Advertisements
Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Archive for the ‘Genome Biology’ Category


Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

 

The CRISPR-Cas9 system has proven to be a powerful tool for genome editing allowing for the precise modification of specific DNA sequences within a cell. Many efforts are currently underway to use the CRISPR-Cas9 system for the therapeutic correction of human genetic diseases. CRISPR/Cas9 has revolutionized our ability to engineer genomes and conduct genome-wide screens in human cells.

 

CRISPR–Cas9 induces a p53-mediated DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest in immortalized human retinal pigment epithelial cells, leading to a selection against cells with a functional p53 pathway. Inhibition of p53 prevents the damage response and increases the rate of homologous recombination from a donor template. These results suggest that p53 inhibition may improve the efficiency of genome editing of untransformed cells and that p53 function should be monitored when developing cell-based therapies utilizing CRISPR–Cas9.

 

Whereas some cell types are amenable to genome engineering, genomes of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been difficult to engineer, with reduced efficiencies relative to tumour cell lines or mouse embryonic stem cells. Using hPSC lines with stable integration of Cas9 or transient delivery of Cas9-ribonucleoproteins (RNPs), an average insertion or deletion (indel) efficiency greater than 80% was achieved. This high efficiency of insertion or deletion generation revealed that double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by Cas9 are toxic and kill most hPSCs.

 

The toxic response to DSBs was P53/TP53-dependent, such that the efficiency of precise genome engineering in hPSCs with a wild-type P53 gene was severely reduced. These results indicate that Cas9 toxicity creates an obstacle to the high-throughput use of CRISPR/Cas9 for genome engineering and screening in hPSCs. As hPSCs can acquire P53 mutations, cell replacement therapies using CRISPR/Cas9-enginereed hPSCs should proceed with caution, and such engineered hPSCs should be monitored for P53 function.

 

CRISPR-based editing of T cells to treat cancer, as scientists at the University of Pennsylvania are studying in a clinical trial, should also not have a p53 problem. Nor should any therapy developed with CRISPR base editing, which does not make the double-stranded breaks that trigger p53. But, there are pre-existing humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immune responses to Cas9 in humans, a factor which must be taken into account as the CRISPR-Cas9 system moves forward into clinical trials.

 

References:

 

https://techonomy.com/2018/06/new-cancer-concerns-shake-crispr-prognosis/

 

https://www.statnews.com/2018/06/11/crispr-hurdle-edited-cells-might-cause-cancer/

 

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/07/26/168443

 

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-018-0049-z.epdf?referrer_access_token=s92jDP_yPBmDmi-USafzK9RgN0jAjWel9jnR3ZoTv0MRjuB3dEnTctGtoy16n3DDbmISsvbln9SCISHVDd73tdQRNS7LB8qBlX1vpbLE0nK_CwKThDGcf344KR6RAm9k3wZiwyu-Kb1f2Dl7pArs5yYSiSLSdgeH7gst7lOBEh9qIc6kDpsytWLHqX_tyggu&tracking_referrer=www.statnews.com

 

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-018-0050-6.epdf?referrer_access_token=2KJ0L-tmvjtQdzqlkVXWVNRgN0jAjWel9jnR3ZoTv0Phq6GCpDlJx7lIwhCzBRjHJv0mv4zO0wzJJCeuxJjzoUWLeemH8T4I3i61ftUBkYkETi6qnweELRYMj4v0kLk7naHF-ujuz4WUf75mXsIRJ3HH0kQGq1TNYg7tk3kamoelcgGp4M7UTiTmG8j0oog_&tracking_referrer=www.statnews.com

 

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/01/05/243345

 

https://www.nature.com/articles/nmeth.4293.epdf

 

Advertisements

Read Full Post »


Thriving at the Survival Calls during Careers in the Digital Age – An AGE like no Other, also known as, DIGITAL

Author and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

The source for the inspiration to write this curation is described in

Survival Calls during Careers in the Digital Age

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/06/13/survival-calls-during-careers-in-the-digital-age/

 

In this curation, I present the following concepts in three parts:

  1. Part 1: Authenticity of Careers in the Digital Age: In Focus, the BioTechnology Sector
  2. Part 2: Top 10 books to help you survive the Digital Age

  3. Part 3: A case study on Thriving at the Survival Calls during Careers in the Digital Age: Aviva Lev-Ari, UCB, PhD’83; HUJI, MA’76 

 

Part 1: Authenticity of Careers in the Digital Age: 

In Focus, the BioTechnology Sector

 

Lisa LaMotta, Senior Editor, BioPharma Dive wrote in Conference edition | June 11, 2018

Unlike that little cancer conference in Chicago last week, the BIO International convention is not about data, but about the people who make up the biopharma industry.

The meeting brings together scientists, board members, business development heads and salespeople, from the smallest virtual biotechs to the largest of pharmas. It allows executives at fledgling biotechs to sit at the same tables as major decision-makers in the industry — even if it does look a little bit like speed dating.

But it’s not just a partnering meeting.

This year’s BIO also sought to shine a light on pressing issues facing the industry. Among those tackled included elevating the discussion on gender diversity and how to bring more women to the board level; raising awareness around suicide and the need for more mental health treatments; giving a voice to patient advocacy groups; and highlighting the need for access to treatments in developing nations.

Four days of meetings and panel discussions are unlikely to move the needle for many of these challenges, but debate can be the first step toward progress.

I attended the meetings on June 4,5,6, 2018 and covered in Real Time the sessions I attended. On the link below, Tweets, Re-Tweets and Likes mirrors the feelings and the opinions of the attendees as expressed in real time using the Twitter.com platform. This BioTechnology events manifested the AUTHENTICITY of Careers in the Digital Age – An AGE like no Other, also known as, DIGITAL.

The entire event is covered on twitter.com by the following hash tag and two handles:

 

I covered the events on two tracks via two Twitter handles, each handle has its own followers:

The official LPBI Group Twitter.com account

The Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN Twitter.com account

Track A:

  • Original Tweets by @Pharma_BI and by @AVIVA1950 for #BIO2018 @IAmBiotech @BIOConvention – BIO 2018, Boston, June 4-7, 2018, BCEC

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/06/11/original-tweets-by-pharma_bi-and-by-aviva1950-from-bio2018-iambiotech-bioconvention-bio-2018-boston-june-4-7-2018-bcec/

 

  • Reactions to Original Tweets by @Pharma_BI and by @AVIVA1950 from #BIO2018

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/06/12/reactions-to-original-tweets-by-pharma_bi-and-by-aviva1950-from-bio2018/

Track B:

  • Re-Tweets and Likes by @Pharma_BI and by @AVIVA1950 from #BIO2018 @IAmBiotech @BIOConvention – BIO 2018, Boston, June 4-7, 2018, BCEC

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/06/11/re-tweets-and-likes-by-pharma_bi-aviva1950-from-bio2018-iambiotech-bioconvention-bio-2018-boston-june-4-7-2018-bcec/

Part 2: Top 10 books to help you survive the digital age

From Philip K Dick’s obtuse robots to Mark O’Connell’s guide to transhumanism, novelist Julian Gough picks essential reading for a helter skelter world

Here are 10 of the books that did help me [novelist Julian Gough]: they might also help you understand, and survive, our complicated, stressful, digital age.

  1. Marshall McLuhan Unbound by Marshall McLuhan (2005)
    The visionary Canadian media analyst predicted the internet, and coined the phrase the Global Village, in the early 1960s. His dense, complex, intriguing books explore how changes in technology change us. This book presents his most important essays as 20 slim pamphlets in a handsome, profoundly physical, defiantly non-digital slipcase.
  2. Ubik by Philip K Dick (1969)
    Pure pulp SF pleasure; a deep book disguised as a dumb one. Dick shows us, not a dystopia, but a believably shabby, amusingly human future. The everyman hero, Joe Chip, wakes up and argues with his robot toaster, which refuses to toast until he sticks a coin in the slot. Joe can’t do this, because he’s broke. He then has a stand-up row with his robot front door, which won’t open, because he owes it money too … Technology changes: being human, and broke, doesn’t. Warning: Dick wrote Ubik at speed, on speed. But embedded in the pulpy prose are diamonds of imagery that will stay with you for ever.
  3. The Singularity Is Near by Ray Kurzweil (2005)
    This book is what Silicon Valley has instead of a bible. It’s a visionary work that predicts a technological transformation of the world in our lifetime. Kurzweil argues that computer intelligence will soon outperform human thought. We will then encode our minds, upload them, and become one with our technology, achieving the Singularity. At which point, the curve of technological progress starts to go straight up. Ultimately – omnipotent, no longer mortal, no longer flesh – we transform all the matter in the universe into consciousness; into us.
  4. To Be a Machine by Mark O’Connell (2017)
    This response to Kurzweil won this year’s Wellcome prize. It’s a short, punchy tour of transhumanism: the attempt to meld our minds with machines, to transcend biology and escape death. He meets some of the main players, and many on the fringes, and listens to them, quizzically. It is a deliberately, defiantly human book, operating in that very modern zone between sarcasm and irony, where humans thrive and computers crash.
  5. A Visit from the Goon Squad by Jennifer Egan (2011)
    This intricately structured, incredibly clever novel moves from the 60s right through to a future maybe 15 years from now. It steps so lightly into that future you hardly notice the transition. It has sex and drugs and rock’n’roll, solar farms, social media scams and a stunningly moving chapter written as a PowerPoint presentation. It’s a masterpiece. Life will be like this.
  6. What Technology Wants by Kevin Kelly (2010)
    Kelly argues that we scruffy biological humans are no longer driving technological progress. Instead, the technium, “the greater, global, massively interconnected system of technology vibrating around us”, is now driving its own progress, faster and faster, and we are just caught up in its slipstream. As we accelerate down the technological waterslide, there is no stopping now … Kelly’s vision of the future is scary, but it’s fun, and there is still a place for us in it.
  7. The Meme Machine by Susan Blackmore (1999)
    Blackmore expands powerfully and convincingly on Richard Dawkins’s original concept of the meme. She makes a forceful case that technology, religion, fashion, art and even our personalities are made of memes – ideas that replicate, mutate and thus evolve over time. We are their replicators (if you buy my novel, you’ve replicated its memes); but memes drive our behaviour just as we drive theirs. It’s a fascinating book that will flip your world upside down.
  8. Neuromancer by William Gibson (1984)
    In the early 1980s, Gibson watched kids leaning into the screens as they played arcade games. They wanted to be inside the machines, he realised, and they preferred the games to reality. In this novel, Gibson invented the term cyberspace; sparked the cyberpunk movement (to his chagrin); and vividly imagined the jittery, multi-screened, anxious, technological reality that his book would help call into being.
  9. You Are Not a Gadget: A Manifesto by Jaron Lanier (2010)
    Lanier, an intense, brilliant, dreadlocked artist, musician and computer scientist, helped to develop virtual reality. His influential essay Digital Maoism described early the downsides of online collective action. And he is deeply aware that design choices made by (mainly white, young, male) software engineers can shape human behaviour globally. He argues, urgently, that we need to question those choices, now, because once they are locked in, all of humanity must move along those tracks, and we may not like where they take us. Events since 2010 have proved him right. His manifesto is a passionate argument in favour of the individual voice, the individual gesture.
  10. All About Love: New Visions by bell hooks (2000)
    Not, perhaps, an immediately obvious influence on a near-future techno-thriller in which military drones chase a woman and her son through Las Vegas. But hooks’s magnificent exploration and celebration of love, first published 18 years ago, will be far more useful to us, in our alienated digital future, than the 10,000 books of technobabble published this year. All About Love is an intensely practical roadmap, from where we are now to where we could be. When Naomi and Colt find themselves on the run through a militarised American wilderness of spirit, when GPS fails them, bell hooks is their secret guide.

SOURCE

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2018/may/30/top-10-books-to-help-you-survive-the-digital-age?utm_source=esp&utm_medium=Email&utm_campaign=Bookmarks+-+Collections+2017&utm_term=277690&subid=25658468&CMP=bookmarks_collection

Part 3: A case study on Thriving at the Survival Calls during Careers in the Digital Age:  Aviva Lev-Ari, UCB, PhD’83; HUJI, MA’76

 

On June 10, 2018

 

Following, is a case study about an alumna of HUJI and UC, Berkeley as an inspirational role model. An alumna’s profile in context of dynamic careers in the digital age. It has great timeliness and relevance to graduate students, PhD level at UC Berkeley and beyond, to all other top tier universities in the US and Europe. As presented in the following curations:

Professional Self Re-Invention: From Academia to Industry – Opportunities for PhDs in the Business Sector of the Economy

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/05/22/professional-self-re-invention-from-academia-to-industry-opportunities-for-phds-in-the-business-sector-of-the-economy/

 

Pioneering implementations of analytics to business decision making: contributions to domain knowledge conceptualization, research design, methodology development, data modeling and statistical data analysis: Aviva Lev-Ari, UCB, PhD’83; HUJI, MA’76 

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/05/28/pioneering-implementations-of-analytics-to-business-decision-making-contributions-to-domain-knowledge-conceptualization-research-design-methodology-development-data-modeling-and-statistical-data-a/

 

This alumna is Editor-in-Chief of a Journal that has other 173 articles on Scientist: Career Considerations 

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/category/scientist-career-considerations/

 

In a 5/22/2018 article, Ways to Pursue Science Careers in Business After a PhD by Ankita Gurao,

https://bitesizebio.com/38498/ways-to-pursue-the-business-of-science-after-a-ph-d/?utm_source=facebook&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=SocialWarfare

Unemployment figures of PhDs by field of science are included, Ankita Gurao identifies the following four alternative careers for PhDs in the non-academic world:

  1. Science Writer/Journalist/Communicator
  2. Science Management
  3. Science Administration
  4. Science Entrepreneurship

My career, as presented in Reflections on a Four-phase Career: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, March 2018

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/03/06/reflections-on-a-four-phase-career-aviva-lev-ari-phd-rn-march-2018/

has the following phases:

  • Phase 1: Research, 1973 – 1983
  • Phase 2: Corporate Applied Research in the US, 1985 – 2005
  • Phase 3: Career Reinvention in Health Care, 2005 – 2012
  • Phase 4: Electronic Scientific Publishing, 4/2012 to present

These four phases are easily mapped to the four alternative careers for PhDs in the non-academic world. One can draw parallel lines between the four career opportunities A,B,C,D, above, and each one of the four phases in my own career.

Namely, I have identified A,B,C,D as early as 1985, and pursued each of them in several institutional settings, as follows:

A. Science Writer/Journalist/Communicator – see link above for Phase 4: Electronic Scientific Publishing, 4/2012 to present 

B. Science Management – see link above for Phase 2: Corporate Applied Research in the US, 1985 – 2005 and Phase 3: Career Reinvention in Health Care, 2005 – 2012 

C. Science Administration – see link above for Phase 2: Corporate Applied Research in the US, 1985 – 2005and Phase 4: Electronic Scientific Publishing, 4/2012 to present 

D. Science Entrepreneurship – see link above for Phase 4: Electronic Scientific Publishing, 4/2012 to present  

Impressions of My Days at Berkeley in Recollections: Part 1 and 2, below.

  • Recollections: Part 1 – My days at Berkeley, 9/1978 – 12/1983 –About my doctoral advisor, Allan Pred, other professors and other peers

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/03/15/recollections-my-days-at-berkeley-9-1978-12-1983-about-my-doctoral-advisor-allan-pred-other-professors-and-other-peer/

  • Recollections: Part 2 – “While Rolling” is preceded by “While Enrolling” Autobiographical Alumna Recollections of Berkeley – Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD’83

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/05/24/recollections-part-2-while-rolling-is-preceded-by-while-enrolling-autobiographical-alumna-recollections-of-berkeley-aviva-lev-ari-phd83/

The topic of Careers in the Digital Age is closely related to my profile, see chiefly: Four-phase Career, Reflections, Recollections Parts 1 & 2 and information from other biographical sources, below.

Other sources for my biography

 

Read Full Post »


Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services announced that the federal healthcare program will cover the costs of cancer gene tests that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration

 

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

genetic testing just became routine care for patients with advanced cancers. And that means precision medicine has finally broken into the mainstream.

Any tests that gain FDA clearance in the future will automatically receive full coverage.

In 3/2018 there are three FDA approved Genetic Tests for Cancer:

UNDER development and not included in the agreement , above, includes:

  • Olivier Elemento, Director of the Caryl and Israel Englander Institute for Precision Medicine at Cornell, the team at Cornell, for example, has developed a whole exome test that compares mutations in tumors against healthy cells across 22,000 genes. To date, it’s been used to help match more than 1,000 patients in New York state with the best available treatment options.

Under the final decision, doctors are still free to order non-FDA approved tests, but coverage isn’t guaranteed; each case will be evaluated by local Medicare administrative contractors. Which means Elemento’s test could still be covered. “To me this is a vote of confidence that next generation sequencing is useful for cancer patients,” says Elemento.

So far, CMS is only covering these tests for stage three and stage four metastatic cancer sufferers. Most of them aren’t going to be cured. They might get a few more good months, maybe a year, tops.

Cancerous Genes

SOURCE

WITH MEDICARE SUPPORT, GENETIC CANCER TESTING GOES MAINSTREAM

https://www.wired.com/story/with-medicare-support-genetic-cancer-testing-goes-mainstream/?mbid=social_twitter_onsiteshare

Read Full Post »


Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

 

Biologists may have been building a more nuanced view of sex, but society has yet to catch up. True, more than half a century of activism from members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community has softened social attitudes to sexual orientation and gender. Many societies are now comfortable with men and women crossing conventional societal boundaries in their choice of appearance, career and sexual partner. But when it comes to sex, there is still intense social pressure to conform to the binary model.

 

This pressure has meant that people born with clear DSDs (difference/disorder of sex development) often undergo surgery to ‘normalize’ their genitals. Such surgery is controversial because it is usually performed on babies, who are too young to consent, and risks assigning a sex at odds with the child’s ultimate gender identity — their sense of their own gender. Intersex advocacy groups have therefore argued that doctors and parents should at least wait until a child is old enough to communicate their gender identity, which typically manifests around the age of three, or old enough to decide whether they want surgery at all.

 

As many as 1 person in 100 has some form of “DSD” with or without external manifestation. Diagnoses of DSDs previously relied on hormone tests, anatomical inspections and imaging, followed by painstaking tests of one gene at a time. Now, advances in genetic techniques mean that teams can analyze multiple genes at once, aiming straight for a genetic diagnosis and making the process less stressful for families. Children with DSDs are treated by multidisciplinary teams that aim to tailor management and support to each individual and their family, but this usually involves raising a child as male or female even if no surgery is done.

 

The simple scenario that all learn is that two X chromosomes make someone female, and an X and a Y chromosome make someone male. These are simplistic ways of thinking about what is scientifically very complex. Anatomy, hormones, cells, and chromosomes (and also personal identity convictions) are actually not usually aligned with this binary classification.

 

More than 25 genes that affect sex development have now been identified, and they have a wide range of variations that affect people in subtle ways. Many differences aren’t even noticed until incidental medical encounters, such as a forty-six-year-old woman pregnant with her third child, found after amniocentesis that half her cells carry male chromosomes. Or a seventy-year-old father of three who learns during a hernia repair that he has a uterus.

 

Furthermore, scientists now understood that everyone’s body is made up of a patchwork of genetically distinct cells, some of which may have a different sex than the rest. This “mosaicism” can have effects ranging from undetectable to extraordinary, such as “identical” twins of different sexes. An extremely common instance of mosaicism comes from cells passing over the placental barrier during pregnancy. Men often carry female cells from their mothers, and women carry male cells from their sons. Research has shown that these cells remain present for decades, but what effects they have on disease and behavior is an essentially unstudied question.

 

References:

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2017/mar/02/cambridge-scientists-create-first-self-developing-embryo-from-stem-cells

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25693544

 

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajmg.a.34123/abstract;jsessionid=A330AD995EE25C7A0AD5EA478694ADD8.f04t01

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25091731

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1695712

 

Read Full Post »


International Award for Human Genome Project

Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

 

The Thai royal family awarded its annual prizes in Bangkok, Thailand, in late January 2018 in recognition of advances in public health and medicine – through the Prince Mahidol Award Foundation under the Royal Patronage. This foundation was established in 1992 to honor the late Prince Mahidol of Songkla, the Royal Father of His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand and the Royal Grandfather of the present King. Prince Mahidol is celebrated worldwide as the father of modern medicine and public health in Thailand.

 

The Human Genome Project has been awarded the 2017 Prince Mahidol Award for revolutionary advances in the field of medicine. The Human Genome Project was completed in 2003. It was an international, collaborative research program aimed at the complete mapping and sequencing of the human genome. Its final goal was to provide researchers with fundamental information about the human genome and powerful tools for understanding the genetic factors in human disease, paving the way for new strategies for disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

 

The resulting human genome sequence has provided a foundation on which researchers and clinicians now tackle increasingly complex problems, transforming the study of human biology and disease. Particularly it is satisfying that it has given the researchers the ability to begin using genomics to improve approaches for diagnosing and treating human disease thereby beginning the era of genomic medicine.

 

National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) is devoted to advancing health through genome research. The institute led National Institutes of Health’s (NIH’s) contribution to the Human Genome Project, which was successfully completed in 2003 ahead of schedule and under budget. NIH, is USA’s national medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases.

 

Building on the foundation laid by the sequencing of the human genome, NHGRI’s work now encompasses a broad range of research aimed at expanding understanding of human biology and improving human health. In addition, a critical part of NHGRI’s mission continues to be the study of the ethical, legal and social implications of genome research.

 

References:

 

https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/human-genome-project-awarded-thai-2017-prince-mahidol-award-field-medicine

 

http://www.mfa.go.th/main/en/news3/6886/83875-Announcement-of-the-Prince-Mahidol-Laureates-2017.html

 

http://www.thaiembassy.org/london/en/news/7519/83884-Announcement-of-the-Prince-Mahidol-Laureates-2017.html

 

http://englishnews.thaipbs.or.th/us-human-genome-project-influenza-researchers-win-prince-mahidol-award-2017/

 

http://genomesequencing.com/the-human-genome-project-is-awarded-the-thai-2017-prince-mahidol-award-for-the-field-of-medicine-national-institutes-of-health-press-release/

 

Read Full Post »


Memory Gene Goes Viral

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

A gene crucial for learning, called Arc can send genetic material from one neuron to another by using viruses was discovered by two independent team of scientist from University of Massachusetts Medical School and University of Utah which was published in Cell.  According to Dr. Edmund Talley, a program director at National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke “this work is a great example of the importance of basic neuroscience research”.

Arc plays an important role in the brain’s ability to store new information, however little is known of how it works. According to the University of Utah scientists, research into the examination of the Arc gene began by introducing it into bacterial cells. When the cells made the Arc protein, it clumped together into a form that resembled a viral capsid, the shell that contains a virus’ genetic information. The Arc “capsids” appeared to mirror viral capsids in their physical structure in addition as their behavior and other properties.

At the same time, University of Massachusetts scientist led by Vivian Budnik, Ph. D and Travis Thomson, Ph.D. set out to scrutinize the contents of tiny sacks released by cells called extracellular vesicles. Their experiments in fruit flies revealed that motor neurons that control the flies’ muscles release vesicles containing a high concentration of the Arcgene’s messenger RNA (mRNA), the DNA-like intermediary molecule cells use to create the protein encoded by a DNA sequence.

Both groups similarly found evidence that Arc capsids contain Arc mRNA and that the capsids are released from neurons inside those vesicles. Also, both groups suggest that Arc capsids act like viruses by delivering mRNA to nearby cells. Furthermore, Dr. Shepherd’s team presented that the more active neurons are, the more of those vesicles they release. Dr. Shepherd’s group grew mouse neurons lacking the Arc gene in petri dishes filled with Arc-containing vesicles or Arc capsids alone. They revealed that the formerly Arc-less neurons took in the vesicles and capsids and used the Arc mRNA contained within to produce the Arc protein themselves. Finally, just like neurons that naturally manufacture the Arc protein, those cells made more of it when their electrical activity increased.

Both groups of scientists plan to examine why cells use this virus-like strategy to shuttle Arc mRNA between cells and which might allow the toxic proteins responsible for Alzheimer’s disease to spread through the brain.

SOURCE

http://www.sciencenewsline.com/news/2018011717480045.html

Read Full Post »


Medical Scientific Discoveries for the 21st Century & Interviews with Scientific Leaders at https://www.amazon.com/dp/B078313281 – electronic Table of Contents 

Author, Curator and Editor: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

Available on Kindle Store @ Amazon.com since 12/9/2017

List of Contributors & Contributors’ Biographies

Volume Author, Curator and Editor

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

Preface, all Introductions, all Summaries and Epilogue

Part One:

1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.1.3, 2.1.4, 2.2.1, 2.2.2, 2.2.3, 2.3, 2.4, 2.4.1, 2.4.2, 2.5, 2.6.1, 2.6.2, 2.6.3, 2.6.4, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3

Part Two:

5.2, 5.3, 5.6, 6.1.2, 6.1.4, 6.2.1, 6.2.2, 6.3.2, 6.3.4, 6.3.5, 6.3.6, 6.3.8, 6.3.10, 6.4.1, 6.4.2, 6.5.1.2, 6.5.1.3, 6.5.2.2, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.9.1, 8.9.3, 8.9.4, 8.9.5, 8.9.6, 8.10.1, 8.10.2, 8.10.3, 8.10.4, 9.2, 9.3, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 10.2, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.10, 10.11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 12.10, 12.11, 12.12, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.6, 13.12, 13.13, 14.1, 14.2

Guest Authors:

Pnina Abir-Am, PhD Part Two: 6.1.1

Stephen J Williams, PhDPart Two: 6.2.6, 6.5.2.2, 10.4, 10.9, 13.4

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN:

Part One:

1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.7, 2.2.1, 2.3

Part Two:

5.1, 5.4, 5.5, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 6.1.3, 6.2.3, 6.2.4, 6.2.5, 6.3.1, 6.3.3, 6.3.7, 6.3.9, 6.4.3, 6.5.1.1, 6.5.2.1, 6.5.2.2, 6.5.3.1, 6.5.4, 6.5.5, 6,5,6, 8.9.2, 8.10.2, 9.1, 9.4, 10.1, 10.3, 11.4, 12.6, 13.5, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11

Adam Sonnenberg, BSC, MSc(c)Part Two: 13.9

 

electronic Table of Contents

PART ONE:

Physician as Authors, Writers in Medicine and Educator in Public Health

 

Chapter 1: Physicians as Authors

Introduction

1.1  The Young Surgeon and The Retired Pathologist: On Science, Medicine and HealthCare Policy – Best writers Among the WRITERS

1.2 Atul Gawande: Physician and Writer

1.3 Editorial & Publication of Articles in e-Books by  Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence:  Contributions of Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

1.4 Abraham Verghese, MD, Physician and Notable Author

1.5 Eric Topol, M.D.

1.6 Gregory House, MD

1.7 Peter Mueller, MD  Professor of Radiology @MGH & HMS – 2015 Synergy’s Honorary Award Recipient

Summary

Chapter 2: Professional Recognition

Introduction

2.1 Proceedings

2.1.1 Research Presentations

2.1.2 Proceedings of the NYAS

2.1.3 Cold Spring Harbor Conference Meetings

2.1.4 Young Scientist Seminars

2.2 Meet Great Minds

2.2.1 Meet the Laureates

2.2.2 Richard Feynman, Genius and Laureate

2.2.3 Fractals and Heat Energy

2.3 MacArthur Foundation Awards

2.4 Women’s Contributions went beyond Rosie the Riveter

2.4.1 Secret Maoist Chinese Operation Conquered Malaria

2.4.2 Antiparasite Drug Developers Win Nobel

2.5 Impact Factors and Achievement

2.6   RAPsodisiac Medicine

2.6.1 Outstanding-achievements-in-radiology-or-radiotherapy

2.6.2 Outstanding-achievement-in-anesthesiology

2.6.3 Outstanding-achievement-in-pathology

2.6.4 Topics in Pathology – Special Issues from Medscape Pathology

2.7 How to win the Nobel Prize

2.8 Conversations about Medicine

2.9 Current Advances in Medical Technology

2.10 Atul Butte, MD, PhD

Summary

Chapter 3:  Medical and Allied Health Sciences Education

Introduction

3.1 National Outstanding Medical Student Award Winners

3.2 Outstanding Awards in Medical Education

3.3 Promoting Excellence in Physicians and Nurses

3.4 Excellence in mentoring

Summary

Chapter 4: Science Teaching in Math and Technology (STEM)

Introduction

4.1 Science Teaching in Math and Technology

4.2 Television as a Medium for Science Education

4.2.1 Science Discovery TV

4.3 From Turing to Watson

Summary

PART TWO:

Medical Scientific Discoveries Interviews with Scientific Leaders

Chapter 5: Cardiovascular System

Introduction

5.1 Physiologist, Professor Lichtstein, Chair in Heart Studies at The Hebrew University elected Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

5.2 Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Cardiac Disorders

5.3 Notable Contributions to Regenerative Cardiology

5.4 For Accomplishments in Cardiology and Cardiovascular Diseases: The Arrigo Recordati International Prize for Scientific Research

5.5 Becoming a Cardiothoracic Surgeon: An Emerging Profile in the Surgery Theater and through Scientific Publications

5.6 Diagnostics and Biomarkers: Novel Genomics Industry Trends vs Present Market Conditions and Historical Scientific Leaders Memoirs

5.7 CVD Prevention and Evaluation of Cardiovascular Imaging Modalities: Coronary Calcium Score by CT Scan Screening to justify or not the Use of Statin

5.8 2013 as A Year of Revolutionizing Medicine and Top 11 Cardiology Stories

5.9 Bridging the Gap in Medical Innovations – Elazer Edelman @ TEDMED 2013

5.10 Development of a Pancreatobiliary Chemotherapy Eluting Stent for Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma PIs: Jeffrey Clark (MGH), Robert Langer (Koch), Elazer Edelman (Harvard:MIT HST Program)

5.11 Publications on Heart Failure by Prof. William Gregory Stevenson, M.D., BWH

Summary

Chapter 6: Genomics

Introduction
6.1 Genetics before the Human Genome Project

6.1.1 Why did Pauling Lose the “Race” to James Watson and Francis Crick? How Crick Describes his Discovery in a Letter to his Son

6.1.2 John Randall’s MRC Research Unit and Rosalind Franklin’s role at Kings College

6.1.3 Interview with the co-discoverer of the structure of DNA: Watson on The Double Helix and his changing view of Rosalind Franklin

6.1.4 The Initiation and Growth of Molecular Biology and Genomics, Part I

6.2 The Human Genome Project: Articles of Note  @ pharmaceuticalintelligence.com by multiple authors

6.2.1 CRACKING THE CODE OF HUMAN LIFE: The Birth of BioInformatics & Computational Genomics

6.2.2 What comes after finishing the Euchromatic Sequence of the Human Genome?

6.2.3 Human Genome Project – 10th Anniversary: Interview with Kevin Davies, PhD – The $1000 Genome

6.2.4 University of California Santa Cruz’s Genomics Institute will create a Map of Human Genetic Variations

6.2.5 Exceptional Genomes: The Process to find them

6.2.6 Multiple Lung Cancer Genomic Projects Suggest New Targets, Research Directions for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

6.3 The Impact of Genome Sequencing on Biology and Medicine

6.3.1 Genomics in Medicine – Establishing a Patient-Centric View of Genomic Data

6.3.2 Modification of genes by homologous recombination – Mario Capecchi, Martin Evans, Oliver Smithies

6.3.3 AAAS February 14-18, 2013, Boston: Symposia – The Science of Uncertainty in Genomic Medicine

6.3.4 The Metabolic View of Epigenetic Expression

6.3.5  Pharmacogenomics

6.3.6 Neonatal Pathophysiology

6.3.7 Genetics of Conduction Disease: Atrioventricular (AV) Conduction Disease (block): Gene Mutations – Transcription, Excitability, and Energy Homeostasis

6.3.8 3D mapping of genome in combine FISH and RNAi

6.3.9 Human Variome Project: encyclopedic catalog of sequence variants indexed to the human genome sequence

6.3.10 DNA mutagenesis and DNA repair

6.4 Scientific Leadership Recognition for Contributions to Genomics

6.4.1 Interview with Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak (44 minutes)

6.4.2 DNA Repair Pioneers Win Nobel – Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich, and Aziz Sancar 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the mechanisms of DNA repair

6.4.3  Richard Lifton, MD, PhD of Yale University and Howard Hughes Medical Institute: Recipient of 2014 Breakthrough Prizes Awarded in Life Sciences for the Discovery of Genes and Biochemical Mechanisms that cause Hypertension

6.5 Contemporary Field Leaders in Genomics

6.5.1 ROBERT LANGER

6.5.1.1 2014 Breakthrough Prizes Awarded in Fundamental Physics and Life Sciences for a Total of $21 Million – MIT’s Robert Langer gets $3 Million

6.5.1.2 National Medal of Science – 2006 Robert S. Langer

6.5.1.3  Confluence of Chemistry, Physics, and Biology

6.5.2 JENNIFER DOUDNA

6.5.2.1 Jennifer Doudna, cosmology teams named 2015 Breakthrough Prize winners

6.5.2.2 UPDATED – Medical Interpretation of the Genomics Frontier – CRISPR – Cas9: Gene Editing Technology for New Therapeutics

6.5.3 ERIC LANDER

6.5.3.1  2012 Harvey Prize in April 30: at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to Eric S. Lander @MIT & Eli Yablonovitch @UC, Berkeley

6.5.4 2013 Genomics: The Era Beyond the Sequencing of the Human Genome: Francis Collins, Craig Venter, Eric Lander, et al.

6.5.5 Recognitions for Contributions in Genomics by Dan David Prize Awards

6.5.6   65 Nobel Laureates meet 650 young scientists covering the fields of physiology and medicine, physics, and chemistry, 28 June – 3 July, 2015, Lindau & Mainau Island, Germany

Summary

Chapter 7: The RNAs

Introduction

7.1 RNA polymerase – molecular basis for DNA transcription – Roger Kornberg, MD

7.2  One gene, one protein – Charles Yanofsky

7.3 Turning genetic information into working proteins – James E. Darnell Jr.

7.4 Small but mighty RNAs – Victor Ambros, David Baulcombe, and Gary Ruvkun, Phillip A. Sharp

7.5 Stress-response gene networks – Nina V. Fedoroff

Summary

Chapter 8: Proteomics, Protein-folding, and Cell Regulation
Introduction.

8.1 The Life and Work of Allan Wilson

8.2 Proteomics

8.3 More Complexity in Protein Evolution

8.4 Proteins: An evolutionary record of diversity and adaptation

8.5 Heroes in Basic Medical Research – Leroy Hood

8.6 Ubiquitin researchers win Nobel – Ciechanover, Hershko, and Rose awarded for discovery of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis

8.7 Buffering of genetic modules involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism provides homeostatic regulation

8.8 Dynamic Protein Profiling

8.9 Protein folding

8.9.1 Protein misfolding and prions – Susan L. Lindquist, Stanley B. Prusiner

8.9.2 A Curated Census of Autophagy-Modulating Proteins and Small Molecules Candidate Targets for Cancer Therapy

8.9.3 Voluntary and Involuntary S-Insufficiency

8.9.4 Transthyretin and Lean Body Mass in Stable and Stressed State

8.9.5 The matter of stunting in the Ganges Plains

8.9.6 Proteins, Imaging and Therapeutics

8.10 Protein Folding and Vesicle Cargo

8.10.1 Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) and Molecular Chaperones

8.10.2 Collagen-binding Molecular Chaperone HSP47: Role in Intestinal Fibrosis – colonic epithelial cells and sub epithelial myofibroblasts

8.10.3 Biology, Physiology and Pathophysiology of Heat Shock Proteins

8.10.4 The Role of Exosomes in Metabolic Regulation 


Summary

Chapter 9:  Neuroscience

Introduction

9.1 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013 for Cell Transport: James E. Rothman of Yale University; Randy W. Schekman of the University of California, Berkeley; and Dr. Thomas C. Südhof of Stanford University

9.2 Proteins that control neurotransmitter release – Richard H. Scheller

9.3 Heroes in Basic Medical Research – Robert J. Lefkowitz

9.4 MIND AND MEMORY: BIOLOGICAL AND DIGITAL – 2014 Dan David Prize Symposium

9.5 A new way of moving – Michael Sheetz, James Spudich, Ronald Vale

9.6 Role the basal ganglia

9.7 The Neurogenetics of Language – Patricia Kuhl – 2015 George A. Miller Award

9.8 The structure of our visual system

9.9 Outstanding Achievement in Schizophrenia Research

9.10 George A. Miller, a Pioneer in Cognitive Psychology, Is Dead at 92

9.11 – To understand what happens in the brain to cause mental illness

9.12 Brain and Cognition

9.13 – To reduce symptoms of mental illness and retrain the brain

9.14 Behavior

9.15 Notable Papers in Neurosciences

9.16 Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) – an unproved supplement

Summary

Chapter 10: Microbiology & Immunology

Introduction

10.1 Reference Genes in the Human Gut Microbiome: The BGI Catalogue

10.2 Malnutrition in India, high newborn death rate and stunting of children age under five years

10.3 In His Own Words: Leonard Herzenberg, The Immunologist Who Revolutionized Research, Dies at 81

10.4 Heroes in Medical Research: Dr. Robert Ting, Ph.D. and Retrovirus in AIDS and Cancer

10.5 Tang Prize for 2014: Immunity and Cancer

10.6 Halstedian model of cancer progression

10.7 The History of Hematology and Related Sciences

10.8 Pathology Emergence in the 21st Century

10.9 Heroes in Medical Research: Barnett Rosenberg and the Discovery of Cisplatin

10.10  T cell-mediated immune responses & signaling pathways activated by TLRs – Bruce A. Beutler, Jules A. Hoffmann, Ralph M. Steinman

10.11 Roeder – the coactivator OCA-B, the first cell-specific coactivator, discovered by Roeder in 1992, is unique to immune system B cells

Summary

Chapter 11: Endocrine Hormones

Introduction

11.1 Obesity – 2010 Douglas L. ColemanJeffrey M. Friedman

11.2 Lonely Receptors: RXR – Jensen, Chambon, and Evans – Nuclear receptors provoke RNA production in response to steroid hormones

11.3 The Fred Conrad Koch Lifetime Achievement Award—the Society’s highest honor—recognizes the lifetime achievements and exceptional contributions of an individual to the field of endocrinology

11.4 Gerald D Aurbach Award for Outstanding Translational Research

11.5 Roy O. Greep Award for Outstanding Research in Endocrinology – Martin M. Matzuk

11.6 American Physiology Society Awards

11.7 Solomon Berson and Rosalyn Yalow

Summary

Chapter 12. Stem Cells

Introduction

12.1 Mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent – John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka

12.2 Observing the spleen colonies in mice and proving the existence of stem cells – Till and McCulloch

12.3 McEwen Award for Innovation: Irving Weissman, M.D., Stanford School of Medicine, and Hans Clevers, M.D., Ph.D., Hubrecht Institute

12.4 Developmental biology

12.5  CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome engineering – Rudolf Jaenisch

12.6 Ribozymes and RNA Machines –  Work of Jennifer A. Doudna

12.7 Ralph Brinster, ‘Father of Transgenesis’

12.8 Targeted gene modification

12.9 Stem Cells and Cancer

12.10 ALPSP Awards

12.11 Eppendorf Award for Young European Investigators

12.12 Breaking news about genomic engineering, T2DM and cancer treatments

Summary
Chapter 13: 3D Printing and Medical Application

Introduction

13.1 3D Printing

13.2 What is 3D printing?

13.3 The Scientist Who Is Making 3D Printing More Human

13.4 Join These Medical 3D Printing Groups on Twitter and LinkedIn for great up to date news

13.5 Neri Oxman and her Mediated Matter group @MIT Media Lab have developed a technique for 3D-printing Molten Glass

13.6 The ‘chemputer’ that could print out any drug

13.7 3-D-Bioprinting in use to Create Cardiac Living Tissue: Print your Heart out

13.8 LPBI’s Perspective on Medical and Life Sciences Applications – 3D Printing: BioInks, BioMaterials-BioPolymer

13.9 Medical MEMS, Sensors and 3D Printing: Frontier in Process Control of BioMaterials

13.10 NIH and FDA on 3D Printing in Medical Applications: Views for On-demand Drug Printing, in-Situ direct Tissue Repair and Printed Organs for Live Implants

13.11 ‘Pop-up’ fabrication technique trumps 3D printing

13.12 Augmentation of the ONTOLOGY of the 3D Printing Research

13.13 Superresolution Microscopy

Summary

Chapter 14: Synthetic Medicinal Chemistry

Introduction

14.1 Insights in Biological and Synthetic Medicinal Chemistry

14.2 Breakthrough work in cancer

Summary to Part Two

Volume Summary and Conclusions

EPILOGUE

 

 

Read Full Post »

Older Posts »