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Archive for the ‘Intellectual Property, Innovations, Commercialization, Investment in technological breakthrough’ Category


Economic Potential of a Drug Invention (Prof. Zelig Eshhar, Weitzman Institute, registered the patent) versus a Cancer Drug in Clinical Trials: CAR-T as a Case in Point, developed by Kite Pharma, under Arie Belldegrun, CEO, acquired by Gilead for $11.9 billion, 8/2017.

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

UPDATED on 10/18/2017

Kite Pharma, under Arie Belldegrun, CEO, acquired by Gilead for $11.9 billion, 8/2017.

Kite’s Yescarta™ (Axicabtagene Ciloleucel) Becomes First CAR T Therapy Approved by the FDA for the Treatment of Adult Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Large B-Cell Lymphoma After Two or More Lines of Systemic Therapy

— Manufacturing Success Rate of 99 Percent in ZUMA-1 Pivotal Trial with a Median 17 Day Turnaround Time —

CAR T therapy is a breakthrough in hematologic cancer treatment in which a patient’s own T cells are engineered to seek and destroy cancer cells. CAR T therapy is manufactured specifically for each individual patient.

“The FDA approval of Yescarta is a landmark for patients with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma. This approval would not have been possible without the courageous commitment of patients and clinicians, as well as the ongoing dedication of Kite’s employees,” said Arie Belldegrun, MD, FACS, Founder of Kite. “We must also recognize the FDA for their ability to embrace and support transformational new technologies that treat life-threatening illnesses. We believe this is only the beginning for CAR T therapies.”

“Today is an important day for patients with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma who have run out of options and have been waiting for new treatments that may help them in their fight against cancer,” said John Milligan, PhD, President and Chief Executive Officer of Gilead Sciences. “With the combined innovation, talent and drive of the Kite and Gilead teams, we will rapidly advance cell therapy research and aim to bring new options to patients with many other types of cancer.”

The list price of Yescarta in the United States is $373,000.

Yescarta has been granted Priority Medicines (PRIME) regulatory support for DLBCL in the European Union. A Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) for axicabtagene ciloleucel is currently under review with the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and potential approval is expected in the first half of 2018.

Yescarta (axicabtagene ciloleucel) Pivotal Trial Results

The approval of Yescarta is supported by data from the ZUMA-1 pivotal trial. In this study, 72 percent of patients treated with a single infusion of Yescarta (n=101) responded to therapy (overall response rate) including 51 percent of patients who had no detectable cancer remaining (complete remission; 95% CI: 41, 62). At a median follow-up of 7.9 months, patients who had achieved a complete remission had not reached the estimated median duration of response (95% CI: 8.1 months, not estimable [NE]).

In the study, 13 percent of patients experienced grade 3 or higher cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and 31 percent experienced neurologic toxicities. The most common (≥ 10%) Grade 3 or higher reactions include febrile neutropenia, fever, CRS, encephalopathy, infections-pathogen unspecified, hypotension, hypoxia and lung infections. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 52% of patients and included CRS, neurologic toxicity, prolonged cytopenias (including neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia), and serious infections. Fatal cases of CRS and neurologic toxicity occurred. FDA approved Yescarta with a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy.

Yescarta Indication

Yescarta is a CD19-directed genetically modified autologous T cell immunotherapy indicated for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma after two or more lines of systemic therapy, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) not otherwise specified, primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, high-grade B-cell lymphoma, and DLBCL arising from follicular lymphoma.

Yescarta is not indicated for the treatment of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), accounting for three out of every five cases. In the United States each year, there are approximately 7,500 patients with refractory DLBCL who are eligible for CAR T therapy. Historically, when treated with the current standard of care, patients with refractory large B-cell lymphoma had a median overall survival of approximately six months, with only seven percent attaining a complete response. Currently, patients with large B-cell lymphoma in second or later lines of therapy have poor outcomes and greater unmet need, since nearly half of them either do not respond or relapse shortly after transplant.

“With CAR T therapy, we are reengineering a patient’s own immune system to detect and kill cancer cells, and the results have been impressive,” said Frederick L. Locke, MD, ZUMA-1 Co-Lead Investigator and Vice Chair of the Department of Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy at Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa, Florida. “Many of the patients that received CAR T therapy had already relapsed several times with traditional treatments such as chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Now, thanks to this new therapy many patients are in remission for months.”

“This therapy is a new option for patients with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma who have run out of treatment options and face a dire prognosis,” said Louis J. DeGennaro, PhD, President and Chief Executive Officer of The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (LLS). “Early on, LLS recognized the potential of CAR T therapy and we are proud to be part of making this historic approval possible.”

“Engineered cell therapies like Yescarta represent the potential for a changing treatment paradigm for cancer patients,” said David Chang, MD, PhD, Worldwide Head of Research and Development and Chief Medical Officer at Kite. “Together, Gilead and Kite will accelerate studies of CAR T therapy in multiple blood cancers and advance other cell therapy approaches for solid tumors, with the goal of helping patients with diverse cancers benefit from this new era of personalized cancer therapy.”

http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20171018006639/en/Kite%E2%80%99s-Yescarta%E2%84%A2-Axicabtagene-Ciloleucel-CAR-Therapy-Approved

This article has the following structure:

  • ABOUT Drug Invention (Prof. Zelig Eshhar, Weitzman Institute, registered the patent)
  • ABOUT Gilead’s $12 billion buy of Kite Pharma
  • ABOUT  the Drug Development process and the COMMERCIALIZATION GENIUS of Arie Belldegrun – Interviewed by Globes
  • ABOUT the Perspective of Drug Invention (Prof. Zelig Eshhar, Weitzman Institute, registered the patent) following the Gilead’s $12 billion buy of Kite Pharma – Interviewed by Globes
  • ABOUT the Economic significance of Kite Pharma Acquisition for the Venture Capital Investment in Biotech in Israel
  • Key Opinion Leader’s View: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

  1. I agree with Prof. Zelig Eshhar that this Case in Point is “one more invention, or parts of an invention, came from an Israeli laboratory (at the Weizmann Institute in this case) and fell into foreign hands. It is another enormous missed opportunity in the field of biomedicine and ethical drugs.”
  2. I agree with Prof. Zelig Eshhar that this Case in Point should have been a TEVA commercialization effort. It is a regrettable reality that the development and the manufacturing will not benefit the State of Israel, home of the Weitzman Institute where the Patentable invention took place by Prof. Zelig Eshhar.
  3. It is to be acknowledged that for CAR-T – the process of treatment using the drug – personalized genetic engineering of each patient’s cells – a grafting process with no precedent in the pharmaceutical industry (Juno has related process) – is bringing to the Oncology arena a NOVEL treatment for hematological malignancies cancer patients
  4. I agree with Prof. Zelig Eshhar that the Barriers in the pharmaceutical industry are especially high. Developing ethical drugs is a process requiring huge amounts of time, patience, money, and failures. It is exactly, therefore, all need to acknowledge that the Drug Development process and the COMMERCIALIZATION GENIUS of Arie Belldegrun is inseparable from the breakthrough invention of Prof. Zelig Eshhar to develop the drug from the Lab bench to the FDA accelerated process of Drug approval.
  5. The Biotech industry in Israel needs to develop more MDs, PhDs with the level of training of Arie Belldegrun and with his entrepreneur acumen, keenness and depth of perception, discernmentdiscrimination especially in practical aspects of Translation Medicine, Clinical Research, Clinical Trial Design and abilities to engage in innovating the FDA processes.
  6. The Biotech industry in US needs to develop more MDs, PhDs with the level of training of Prof. Zelig Eshhar to carry the scientific gravitas and the creativity to become inventors of novel drugs.

 

ABOUT Drug Invention (Prof. Zelig Eshhar, Weitzman Institute, registered the patent)

Pioneers of Cancer Cell Therapy:  Turbocharging the Immune System to Battle Cancer Cells — Success in Hematological Cancers vs. Solid Tumors

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/08/19/pioneers-of-cancer-cell-therapy-turbocharging-the-immune-system-to-battle-cancer-cells-success-in-hematological-cancers-vs-solid-tumors/

 

ABOUT Gilead’s $12 billion buy of Kite Pharma

FDA has approved the world’s first CAR-T therapy, Novartis for Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel) and Gilead’s $12 billion buy of Kite Pharma, no approved drug and Canakinumab for Lung Cancer (may be?)

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/08/30/fda-has-approved-the-worlds-first-car-t-therapy-novartis-for-kymriah-tisagenlecleucel-and-gileads-12-billion-buy-of-kite-pharma-no-approved-drug-and-canakinumab-for-lung-cancer-may-be/

 

ABOUT  the Drug Development process and the COMMERCIALIZATION GENIUS of Arie Belldegrun – Interviewed by Globes

“Chemotherapy will become just a bad memory”

More energetic than ever, Arie Belldegrun talks to “Globes” about Kite Pharma’s remarkable journey and the future of cancer treatment.

http://www.globes.co.il/en/article-chemotherapy-will-become-just-a-bad-memory-1001206978

 

ABOUT the Perspective of Drug Invention (Prof. Zelig Eshhar, Weitzman Institute, registered the patent) following the Gilead’s $12 billion buy of Kite Pharma – Interviewed by Globes

Kite Pharma was a $12b missed opportunity for Israel – Interview with Professor Zelig Eshhar

Some Israeli media headlines depicted Kite as an Israeli exit. But it is a US company that does no business in Israel and has no employees here.

Professor Zelig Eshhar is the man who registered the patent on the cancer treatment drug developed by Kite Pharma, recently acquired by Gilead for $11.9 billion.

“Globes”: Do you believe that any party in Israel could have financed the product and brought it where it is today?

Eshhar: “On the one hand, yes. The level of investment in the product before it reached Nasdaq was something that an Israeli concern could certainly have financed. On the other hand, Kite Pharma founder Professor Arie Belldegrun, with his energy and connections, brought it to a completely different place (Eshhar previously tried to interest various concerns in Israel in financing the drug, but all of them told him that it was too early, or that the product was not effective enough, E.T.).

Was the development already in its final form in the 1980s?

“Almost. I went to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), where I met for the first time Professor Steven Rosenberg, who later became the first doctor to conduct clinical trials with the technology. Rosenberg heard about my technology, and offered me exceptional conditions. We set up a team there, and had the best of everything. I only wish I had it now.”

They say that Belldegrun didn’t want the product at first. Today, he’s devoting all his efforts to it.

“When Arie founded Cougar Biotechnology, which developed a drug for prostate cancer, and was eventually sold to Johnson & Johnson for $1 billion, I contacted him and offered him the technology, but he was busy with Cougar’s product, and maybe didn’t think that he had enough capital for such a production. Only after he sold Cougar did he get back to me with an offer to buy the rights to my patent. At that time (2009-2010), the technology was already arousing great interest, and there were negotiations with several large companies.” (from an April 2015 “Globes” interview with Eshhar, who was awarded the Israel Prize).

Israelis can be very provincial. In at least some of the media headlines, Kite Pharma was portrayed as a “huge Israeli exit,” and the impression was given that it was an Israeli company. The truth is very different. Kite Pharma is not an Israeli company; it is a 100% US company. It does no business in Israel; its nearly $12 billion exit has no significance whatsoever for the Israeli economy, and will contribute nothing to it: no jobs, and the tax contribution will be marginal, and certainly not on the scale of Mobileye, for example. Let me say it again: Kite Pharma does not have even one employee in Israel (and has no reason to employ anyone here), and certainly does not pay taxes in Israel. There are no Israelis on the company’s management team or board of directors. This is a US company for all intents and purposes. The word “Israel” appears exactly once in the company’s full documents – where registration of the company’s patents is concerned. The fact that every story about the company mentions the small holdings of several Israeli financial institutions in it is a bad joke. Everyone should remember that Israeli financial institutions are of course entitled to invest in any foreign share, such as Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple Computers, and so forth. Kite Pharma is one of those foreign shares, and nothing more.

Of course, there is cause for pride in the fact that Eshhar, owner of the patent for Kite Pharma’s drug is “one of ours,” i.e. an Israeli researcher at the Weizmann Institute of Science. Another source of pride is Kite Pharma founder and CEO Arie Belldegrun, a graduate of the Hebrew University Medical School who did his post-doctorate at the Weizmann Institute, where he met Eshhar, and Kite Pharma later bought his patent for the cancer drug. Belldegrun was also a director at Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (NYSE: TEVA; TASE: TEVA) until recently, resigning at the peak of that company’s crisis. Beyond this Israeli connection, however, the Kite Pharma exit has no great significance for Israel. All it means is that one more invention, or parts of an invention, came from an Israeli laboratory (at the Weizmann Institute in this case) and fell into foreign hands. It is another enormous missed opportunity in the field of biomedicine and ethical drugs.

It is necessary to realize that while Belldegrun is indeed a big biomedical brain with many achievements in the field, he is a brain that has left Israel, and we all have to ask ourselves why he left, why Kite Pharma is not an Israeli company, and why its (as yet non-existent) product was not developed in Israel and will not be manufactured there. The headline in Israel for the Kite Pharma exit should ask why Israel lost out on it, even though the patent came from Israeli laboratories, albeit with US cooperation.

Belldegrun is likely to keep his experiences on the Teva board of directors to himself. Of all the directors in the company, what he has to say is the most interesting, but he is unlikely to divulge what happened there with the inflated deal with Allergan, and exactly what he said at the board of directors meeting that approved the deal that led Teva into its current major crisis. The Kite Pharma exit and his other exits only highlight the lost opportunity. Kite Pharma, still without a product and without approval for a product, was sold for $11.9 billion in cash. Teva yesterday hit another low point, with a market cap of $16 billion. It is simply inconceivable: a company with an enormous potential, but no product, is worth three quarters of a huge veteran company with at least dozens of products, including products in the ethical drug sector. Kite Pharma is actually one of the indirect reasons for Teva’s decline – for the fact that Teva, which could have been a hothouse for developments like Copaxone, chose a huge inflated gamble on the generics market – a gamble that is now jeopardizing Teva’s future and very existence.

It is true that developing drugs is a very long process, requires huge amounts of capital, and involves many failures, but Teva decided to neglect it, and when a major company like Teva neglects Israeli developments, there are enough competitors in the pharma industry ready to turn Israeli research into gold. Kite Pharma is one example of this research.

The Weizmann Institute is a fruitful source of biomedical research. According to previous estimates published in “Globes,” the Weizmann Institute gets NIS 1 billion each year in royalties on medical and other developments, amounting to half of its budget. Directly and indirectly, the Weizmann Institute, together with other universities in Israel, is responsible for tens of billions of pharmaceutical sales. Only a few billions of this, however, results from drugs developed in Israel, like Copaxone, and far less than that is also made in Israel. The reports by Yeda R&D Company Ltd., the technology transfer arm of the Weizmann Institute of Science, are top secret, and there is a good reason for that. Exposing them will only highlight the scale of the missed opportunities. Instead of these inventions providing a base for a major pharmaceutical industry here, the commercialization companies are benefiting only the inventors and the Weizmann Institute itself (that is certainly natural and legitimate, and they are entitled to it), even though the research infrastructure from which they sprung is Israeli know-how, as in the case of Eshhar.

Barriers in the pharmaceutical industry are especially high. Developing ethical drugs is a process requiring huge amounts of time, patience, money, and failures. When it succeeds, however, the profit is enormous – for the industry, the employees, and the state (provided that some tax is paid). For example, Pfizer’s peak sales of Lipitor, a very popular drug for reducing cholesterol and fat in the bloodstream, reached $11 billion, and its profit on the drug was $9 billion, before competition from a generic version began. In addition to money, a great deal of experience and marketing power is required, and that is the reason why most developments wind up in the hands of major companies like Pfizer, Merck, and others at some stage. After all these qualifying statements, everyone who celebrated Kite Pharma’s exit should weep over it – it is another part of the sale of Israeli know-how overseas for a mess of pottage. Instead of consolidating a splendid pharma industry here, Israel is selling the brains with their know-how to foreigners. More than anything else, Teva’s decline and the Kite Pharma exit epitomize this sad and dangerous trend.

Published by Globes [online], Israel Business News – www.globes-online.com – on August 30, 2017

© Copyright of Globes Publisher Itonut (1983) Ltd. 2017

http://www.globes.co.il/en/article-kite-pharma-the-huge-exit-that-israel-missed-1001203173

 

ABOUT the Economic significance of Kite Pharma Acquisition for the Venture Capital Investment in Biotech in Israel

Israeli investors profit from $11.9b Kite acquisition

Pontifax fund and Israeli institutional investors will profit from the US personalized cancer drug company’s huge sale.  Part of the technology was developed at the Weizmann Institute

Pharmaceutical company Gilead Sciences Inc. has announced that it will acquire US company Kite Pharma Inc., developer of personalized cancer treatment drugs, at a company value of $11.9 billion. This is one of the biggest ever acquisitions of a company whose products have not yet been approved for marketing. The company value for the acquisition reflects a 29% premium on the market price.

Kite Pharma has developed a new method for genetically engineering immune system cells, so that they will make a focused attack on the malignant tumor. The company was founded in the US by Israeli-American Professor Arie Belldegrun, who already has two exits to his credit. He is also a former director at Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (NYSE: TEVA; TASE: TEVA) (whose current value is not much more than the value at which Kite Pharma, a company with no products approved for marketing yet, is being acquired).

A significant part of the technology on which the product is based was developed by Professor Zelig Eshhar of the Weizmann Institute of Science.

The main Israeli beneficiary of the acquisition is the Pontifax fund, which invested $3.8 million in Kite Pharma at an early stage, but which distributed Kite Pharma shares worth $120 million to its investors. Among the investors in Pontifax that received shares in Kite Pharma are Menorah Mivtachim Holdings Ltd. (TASE: MORA) (which also bought shares on the market, and whose stake in the company is now worth over $100 million), The Phoenix Holdings Ltd. (TASE: PHOE1;PHOE5), Altshuler Shaham Ltd.Meitav Dash Investments Ltd. (TASE:MTDS), Harel Insurance Investments and Financial Services Ltd. (TASE: HARL), and Mori Arkin.

Kite Pharma is waiting for marketing approval of its first product, following a successful trial on 100 patients on a very abbreviated track for innovative cancer products. The product was initially designed for treatment of blood cancer, but it is now hoped that its use can later be expanded to treatment of other types of cancer. Gilead is making a big gamble, first of all that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will fulfill its commitment to approve the product, even though the development plan it devised, together with the company, was very short and limited. The second gamble involves the process of treatment using the drug – personalized genetic engineering of each patient’s cells – a grafting process with no precedent in the pharmaceutical industry.

Speaking about the talks to sell Kite, Prof. Arie Belldegrun told “Globes.” “We handled like in the IDF 669 unit. Nobody knew anything. Nobody heard anything. We held meetings in places where nobody would see us. And before we announced it only five employees knew about it.”

Published by Globes [online], Israel Business News – www.globes-online.com – on August 28, 2017

© Copyright of Globes Publisher Itonut (1983) Ltd. 2017

http://www.globes.co.il/en/article-israeli-investors-profit-from-119b-kite-acquisition-1001202841

 

Other related articles published in this Open Access Online Scientific Journal include the following: 

Curators: Stephen J Williams, PhD and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

  • Cancer Biology & Genomics for Disease Diagnosis, on Amazon since 8/11/2015

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B013RVYR2K

  • Cancer Therapies: Metabolic, Genomics, Interventional, Immunotherapy and Nanotechnology in Therapy Delivery (Series C Book 2) – on Amazon since 5/18/2017

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B071VQ6YYK

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Appellate Brief Seeking Reversal of U.S. Patent Board Decision on CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

[Boldface added]

  • Appeal seeks reversal of Patent Trial and Appeal Board decision terminating interference without determining priority of inventorship of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing
  • Brief asserts that the Board failed to properly apply controlling U.S. Supreme Court and Federal Circuit precedents, and ignored evidence of multiple groups readily applying CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to eukaryotic cells following teachings of Charpentier-Doudna team

As explained in UC’s brief, application of the correct legal standards to the case is believed to require reversal of the PTAB’s decision. For these reasons, UC requests that the Federal Circuit instruct the PTAB to reinstate the interference proceeding so that it can properly determine priority of inventorship, as previously requested by UC. The PTAB’s failures to consider pertinent evidence and apply appropriate legal standards should at the very least require the matter to be remanded so that the PTAB can properly consider the evidence related to obviousness and Broad’s no-interference-in-fact motion using appropriate legal standards.
In the PTAB’s February decision terminating the interference proceeding prematurely, it had not yet considered the teachings of UC’s own prior-filed patent application with respect to using CRISPR/Cas9 in eukaryotic cells. Instead, the PTAB only addressed the threshold question of whether use in eukaryotic cells can be separately patentable from use in all settings as covered by UC’s claims. However, determinations on the underlying substantive matters have recently been made in parallel prosecution before the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office (“USPTO”). The USPTO has rejected a series of patent applications filed by Broad that are directed to uses of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in eukaryotic cells as being non-novel in view of UC’s prior-filed patent application, which the USPTO examiners considered to have effectively taught use of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in eukaryotic cells. In addition, patent applications filed by Sigma-Aldrich and Toolgen that similarly claim use of CRISPR/Cas9 in eukaryotic cells (both of which filed applications before Broad’s application) have likewise recently been rejected as being either non-novel or obvious in view of the prior-filed UC patent application with specific respect to its teachings regarding application of the invention to use in eukaryotic cells.

SOURCES

On 7/25/2017

CRISPR Therapeutics, Intellia Therapeutics, Caribou Biosciences and ERS Genomics Announce Appellate Brief Seeking Reversal of U.S. Patent Board Decision on CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing

https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2017/07/25/1058142/0/en/CRISPR-Therapeutics-Intellia-Therapeutics-Caribou-Biosciences-and-ERS-Genomics-Announce-Appellate-Brief-Seeking-Reversal-of-U-S-Patent-Board-Decision-on-CRISPR-Cas9-Gene-Editing.html

On 4/13/2017:

Gene Editing Consortium of Biotech Companies: CRISPR Therapeutics $CRSP, Intellia Therapeutics $NTLA, Caribou Biosciences, ERS Genomics, UC, Berkeley (Doudna’s IP) and University of Vienna (Charpentier’s IP), is appealing the decisionruled that there was no interference between the two sides, to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, targeting patents from The Broad Institute.

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/04/13/gene-editing-consortium-of-biotech-companies-crispr-therapeutics-crsp-intellia-therapeutics-ntla-caribou-biosciences-and-ers-genomics-uc-berkeley-doudnas-ip-and-university-of-vienna-charpe/

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LPBI Group introduces to our Marketing Channels The Pekama IP Community, a Global Group of Intellectual Property Experts using Community’s Proprietary Technology

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

The Pekama IP Community is a global group of intellectual property experts who work with each other on preferred terms and using our proprietary technology.

IP firms and IP experts participate in the Pekama IP community to bring networking, efficiency and predictability to their work.

IP experts are welcome to join the Pekama IP Community.

https://community.pekama.com/

Follow Zeev Fisher writing on the future of legal services on his personal or company page on LinkedIn, on twitter or Facebook

 

Press Coverage is a Service that LPBI Group offers to Biotech and Medicine, Scientific and Business Conference Organizers.

 

LPBI Group’s Channels for e-Marketing of Biotech Contents

  • Our Journal has 1,215,606 eReaders on 5/16/2017, for All Time

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SOURCE

From: Zeev Fisher <zeev@pekama.com>

Date: Tuesday, May 16, 2017 at 9:34 AM

To: Aviva Lev-Ari <aviva.lev-ari@comcast.net>

Subject: RE: Touching base

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Gene Editing Consortium of Biotech Companies: CRISPR Therapeutics $CRSP, Intellia Therapeutics $NTLA, Caribou Biosciences, ERS Genomics, UC, Berkeley (Doudna’s IP) and University of Vienna (Charpentier’s IP), is appealing the decision ruled that there was no interference between the two sides, to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, targeting patents from The Broad Institute.

 

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

See Background:

UPDATED – Status “Interference — Initial memorandum” – CRISPR/Cas9 – The Biotech Patent Fight of the Century

 

|
Source: Intellia Therapeutics, Inc.
  • Appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit seeks review and reversal of the Patent Trial and Appeals Board’s (PTAB) decision to terminate CRISPR/Cas9 interference
  • In parallel, the companies and their licensors plan to pursue additional patents in the U.S. and worldwide covering the CRISPR/Cas9 technology and its use in cellular and non-cellular settings, including eukaryotic cells

BASEL, Switzerland;

CAMBRIDGE, Massachusetts;

BERKELEY, California;

DUBLIN, Ireland,

April 13, 2017

(GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — CRISPR Therapeutics (NASDAQ:CRSP), Intellia Therapeutics (NASDAQ:NTLA), Caribou Biosciences and ERS Genomics announced today that The Regents of the University of California, the University of Vienna, and Dr. Emmanuelle Charpentier (collectively “UC”), co-owners of foundational intellectual property relating to CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering, have appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (the “Federal Circuit”) the decision by the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (“PTAB”) to terminate the interference between certain CRISPR/Cas9 patent claims owned by UC and patents and patent applications owned by the Broad Institute, Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (collectively, “Broad”).

In the appeal, UC is seeking review and reversal of the PTAB’s February 15, 2017 decision, which terminated the interference without determining which inventors actually invented the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology in eukaryotic cells. In its decision, the PTAB concluded that, although the claims overlap, the respective scope of UC and Broad’s claim sets as presented did not define the same patentable invention and, accordingly, terminated the interference without deciding which party first invented the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in eukaryotic cells. UC is asking the Federal Circuit to review and reverse the PTAB’s decision.

In parallel with the appeal, UC is pursuing applications in the U.S. and other jurisdictions worldwide to obtain patents claiming the CRISPR/Cas9 technology and its use in non-cellular and cellular settings, including eukaryotic cells. Corresponding patents have already been granted in the United Kingdom, and the European Patent Office is also granting a patent to UC, which will issue on May 10, 2017. UC’s earliest patent application describing the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology and its use was filed on May 25, 2012, while the Broad’s earliest patent application was filed more than six months later, on December 12, 2012.

The law firm of Munger, Tolles & Olson LLP will be handling the appeal, with Don Verrilli, former Solicitor General of the United States, as lead counsel.

SOURCE

https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2017/04/13/960152/0/en/CRISPR-Therapeutics-Intellia-Therapeutics-Caribou-Biosciences-and-ERS-Genomics-Announce-Appeal-of-CRISPR-Cas9-U-S-Patent-Board-Decision.html

 

Editas’ rivals appeal a recent setback on patent fight, mapping a global war for CRISPR supremacy

They say they are “pursuing applications in the U.S. and other jurisdictions worldwide to obtain patents claiming the CRISPR/Cas9 technology and its use in non-cellular and cellular settings, including eukaryotic cells. Corresponding patents have already been granted in the United Kingdom, and the European Patent Office is also granting a patent to UC, which will issue on May 10, 2017. UC’s earliest patent application describing the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology and its use was filed on May 25, 2012, while the Broad’s earliest patent application was filed more than six months later, on December 12, 2012.”

The group said today it is also waging a global patent battle for CRISPR/Cas9 supremacy over Editas and its scientific founder, Feng Zhang, who patented the rival technology at The Broad.

SOURCE

https://endpts.com/editas-rivals-appeal-a-recent-setback-on-patent-fight-mapping-a-global-war-for-crispr-supremacy/?utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=201%20Thursday%2041317%20Biogen%20Roche%20forge%2011B%20in%20deals%20for%20Bristol%20drugs%20Busy%20week%20for%20the%20biotech%20jobs%20scene&utm_content=201%20Thursday%2041317%20Biogen%20Roche%20forge%2011B%20in%20deals%20for%20Bristol%20drugs%20Busy%20week%20for%20the%20biotech%20jobs%20scene+CID_1d65272f5e757d7ae0245395295e6e12&utm_source=ENDPOINTS%20emails&utm_term=Editas%20rivals%20appeal%20a%20recent%20setback%20on%20patent%20fight%20mapping%20a%20global%20war%20for%20CRISPR%20supremacy

 

REFERENCES

Other press releases by Intellia Therapeutics, Inc.

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CRISPR Patent Battle Determined on 2/15/2017 – USPTO issues a verdict in legal tussle over rights to genome-editing technology

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Broad Institute prevails in heated dispute over CRISPR patents

Sharon Begley sharon.begley@statnews.com
@sxbegle

In a one-sentence judgment by the Patent Trial and Appeal Board, the three judges decided that there is “no interference in fact.” In other words, key CRISPR patents awarded to the Broad beginning in 2014 are sufficiently different from patents applied for by UC that they can stand. The judges’ full 51-page decision explaining their reasoning stated that the Broad had persuaded them “that the parties claim patentably distinct subject matter.”

https://www.statnews.com/2017/02/15/crispr-patent-ruling/#decision

MIT

The Broad said in a statement that the decision “confirms that the patents and applications of Broad Institute and UC Berkeley are about different subjects and do not interfere with each other.”

UC, Berkeley

In a statement, the University of California said it was pleased that its patent application, which it described as covering “the invention and use of CRISPR gene editing in all cells,” can move forward. “We continue to maintain that the evidence overwhelmingly supports our position that the Doudna/Charpentier team was the first group to invent this technology for use in all settings and all cell types,” it said, “and that the Broad Institute’s patents directed toward use of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in particular cell types are not patentably distinct from the Doudna/Charpentier invention.”

UC said it is considering its legal options, including the possibility of an appeal, but it contended that anyone who wants to develop CRISPR-based treatments for human diseases would have to license not only the Broad’s patents but also those that UC expects to be awarded. “Ours,” Doudna told reporters, “is for the use [of CRISPR] in all cells,” including human ones.

PTAB appeals are heard by the US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, which sits in Washington. In recent years, more than half of PTAB’s decisions have been upheld.

“The Federal Circuit heard three appeals of interferences in 2016,” said Sherkow. “All three were at least affirmed in part. It’s completely unclear whether that’s meaningful — it’s an N of 3–but there you go.” Overall, on 155 appeals since PTAB was created in 2012, the Federal Circuit affirmed 120 on every issue, dismissed or reversed 21 on every issue, and issued partial decisions (that is, upholding parts of a PTAB decision and reversing others) in the other 14.

https://www.statnews.com/2017/02/15/crispr-patent-ruling/#decision

Said UC attorney Lynn Pasahow:

For “all tennis balls,” read “all cells.” For “green tennis balls,” read “eukaryotic cells.”

https://www.statnews.com/2017/02/16/crispr-patent-decision-six-takeaways/

 

What will that mean for licensees of CRISPR patents?

Stanford University Voice

UC believes that any company that wants to use CRISPR to develop human therapies — we’re looking at you, Editas Medicine — will need to license not only the Broad’s patents on eukaryotic cells but also those UC expects to receive on all kinds of cells. “It looks to me as if someone wanting to use the Broad patent would also have to license the UC patent,” agreed law professor Hank Greely of Stanford University. “The UC patent (if granted) would be on any use; the Broad would be on use in eukaryotes. I think someone who wanted to do this in eukaryotes would need to have licenses to both.”

CRISPR-Cas9 is unlikely to be the last genome-editing technology ever discovered. In 2015, Zhang and his colleagues discovered a version called Cpf1, which they’ve now patented and licensed to Editas. “I continue to think the possibility of inventing around the [CRISPR] patents seems very likely,” said Stanford’s Greely. Bacteria “have certainly come up with other ways to reach the same end [of genome editing], ways that aren’t covered by UC’s or the Broad’s claims. That could make either of these patents ultimately of little importance … especially if the licensing conditions give people a strong incentive to come up with invent-arounds.” Science will march on.

https://www.statnews.com/2017/02/16/crispr-patent-decision-six-takeaways/

What does the CRISPR ruling mean for biotech?

By DAMIAN GARDE @damiangarde

FEBRUARY 15, 2017

Editas Medicine, which has aligned with the winning Broad, saw its share price rise more than 25 percent on Wednesday. Intellia Therapeutics, affiliated with UC, fell about 11 percent, while compatriot CRISPR Therapeutics dipped 24 percent.

https://www.statnews.com/2017/02/15/what-does-the-crispr-ruling-mean-for-biotech/

 

Broad Institute wins bitter battle over CRISPR patents

The US Patent and Trademark Office issues a verdict in legal tussle over rights to genome-editing technology.

15 February 2017 Updated:In December 2016, lawyers representing the University of California and the Broad Institute participated in oral arguments before a trio of patent-court judges. University of California attorney Lynn Pasahow said that the team had not yet decided whether it would appeal the verdict on 2/15/2017.

Lawyers representing the University of California filed for an ‘interference’ proceeding, in an effort to have the Broad’s patents thrown out. But on 15 February, patent judges determined that there was no interference, meaning that the Broad’s invention is distinct from that of the University of California, and the Broad patents will stand. The University of California’s patent application will now be referred back to an examiner, but legal challenges could continue.

molecular biologist Jennifer Doudna of the University of California in Berkeley, likened the situation to licensing permission to someone who wants to use green tennis balls. “They will have a patent on the green tennis balls,” she said, referring to the Broad patents. “We will have a patent on all tennis balls.” ”Doudna argued at the press conference that the patent battle had not hampered research, given the speed with which researchers had taken up the technique and companies had rushed to commercialize it.”

The University of California’s invention would cover the design of the RNA molecule that guides the key step in CRISPR–Cas9 gene editing, directing the Cas9 enzyme to a specific site in the genome. But getting that system to work in eukaryotes was an additional inventive step, Coombes says, a patent lawyer at intellectual-property specialists HGF in York, UK.

SOURCE

Nature doi:10.1038/nature.2017.21502

http://www.nature.com/news/broad-institute-wins-bitter-battle-over-crispr-patents-1.21502?WT.ec_id=NEWSDAILY-20170216%20

https://www.statnews.com/2017/02/15/crispr-patent-ruling/#decision

Related articles from nature.com

Other related articles published in this Open Acceaa Online Scientific Journal include the following:

UPDATED – Status “Interference — Initial memorandum” – CRISPR/Cas9 – The Biotech Patent Fight of the Century: UC, Berkeley and Broad Institute @MIT

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

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Cheetah Medical Introduces New Algorithm for Fluid Management

Reporter: Lawrence J Mulligan, PhD

 

Cheetah Medical Advances the Science of Fluid Management

Cheetah Medical is the pioneer and leading global provider of 100% noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring technologies that are designed for use in critical care, OR and emergency department settings. The CHEETAH NICOM™ and STARLING™ SV technologies use a proprietary algorithm to calculate parameters related to the volume of blood and the functioning of patients’ circulatory systems. Medical professionals use this information to assess patients’ unique volume requirements, guide volume management decisions and maintain adequate organ perfusion. Cheetah Medical technologies are designed to enable more confident, informed therapy decisions that support clinical goals of improving patient outcomes and driving economic efficiencies.

NEWTON, Mass. –(BUSINESS WIRE)– Cheetah Medical announced today that its eighth abstract on fluid management will be presented at Society of Critical Care Medicine meeting in January. Building on previous work, this abstract demonstrates a strong association between large volume fluid administration in septic shock and increased risk of death in more than 23,000 patients.

Each year, millions of patients require hemodynamic monitoring to ensure optimal volume and perfusion management. While intravenous fluid is typical first-line therapy for many critical care situations, volume management has been a challenge for the healthcare community. It is often difficult for a clinician to know the right amount of fluid to administer to patients, and there are serious complications associated with both under and over resuscitation.

“Ever since we’ve been using intravenous fluid, clinicians have been asking, ‘What is the right amount?’” said Doug Hansell, MD and Cheetah’s Chief Physician Executive. “Today, with non-invasive Cheetah technology, we have new tools to answer this question, and we are learning that getting this question right is more important than ever.”

Cheetah Medical has been working with leading researchers using a large U.S. dataset to better understand the risks and benefits of fluid administration. During the past two years, researchers have now released eight clinical abstracts on the importance of fluid management.

  • FLUID ADMINISTRATION IN SEPSIS AND SEPTIC SHOCK – PATTERNS AND OUTCOMES: Sepsis and septic shock is a huge national priority, as it is the most expensive condition to treat, at $24 billion per year (AHRQ). This study identified a strong association between large fluid administration (more than five liters) and excess mortality in septic shock patients. As expected, sicker patients received more fluid. However, even after accounting for the severity of illness, these patients had an increased risk of dying. (Society of Critical Care Medicine Annual Conference, January 2017)
  • FLUID ADMINISTRATION IN OPEN AND LAPAROSCOPIC ABDOMINAL SURGERY: The study looked at the relationship between intraoperative fluid therapy and complications following abdominal surgery.Based on data from 18,633 patients, an increase in complications was found with day-of-surgery fluid use above five liters for open abdominal procedures. The study recommended individualized fluid therapy to reduce potentially negative effects from over/under resuscitation with intravenous fluids. (American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] 2016 Annual Meeting)
  • FLUID PRESCRIPTIONS IN HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS WITH RENAL FAILURE: The implication of volume resuscitation and potential complications among patients with acute kidney injuries (AKIs) has been widely debated. This study examined the relationship between fluid administration and outcomesamong 62,695 AKI patients. It found the potential for both under and over resuscitation in those who received treatments with vasopressors. A better understanding of individual fluid needs was seen for patients requiring pressor and mechanical ventilation support. (European Society of Intensive Care Medicine [ESICM] Annual Congress, 2016)
  • EFFECTS OF FLUIDS ADMINISTRATION IN PATIENTS WITH SEPTIC SHOCK WITH OR WITHOUT HEART FAILURE (HF): The study examined the relationship between indications of fluid overload in sepsis patients (with or without diastolic HF) and outcomes. For 29,098 patients, mortality was the highest among those who received the highest volumes of fluid. It also noted that patients with diagnosed diastolic HF received less fluids and exhibited a significantly lower mortality than predicted. These lower mortality rates could be a result of a more conservative fluid treatment strategy applied in patients known to be at risk for fluid overload. (American Thoracic Society [ATS] 2016 International Conference)
  • WIDE PRACTICE VARIABILITY IN FLUID RESUSCITATION OF CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS WITH ARDS: The study looked at how variable fluid resuscitation testing and treatments impacted the outcomes of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). An analysis of 1,052 patients highlighted a highly variable fluid resuscitation. The findings suggest a widespread variability in provider decision-making regarding fluid resuscitation, which may be detrimental to quality and costs, lowering the overall value of care. (American Thoracic Society [ATS] 2016 International Conference)
  • POTENTIAL HARM ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY-ADJUSTED TREATMENT VARIABILITY IN FLUID RESUSCITATION OF CRITICALLY ILL SEPTIC PATIENTS: The study set out to determine treatment variability for patients with severe sepsis and how it may impact mortality. Retrospectively analyzing 77,032 patients, a high degree of treatment variability was found for fluid resuscitation, with a range of 250 ml to more than 7L of fluid administered. For patients who received less fluid, there was no increased risk of mortality. In those who received the most fluid, there was a strong association with worse hospital mortality. (American Thoracic Society [ATS] 2016 International Conference)
  • ASSOCIATION OF FLUIDS AND OUTCOMES IN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT PATIENTS HOSPITALIZED WITH COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA (CAP): Analyzing 192,806 CAP patients, the study looked at the correlation between fluid-volume overload, hospital mortality and ventilator-free days (VFDs). A significant association was found between the amount of fluid administered on day one, increased mortality and decreased VFDs. The study may have also identified a subset of CAP patients who could benefit from a more restrictive fluid strategy. (36thInternational Symposium on Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine)
  • FLUID ADMINISTRATION IN COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED SEPSISEXAMINATION OF A LARGE ADMINISTRATIVE DATABASE: The study looked at variation in fluid administration practices and compliance with “Surviving Sepsis” guidelines, which recommend a minimum initial fluid administration of 30cc/kg in sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion patients. It found that a substantial proportion of patients (47.4 %) with community-acquired sepsis received less than the recommended guidelines within the first 24 hours. (Society of Critical Care Medicine Annual Conference, 2016)

“We are very proud to have supported this work – we are advancing the science of fluid management and helping to improve our understanding of how better fluid management may improve patient outcomes,” said Chris Hutchison, CEO of Cheetah Medical.

 

SOURCE

https://www.cheetah-medical.com/cheetah-medical-advances-science-fluid-management/

 

Other related articles published in this Open Access On-line Scientific Journal includes the following:

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On Investment Platforms for Private Funds and Investment Platforms for Private Placements – SEC Update

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

SEC Update

In the last few years, we have seen a number of important developments in the securities laws related to finders and broker-dealer registration requirements. Below we provide an overview of the broker-dealer registration requirement as it relates to finders who assist in matching issuers with investors or buyers and the latest developments in this area.

Overview

The distinction between being classified as a finder and a broker-dealer can have significant consequences. An unregistered broker-dealer may face sanctions from the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), and it may be unable to enforce payment for its services. In addition, transactions involving an unregistered broker-dealer may create a right of rescission in favor of the investors, allowing the investors the right to require the issuer to return the money invested. One example of the consequences of an unregistered broker-dealer occurred in the Ranieri Partners SEC enforcement action. In that action the SEC brought charges against a private-equity firm, its managing director, and a consultant because of the consultant’s failure to register as a broker-dealer. The SEC’s order found that the private equity firm paid transaction-based fees to a consultant, who was not registered as a broker-dealer, for soliciting investors for private fund investments.1

The federal securities laws do not specifically define the term “finder” or outline what finders can do. Instead, finders must avoid being deemed a broker or dealer under the federal securities laws unless they register as such with the SEC and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA). A broker is defined as “any person engaged in the business of effecting transactions in securities for the accounts of others.”2 A dealer is defined as a person that is “engaged in the business of buying and selling securities … for such person’s own account,” but excludes a person that buys and sells securities for its own account, but not as part of a regular business.3Because the broker definition is the one that finders have the most trouble with, this discussion is focused on what activities may cause a finder to fall within the definition of a broker required to register with the SEC and FINRA.

  • M&A Brokers
  • FINRA Guidance
  • Investment Platforms for Private Placements
  • Investment Platforms for Private Funds
  • Crowdfunding
  • Potential Regulatory Action
Conclusion

A determination of whether an intermediary is acting as a finder or an unregistered broker-dealer is a very fact-specific analysis and can often be very complex. Unfortunately for unwary entrepreneurs, company executives, and equity fund sponsors, frequently a third party assisting with capital-raising will be acting as a broker-dealer, not a finder, and therefore should not be engaged unless properly registered. It is likely that we will see further clarification or new rules from regulators in the future; regardless, it is important to always carefully consider the involvement of finders or broker-dealers in any capital-raising endeavor.

If you have any questions regarding the use of finders, or capital raising in general, please contact the Venable lawyer with whom you work, one of the authors of this article, or a member of our Corporate Finance and Securities Group.

SOURCE
https://www.venable.com/finders-and-unregistered-broker-dealers-12-04-2015/?utm_source=Mondaq&utm_medium=syndication&utm_campaign=View-Original

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