalized medicine, measuring and delivering value requires a paradigm shift from population-based to individual-based evidence.

Following a discussion on regulatory and reimbursement challenges moderated by Bruce Quinn, M.D., Ph.D., Principal, Bruce Quinn Associates, during which panelists called for the simplification of payment structures to be more consistent, more efficient and more connected to the patient market, a panel moderated by Jennifer Snow, Director of Health Policy at Xcenda, discussed how value assessment frameworks must adapt to consider the value of personalized medicine. During The Whole Picture: Consideration of Personalized Medicine in Value Assessment Frameworks, panelist Mitch Higashi, Ph.D., Vice President, Health Economics and Outcomes Research, U.S., Bristol-Myers Squibb, called for patient-centered definitions of value and advocated for the inclusion of predictive biomarkers in all value frameworks. Donna Cryer, J.D., President, CEO, Global Liver Institute, added that the “patient must be the ultimate ‘arbiter of value’” and urged “transparency” in how value assessment frameworks are used.

Noting that different assessment frameworks have different goals, Roger Longman, CEO, Real Endpoints, called for more dynamic frameworks that allow different stakeholders to “use the same criteria but weigh them differently.” The panel concluded that to advance personalized medicine, value frameworks must be meaningful, practical and predictive for patients; reflect evolving evidence needs like real-world evidence; and consider breakthrough payment structures like bundled payments.

From Promise to Practice: The Way Forward for Personalized Medicine

During the concluding session, Creating a Universal Biomarker Program, moderated by Ian Wright, Owner, Strategic Innovations LLC, on behalf of Cedars-Sinai Precision Health, panelists discussed how to make patients the point of reference for their own care, as opposed to being compared to the “normal” range of population averages in treatment decisions using biomarkers. The speakers concluded that moving in that direction requires providers to establish baselines for each patient, along with tools and metrics to facilitate the approach.

In the words of Donna Cryer, “personalized medicine is the definition of value for a patient.” With the ability to detect diseases before they even express themselves, the promise of personalized medicine has never been greater.

However, changing the health care system to improve patient access to valuable personalized medicines requires innovation and collaboration. As PMC President Edward Abrahams, Ph.D., said during his opening remarks for the track, that change

“doesn’t come easily,” but “breakthrough” discussions like these continue to move us forward.

The complete track agenda can be downloaded here.

 

SOURCE

From: <pmc@personalizedmedicinecoalition.org>

Date: Monday, July 10, 2017 at 10:51 AM

To: Aviva Lev-Ari <AvivaLev-Ari@alum.berkeley.edu>

Subject: Breakthroughs From the 2017 BIO Convention’s PM & Dx Track

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Genomic Diagnostics: Three Techniques to Perform Single Cell Gene Expression and Genome Sequencing Single Molecule DNA Sequencing

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

This article presents Three Techniques to Perform Single Cell Gene Expression and Genome Sequencing Single molecule DNA sequencing

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Reporter and Curator: Irina Robu, PhD

Monitoring cancer patients and evaluating their response to treatment can sometimes involve invasive procedures, including surgery.

The liquid biopsies have become something of a Holy Grail in cancer treatment among physicians, researchers and companies gambling big on the technology. Liquid biopsies, unlike traditional biopsies involving invasive surgery — rely on an ordinary blood draw. Developments in sequencing the human genome, permitting researchers to detect genetic mutations of cancers, have made the tests conceivable. Some 38 companies in the US alone are working on liquid biopsies by trying to analyze blood for fragments of DNA shed by dying tumor cells.

Premature research on the liquid biopsy has concentrated profoundly on patients with later-stage cancers who have suffered treatments, including chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, immunotherapy or drugs that target molecules involved in the growth, progression and spread of cancer. For cancer patients undergoing treatment, liquid biopsies could spare them some of the painful, expensive and risky tissue tumor biopsies and reduce reliance on CT scans. The tests can rapidly evaluate the efficacy of surgery or other treatment, while old-style biopsies and CT scans can still remain inconclusive as a result of scar tissue near the tumor site.

As recently as a few years ago, the liquid biopsies were hardly used except in research. At the moment, thousands of the tests are being used in clinical practices in the United States and abroad, including at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston; the University of California, San Diego; the University of California, San Francisco; the Duke Cancer Institute and several other cancer centers.

With patients for whom physicians cannot get a tissue biopsy, the liquid biopsy could prove a safe and effective alternative that could help determine whether treatment is helping eradicate the cancer. A startup, Miroculus developed a cheap, open source device that can test blood for several types of cancer at once. The platform, called Miriam finds cancer by extracting RNA from blood and spreading it across plates that look at specific type of mRNA. The technology is then hooked up at a smartphone which sends the information to an online database and compares the microRNA found in the patient’s blood to known patterns indicating different type of cancers in the early stage and can reduce unnecessary cancer screenings.

Nevertheless, experts warn that more studies are essential to regulate the accuracy of the test, exactly which cancers it can detect, at what stages and whether it improves care or survival rates.

SOURCE

https://www.fastcompany.com/3037117/a-new-device-can-detect-multiple-types-of-cancer-with-a-single-blood-test

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4356857/

Other related articles published in this Open Access Online Scientific Publishing Journal include the following:

Liquid Biopsy Chip detects an array of metastatic cancer cell markers in blood – R&D @Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Micro and Nanotechnology Lab

Reporters: Tilda Barliya, PhD and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/12/28/liquid-biopsy-chip-detects-an-array-of-metastatic-cancer-cell-markers-in-blood-rd-worcester-polytechnic-institute-micro-and-nanotechnology-lab/

Liquid Biopsy Assay May Predict Drug Resistance

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/11/06/liquid-biopsy-assay-may-predict-drug-resistance/

One blood sample can be tested for a comprehensive array of cancer cell biomarkers: R&D at WPI

Curator: Marzan Khan, B.Sc

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/01/05/one-blood-sample-can-be-tested-for-a-comprehensive-array-of-cancer-cell-biomarkers-rd-wpi

 

 

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Ido Sagi – PhD Student @HUJI, 2017 Kaye Innovation Award winner for leading research that yielded the first successful isolation and maintenance of haploid embryonic stem cells in humans.

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

Ido Sagi – PhD Student, Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, HUJI, Israel

  • Ido Sagi’s research focuses on studying genetic and epigenetic phenomena in human pluripotent stem cells, and his work has been published in leading scientific journals, including NatureNature Genetics and Cell Stem Cell.
  • Ido Sagi received BSc summa cum laude in Life Sciences from the Hebrew University, and currently pursues a PhD at the laboratory of Prof. Nissim Benvenisty at the university’s Department of Genetics in the Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences.

The Kaye Innovation Awards at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have been awarded annually since 1994. Isaac Kaye of England, a prominent industrialist in the pharmaceutical industry, established the awards to encourage faculty, staff and students of the Hebrew University to develop innovative methods and inventions with good commercial potential, which will benefit the university and society.

Publications – Ido Sagi

Comparable frequencies of coding mutations and loss of imprinting in human pluripotent cells derived by nuclear transfer and defined factors.
Cell Stem Cell 2014 Nov 6;15(5):634-42. Epub 2014 Nov 6.
The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute, New York, NY 10032, USA; Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center & Department of Pediatrics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:

November 2014

 



Stem cells: Aspiring to naivety.
Nature 2016 12 30;540(7632):211-212. Epub 2016 Nov 30.
The Azrieli Center for Stem Cells and Genetic Research, Department of Genetics, Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel.
November 2016

Download Full Paper

SOURCE

Other related articles on Genetic and Epigenetic phenomena in human pluripotent stem cells published by LPBI Group can be found in the following e-Books on Amazon.com

e-Books in Medicine

https://www.amazon.com/s/ref=dp_byline_sr_ebooks_9?ie=UTF8&text=Aviva+Lev-Ari&search-alias=digital-text&field-author=Aviva+Lev-Ari&sort=relevancerank

9 results for Kindle Store : “Aviva Lev-Ari”

  • Product Details

    Etiologies of Cardiovascular Diseases: Epigenetics, Genetics and Genomics

    Nov 28, 2015 | Kindle eBook

    by Justin D. Pearlman MD ME PhD MA FACC and Stephen J. Williams PhD
    Subscribers read for free.
    Auto-delivered wirelessly
    Sold by: Amazon Digital Services LLC
  • Product Details

    Cancer Therapies: Metabolic, Genomics, Interventional, Immunotherapy and Nanotechnology in Therapy Delivery (Series C Book 2)

    May 13, 2017 | Kindle eBook

    by Larry H. Bernstein and Demet Sag
    Subscribers read for free.
    Auto-delivered wirelessly
    Sold by: Amazon Digital Services LLC
  • Product Details

    Perspectives on Nitric Oxide in Disease Mechanisms (Biomed e-Books Book 1)

    Jun 20, 2013 | Kindle eBook

    by Margaret Baker PhD and Aviva Lev-Ari PhD RN
    Subscribers read for free.
    Auto-delivered wirelessly
    Sold by: Amazon Digital Services LLC
  • Product Details

    Cancer Biology and Genomics for Disease Diagnosis (Series C: e-Books on Cancer & Oncology Book 1)

    Aug 10, 2015 | Kindle eBook

    by Larry H Bernstein MD FCAP and Prabodh Kumar Kandala PhD
    Subscribers read for free.
    Auto-delivered wirelessly
    Sold by: Amazon Digital Services LLC
  • Product Details

    Genomics Orientations for Personalized Medicine (Frontiers in Genomics Research Book 1)

    Nov 22, 2015 | Kindle eBook

    by Sudipta Saha PhD and Ritu Saxena PhD
    Subscribers read for free.
    Auto-delivered wirelessly
    Sold by: Amazon Digital Services LLC
  • Product Details

    Metabolic Genomics & Pharmaceutics (BioMedicine – Metabolomics, Immunology, Infectious Diseases Book 1)

    Jul 21, 2015 | Kindle eBook

    by Larry H. Bernstein MD FCAP and Prabodah Kandala PhD
    Subscribers read for free.
    Auto-delivered wirelessly
    Sold by: Amazon Digital Services LLC
  • Product Details

    Milestones in Physiology: Discoveries in Medicine, Genomics and Therapeutics (Series E: Patient-Centered Medicine Book 3)

    Dec 26, 2015 | Kindle eBook

    by Larry H. Bernstein MD FACP and Aviva Lev-Ari PhD RN
    Subscribers read for free.
    Auto-delivered wirelessly
    Sold by: Amazon Digital Services LLC
  • Product Details

    Regenerative and Translational Medicine: The Therapeutic Promise for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Dec 26, 2015 | Kindle eBook

    by Justin D. Pearlman MD ME PhD MA FACC and Ritu Saxena PhD
    Subscribers read for free.
    Auto-delivered wirelessly
    Sold by: Amazon Digital Services LLC
  • Product Details

    Cardiovascular Original Research: Cases in Methodology Design for Content Co-Curation: The Art of Scientific & Medical Curation

    Nov 29, 2015 | Kindle eBook

    by Larry H. Bernstein MD FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari PhD RN
    Subscribers read for free.
    Auto-delivered wirelessly
    Sold by: Amazon Digital Services LLC

 

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Pharmacotyping Pancreatic Cancer Patients in the Future: Two Approaches – ORGANOIDS by David Tuveson and Hans Clevers and/or MICRODOSING Devices by Robert Langer

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

This curation provides the resources for edification on Pharmacotyping Pancreatic Cancer Patients in the Future

 

  • Professor Hans Clevers at Clevers Group, Hubrecht University

https://www.hubrecht.eu/onderzoekers/clevers-group/

  • Prof. Robert Langer, MIT

http://web.mit.edu/langerlab/langer.html

Langer’s articles on Drug Delivery

https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Langer+on+Drug+Delivery&hl=en&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwixsd2w88TTAhVG4iYKHRaIAvEQgQMIJDAA

organoids, which I know you’re pretty involved in with Hans Clevers. What are your plans for organoids of pancreatic cancer?

Organoids are a really terrific model of a patient’s tumour that you generate from tissue that is either removed at the time of surgery or when they get a small needle biopsy. Culturing the tissue and observing an outgrowth of it is usually successful and when you have the cells, you can perform molecular diagnostics of any type. With a patient-derived organoid, you can sequence the exome and the RNA, and you can perform drug testing, which I call ‘pharmacotyping’, where you’re evaluating compounds that by themselves or in combination show potency against the cells. A major goal of our lab is to work towards being able to use organoids to choose therapies that will work for an individual patient – personalized medicine.

Organoids could be made moot by implantable microdevices for drug delivery into tumors, developed by Bob Langer. These devices are the size of a pencil lead and contain reservoirs that release microdoses of different drugs; the device can be injected into the tumor to deliver drugs, and can then be carefully dissected out and analyzed to gain insight into the sensitivity of cancer cells to different anticancer agents. Bob and I are kind of engaged in a friendly contest to see whether organoids or microdosing devices are going to come out on top. I suspect that both approaches will be important for pharmacotyping cancer patients in the future.

From the science side, we use organoids to discover things about pancreatic cancer. They’re great models, probably the best that I know of to rapidly discover new things about cancer because you can grow normal tissue as well as malignant tissue. So, from the same patient you can do a comparison easily to find out what’s different in the tumor. Organoids are crazy interesting, and when I see other people in the pancreatic cancer field I tell them, you should stop what you’re doing and work on these because it’s the faster way of studying this disease.

SOURCE

Other related articles on Pancreatic Cancer and Drug Delivery published in this Open Access Online Scientific Journal include the following:

 

Pancreatic Cancer: Articles of Note @PharmaceuticalIntelligence.com

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/05/26/pancreatic-cancer-articles-of-note-pharmaceuticalintelligence-com/

Keyword Search: “Pancreatic Cancer” – 275 Article Titles

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.wordpress.com/wp-admin/edit.php?s=Pancreatic+Cancer&post_status=all&post_type=post&action=-1&m=0&cat=0&paged=1&action2=-1

Keyword Search: Drug Delivery: 542 Articles Titles

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.wordpress.com/wp-admin/edit.php?s=Drug+Delivery&post_status=all&post_type=post&action=-1&m=0&cat=0&paged=1&action2=-1

Keyword Search: Personalized Medicine: 597 Article Titles

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.wordpress.com/wp-admin/edit.php?s=Personalized+Medicine&post_status=all&post_type=post&action=-1&m=0&cat=0&paged=1&action2=-1

  • Cancer Biology & Genomics for Disease Diagnosis, on Amazon since 8/11/2015

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B013RVYR2K

 

 

VOLUME TWO WILL BE AVAILABLE ON AMAZON.COM ON MAY 1, 2017

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Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

 

Scientists think excessive population growth is a cause of scarcity and environmental degradation. A male pill could reduce the number of unintended pregnancies, which accounts for 40 percent of all pregnancies worldwide.

 

But, big drug companies long ago dropped out of the search for a male contraceptive pill which is able to chemically intercept millions of sperm before they reach a woman’s egg. Right now the chemical burden for contraception relies solely on the female. There’s not much activity in the male contraception field because an effective solution is available on the female side.

 

Presently, male contraception means a condom or a vasectomy. But researchers from Center for Drug Discovery at Baylor College of Medicine, USA are renewing the search for a better option—an easy-to-take pill that’s safe, fast-acting, and reversible.

 

The scientists began with lists of genes active in the testes for sperm production and motility and then created knockout mice that lack those genes. Using the gene-editing technology called CRISPR, in collaboration with Japanese scientists, they have so far made more than 75 of these “knockout” mice.

 

They allowed these mice to mate with normal (wild type) female mice, and if their female partners don’t get pregnant after three to six months, it means the gene might be a target for a contraceptive. Out of 2300 genes that are particularly active in the testes of mice, the researchers have identified 30 genes whose deletion makes the male infertile. Next the scientists are planning a novel screening approach to test whether any of about two billion chemicals can disable these genes in a test tube. Promising chemicals could then be fed to male mice to see if they cause infertility.

 

Female birth control pills use hormones to inhibit a woman’s ovaries from releasing eggs. But hormones have side effects like weight gain, mood changes, and headaches. A trial of one male contraceptive hormone was stopped early in 2011 after one participant committed suicide and others reported depression. Moreover, some drug candidates have made animals permanently sterile which is not the goal of the research. The challenge is to prevent sperm being made without permanently sterilizing the individual.

 

As a better way to test drugs, Scientists at University of Georgia, USA are investigating yet another high-tech approach. They are turning human skin cells into stem cells that look and act like the spermatogonial cells in the testes. Testing drugs on such cells might provide more accurate leads than tests on mice.

 

The male pill would also have to start working quickly, a lot sooner than the female pill, which takes about a week to function. Scientists from University of Dundee, U.K. admitted that there are lots of challenges. Because, a women’s ovary usually release one mature egg each month, while a man makes millions of sperm every day. So, the male pill has to be made 100 percent effective and act instantaneously.

 

References:

 

https://www.technologyreview.com/s/603676/the-search-for-a-perfect-male-birth-control-pill/

 

https://futurism.com/videos/the-perfect-male-birth-control-pill-is-coming-soon/?utm_source=Digest&utm_campaign=c42fc7b9b6-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_03_20&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_03cd0a26cd-c42fc7b9b6-246845533

 

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/sex/the-male-pill-is-coming—and-its-going-to-change-everything/

 

http://www.mensfitness.com/women/sex-tips/male-birth-control-pill-making

 

http://health.howstuffworks.com/sexual-health/contraception/male-bc-pill.htm

 

http://europe.newsweek.com/male-contraception-side-effects-study-pill-injection-518237?rm=eu

 

http://edition.cnn.com/2016/01/07/health/male-birth-control-pill/index.html

 

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/contraception-guide/Pages/male-pill.aspx

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