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Archive for the ‘Cancer and Current Therapeutics’ Category


New Treatment in Development for Glioblastoma: Hopes for Sen. John McCain

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

We wish all patients diagnosed with Glioblastoma to be able to benefit from the advancements in Sciences reported, below

SOURCE

Glioblastoma Is A Grim Diagnosis, But There Are Some Signs Of Hope

Karen Weintraub, July 20, 2017 Updated July 21, 2017 5:33 PM

 

Advancements in Crossing The Blood-Brain Barrier

Paula Hammond, of MIT’s Koch Institute of Integrative Cancer Research: “We believe we have a handle on a good stealth mechanism. Now, we’re looking at enhanced uptake,” she said. “We have to begin to think a little bit about how to get nature on our side on this one.”

At the Brigham, researchers are trying another approach to getting across the blood-brain-barrier: prying open holes in its armor with beams of ultrasound. Although normally used to take cool pictures during pregnancy, multiple beams of ultrasound aimed at the same area can make blood vessels of the brain “leakier,” according to research at the Brigham.

 

Advancement in Stem Cells against Tumors

There’s also a possibility that stem cells may be useful for tracking down and killing tumor cells. Khalid Shah, director for the Center for Stem Cell Therapeutics and Imaging at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, has been experimenting with delivering engineered stem cells directly to tumor sites after surgery.

William Curry at Mass. General, is that the longer a patient with glioblastoma can hang on, the better their chances of getting one of these new treatments.

“The longer you stay alive and the longer you maintain good neurological function, the more eligible you one may be to see the benefits and the fruits of a lot of the research that is really accelerating right now,” he said.

SOURCE

Glioblastoma Is A Grim Diagnosis, But There Are Some Signs Of Hope

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Reporter and Curator: Irina Robu, PhD

Monitoring cancer patients and evaluating their response to treatment can sometimes involve invasive procedures, including surgery.

The liquid biopsies have become something of a Holy Grail in cancer treatment among physicians, researchers and companies gambling big on the technology. Liquid biopsies, unlike traditional biopsies involving invasive surgery — rely on an ordinary blood draw. Developments in sequencing the human genome, permitting researchers to detect genetic mutations of cancers, have made the tests conceivable. Some 38 companies in the US alone are working on liquid biopsies by trying to analyze blood for fragments of DNA shed by dying tumor cells.

Premature research on the liquid biopsy has concentrated profoundly on patients with later-stage cancers who have suffered treatments, including chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, immunotherapy or drugs that target molecules involved in the growth, progression and spread of cancer. For cancer patients undergoing treatment, liquid biopsies could spare them some of the painful, expensive and risky tissue tumor biopsies and reduce reliance on CT scans. The tests can rapidly evaluate the efficacy of surgery or other treatment, while old-style biopsies and CT scans can still remain inconclusive as a result of scar tissue near the tumor site.

As recently as a few years ago, the liquid biopsies were hardly used except in research. At the moment, thousands of the tests are being used in clinical practices in the United States and abroad, including at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston; the University of California, San Diego; the University of California, San Francisco; the Duke Cancer Institute and several other cancer centers.

With patients for whom physicians cannot get a tissue biopsy, the liquid biopsy could prove a safe and effective alternative that could help determine whether treatment is helping eradicate the cancer. A startup, Miroculus developed a cheap, open source device that can test blood for several types of cancer at once. The platform, called Miriam finds cancer by extracting RNA from blood and spreading it across plates that look at specific type of mRNA. The technology is then hooked up at a smartphone which sends the information to an online database and compares the microRNA found in the patient’s blood to known patterns indicating different type of cancers in the early stage and can reduce unnecessary cancer screenings.

Nevertheless, experts warn that more studies are essential to regulate the accuracy of the test, exactly which cancers it can detect, at what stages and whether it improves care or survival rates.

SOURCE

https://www.fastcompany.com/3037117/a-new-device-can-detect-multiple-types-of-cancer-with-a-single-blood-test

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4356857/

Other related articles published in this Open Access Online Scientific Publishing Journal include the following:

Liquid Biopsy Chip detects an array of metastatic cancer cell markers in blood – R&D @Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Micro and Nanotechnology Lab

Reporters: Tilda Barliya, PhD and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/12/28/liquid-biopsy-chip-detects-an-array-of-metastatic-cancer-cell-markers-in-blood-rd-worcester-polytechnic-institute-micro-and-nanotechnology-lab/

Liquid Biopsy Assay May Predict Drug Resistance

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/11/06/liquid-biopsy-assay-may-predict-drug-resistance/

One blood sample can be tested for a comprehensive array of cancer cell biomarkers: R&D at WPI

Curator: Marzan Khan, B.Sc

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/01/05/one-blood-sample-can-be-tested-for-a-comprehensive-array-of-cancer-cell-biomarkers-rd-wpi

 

 

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Personalized Medicine been Positively affected by FDA Drug Approval Record

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

FDA to Clear Path for Drugs Aimed at Cancer-Causing Genes

By Anna Edney and Michelle Cortez

June 20, 2017, 10:41 AM EDT June 20, 2017, 3:02 PM EDT

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-06-20/fda-moves-to-clear-path-for-drugs-aimed-at-cancer-causing-genes

 

 

‘Landmark FDA approval bolsters personalized medicine’

PMC – An Op-Ed in STAT News

by Edward Abrahams

June 21, 2017

Our understanding of cancer has been morphing from a tissue-specific disease — think lung cancer or breast cancer — to a disease characterized more by specific genes or biomarkers than by location. A recent FDA decision underscores that transition and further opens the door to personalized medicine.

Two years ago, the director of the FDA’s Office of Hematology and Oncology Products told the Associated Press that there was no precedent for the agency to approve a drug aimed at treating tumors that generate a specific biomarker no matter where the cancer is in the body. Such a drug had long been seen as the epitome of personalized medicine. But with the rapid pace of progress in the field, director Dr. Richard Pazdur said, such an approval could one day be possible.

That day has arrived.

In a milestone decision for personalized medicine, the FDA approved Merck’s pembrolizumab (Keytruda) late last month for the treatment of tumors that express one of two biomarkers regardless of where in the body the tumors are located. The decision marks the first time FDA has approved a cancer drug for an indication based on the expression of specific biomarkers rather than the tumor’s location in the body.

Keytruda is designed to help the immune system recognize and destroy cancer cells by targeting a specific cellular pathway. The FDA notes that the two biomarkers — microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) and mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) — affect the proper repair of DNA inside cells.

The approval represents an important first for the field of personalized medicine, which anticipates an era in which physicians use molecular tests to classify different forms of cancer based on the biomarkers they express, then choose the right treatment for it. In contrast to standard cancer treatments, which are given to large populations of patients even though only a fraction of them will benefit, Keytruda was approved only for the 4 percent of cancer patients whose tumors exhibit MSI-H or dMMR mutations. That may help the health system save money by focusing resources only on patients who are likely to benefit from Keytruda.

Such “personalized” strategies now dominate the landscape for cancer drug development. Personalized medicines account for nearly 1 of every 4 FDA approvals from 2014 to 2016, and the Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development estimates that more than 70 percent of cancer drugs now in development are personalized medicines.

While this is encouraging, the U.S. research, regulatory, and reimbursement systems aren’t aligned to stimulate the development of personalized medicines, and may even deter progress.

The Trump administration’s proposal to cut biomedical research spending at the National Institutes of Health by 18 percent in fiscal year 2018, for example, would undermine its ability to fund more studies like the National Cancer Institute’s Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (MATCH) trial, which is designed to test targeted therapies across tumor types.

While the regulatory landscape for these targeted medicines is clear, the path to market for the molecular tests that do the targeting is not. That uncertainty continues to stifle investment in the innovative tests that make personalized medicine possible. The result is a clinical environment in which the patients who could benefit from personalized medicines are often never identified because the necessary tests aren’t available to them.

Finally, increasing pressure on pharmaceutical and diagnostic companies to decrease prices without considering their value to individual patients and the health system could also deter investment in innovative solutions that address unmet medical needs, particularly for smaller patient populations.

Confronted with unprecedented opportunities in personalized medicine, policymakers would do well to ensure that our research, regulatory, and reimbursement systems facilitate the development of and access to these promising new therapies. Only then can we ensure that Keytruda’s groundbreaking approval represents the beginning of a new era that promises better health and a more cost-effective health system.

Edward Abrahams, Ph.D., is president of the Personalized Medicine Coalition.

 

 

 

SOURCE

From: <cwells@personalizedmedicinecoalition.org>

Date: Wednesday, June 21, 2017 at 1:38 PM

To: Aviva Lev-Ari <AvivaLev-Ari@alum.berkeley.edu>

Subject: PMC in STAT: “Landmark FDA Approval Bolsters Personalized Medicine”

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City of Hope, Duarte, California – Combining Science with Soul to Create Miracles at a Comprehensive Cancer Center designated by the National Cancer InstituteAn Interview with the Provost and Chief Scientific Officer of City of Hope, Steven T. Rosen, M.D.

Author: Gail S. Thornton, M.A.

Co-Editor: The VOICES of Patients, Hospital CEOs, HealthCare Providers, Caregivers and Families: Personal Experience with Critical Care and Invasive Medical Procedures

 

City of Hope (https://www.cityofhope.org/homepage), a world leader in the research and treatment of cancer, diabetes, and other serious diseases, is an independent, biomedical research institution and comprehensive cancer center committed to researching, treating and preventing cancer, with an equal commitment to curing and preventing diabetes and other life-threatening diseases. Founded in 1913, City of Hope is one of only 47 comprehensive cancer centers in the nation, as designated by the National Cancer Institute.

City of Hope possesses flexibility that larger institutions typically lack. Innovative concepts move quickly from the laboratory to patient trials — and then to market, where they benefit patients around the world.

As a founding member of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, their research and treatment protocols advance care throughout the nation. They are also part of ORIEN (Oncology Research Information Exchange Network), the world’s largest cancer research collaboration devoted to precision medicine. And they continue to receive the highest level of accreditation by the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer for their exceptional level of cancer care.

As an innovator, City of Hope is a pioneer in bone marrow and stem cell transplants with one of the largest and most successful of its kind in the world. Other examples of its leadership and innovation include,

  • Numerous breakthrough cancer drugs, including Herceptin, Rituxan, Erbitux, and Avastin, are based on technology pioneered by City of Hope and are saving lives worldwide.
  • To date, City of Hope surgeons have performed more than 10,000 robotic procedures for prostate, kidney, colon, liver, bladder, gynecologic, oral and other cancers.
  • They are a national leader in islet cell transplantation, which has the potential to reverse type 1 diabetes, and also provide islet cells for research at other institutions throughout the U.S.
  • Millions of people with diabetes benefit from synthetic human insulin, developed through research conducted at City of Hope.
  • Their scientists are pioneering the application of blood stem cell transplants to treat patients with HIV- and AIDS related lymphoma. Using a new form of gene therapy, their researchers achieved the first long-term persistence of anti-HIV genes in patients with AIDS-related lymphoma — a treatment that may ultimately cure lymphoma and HIV/AIDS.

 

Additionally, City of Hope has three on-campus manufacturing facilities producing biologic and chemical compounds to good manufacturing practice (GMP) standards.

City of Hope launched its Alpha Clinic, thanks to an $8 million, five-year grant from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM). The award is part of CIRM’s Alpha Stem Cell Clinics program, which aims to create one-stop centers for clinical trials focused on stem cell treatments for currently incurable diseases. The Alpha Clinics Network is already running 35 different clinical trials involving hundreds of patients, 17 of which are being conducted at City of Hope. Current clinical trials include transplants of blood stem cells modified to treat patients with AIDS and lymphoma, neural stem cells to deliver drugs directly to cancers hiding in the brain, and T cell immunotherapy trials.

Located just northeast of Los Angeles, landscaped gardens and open spaces surround City of Hope’s leading-edge medical and research facilities at its main campus in Duarte, California. City of Hope also has 14 community practice clinics throughout Southern California.

COH robotic (1)COH Helford H (1)COH1 Dr__Rosen_Clinic-2 (2)COH8 Janice_Huss-7COH7 COH_1369COH6 GMP_0454COH4 DSC_9279

Image SOURCE: Photographs courtesy of City of Hope, Duarte, California. Interior and exterior photos of the City of Hope, including Dr. Steven T. Rosen and his team.

 

Below is my interview with the Provost and Chief Scientific Officer of City of Hope, Steven T. Rosen, M.D., which occurred in April, 2017.

 

What sets City of Hope apart from other hospitals and research centers?

Dr. Rosen: City of Hope offers a unique blend of compassionate care and research innovation that simply can’t be found anywhere else.

We’re more than a medical center, and more than a research facility. We take the most compassionate patient-focused care available, combine it with today’s leading-edge medical advances, and infuse both with a quest to deliver better outcomes.

I’m proud to say that we’re known for rapidly translating scientific research into new treatments and cures, and that our technology has led to the development of four of the most widely used cancer-fighting drugs, Herceptin (trastuzumab), Avastin (bevacizumab), Erbitux (cetuximab), and Rituxin (rituximab).

City of Hope is a family. Our special team of experts treats the whole person and the family, not just a body, or a case or a disease. In fact, some of our patients have shared their stories of success. It is gratifying for me and our many health professionals to be able to make a positive difference in their lives.

Eleven years ago, Los Angeles firefighter Gus Perez was facing a battle far greater than any he’d ever known. He was diagnosed with CML (chronic myelogenous leukemia). Gus began receiving the drug Gleevec, which put him into remission. Given the drug’s success, he almost resigned himself to staying on it, yet was drawn to another option: undergoing a bone marrow transplant at City of Hope. “I went to my favorite ocean spot,” Gus recalls. “I put on my wetsuit, like I’ve done thousands of times, and paddled out. Every wave was special because I wasn’t sure if I was ever going to be back. And I remember getting out of the water and counting the steps to my car, thinking, ‘I’m going to beat this. I’m going to retrace those steps.’ And I’m happy to say I was able to do it.” Gus and his family recently celebrated the 10th anniversary of his bone marrow transplant. “City of Hope is more than just medical treatment,” Gus says. “They have to put you back together from the ground up. And to me, that’s truly a miracle.”

 

As an active 14-year-old, Nicole Schulz loved cheerleading and hanging out with her friends. Then her whole world changed. Nicole learned that her fatigue and other symptoms weren’t “just the flu,” but the effects of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), an aggressive disease that rendered her bone marrow 97 percent cancerous. Nicole spent the next three and a half months at City of Hope, fighting the cancer with a daily regimen of chemotherapy and blood and platelet transfusions. “It put me into remission,” Nicole says. “But I wasn’t cured. And I wanted a cure.” Fortunately, Nicole was a candidate for a bone marrow transplant. Her malfunctioning marrow cells would be replaced with healthy marrow from a matching unrelated donor. “I never gave up — and neither did City of Hope,” Nicole says. After two bone marrow transplants and tremendous perseverance, Nicole is back to living the life she once knew and quickly making up for lost time.

 

When Jim Murphy’s doctor called and asked to see him on Christmas Eve, Jim knew it wasn’t going to be good news. And he was right. “The diagnosis was esophageal cancer,” Jim says. “Once they tell you that, there’s nothing you can do but formulate your action plan.” Jim would need to undergo chemotherapy, radiation and surgery to remove the tumor from his esophagus. It would require taking two-thirds of his esophagus and a third of his stomach. Despite the intense treatment, Jim was determined to keep his life as normal as possible. Throughout his chemotherapy and radiation therapy, he never missed a day of work, even riding his mountain bike to and from City of Hope to take his treatments. “I needed to show myself one victory after another,” Jim says. “I know City of Hope appreciated the fact that I was fighting as hard as they were.” Now cancer-free for several years, Jim credits City of Hope with giving him the best chance to fight his disease. “What really impressed me was that the research was right there at City of Hope. If they have something experimental, it goes from the researcher, right to the doctor and right to you. It’s the ultimate weapon — doctors reaching out for researchers, researchers reaching out for doctors. And the patient wins.”

 

City of Hope is a pioneer in the fields of bone marrow transplantation, diabetes and breakthrough cancer drugs based on technology developed at the institution.  How are you transforming the future of health care by turning science into a practical benefit for patients? 

Dr. Rosen: This is a distinctive place where brilliant research moves rapidly from concept to cure. That’s what we do—we speed breakthroughs in the lab to benefit patients in the clinic

Many know us for our leadership in fighting cancer, but fighting cancer is only part of our story. For decades, we’ve been making history in the fight against diabetes and other life-threatening illnesses that can be just as dangerous, and shattering, to patients and their families.

Every year, we conduct 400+ clinical trials, enrolling 6,000+ patients; hold 300+ patents and submit nearly 30 applications to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for investigational new drugs; and offer comprehensive assistance for patients and their families, including patient education, support groups, social resources, mind-body therapies and patient navigators.

We also translate breakthrough laboratory findings into real, lifesaving treatments and cures, and manufacture them at three on-campus facilities. Our goal is to get patients the treatments they need as fast as humanly possible.

We are in the race to save lives – and win. In our research efforts, we are teaching immune cells to attack tumors and Don J. Diamond [Ph.D.], Vincent Chung, [M.D.], and other City of Hope researchers launched a clinical trial seeking ways to effectively activate a patient’s own immune system to fight his or her cancer. The team is combining an immune-boosting vaccine with a drug that inhibits tumor cells’ ability to grow — to encourage immune cells to attack and eliminate tumors such as non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, triple-negative breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma and many other cancer types.

City of Hope’s Diabetes & Metabolism Research Institute is committed to developing a cure for type 1 diabetes (T1D) within six years, fueled by a $50 million funding program led by the Wanek family. Research is already underway to unlock the immune system’s role in diabetes, including T cell modulation and stem cell-based therapies that may reverse the autoimmune attack on islet cells in the pancreas, which is the cause of T1D. City of Hope’s Bart Roep [Ph.D.], previously worked at Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands, where he was instrumental in launching a phase 1 clinical trial for a vaccine that aims to spur the immune system to fight, and possibly cure, T1D. Plans are developing for a larger, phase 2 trial to launch in the future at City of Hope.

 

What makes your recent alliance with Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) different from other efforts in precision medicine around the country and within our Government to identify treatments for cancer?

Dr. Rosen: Precision medicine is the future of cancer care. Since former Vice President’s Joe Biden’s Moonshot Cancer program was launched to achieve 10 years of progress in preventing, diagnosing and treating cancer, within five years, federal cancer funding has been prioritized to address these aims.

City of Hope and the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) have formed an alliance to fast-track the future of precision medicine for patients. Our clinical leadership as a comprehensive cancer center combined with TGen’s leadership in molecular cancer research will propel us to the forefront of precision medicine and is further evidence of our momentum in transforming the future of health.

In fact, most recently scientists at TGen have identified a potent compound in the fight for an improved treatment against glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and deadly type of adult brain cancer. This research could represent a breakthrough for us to find an effective long-term treatment. The compound prevents glioblastoma from spreading, and leaves cancer vulnerable to chemotherapy and radiation.  Aurintricarboxylic Acid (ATA) is a chemical compound that in laboratory tests was shown to block the chemical cascade that otherwise allows glioblastoma cells to invade normal brain tissue and resist both chemo and radiation therapy.

The goal is to accelerate the speed at which we advance research discoveries into the clinic to benefit patients worldwide.

 

As a prestigious Comprehensive Cancer Center, City of Hope was named this year as one of the top 20 cancer centers for the past 10 years. How do you achieve that designation year after year? And what specific collaborations, clinical trials and multidisciplinary research programs are under way that offer benefits to patients?

Dr. Rosen: It’s simple – we achieve this through the compassion, commitment and excellence of the City of Hope family, which includes our world-class physicians, staff, supporters and donors.

We look to find the best and brightest professionals and bring them to City of Hope to work with our amazing staff on research, treatments and cures that not only change people’s lives, but also change the world.

We also have a community of forward-looking, incredibly generous and deeply committed supporters and donors. People who get it. People who share our vision. People who take their capacity for business success and apply it to helping others. They provide the fuel that drives us forward, enabling us to do great things.

City of Hope has a long track record of research breakthroughs and is constantly working to turn novel scientific research into the most advanced medical services.

Right now, we have a number of collaborative programs underway, including: Our alliance with TGen to make precision medicine a reality for patients, The Wanek Family Project to Cure Type 1 Diabetes, and Immunotherapy and CAR-T cell therapy clinical trials, which aim to fight against brain tumors and blood cancers.

More specifically, our research team led by Hua Yu, [Ph.D.] and Andreas Herrmann, [Ph.D.], developed a drug to address the way in which cancer uses the STAT3 protein to “corrupt” the immune system. The drug, CpG-STAT3 siRNA, halts the protein’s ability to “talk” to the immune system. It blocks cancer cell growth while sending a message to surrounding immune cells to destroy a tumor, and it may also enhance the effectiveness of other immunotherapies, such as T-cell therapy.

We could also see a functional cure for HIV in the next 5 to 10 years. Gene therapy pioneer, John A. Zaia, [M.D.], the Aaron D. Miller and Edith Miller Chair in Gene Therapy, the director of the Center for Gene Therapy within City of Hope’s Hematologic Malignancies and Stem Cell Transplantation Institute, as well as principal director of our Alpha Clinic, and researchers are building on knowledge gained from the case of the so-called “Berlin patient” whose HIV infection vanished after receiving a stem cell transplant for treatment of leukemia. The donor’s CCR5 gene, HIV’s typical pathway into the body, had a mutation that blocked the virus. The team launched a clinical trial that used a zinc finger nuclease to “cut out” the CCR5 gene, leaving HIV with no place to go. Their goal: to someday deliver a one-time treatment that produces a lifetime change. Integral to the first-in-human trials are the nurses who understand the study protocols, potential side effects and symptoms.

 

Would you share some of the current science under way on breakthrough cures for cancer?

Dr. Rosen: We are achieving promising results in many innovative approaches – gene therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy and all aspects of precision medicine. We are also forging new partnerships and collaboration agreements around the world.

Let me share with you a few examples of our cutting-edge science.

City of Hope researchers identified a promising new strategy for dealing with PDAC, an aggressive form of pancreatic cancer. The bacterial-based therapy homes to tumors and provokes an extremely effective tumor-killing response.

Teams at City of Hope are working to load nanoparticles with small snippets of DNA molecules that can stimulate the immune system to attack tumor cells in the brain. This innovative approach can overcome the blood-brain barrier, which blocks many drugs from reaching the tumor site.

A pioneer in islet cell transplantation for the treatment of diabetes, City of Hope conducted a clinical trial to refine its transplantation protocol. Because this new protocol includes an ATG (antithymoglobulin) induction, the immune system will not harm the transplant. The immune-suppression strategy used in the trial is considered a significant improvement over the protocol used in previous islet cell transplant trials.

City of Hope physicians and scientists joined a multinational team in reporting the success of a phase II clinical trial of a novel drug against essential thrombocythemia (ET). ET patients make too many platelets (cells essential for blood clotting), which puts them at risk for abnormal clotting and bleeding. All 18 patients treated with the drug, imetelstat, exhibited decreased platelet levels, and 16 showed normalized blood cell counts.

Researchers found that the CMVPepVax vaccine — developed at City of Hope to boost cellular immunity against cytomegalovirus (CMV) — is safe and effective in stem cell transplant recipients. Building on this discovery, City of Hope and Fortress Biotech formed a company to develop two vaccines, PepVax and Triplex, against CMV, a life-threatening illness in people who have weakened or underdeveloped immune systems such as cancer patients and developing fetuses. The vaccines are the subjects of multisite clinical trials. These City of Hope vaccines could open the door to a new way of protecting cancer patients from CMV, a devastating infection that affects hundreds of thousands of people worldwide.

 

In what ways does the initial vision of Samuel H. Golter impact the work you are doing today? What does the tagline – “The Miracle of Science with Soul” – mean?

Dr. Rosen: 100+ years ago, Samuel Golter, one of the founders of City of Hope said: “There is no profit in curing the body if in the process we destroy the soul.” For decades, City of Hope has lived by this credo, providing a comprehensive, compassionate and research-based treatment approach.

“The Miracle of Science with Soul” refers to the lives that we save by uniting science and research with compassionate care.

“Miracle” represents what people with cancer and other deadly diseases say they want most of all.

“Science” speaks to the many innovations we’ve pioneered, which demonstrate that medical miracles happen here.

“Soul” represents our compassionate care. We’re an untraditional health system — and our people, culture and campus reflect this.

 

Can you please describe how City of Hope has evolved throughout its 100-year history from a tuberculosis sanitorium into a world-class research-centered institution? 

Dr. Rosen: City of Hope is a leading comprehensive cancer center and independent biomedical research institution. Over the years, our discoveries have changed the lives of millions of patients around the world.

We pioneered the research leading to the first synthetic insulin and the technology behind numerous cancer-fighting drugs, including Herceptin (trastuzumab), Avasatin (bevacizumab), Erbitux (cetuximab), and Rituxin (rituximab).

As previously mentioned, we hold 300+ patents, have numerous potential therapies in the pipeline at any given time, and treat 1,000+ patients a year in therapeutic clinical trials.

These numbers reflect our commitment to innovation and rapid translation of science into therapies to benefit patients.

We are home to Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, the first of only five Beckman Research Institutes established by funding from the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation. It is responsible for fundamentally expanding the world’s understanding of how biology affects diseases such as cancer, HIV/AIDS and diabetes.

Recognizing our team’s accomplishments in cancer research, treatment, patient care, education and prevention, the National Cancer Institute has designated City of Hope as a comprehensive cancer center. This is an honor reserved for only 47 institutions nationwide. Our five Cancer Center Research Programs run the gamut from basic and translational studies, to Phase I and II clinical protocols and follow-up studies in survivorship and symptom management.

City of Hope’s Diabetes & Metabolism Research Institute offers a broad diabetes and endocrinology program combining groundbreaking research, unique treatments and comprehensive education to help people with diabetes and other endocrine diseases live longer, better lives.

Our dedicated, multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals at the Hematologic Malignancies & Stem Cell Institute combine innovative research discoveries with superior clinical treatments to improve outcomes for patients with hematologic cancers.

Working closely with the City of Hope comprehensive cancer center’s Developmental Cancer Therapeutics Program and other cancer centers, the Medical Oncology & Therapeutics Research multidisciplinary program includes basic, translational and clinical research and fosters collaborations among scientists and clinicians.

City of Hope’s Radiation Oncology Department is on the forefront of improving patient care, and our staff is constantly studying new research technologies, clinical trials and treatment methods that can lead to better outcomes and quality of life for our patients.

What attracted you to City of Hope? And how do you define success in your present role as provost and CSO?

Dr. Rosen: Helping cancer patients and their families gives me a sense of purpose. I encourage everyone to find a passion and find an organization that fits their passion. City of Hope is a special place. What we do is bigger than ourselves.

I define success as finding cures and helping patients live stronger, better lives. I am focused on leading a diverse team of scientists, clinicians and administrative leaders committed to discovering breakthroughs and specialized therapies.

COH2 Dr__Steve_Rosen_

Image SOURCE: Photograph of Provost and Chief Scientific Officer Steven T. Rosen, M.D., courtesy of City of Hope, Duarte, California.

 

Steven T. Rosen, M.D.
Provost and Chief Scientific Officer

City of Hope
Duarte, California

Steven T. Rosen, M.D., is provost and chief scientific officer for City of Hope and a member of City of Hope’s Executive Team. He also is director of the Comprehensive Cancer Center and holds the Irell & Manella Cancer Center Director’s Distinguished Chair, and he is director of Beckman Research Institute (BRI) and the Irell & Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences.

Dr. Rosen sets the scientific direction of City of Hope, shaping the research and educational vision for the biomedical research, treatment and education institution. Working closely and collaboratively with City of Hope’s scientists, clinicians and administrative leaders, he develops strategies that contribute to the organization’s mission.

As director of BRI, he works with faculty across the institution to help shape and direct the scientific vision for BRI while leading the vital basic and translational research that is fundamental to our strategic plan and mission. He focuses on opportunities for expanding and integrating our research initiatives; recruiting and leading talented scientists; helping our talented researchers achieve national and international recognition; and promoting our national standing as a premier scientific organization.

Prior to joining City of Hope, Dr. Rosen was the Genevieve Teuton Professor of Medicine at the Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University in Chicago. He served for 24 years as director of Northwestern’s Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center. Under his leadership, the center received continuous National Cancer Institute (NCI) funding beginning in 1993 and built nationally recognized programs in laboratory sciences, clinical investigations, translational research and cancer prevention and control. The center attained comprehensive status in 1997.

Dr. Rosen has published more than 400 original reports, editorials, books and book chapters. His research has been funded by the National Cancer Institute, American Cancer Society, Leukemia & Lymphoma Society of America and Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation.

Dr. Rosen also has served as an adviser for several of these organizations and on the external advisory boards of more than a dozen NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers. He is the current editor-in-chief of the textbook series “Cancer Treatment & Research.”

Recognized as one of the Best Doctors in America, Dr. Rosen is a recipient of the Martin Luther King Humanitarian Award from Northwestern Memorial Hospital and the Man of Distinction Award from the Israel Cancer Research Fund. He earned his bachelor’s degree and medical degree with distinction from Northwestern University from which he also earned the Alumni Merit Award, and is a member of the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society.

Editor’s Note: 

We would like to thank Mary-Fran Faraji, David Caouette, and Chantal Roshetar of the Communications and Public Affairs department at the City of Hope, for the gracious help and invaluable support they provided during this interview.

 

REFERENCE/SOURCE

The City of Hope (https://www.cityofhope.org/homepage), Duarte, California.

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Retrieved from https://www.cityofhope.org/research/comprehensive-cancer-center

Retrieved from https://www.cityofhope.org/research/research-overview/diabetes-metabolism-research-institute

Retrieved from https://www.cityofhope.org/patients/departments-and-services/hematologic-malignancies-and-stem-cell-transplantation-institute

Retrieved from https://www.cityofhope.org/patients/departments-and-services/medical-oncology-and-therapeutics-research/medical-oncology-research

Retrieved from https://www.cityofhope.org/patients/cancers-and-treatments/departments-and-services/radiation-oncology/radiation-oncology-research

                        

Other related articles were published in this Open Access Online Scientific Journal include the following: 

2017

Expedite Use of Agents in Clinical Trials: New Drug Formulary Created – The NCI Formulary is a public-private partnership between NCI, part of the National Institutes of Health, and pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/01/12/expedite-use-of-agents-in-clinical-trials-new-drug-formulary-created-the-nci-formulary-is-a-public-private-partnership-between-nci-part-of-the-national-institutes-of-health-and-pharmaceutical-and/

The top 15 best-selling cancer drugs in 2022 & Projected Sales in 2020 of World’s Top Ten Oncology Drugs

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/01/03/projected-sales-in-2020-of-worlds-top-ten-oncology-drugs/

2016

Funding Opportunities for Cancer Research

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/12/08/funding-opportunities-for-cancer-research/

Recent Breakthroughs in Cancer Research at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology- 2015

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/02/03/recent-breakthroughs-in-cancer-research-at-the-technion-israel-institute-of-technology-2015/

New York Times Articles on Cancer Immunotherapy and Cancer Treatment Options

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/08/09/new-york-times-articles-on-immunotherapy-and-cancer-treatment-options/

  • Cancer Biology & Genomics for Disease Diagnosis, on Amazon since 8/11/2015

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B013RVYR2K

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/biomed-e-books/series-c-e-books-on-cancer-oncology/volume-2-immunotherapy-in-oncology/

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World’s Top Ten Cancer Drugs by 2020  (million USD)

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

 

Image Source: Statista (www.statista.com)

Opdivo Setback May Yield Lessons for Pharma – Advancing Immunotherapies With PD-L1 Testing

Sep 12, 2016 | Turna Ray

The anti-PD-1/PD-L1 drug market is estimated to be worth around $30 billion by 2020. The negative Phase III results for Opdivo in first-line NSCLC shocked market analysts, and pharmaceutical companies developing drugs in this space “are taking stock of the situation” and surely assessing whether they have the right test methods in place in their drug studies, said Peter Keeling, CEO of consulting firm Diaceutics.

Most drugmakers developing anti-PD-1/PD-L1 drugs are evaluating whether their therapies work especially well in patients whose tumor cells express PD-L1, a protein that cancer cells use to hide from an immune system attack. But studies have demonstrated that PD-L1 expression status doesn’t neatly bucket responders and non-responders in the same way that testing for EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements can, making it difficult for pharmaceutical companies to integrate PD-L1 testing for patient stratification in clinical trials.

In the absence of a universal diagnostic, Cancer Genetics is one lab that does offer all the FDA-approved companion and complementary PD-L1 tests, but also spends a lot of time educating doctors and pathologists on the differences between these tests and which to order for a particular immunotherapy. “There’s a big need for our pharma cousins to really push more knowledge about the associated diagnostics and tests and how to use them,” Sharma said. “That’s the only way they’re going to get uptake in the community setting.”

Despite the muddled messages around PD-L1 testing, healthcare providers and researchers nonetheless seem interested in PD-L1 testing as part of the tumor profiling workup for patients. Diaceutics’ surveys show a sharp uptick in the number of labs offering PD-L1 testing over the past year-and-a-half and 52 labs in the US offer at least one PD-L1 test. The company also reviewed biomarkers being studied in 95 Phase II/III NSCLC, and found that approximately half are incorporating patients’ PD-L1 status either alone or in combination with other markers, such as EGFR and ALK mutations.

At Cancer Genetics over the past year, there has also been a notable ramp up in orders for PD-L1 testing for lung cancer patients, but also for melanoma and head and neck cancer patients. “One our biggest volume increased tests this year has been PD-L1 testing,” Sharma said. “We think there is a lot of opportunity for significant additional growth.”

https://www.genomeweb.com/molecular-diagnostics/opdivo-setback-may-yield-lessons-pharma-advancing-immunotherapies-pd-l1

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LIVE – Real Time – 16th Annual Cancer Research Symposium, Koch Institute, Friday, June 16, 9AM – 5PM, Kresge Auditorium, MIT

 

REAL TIME PRESS COVERAGE & Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

Summer Symposium 2017

https://ki.mit.edu/news/symposium/2017

@kochinstitute #KIsymposium @Pharma_BI @AVIVA1950

A leader in Convergence, MIT’s Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research will, on June 16, present its 16th annual Summer Symposium: the Convergence of Science and Engineering in Cancer Research. Convergence—the merging of historically distinct disciplines such as engineering, physics, computer science, chemistry, mathematics, and the life sciences—has created extraordinary opportunities in cancer research and care. Leaders in this emerging field will discuss innovative new approaches and technologies to better detect, monitor, treat, and prevent cancer. The symposium will also feature a panel of experts to discuss the impact of Convergence on the future of medical care.


INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

Tyler Jacks Tyler Jacks, PhD
Director, Koch Institute, MIT
David H. Koch Professor of Biology, MITLIVE – new Solutions for Cancer the mission og KI. Sponsors: Affiliates, Collaborators, Patrons, Friends, Vendors. Introduction to Prof. Sharp. 40th Anniversary of RNA related discovery leading to Nobel Prize of Prof. Sharp. 

Concluding the Symposium

  • continum
  • June 15, 2018 – NanoMedicine
  • Fall Symposium in September 2017
Phillip A. Sharp  

Phillip A. Sharp, PhD
Institute Professor, MIT
Koch Institute, MIT

LIVE – Convergence of Science and Engineering. Key note by a convergent personality – Eric Lander.

Convergence is a blueprint for innovation – NOW transformation of Life Science that follows the transformation of Physical sccience. Molecular biology – Delbruck, transmission of genetic phenotypes. Revolution of Biological Sciences in 20th Century

1st Revolution – DNA Structure, 1953

2nd Revolution – genomics Human Genome 2003

3rd Revolution – Integration of Science and the Environment in 21st Century

Such Small investment, 3.4% of NI Funding went to PI in BioEngineering 2000-2016

Introduction to Eric Lander – 1986 – to Whitehead Institute and MIT, now at Broad

KEYNOTE SPEAKER

Eric Lander

30 Years of Convergence

Eric Lander, PhD
President and Founding Director, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT
Professor of Biology, Department of Biology, MIT
Koch Institute, MIT
Professor of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School

LIVEPersonal Reflection on Convergence in BioMedicine

Process is important inconvergence — WHAT ARE WE CONVERGING TOWARD?

1985 — today — 2045

BioMedicine  – born from 4 Intellectual Revolutions:

  • Biochemistry – since 1890
  • Genetics – since 1900
  • Molecular Biology – since 1945, 1953, 2003
  • Recombinant DNA – since 1970

GENOMICS comes along: a View of

  • Completeness, Nature, 1986 – before the flood of data
  1. Biology is Finite – systematically perturbed
  2. Proteomics

Comprehensive views

Discovering Disease Genes – 1980s: Mendelian rare inherited, Common variation, Somatic

  • Human Genome – Finished, 2003
  • DNA, RNA, Proteins (Kinase, E3 Ligase) are finite and can be recognized from signatures

Human Genome Variations

Discovering Disease Genes – 2000s:

2017: 100 diseases are derived from Genome variation

  1. Disease Pathways discovered systematically: schesophrenia
  2. Cancer – Chromatin regulators and remodelers
  3. Regulatory elements: Conversation of species – finite and tractable
  • Evolutionary
  • signatures of cellular processes – connectivity map Dependency Map
  • 3D

Programmable Genome Targeting –

  1. CRISPR GPS
  2. Genome-wide CRISPR Screen

Human cells – unified coordinated to classify Cells and Tissues

  1. Combine single cells with CRISPR Screening to systematically discover cellularpathway

Comprehensive Tools

  1. Programmable Therapeutics –
  • DNA-directed Chemical synthesis
  • DNA-encoded Chemical Libraries
  • Programmable activation in cell type
  1. Healthcare systems –>> Learning systems

SPEAKERS

James Collins

Synthetic biology and next-generation diagnostics

James Collins, PhD
Termeer Professor of Medical Engineering and Science and Professor of Biological Engineering, MIT
Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT
Wyss Institute

LIVE

Synthetic Biology – Reprogramming life

  • Design & model network
  • Encode into DNA plasmid
  • Transfer to cell
  • monitor results

Potential for Synthetic Gene Biology

    • Paper-based synthetic Biology
    • distribution without refrigeration
    • RNA sensors with Colorimetric output
    • Rapid prototyping: Ebola sensors
    • Key features of Fieldable paper-based system
    • CRISPR-Cas9 Component for Strain Discrimination – NASBA-CRISPR Cleavage
    • Paper-based Diagnostics for the GUT microbiome
    • Paper-based Diagnostics for HPV: Rapid, Inexpensive
    • Sherlock – Nucleic Acid Detection with CRISPR-Cas13a
    • Human Genotyping Using SHERLOCK
    • Single-based gene usong Shrlock
Gad Getz

Cancer Genome and the Cloud

Gad A. Getz, PhD
Director, Cancer Genome Computational Analysis Group, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT

LIVE –  Cancer is a disease of the Genome and epigenome – Life history of a Tumor

  • Drivers: Cancer phenotype
  • Smoking
  • Defect in DNA repair
  • Mutation type: C->T
  • Part 1: Finding Drivers Score genes by number and type of mutations: mutation tally and score of repair
  • 450 genes va 11 genes
  • 33 NEW cancer genes: 4,729 tumors, 21 tumor type, 254 significant genes
  • Gene Catalogue by Tumor type – 2,000 samples needed – to detect 90%
  1. Burden
  2. clustering
  3. Non-coding drivers: Promoter, Insulator
  4. 9 significant mutations in Breast cancer gene – promoter Hotspot in FOXA1 is activated through E2F – Estrogene receptor

Mutational Signatures

  1. Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF)
  2. posterior distribution of the signatures
  3. Homologuos recombination repair pathway

BRCA1/2: Signature analyzer: Breast Cancer mutation signatures

 

Mono-alleleic inactivation of BRCA

Germline mutation PALB2  PAthogenic mutations in genes

RAD51C – the third BRCA

Signature 3 is associated with BRCA

www.firecloud.org

 

Paula Hammond

Targeting Aggressive Cancers Nanolayers at a Time: A Platform Approach to Engineered Nanomedicine

Paula T. Hammond, PhD
David H. Koch Professor in Engineering, MIT
Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering, MIT
Koch Institute, MIT

LIVE

  • Layer-by-Layer (LBL) Assembly – The ultimate Nanofab Tool
  • Multilayered, multifunctional LbL Nanoparticles – chemotherapy at the core of a sphere
  • Engineering, Biology and Medicine — to understand activation
  • Incorporate siRNA – a modular design
  • pH-Dependent [6.0 – 7.4] Cell Uptake at Hypoxic Conditions
  • surface induce acid pH
  • avtive Tumor targeting (CD44) – Drug-loaded nanoparticle/PLL
  • Triple Targeting Threat: size, tumor hypoxia, cell receptor
  • A model target: MRP1 protein – Multidrug resistance
  • A tumor treatment study in TNBC subcutaneous model using synergisitc siRNA
  • Combo LbL NanoP’s work
  • KRAS inhibition: NSCLC: Kras siRNA + miRNA miR34a MicroRNA
  • cisplatin naoparticle – Orthotopic KP model: siRNA
  • Second Window NIR Imaging (NIR-II) – deep tissue of Ovarian Cancer
  • Nanoparticle Characterization
  • Ovarian Cancer imaging
  • Charged Assembly a Different way: Electrostatic Self-assembly of Oligopeptide Amphiphiles
  • Peptide Nanoparticles are suitable for Vivo – p53-Deficient Cells
  • Target: MK2 Mediates DNA Damage Repair
  • Small molecules: Not safe not specific

 

 

Robert Langer

New chemical engieering approaches to convergence

Robert S. Langer, ScD
David H. Koch Institute Professor, MIT
Koch Institute, MIT

LIVE

  • Lysozyme
  • soybean Trypsin inhibitor
  • Alkaline phosphatase
  • Catalase

Combinatorial lipid synthesis

Next generation LNPs: with novel lipids – potency improvement

Nano formulations for Entdothelium – combinatorial generation

Nano particle library

Current techniques:

Electroporation

  1. – insert inside the gene – CellSqueeze of the cytoplasm
  2. Full transcriptome microarray
  3. Applications to Personalized Medicine
  4. Injectable chip with combination drug therapy inserted into the Tumor, MIS,
  5. Confining region of tumor

Conversion : Clinicians and Engineers

Daniel Larson

Understanding transcription and splicing heterogeneity in cancer progression

Daniel Larson, PhD
NIH Stadtman Investigator, Center for Cancer Research
Head, Systems Biology of Gene Expression, National Cancer Institute

Daniel Larson, NCI – Transcription and Splicing in Heterogeneity in Cancer Progression

LIVE

  • TFF1
  • Transcription in living cells: Estrogene response
  • Transcription occures in bursts: seconds to several hours – regulated over multiple timescale
  • 4oth Anniversary of Splicing
  • high throughput approach for labelling thousands of genes at their endogenous loci
  • SLC2A1
  • Splicing times andd burst size are highly similar across genes.
  • Strong conservation in Eucaryote ccells
  • Splicing factor mutations emerged in almost all tumor types
  • 3″ SS recognition factor U2AF1 has a missense mutation in the zinc finger domain
  • DNA damage after X-Ray treatment: U2AF1 S34F cells show – cell survive high dose (20 Gy) irradiation, becomes senescent and live >1 month in culture abd secrete interleukin 8
  • Interleukin 8 Upregulated even before DNA damage – expression and secretion in rare cells
  • IL-8 induces Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition i  primary mamary epithelial cells
  • Stochastic transcription and RNA splicing – IL-8 Secretion

 

 

Franziska Michor

Computational Models of Cancer

Franziska Michor, PhD
Professor of Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

LIVE

  • Tumor evolve by natural selection
  • Tarceva – approval 2004 – NSCLC – patients with EGRF mutant
  • Effect of dosing:Number of sensitive cells in Two drug concentrations: Sensitive vs Resistant cells
  • Combination Treatment
  • Better parameter estimation: using single cell lineage tracing data
  • microenvironment determinants of Treatment response
  • Determining Optimum radiation schedules in GBM
  • mathematical modeling of treatment response
  • understanding the intratumor heterogeneity based on mouse modeling
  • optimal radiation schedule –>>
  • dose constraints – Ultra fractionated dose vs.
  • Practicality constraints
  • slower proliferation
  • Radiation plus temozolomide: Optimized; time post treatment/percent survival
  • Treatment modalities: Immunotherapy, chemo drugs

 

 

Chad A. Mirkin

Spherical Nucleic Acids as a Powerful New Platform for Cancer Therapy

Chad A. Mirkin, PhD
Director, International Institute for Nanotechnology
George B. Rathmann Professor of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University

LIVE

Next wave of Pharmaceuticals

  1. Small molecules’
  2. biologics
  3. Nucleic Acids – limitations: Address disease in the Liver

 

  • The Promise of Therapeutic Oligonucleotides
  • Antisense DNA
  • Spherical Nucleic Acids (SNA)  – New way of thinking on DNA and RNA
  1. Hybridization Thermodynamics of SNAs
  2. SNAs enter cells rapidly and efficiently – over 60 different Cell Types
  3. Cy5-labeled SNA
  4. SNAs Come in many forms: Micellar SNA, Protein SNAs, Lipoprotein SNAs
  5. Late endosome nOT lysosomeow
  6. How does cell membrane recognition of SNAs and trigger exocytosis
  7. SNAs as Therapeutics: Skin (topical for Psoriasis), Brain (GBM)
  8. Immunostimulatory SNAs – activity of IS-SNAs in Vivo
  9. Oligonucleitides strands mimicking bacterial DNA or RNA
  10. SNA – Vaccines: Antigen presenting cells
  11. 3D Architecture of SNAs leads ti enhanced TLP9 Activation – B-cell NF-KB Activation
  12. SNAs Vaccines: -In Vivo Testing: retired Tumor growth vs control – inserted inside liposome
  13. Advantages SNAs Vaccine vs Standard Formulations vs adjuvant (antigen)
  14. SNA TLR-9 Activator Treatmeent vs Linear Oligo (EMT-6 Breast Cancer Model] – it potentiates activity of Anti-PD-1 Antibodies in PD-1 Resistant  tumor confers immunity

SNA Competitive advantage

Dissecting the tumor ecosystem with single cell genomics

Aviv Regev

 

Aviv Regev, PhD

Director, Klarman Cell Observatory and Cell Circuits Program, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT
Professor of Biology, Department of Biology, MIT
Koch Institute, MIT

LIVE – Tumors: A complex cellular Ecosystem

  1. How to use Genomic sto study tumors?
  2. Option 1: Gene Atlas – single cell genomics can help dissect thie ecosystem – bulk cell
  3. Option 2: Tumor Cell Atlas – single cell
  4. Single cell RNA-Seq in Precision Medicine pipeline
  5. 19 metastasis melanomas: “non-design” design – 4600 cells
  6. Malignant or not? DNA or RNA-inferred
  7. Micronvironment of the cell – Diverse T cells, Naive,  – Tumar infiltrating T cells: Activation-independent variation in exhaustion program across cells
  8. cytotoxicity, exhausion, naive
  9. RNA-Seq associates T cell clones with their states

Cell-types and states in the melanoma ecosystem:

  • single cell signature used to cluster bulk tumors by their microenvironment composition
  • TCGA – Tumors – melanoma vs Cell type specific signature genes
  • inferring cell-cell interactions: Cell type A and Cell type B: Correlation of gene’s expression with inferred proportion of cell type B (bulk samples)
  • CAF expression of chemokines and complement associated with CD8 T cell infiltration
  • Primary Test Stronger control
  • The ecosystem of Malignant Melanoma – 19 malignant cells

Treatment naive vs Immunotherapy resistant (ITR) – CD8 cells from ITR sample – intratumor variation

How malignant melanocyte affect T-cells?

  • Infiltrated tumor vs exclusion tumor
  • ITR has prognostic value – predicts response to anti-PD1 in Pationts
  • ITR Signatures in malignant and CD8 T cells
Xiaowei Zhuang

Illuminating biology at the nanoscale and systems scale using single-molecule and super-resolution imaging

Xiaowei Zhuang, PhD
David B. Arnold Professor of Science, Harvard University

Session I: NEW VIEW

Xiaowei Zhuang, Harvard University — Single-Cell Transcriptome and Genome Imaging,

  • Science, 2015,
  • PNAS, 2016

LIVE

  • molecular specificity
  • moleculare-scale resolution
  • genome scale throughputspatially-resolved single-cell transcriptome
  1. subcellular organization of the transcriptome
  2. Spatial organization of transcriptome in tissue
  • Transcriptome Imaging
  1. single-molecule FISH (smFISH) [Image 1,2,3,4,, Decoded Image]
  2. Error-robust encoding: Hamming code

Modified Hamming distance 4 – multiplexed, hydridization

Applications:

  1. MERFISH imaging of Tissue
  2. Spacial organization of cells in Tissues
  3. High throughput image-based screening: Barcodes, gene activation/inhibition agents
  4. Tracing the 3D conformation of Chromatin
  5. Spatial organization of A-B compartments: Transient, Polarized, radial
  6. Super resolution of chromatin imaging with Transcriptome imaging

 

EXPERT PANEL: CONVERGENCE IN HEALTH

Cori Bargmann LIVE

Cori Bargmann, PhD
President of Science, Chan Zuckerberg Initiative
Torsten N. Wiesel Professor, The Rockefeller University

LIVE – translation of the needs in computational, biology, IT, mathematician, medicine, physics and engineering. BRAIN Initiative at NIH. How to motivate? by a Problem in need for solution

 

Marc N. Casper  

Marc N. Casper, MBA
President and CEO, Thermo Fisher Scientific

LIVE – convergence from a tool perspectiveLast 20 years – integration of Biology into the physical sciences,

SCREENING AND DIAGNOSTICS

Victor Dzau  

Victor Dzau, MD
President, National Academy of Medicine

LIVE

As cardiologist: Pace maker Convergence in Research.

Funding research does not encourage convergence

innovation is killing disease, need to introduce cost effectiveness – economics into the play. Recognition of cost in Precision Medicine: economic model as a tool to consider cost effectiveness,

Convergence to include SOcial Sciences and Economics

Diagnostics;

Tyler Jacks  

Tyler Jacks, PhD
Director, Koch Institute, MIT
David H. Koch Professor of Biology, MIT

LIVE

– Convergence at Koch

NIH created few CENTERS for research in Cancer, Brain, Nanotech, focus on Cancer did help the convergence

Next step of Convergence: common language, Learning by doing, mechanisms to encourage and continue the convergence

Better efficiency:

  • Which Drug to which Patient
  • Early detection and prevention
Nancy Simonian  

Nancy Simonian, MD
CEO, Syros Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

LIVE – convergence is required to understand the biology of a disease, genomics, computational biology and chemistry is a new approach

Cost of Medicines: reibbursement per value  vs no concern to value. Innovation t carry premium allowing cost reduction while effciency is been exploled.

Elias Zerhouni  

Elias Zerhouni, MD
President for Global Research and Development, Sanofi
Former Director, NIH

LIVE

Convergence of multidisciplines is a must for scientific solutions to emerge, horizontal integration

Patient Bill of Right

Defficiet every year in the US,

Susan Hockfield

Moderated by:

Susan Hockfield, PhD
President Emerita, MIT
Professor of Neuroscience, MIT
Koch Institute, MIT

 

 

 

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Standard of care for localization of impalpable breast lesions, aka Magseed, @ UCSF as First Adopter

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

PRESS RELEASE

23rd January 2017

  

UCSF first to adopt Magseed as standard of care for localization of impalpable breast lesions

Magseed technology guides surgeons during a breast lumpectomy to simplify treatment and improve patient experience

 

Cambridge, UK & San Francisco, CA, 23rd January 2017: Endomag, the cancer healthcare company, announced today that the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) has become the first US site to adopt Magseed™ as its standard of care for localization of impalpable breast lesions. Magseed™ is a simpler, more effective alternative to traditional wire localization methods.

 

Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women, with 1.7 million new cases of breast cancer globally every year, and is expected to double by 2030. Due to a rise in national screening programmes and an increase in public awareness, breast cancer is being caught at an earlier stage meaning that the tumors are smaller, less defined and harder to feel, with as many as 50% of all breast tumors impalpable at the time of diagnosis. In these cases, a technique called wire localization is typically used by surgeons to locate the tumor.

 

Although widely used, wire localization commonly causes complications. On average 1 in every 4 breast wire localizations result in cancerous tissue being left behind and requiring additional surgery because the wire has become dislodged between when it was implanted and when it was removed during surgery. Additionally, there is a risk of infection due to the wire protruding from the skin, so the placement of the wire must be done on the same day as surgery. These issues result in unnecessary anxiety for patients, delays to the surgical lists and fewer patients being treated as a consequence.

 

Dr. Eric Mayes, CEO of Endomag noted “The wire localization technique has remained largely the same since it was introduced over 30 years ago and it causes a lot of anxiety for patients. We wanted to create a technique that could simplify the localization process and improve the patient experience.”

 

Magseed™ is smaller than a grain of rice and can be placed into the tumor for up to 30 days, allowing the patient to return home ahead of surgery. Once implanted, the seed is not easily dislodged and patients are not restricted in movement or activity. During surgery the seed is detected with the Sentimag® probe to guide accurate removal of the tumor and maximising the amount of healthy tissue left behind. Unlike radioactive alternatives that involve strict regulatory oversight and complex logistics, the Magseed™ technique can be widely adopted by any hospital, regardless of size.

 

Dr. Laura Esserman (Breast Surgeon, UCSF) “We are excited to have a set of safe, easy to use tools that will improve the efficiency of identifying breast lesions and dramatically improve the experience of patients and clinicians, as well as the workflow in the operating room.”

 

 

Dr. Michael Alvarado (Breast Surgeon, UCSF) “We have been looking for a better alternative to wire localization for some time, as the wire procedure adds additional stress for the patients on the day of surgery and often causes delays to our operating schedule. Very early in our evaluation of the magnetic seed technique we found that we could avoid a same-day placement, and the surgeries could be completed in less time, without compromising accuracy. This offers a tangible benefit to both our clinical team and, most importantly, our patients.”

 

ENDS

 

Photo: X-ray showing a complete surgical specimen with negative margins and Magseed™ in the centre, next to the cancer.

For a high res image please contact lorna.cuddon@zymecommunications.com

 

For further information please contact:

Zyme Communications

Lorna Cuddon

Tel: +44 (0)7811 996 942

Email: lorna.cuddon@zymecommunications.com

 

About Endomag http://www.endomag.com 

Endomag is a pioneer in the use of magnetism for minimally-invasive surgical guidance.  By addressing unmet needs in availability, affordability and workflow efficiency for surgical oncology, we support our mission to improve the global standard of cancer care for everyone, everywhere.

 

Founded as a spin-out from the University of Houston and the University College London (UCL) in 2007, we continue to develop our unique clinical platform that uses magnetic fields to power diagnostic and therapeutic devices.  The company has sales in over 30 countries worldwide and is headquartered in Cambridge, United Kingdom.

 

UC Disclaimer

The information stated above was prepared by Endomag, and reflects solely the opinion of the corporation. Nothing in this statement shall be construed to imply any support or endorsement of Endomag, or any of its products, by The Regents of the University of California, its officers, agents and employees.

SOURCE

From: Lorna Cuddon <lorna.cuddon@zymecommunications.com>

Reply-To: <lorna.cuddon@zymecommunications.com>

Date: Monday, January 23, 2017 at 9:16 AM

To: Aviva Lev-Ari <AvivaLev-Ari@alum.berkeley.edu>

Subject: UCSF first to adopt Magseed as standard of care for localization of impalpable breast lesions

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