Archive for the ‘Innovations’ Category


The Vibrant Philly Biotech Scene: Recent Happenings & Deals

Curator: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.


As the office and retail commercial real estate market has been drying up since the COVID pandemic, commercial real estate developers in the Philadelphia area have been turning to the health science industry to suit their lab space needs.  This includes refurbishing old office space as well as new construction.

Gattuso secures $290M construction loan for life sciences building on Drexel campus

Source: https://www.bizjournals.com/philadelphia/news/2022/12/19/construction-loan-gattuso-drexel-life-sciences.html?utm_source=st&utm_medium=en&utm_campaign=BN&utm_content=pl&ana=e_pl_BN&j=30034971&senddate=2022-12-20


By Ryan Mulligan  –  Reporter, Philadelphia Business Journal

Dec 19, 2022

Gattuso Development Partners and Vigilant Holdings of New York have secured a $290 million construction loan for a major life sciences building set to be developed on Drexel University’s campus.

The funding comes from Houston-based Corebridge Financial, with an additional equity commitment from Boston-based Baupost Group, which is also a partner on the project. JLL’s Capital Markets group arranged the loan.

Plans for the University City project at 3201 Cuthbert St. carry a price tag of $400 million. The 11-story building will total some 520,000 square feet, making it the largest life sciences research and lab space in the city when it comes online.

The building at 3201 Cuthbert will rise on what had served as a recreation field used by Drexel and is located next to the Armory. Gattuso Development, which will lease the parcel from Drexel, expects to to complete the project by fall 2024. Robert A.M. Stern Architects designed the building.


A rendering of a $400 million lab and research facility Drexel University and Gattuso Development Partners plan to build at 3201 Cuthbert St. in Philadelphia.


A rendering of a $400 million lab and research facility Drexel University and Gattuso Development Partners plan to build at 3201 Cuthbert St. in Philadelphia.

The building is 45% leased by Drexel and SmartLabs, an operator of life sciences labs. Drexel plans to occupy about 60,000 square feet, while SmartLabs will lease two floors totaling 117,000 square feet.

“We believe the project validates Philadelphia’s emergence as a global hub for life sciences research, and we are excited to begin construction,” said John Gattuso, the co-founder and president of Philadelphia-based Gattuso Development.

Ryan Ade, Brett Segal and Christopher Peck of JLL arranged the financing.

The project is another play in what amounts to an arms race for life sciences space and tenants in University City. Spark Therapeutics plans to build a $575 million, 500,000-square-foot gene therapy manufacturing plant on Drexel’s campus. One uCity Square, a $280 million, 400,000-square-foot life sciences building, was recently completed at 38th and Market streets. At 3151 Market St., a $307 million, 417,000-square-foot life sciences building is proposed as part of the Schuylkill Yards development.

Tmunity CEO Usman Azam departing to lead ‘stealth’ NYC biotech firm


By John George  –  Senior Reporter, Philadelphia Business Journal

Feb 7, 2022

The CEO of one of Philadelphia’s oldest cell therapy companies is departing to take a new job in the New York City area.

Usman “Oz” Azam, who has been CEO of Tmunity Therapeutics since 2016, will lead an unnamed biotechnology company currently operating in stealth mode.

In a posting on his LinkedIn page, Azam said, “After a decade immersed in cell therapies and immuno-oncology, I am now turning my attention to a new opportunity, and will be going back to where I started my life sciences career in neurosciences.”

Tmunity, a University of Pennsylvania spinout, is looking to apply CAR T-cell therapy, which has proved to be successful in treating liquid cancers, for the treatment of solid tumors.

Last summer, Tmunity suspended clinical testing of its lead cell therapy candidate targeting prostate cancer after two patients in the study died. Azam, in an interview with the Business Journal in June, said the company, which had grown to about 50 employees since its launch in 2015, laid off an undisclosed number of employees as a result of the setback.

Azam said on LinkedIn he is still a big believer in CAR T-cell therapy, noting Tmunity co-founder Dr. Carl June and his colleagues at Penn just published in Nature the 10-year landmark clinical outcomes study with the first CD19 CAR-T patients and programs.

“It’s just the beginning,” he stated. “I’m excited about the prospect of so many new cell- and gene-based therapies emerging in the next five to 10 years to tackle many solid and liquid tumors, and I hope we all continue to see the remarkable impact this makes on patients and families around the world.”

Azam could not be reached for comment Monday. Tmunity has engaged a search firm to identify his successor.

Tmunity, which is based in Philadelphia, has its own manufacturing operations in East Norriton. Tmunity’s founders include June and fellow Penn cell therapy pioneer Bruce Levine, who led the development of a CAR T-cell therapy now marketed by Novartis as Kymriah, a treatment for certain types of blood cancers.

In therapy using CAR-T cells, a patient’s T cells — part of their immune system — are removed and genetically modified in the laboratory. After they are re-injected into a patient, the T cells are better able to attack and destroy tumors. CAR is an acronym for chimeric antigen receptor. Chimeric antigen receptors are receptor proteins that have been engineered to give T cells their improved ability to target tumors.

Source: https://www.bizjournals.com/philadelphia/news/2022/02/07/tmunity-therapeutics-philadelphia-cell-azam-oz.html?utm_source=st&utm_medium=en&utm_campaign=BN&utm_content=pl&ana=e_pl_BN&j=30034971&senddate=2022-12-20


PIDC names U.S. Department of Treasury veteran, Philadelphia native as next president

By   –  Reporter, Philadelphia Business Journal


The Philadelphia Industrial Development Corp. has tapped U.S. Department of Treasury veteran Jodie Harris to be its next president.

Harris succeeds Anne Bovaird Nevins, who spent 15 years in the organization and took over as president in January 2020 before stepping down at the end of last year. Executive Vice President Sam Rhoads has been interim president.

Harris, a Philadelphia native who currently serves as director of the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund for the Department of Treasury, was picked after a regional and national search and will begin her tenure as president on June 1. She becomes the 12th head of PIDC and the first African-American woman to lead the organization.

PIDC is a public-private economic development corporation founded by the city and the Chamber of Commerce for Greater Philadelphia in 1958. It mainly uses industrial and commercial real estate projects to attract jobs, foster business opportunities and spur overall community growth. The organization has spurred over $18.5 billion in financing across its 65 years.

PIDC has its hand in development projects spanning the city, including master planning roles in expansive campuses like the Philadelphia Navy Yard and the Lower Schuylkill Biotech Campus in Southwest Philadelphia.

In a statement, Harris said that it is “a critical time for Philadelphia’s economy.”

“I’m especially excited for the opportunity to lead such an important and impactful organization in my hometown of Philadelphia,” Harris said. “As head of the CDFI Fund, I know first-hand what it takes to drive meaningful, sustainable, and equitable economic growth, especially in historically underserved communities.”

Harris is a graduate of the University of Maryland and received an MBA and master of public administration from New York University. In the Treasury Department, Harris’ most recent work aligns with PIDC’s economic development mission. At the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, she oversaw a $331 million budget, mainly comprised of grant and administrative funding for various economic programs. Under Harris’ watch, the fund distributed over $3 billion in pandemic recovery funding, its highest level of appropriated grants ever.

Harris has been a part of the Treasury Department for 15 years, including as director of community and economic development policy.

In addition to government work, Harris has previously spent time in the private, academia and nonprofit sectors. In the beginning of her career, Harris worked at Meridian Bank and Accenture before turning to become a social and education policy researcher at New York University. She also spent two years as president of the Urban Business Assistance Corporation in New York.

Mayor Jim Kenney said that Philadelphia is “poised for long-term growth” and Harris will help drive it.

Source: https://www.bizjournals.com/philadelphia/news/2023/02/23/pidc-names-next-president-treasury.html 

$250M life sciences conversion planned for Philadelphia’s historic Quartermaster site

By   –  Reporter, Philadelphia Business Journal

Listen to this article     3 min

Real estate company SkyREM plans to spend $250 million converting the historic Quartermaster site in South Philadelphia to a life sciences campus with restaurants and a hotel.

The redevelopment would feature wet and dry lab space for research, development and bio-manufacturing.

The renamed Quartermaster Science + Technology Park is near the southwest corner of Oregon Avenue and South 20th Street in the city’s Girard Estates neighborhood. It’s east of the Quartermaster Plaza retail center, which sold last year for $100 million.

The 24-acre campus is planned to have six acres of green space, an Aldi grocery store opening by March and already is the headquarters for Indego, the bicycle share program in Philadelphia.

Six buildings totaling 1 million square feet of space would be used for research and development labs. There’s 500,000 square feet of vacant space available for life sciences and high technology companies with availabilities as small as 1,000 square feet up to 250,000 square feet contiguous. There’s also 150,000 square feet of retail space available.

The office park has 200,000 square feet already occupied by tenants. The Philadelphia Job Corps Center and Delaware Valley Intelligence Center are tenants at the site.

The campus was previously used by the military as a place to produce clothing, footwear and personal equipment during World War I and II. The clothing factory closed in 1994. The Philadelphia Quartermaster Depot was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2010.

“We had a vision to preserve the legacy of this built-to-last historic Philadelphia landmark and transform it to create a vibrant space where the best and brightest want to innovate, collaborate, and work,” SkyREM CEO and Founder Alex Dembitzer said in a statement.

SkyREM, a real estate investor and developer, has corporate offices in New York and Philadelphia. The company acquired the site in 2001.

Vered Nohi, SkyREM’s regional executive director of new business development, called the redevelopment “transformational” for Philadelphia.


Quartermaster would join a wave of new life sciences projects being developed in the surrounding area and across the region.

The site is near both interstates 76 and 95 and is about 2 miles north of the Philadelphia Navy Yard, which has undergone a similar transformation from a military hub to a major life sciences and mixed-use redevelopment project. The Philadelphia Industrial Development Corp. is also in the process of selecting a developer to create a massive cell and gene therapy manufacturing complex across two sites totaling about 40 acres on Southwest Philadelphia’s Lower Schuylkill riverfront.

At 34th Street and Grays Ferry Avenue, the University of Pennsylvania is teaming with Longfellow Real Estate Partners on proposed a $365 million, 455,000-square-foot life sciences and biomanufacturing building at Pennovation Works.


SkyREM is working with Maryland real estate firm Scheer Partners to lease the science and technology space. Philadelphia’s MPN Realty will handle leasing of the retail space. Architecture firm Fifteen is working on the project’s design.

Scheer Partners Senior Vice President Tim Conrey said the Quartermaster conversion will help companies solve for “speed to market” as demand for life science space in the region has been strong.

Brandywine pauses new spec office development, continues to bet big on life sciences

By   –  Reporter, Philadelphia Business Journal


Brandywine Realty Trust originally planned to redevelop a Radnor medical office into lab and office space, split 50-50 between the two uses.

After changes in demand for lab and office space, Brandywine (NYSE: BDN) recently completed the 168,000-square-foot, four-story building at 250 King of Prussia Road in Radnor fully for life sciences.

“The pipeline is now 100% life sciences, which, while requiring more capital, is also generating longer term leases at a higher return on cost,” Brandywine CEO Jerry Sweeney of the project said during the company’s fourth-quarter earnings call on Thursday.

At the same time, Brandywine is holding off on developing new office buildings unless it has a tenant lined up in advance.

The shift reflects how Philadelphia-based Brandywine continues to lean into — and bet big — on life sciences.

Brandywine is the city’s largest owner of trophy office buildings and has several major development projects in the works. The company is planning to eventually develop 3 million square feet of life sciences space. For now, 800,000 square feet of life sciences space is under development, including a 12-story, 417,000-square-foot life sciences building at 3151 Market St. and a 29-story building with 200,000 square feet of life sciences space at 3025 John F. Kennedy Blvd. Both are part of the multi-phase Schuylkill Yards project underway near 30th Street Station in University City.

Once its existing projects are completed, Brandywine would have 800,000 square feet of life sciences space, making up 8% of its portfolio.Sweeney said the company wants to grow that figure to 21%.

Brandywine is developing a 145,000-square-foot, build-to-suit office building at 155 King of Prussia Road in Radnor for Arkema, a France-based global supplier of specialty materials. The building will be Arkema’s North American headquarters. Construction began in January and is scheduled to be completed in late 2024.

Brandywine reported that since November it raised over $705 million through fourth-quarter asset sales, an unsecured bond transaction and a secured loan. The company has “complete availability” on its $600 million unsecured line of credit, Sweeney said.

Brandywine sold a 95% leased, 86,000-square-foot office building at 200 Barr Harbor Drive in West Conshohocken for $30.5 million. The company also sold its 50% ownership interest in the 1919 Market joint venture for $83.2 million to an undisclosed buyer. 1919 Market St. is a 29-story building with apartments, office and commercial space. Brandywine co-developed the property with LCOR and the California State Teacher’s Retirement System.

Brandywine declined to comment and LCOR could not be reached.

Brandywine’s core portfolio is 91% leased.

The project at 250 King of Prussia Road cost $103.7 million and was recently completed. The renovation included 12-foot high floor-to-ceiling glass on the second floor, a new roof, lobby, elevator core, common area with a skylight and an added structured parking deck.

Located in the Radnor Life Science Center, a new campus with nearly 1 million square feet of lab, research and office space, Sweeney said it’s a “magnet” for biotech companies. Avantor, a global manufacturer and distributor of life sciences products, is headquartered in the complex.


Sweeney said Brandywine is “very confident” demand will stay strong for life sciences in Radnor. The building at 250 King of Prussia Road is projected to be fully leased by early 2024.

“Larger users we’re talking to, they just tend to take a little bit more time than we would like as they go through technical requirements and space planning requirements,” Sweeney said.

While Brandywine is aiming to increase its life sciences footprint, the company is being selective about what it builds next. The company may steer away from developments other than life sciences. The Schuylkill Yards project, for example, features a significant life sciences portion in University City.

“Other than fully leased build-to-suit opportunities, our future development starts are on hold,” Sweeney said, “pending more leasing on the existing joint venture pipeline and more clarity on the cost of debt capital and cap rates.”


Brandywine said about 70% to 75%of suburban tenants have returned to offices while that number has been around 50% in Philadelphia. At this point, though, it hasn’t yet affected demand when leasing space. Some tenants, for example, have moved out of the city while others have moved in.

In the fourth quarter, Brandywine had $55.7 million funds from operations, or 32 cents per share. That’s down from $60.4 million, or 35 cents per share, in the fourth quarter of 2021. Brandywine generated $129 million in revenue in the fourth quarter, up slightly from $125.5 in the year-ago period.

Brandywine stock is up 6.4% since the start of the year to $6.70 per share on Monday afternoon.

Many of Brandywine’s properties are in desirable locations, which have seen demand remain strong despite challenges facing offices, on par with industry trends.

Brandywine’s 12-story, 417,000-square-foot building at 3151 Market St. is on budget for $308 million and on schedule to be completed in the second quarter of 2024. Sweeney said Brandywine anticipates entering a construction loan in the second half of 2023, which would help complete the project. The building, being developed along with a global institutional investor,would be used for life sciences, innovation and office space as part of the larger Schuylkill Yards development in University City.

The company’s 29-story building at 3025 John F. Kennedy Blvd. with 200,000 square feet of life sciences space and 326 luxury apartments, is also on budget, costing $287.3 million, and on time, eyeing completion in the third quarter of this year.

Source: https://www.bizjournals.com/philadelphia/news/2023/02/06/brandywine-realty-life-sciences-development.html

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Use of Systems Biology for Design of inhibitor of Galectins as Cancer Therapeutic – Strategy and Software

Curator: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

Below is a slide representation of the overall mission 4 to produce a PROTAC to inhibit Galectins 1, 3, and 9.


Using A Priori Knowledge of Galectin Receptor Interaction to Create a BioModel of Galectin 3 Binding

































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Now after collecting literature from PubMed on “galectin-3” AND “binding” to determine literature containing kinetic data we generate a WordCloud on the articles.



















This following file contains the articles needed for BioModels generation.



From the WordCloud we can see that these corpus of articles describe galectin binding to the CRD (carbohydrate recognition domain).  Interestingly there are many articles which describe van Der Waals interactions as well as electrostatic interactions.  Certain carbohydrate modifictions like Lac NAc and Gal 1,4 may be important.  Many articles describe the bonding as well as surface  interactions.  Many studies have been performed with galectin inhibitors like TDGs (thio-digalactosides) like TAZ TDG (3-deoxy-3-(4-[m-fluorophenyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)-thio-digalactoside).  This led to an interesting article

Dual thio-digalactoside-binding modes of human galectins as the structural basis for the design of potent and selective inhibitors

Affiliations 2016 Jul 15;6:29457.
 doi: 10.1038/srep29457. Free PMC article


Human galectins are promising targets for cancer immunotherapeutic and fibrotic disease-related drugs. We report herein the binding interactions of three thio-digalactosides (TDGs) including TDG itself, TD139 (3,3′-deoxy-3,3′-bis-(4-[m-fluorophenyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)-thio-digalactoside, recently approved for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), and TAZTDG (3-deoxy-3-(4-[m-fluorophenyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)-thio-digalactoside) with human galectins-1, -3 and -7 as assessed by X-ray crystallography, isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR spectroscopy. Five binding subsites (A-E) make up the carbohydrate-recognition domains of these galectins. We identified novel interactions between an arginine within subsite E of the galectins and an arene group in the ligands. In addition to the interactions contributed by the galactosyl sugar residues bound at subsites C and D, the fluorophenyl group of TAZTDG preferentially bound to subsite B in galectin-3, whereas the same group favored binding at subsite E in galectins-1 and -7. The characterised dual binding modes demonstrate how binding potency, reported as decreased Kd values of the TDG inhibitors from μM to nM, is improved and also offer insights to development of selective inhibitors for individual galectins.


Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3



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Science Has A Systemic Problem, Not an Innovation Problem

Curator: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

    A recent email, asking me to submit a survey, got me thinking about the malaise that scientists and industry professionals frequently bemoan: that innovation has been stymied for some reason and all sorts of convuluted processes must be altered to spur this mythical void of great new discoveries…..  and it got me thinking about our current state of science, and what is the perceived issue… and if this desert of innovation actually exists or is more a fundamental problem which we have created.

The email was from an NIH committee asking for opinions on recreating the grant review process …. now this on the same day someone complained to me about a shoddy and perplexing grant review they received.

The following email, which was sent out to multiple researchers, involved in either NIH grant review on both sides, as well as those who had been involved in previous questionnaires and studies on grant review and bias.  The email asked for researchers to fill out a survey on the grant review process, and how to best change it to increase innovation of ideas as well as inclusivity.  In recent years, there have been multiple survey requests on these matters, with multiple confusing procedural changes to grant format and content requirements, adding more administrative burden to scientists.

The email from Center for Scientific Review (one of the divisions a grant will go to before review {they set up review study sections and decide what section a grant should be  assigned to} was as follows:

Update on Simplifying Review Criteria: A Request for Information


NIH has issued a request for information (RFI) seeking feedback on revising and simplifying the peer review framework for research project grant applications. The goal of this effort is to facilitate the mission of scientific peer review – identification of the strongest, highest-impact research. The proposed changes will allow peer reviewers to focus on scientific merit by evaluating 1) the scientific impact, research rigor, and feasibility of the proposed research without the distraction of administrative questions and 2) whether or not appropriate expertise and resources are available to conduct the research, thus mitigating the undue influence of the reputation of the institution or investigator.

Currently, applications for research project grants (RPGs, such as R01s, R03s, R15s, R21s, R34s) are evaluated based on five scored criteria: Significance, Investigators, Innovation, Approach, and Environment (derived from NIH peer review regulations 42 C.F.R. Part 52h.8; see Definitions of Criteria and Considerations for Research Project Grant Critiques for more detail) and a number of additional review criteria such as Human Subject Protections.

NIH gathered input from the community to identify potential revisions to the review framework. Given longstanding and often-heard concerns from diverse groups, CSR decided to form two working groups to the CSR Advisory Council—one on non-clinical trials and one on clinical trials. To inform these groups, CSR published a Review Matters blog, which was cross-posted on the Office of Extramural Research blog, Open Mike. The blog received more than 9,000 views by unique individuals and over 400 comments. Interim recommendations were presented to the CSR Advisory Council in a public forum (March 2020 videoslides; March 2021 videoslides). Final recommendations from the CSRAC (report) were considered by the major extramural committees of the NIH that included leadership from across NIH institutes and centers. Additional background information can be found here. This process produced many modifications and the final proposal presented below. Discussions are underway to incorporate consideration of a Plan for Enhancing Diverse Perspectives (PEDP) and rigorous review of clinical trials RPGs (~10% of RPGs are clinical trials) within the proposed framework.

Simplified Review Criteria

NIH proposes to reorganize the five review criteria into three factors, with Factors 1 and 2 receiving a numerical score. Reviewers will be instructed to consider all three factors (Factors 1, 2 and 3) in arriving at their Overall Impact Score (scored 1-9), reflecting the overall scientific and technical merit of the application.

  • Factor 1: Importance of the Research (Significance, Innovation), numerical score (1-9)
  • Factor 2: Rigor and Feasibility (Approach), numerical score (1-9)
  • Factor 3: Expertise and Resources (Investigator, Environment), assessed and considered in the Overall Impact Score, but not individually scored

Within Factor 3 (Expertise and Resources), Investigator and Environment will be assessed in the context of the research proposed. Investigator(s) will be rated as “fully capable” or “additional expertise/capability needed”. Environment will be rated as “appropriate” or “additional resources needed.” If a need for additional expertise or resources is identified, written justification must be provided. Detailed descriptions of the three factors can be found here.

Now looking at some of the Comments were very illuminating:

I strongly support streamlining the five current main review criteria into three, and the present five additional criteria into two. This will bring clarity to applicants and reduce the workload on both applicants and reviewers. Blinding reviewers to the applicants’ identities and institutions would be a helpful next step, and would do much to reduce the “rich-getting-richer” / “good ole girls and good ole boys” / “big science” elitism that plagues the present review system, wherein pedigree and connections often outweigh substance and creativity.

I support the proposed changes. The shift away from “innovation” will help reduce the tendency to create hype around a proposed research direction. The shift away from Investigator and Environment assessments will help reduce bias toward already funded investigators in large well-known institutions.

As a reviewer for 5 years, I believe that the proposed changes are a step in the right direction, refocusing the review on whether the science SHOULD be done and whether it CAN BE DONE WELL, while eliminating burdensome and unhelpful sections of review that are better handled administratively. I particularly believe that the de-emphasis of innovation (which typically focuses on technical innovation) will improve evaluation of the overall science, and de-emphasis of review of minor technical details will, if implemented correctly, reduce the “downward pull” on scores for approach. The above comments reference blinded reviews, but I did not see this in the proposed recommendations. I do not believe this is a good idea for several reasons: 1) Blinding of the applicant and institution is not likely feasible for many of the reasons others have described (e.g., self-referencing of prior work), 2) Blinding would eliminate the potential to review investigators’ biosketches and budget justifications, which are critically important in review, 3) Making review blinded would make determination of conflicts of interest harder to identify and avoid, 4) Evaluation of “Investigator and Environment” would be nearly impossible.

Most of the Comments were in favor of the proposed changes, however many admitted that it adds additional confusion on top of many administrative changes to formats and content of grant sections.

Being a Stephen Covey devotee, and just have listened to  The Four Principles of Execution, it became more apparent that issues that hinder many great ideas coming into fruition, especially in science, is a result of these systemic or problems in the process, not at the level of individual researchers or small companies trying to get their innovations funded or noticed.  In summary, Dr. Covey states most issues related to the success of any initiative is NOT in the strategic planning, but in the failure to adhere to a few EXECUTION principles.  Primary to these failures of strategic plans is lack of accounting of what Dr. Covey calls the ‘whirlwind’, or those important but recurring tasks that take us away from achieving the wildly important goals.  In addition, lack of  determining lead and lag measures of success hinder such plans.

In this case a lag measure in INNOVATION.  It appears we have created such a whirlwind and focus on lag measures that we are incapable of translating great discoveries into INNOVATION.

In the following post, I will focus on issues relating to Open Access, publishing and dissemination of scientific discovery may be costing us TIME to INNOVATION.  And it appears that there are systemic reasons why we appear stuck in a rut, so to speak.

The first indication is from a paper published by Johan Chu and James Evans in 2021 in PNAS:


Slowed canonical progress in large fields of science

Chu JSG, Evans JA. Slowed canonical progress in large fields of science. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Oct 12;118(41):e2021636118. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2021636118. PMID: 34607941; PMCID: PMC8522281



In many academic fields, the number of papers published each year has increased significantly over time. Policy measures aim to increase the quantity of scientists, research funding, and scientific output, which is measured by the number of papers produced. These quantitative metrics determine the career trajectories of scholars and evaluations of academic departments, institutions, and nations. Whether and how these increases in the numbers of scientists and papers translate into advances in knowledge is unclear, however. Here, we first lay out a theoretical argument for why too many papers published each year in a field can lead to stagnation rather than advance. The deluge of new papers may deprive reviewers and readers the cognitive slack required to fully recognize and understand novel ideas. Competition among many new ideas may prevent the gradual accumulation of focused attention on a promising new idea. Then, we show data supporting the predictions of this theory. When the number of papers published per year in a scientific field grows large, citations flow disproportionately to already well-cited papers; the list of most-cited papers ossifies; new papers are unlikely to ever become highly cited, and when they do, it is not through a gradual, cumulative process of attention gathering; and newly published papers become unlikely to disrupt existing work. These findings suggest that the progress of large scientific fields may be slowed, trapped in existing canon. Policy measures shifting how scientific work is produced, disseminated, consumed, and rewarded may be called for to push fields into new, more fertile areas of study.

So the Summary of this paper is

  • The authors examined 1.8 billion citations among 90 million papers over 241 subjects
  • found the corpus of papers do not lead to turnover of new ideas in a field, but rather the ossification or entrenchment of canonical (or older ideas)
  • this is mainly due to older paper cited more frequently than new papers with new ideas, potentially because authors are trying to get their own papers cited more frequently for funding and exposure purposes
  • The authors suggest that “fundamental progress may be stymied if quantitative growth of scientific endeavors is not balanced by structures fostering disruptive scholarship and focusing attention of novel ideas”

The authors note that, in most cases, science policy reinforces this “more is better” philosophy”,  where metrics of publication productivity are either number of publications or impact measured by citation rankings.  However, using an analysis of citation changes occurring in large versus smaller fields, it becomes apparent that this process is favoring the older, more established papers and a recirculating of older canonical ideas.

“Rather than resulting in faster turnover of field paradigms, the massive amounts of new publications entrenches the ideas of top-cited papers.”  New ideas are pushed down to the bottom of the citation list and potentially lost in the literature.  The authors suggest that this problem will intensify as the “annual mass” of new publications in each field grows, especially in large fields.  This issue is exacerbated by the deluge on new online ‘open access’ journals, in which authors would focus on citing the more highly cited literature. 

We maybe at a critical junction, where if many papers are published in a short time, new ideas will not be considered as carefully as the older ideas.  In addition,

with proliferation of journals and the blurring of journal hierarchies due to online articles-level access can exacerbate this problem

As a counterpoint, the authors do note that even though many molecular biology highly cited articles were done in 1976, there has been extremely much innovation since then however it may take a lot more in experiments and money to gain the level of citations that those papers produced, and hence a lower scientific productivity.

This issue is seen in the field of economics as well

Ellison, Glenn. “Is peer review in decline?” Economic Inquiry, vol. 49, no. 3, July 2011, pp. 635+. Gale Academic OneFile, link.gale.com/apps/doc/A261386330/AONE?u=temple_main&sid=bookmark-AONE&xid=f5891002. Accessed 12 Dec. 2022.


Over the past decade, there has been a decline in the fraction of papers in top economics journals written by economists from the highest-ranked economics departments. This paper documents this fact and uses additional data on publications and citations to assess various potential explanations. Several observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the Internet improves the ability of high-profile authors to disseminate their research without going through the traditional peer-review process. (JEL A14, 030)

The facts part of this paper documents two main facts:

1. Economists in top-ranked departments now publish very few papers in top field journals. There is a marked decline in such publications between the early 1990s and early 2000s.

2. Comparing the early 2000s with the early 1990s, there is a decline in both the absolute number of papers and the share of papers in the top general interest journals written by Harvard economics department faculty.

Although the second fact just concerns one department, I see it as potentially important to understanding what is happening because it comes at a time when Harvard is widely regarded (I believe correctly) as having ascended to the top position in the profession.

The “decline-of-peer-review” theory I allude to in the title is that the necessity of going through the peer-review process has lessened for high-status authors: in the old days peer-reviewed journals were by far the most effective means of reaching readers, whereas with the growth of the Internet high-status authors can now post papers online and exploit their reputation to attract readers.

Many alternate explanations are possible. I focus on four theories: the decline-in-peer-review theory and three alternatives.

1. The trends could be a consequence of top-school authors’ being crowded out of the top journals by other researchers. Several such stories have an optimistic message, for example, there is more talent entering the profession, old pro-elite biases are being broken down, more schools are encouraging faculty to do cutting-edge research, and the Internet is enabling more cutting-edge research by breaking down informational barriers that had hampered researchers outside the top schools. (2)

2. The trends could be a consequence of the growth of revisions at economics journals discussed in Ellison (2002a, 2002b). In this more pessimistic theory, highly productive researchers must abandon some projects and/or seek out faster outlets to conserve the time now required to publish their most important works.

3. The trends could simply reflect that field journals have declined in quality in some relative sense and become a less attractive place to publish. This theory is meant to encompass also the rise of new journals, which is not obviously desirable or undesirable.

The majority of this paper is devoted to examining various data sources that provide additional details about how economics publishing has changed over the past decade. These are intended both to sharpen understanding of the facts to be explained and to provide tests of auxiliary predictions of the theories. Two main sources of information are used: data on publications and data on citations. The publication data include department-level counts of publications in various additional journals, an individual-level dataset containing records of publications in a subset of journals for thousands of economists, and a very small dataset containing complete data on a few authors’ publication records. The citation data include citations at the paper level for 9,000 published papers and less well-matched data that is used to construct measures of citations to authors’ unpublished works, to departments as a whole, and to various journals.

Inside Job or Deep Impact? Extramural Citations and the Influence of Economic Scholarship

Josh Angrist, Pierre Azoulay, Glenn Ellison, Ryan Hill, Susan Feng Lu. Inside Job or Deep Impact? Extramural Citations and the Influence of Economic Scholarship.


VOL. 58, NO. 1, MARCH 2020

(pp. 3-52)

So if innovation is there but it may be buried under the massive amount of heavily cited older literature, do we see evidence of this in other fields like medicine?

Why Isn’t Innovation Helping Reduce Health Care Costs?


National health care expenditures (NHEs) in the United States continue to grow at rates outpacing the broader economy: Inflation- and population-adjusted NHEs have increased 1.6 percent faster than the gross domestic product (GDP) between 1990 and 2018. US national health expenditure growth as a share of GDP far outpaces comparable nations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (17.2 versus 8.9 percent).

Multiple recent analyses have proposed that growth in the prices and intensity of US health care services—rather than in utilization rates or demographic characteristics—is responsible for the disproportionate increases in NHEs relative to global counterparts. The consequences of ever-rising costs amid ubiquitous underinsurance in the US include price-induced deferral of care leading to excess morbidity relative to comparable nations.

These patterns exist despite a robust innovation ecosystem in US health care—implying that novel technologies, in isolation, are insufficient to bend the health care cost curve. Indeed, studies have documented that novel technologies directly increase expenditure growth.

Why is our prolific innovation ecosystem not helping reduce costs? The core issue relates to its apparent failure to enhance net productivity—the relative output generated per unit resource required. In this post, we decompose the concept of innovation to highlight situations in which inventions may not increase net productivity. We begin by describing how this issue has taken on increased urgency amid resource constraints magnified by the COVID-19 pandemic. In turn, we describe incentives for the pervasiveness of productivity-diminishing innovations. Finally, we provide recommendations to promote opportunities for low-cost innovation.



Net Productivity During The COVID-19 Pandemic

The issue of productivity-enhancing innovation is timely, as health care systems have been overwhelmed by COVID-19. Hospitals in Italy, New York City, and elsewhere have lacked adequate capital resources to care for patients with the disease, sufficient liquidity to invest in sorely needed resources, and enough staff to perform all of the necessary tasks.

The critical constraint in these settings is not technology: In fact, the most advanced technology required to routinely treat COVID-19—the mechanical ventilator—was invented nearly 100 years ago in response to polio (the so-called iron lung). Rather, the bottleneck relates to the total financial and human resources required to use the technology—the denominator of net productivity. The clinical implementation of ventilators has been illustrative: Health care workers are still required to operate ventilators on a nearly one-to-one basis, just like in the mid-twentieth century. 

High levels of resources required for implementation of health care technologies constrain the scalability of patient care—such as during respiratory disease outbreaks such as COVID-19. Thus, research to reduce health care costs is the same kind of research we urgently require to promote health care access for patients with COVID-19.

Types Of Innovation And Their Relationship To Expenditure Growth

The widespread use of novel medical technologies has been highlighted as a central driver of NHE growth in the US. We believe that the continued expansion of health care costs is largely the result of innovation that tends to have low productivity (exhibit 1). We argue that these archetypes—novel widgets tacked on to existing workflows to reinforce traditional care models—are exactly the wrong properties to reduce NHEs at the systemic level.

Exhibit 1: Relative productivity of innovation subtypes

Source: Authors’ analysis.

Content Versus Process Innovation

Content (also called technical) innovation refers to the creation of new widgets, such as biochemical agents, diagnostic tools, or therapeutic interventions. Contemporary examples of content innovation include specialty pharmaceuticalsmolecular diagnostics, and advanced interventions and imaging.

These may be contrasted with process innovations, which address the organized sequences of activities that implement content. Classically, these include clinical pathways and protocols. They can address the delivery of care for acute conditions, such as central line infections, sepsis, or natural disasters. Alternatively, they can target chronic conditions through initiatives such as team-based management of hypertension and hospital-at-home models for geriatric care. Other processes include hiring staffdelegating labor, and supply chain management.

Performance-Enhancing Versus Cost-Reducing Innovation

Performance-enhancing innovations frequently create incremental outcome gains in diagnostic characteristics, such as sensitivity or specificity, or in therapeutic characteristics, such as biomarkers for disease status. Their performance gains often lead to higher prices compared to existing alternatives.  

Performance-enhancing innovations can be compared to “non-inferior” innovations capable of achieving outcomes approximating those of existing alternatives, but at reduced cost. Industries outside of medicine, such as the computing industry, have relied heavily on the ability to reduce costs while retaining performance.

In health care though, this pattern of innovation is rare. Since passage of the 2010 “Biosimilars” Act aimed at stimulating non-inferior innovation and competition in therapeutics markets, only 17 agents have been approved, and only seven have made it to market. More than three-quarters of all drugs receiving new patents between 2005 and 2015 were “reissues,” meaning they had already been approved, and the new patent reflected changes to the previously approved formula. Meanwhile, the costs of approved drugs have increased over time, at rates between 4 percent and 7 percent annually.

Moreover, the preponderance of performance-enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic innovations tend to address narrow patient cohorts (such as rare diseases or cancer subtypes), with limited clear clinical utility in broader populations. For example, the recently approved eculizimab is a monoclonal antibody approved for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria—which effects 1 in 10 million individuals. At the time of its launch, eculizimab was priced at more than $400,000 per year, making it the most expensive drug in modern history. For clinical populations with no available alternatives, drugs such as eculizimab may be cost-effective, pending society’s willingness to pay, and morally desirable, given a society’s values. But such drugs are certainly not cost-reducing.

Additive Versus Substitutive Innovation

Additive innovations are those that append to preexisting workflows, while substitutive innovations reconfigure preexisting workflows. In this way, additive innovations increase the use of precedent services, whereas substitutive innovations decrease precedent service use.

For example, previous analyses have found that novel imaging modalities are additive innovations, as they tend not to diminish use of preexisting modalities. Similarly, novel procedures tend to incompletely replace traditional procedures. In the case of therapeutics and devices, off-label uses in disease groups outside of the approved indication(s) can prompt innovation that is additive. This is especially true, given that off-label prescriptions classically occur after approved methods are exhausted.

Eculizimab once again provides an illustrative example. As of February 2019, the drug had been used for 39 indications (it had been approved for three of those, by that time), 69 percent of which lacked any form of evidence of real-world effectiveness. Meanwhile, the drug generated nearly $4 billion in sales in 2019. Again, these expenditures may be something for which society chooses to pay—but they are nonetheless additive, rather than substitutive.

Sustaining Versus Disruptive Innovation

Competitive market theory suggests that incumbents and disruptors innovate differently. Incumbents seek sustaining innovations capable of perpetuating their dominance, whereas disruptors pursue innovations capable of redefining traditional business models.

In health care, while disruptive innovations hold the potential to reduce overall health expenditures, often they run counter to the capabilities of market incumbents. For example, telemedicine can deliver care asynchronously, remotely, and virtually, but large-scale brick-and-mortar medical facilities invest enormous capital in the delivery of synchronous, in-house, in-person care (incentivized by facility fees).

The connection between incumbent business models and the innovation pipeline is particularly relevant given that 58 percent of total funding for biomedical research in the US is now derived from private entities, compared with 46 percent a decade prior. It follows that the growing influence of eminent private organizations may favor innovations supporting their market dominance—rather than innovations that are societally optimal.

Incentives And Repercussions Of High-Cost Innovation

Taken together, these observations suggest that innovation in health care is preferentially designed for revenue expansion rather than for cost reduction. While offering incremental improvements in patient outcomes, therefore creating theoretical value for society, these innovations rarely deliver incremental reductions in short- or long-term costs at the health system level.

For example, content-based, performance-enhancing, additive, sustaining innovations tend to add layers of complexity to the health care system—which in turn require additional administration to manage. The net result is employment growth in excess of outcome improvement, leading to productivity losses. This gap leads to continuously increasing overall expenditures in turn passed along to payers and consumers.

Nonetheless, high-cost innovations are incentivized across health care stakeholders (exhibit 2). From the supply side of innovation, for academic researchers, “breakthrough” and “groundbreaking” innovations constitute the basis for career advancement via funding and tenure. This is despite stakeholders’ frequent inability to generalize early successes to become cost-effective in the clinical setting. As previously discussed, the increasing influence of private entities in setting the medical research agenda is also likely to stimulate innovation benefitting single stakeholders rather than the system.

Exhibit 2: Incentives promoting low-value innovation

Source: Authors’ analysis adapted from Hofmann BM. Too much technology. BMJ. 2015 Feb 16.

From the demand side of innovation (providers and health systems), a combined allure (to provide “cutting-edge” patient care), imperative (to leave “no stone unturned” in patient care), and profit-motive (to amplify fee-for-service reimbursements) spur participation in a “technological arms-race.” The status quo thus remains as Clay Christensen has written: “Our major health care institutions…together overshoot the level of care actually needed or used by the vast majority of patients.”

Christensen’s observations have been validated during the COVID-19 epidemic, as treatment of the disease requires predominantly century-old technology. By continually adopting innovation that routinely overshoots the needs of most patients, layer by layer, health care institutions are accruing costs that quickly become the burden of society writ large.

Recommendations To Reduce The Costs Of Health Care Innovation

Henry Aaron wrote in 2002 that “…the forces that have driven up costs are, if anything, intensifying. The staggering fecundity of biomedical research is increasing…[and] always raises expenditures.” With NHEs spiraling ever-higher, urgency to “bend the cost curve” is mounting. Yet, since much biomedical innovation targets the “flat of the [productivity] curve,” alternative forms of innovation are necessary.

The shortcomings in net productivity revealed by the COVID-19 pandemic highlight the urgent need for redesign of health care delivery in this country, and reevaluation of the innovation needed to support it. Specifically, efforts supporting process redesign are critical to promote cost-reducing, substitutive innovations that can inaugurate new and disruptive business models.

Process redesign rarely involves novel gizmos, so much as rejiggering the wiring of, and connections between, existing gadgets. It targets operational changes capable of streamlining workflows, rather than technical advancements that complicate them. As described above, precisely these sorts of “frugal innovations” have led to productivity improvements yielding lower costs in other high-technology industries, such as the computing industry.

Shrank and colleagues recently estimated that nearly one-third of NHEs—almost $1 trillion—were due to preventable waste. Four of the six categories of waste enumerated by the authors—failure in care delivery, failure in care coordination, low-value care, and administrative complexity—represent ripe targets for process innovation, accounting for $610 billion in waste annually, according to Shrank.

Health systems adopting process redesign methods such as continuous improvement and value-based management have exhibited outcome enhancement and expense reduction simultaneously. Internal processes addressed have included supply chain reconfiguration, operational redesign, outlier reconciliation, and resource standardization.

Despite the potential of process innovation, focus on this area (often bundled into “health services” or “quality improvement” research) occupies only a minute fraction of wallet- or mind-share in the biomedical research landscape, accounting for 0.3 percent of research dollars in medicine. This may be due to a variety of barriers beyond minimal funding. One set of barriers is academic, relating to negative perceptions around rigor and a lack of outlets in which to publish quality improvement research. To achieve health care cost containment over the long term, this dimension of innovation must be destigmatized relative to more traditional manners of innovation by the funders and institutions determining the conditions of the research ecosystem.

Another set of barriers is financial: Innovations yielding cost reduction are less “reimbursable” than are innovations fashioned for revenue expansion. This is especially the case in a fee-for-service system where reimbursement is tethered to cost, which creates perverse incentives for health care institutions to overlook cost increases. However, institutions investing in low-cost innovation will be well-positioned in a rapidly approaching future of value-based care—in which the solvency of health care institutions will rely upon their ability to provide economically efficient care.

Innovating For Cost Control Necessitates Frugality Over Novelty

Restraining US NHEs represents a critical step toward health promotion. Innovation for innovation’s sake—that is content-based, incrementally effective, additive, and sustaining—is unlikely to constrain continually expanding NHEs.

In contrast, process innovation offers opportunities to reduce costs while maintaining high standards of patient care. As COVID-19 stress-tests health care systems across the world, the importance of cost control and productivity amplification for patient care has become apparent.

As such, frugality, rather than novelty, may hold the key to health care cost containment. Redesigning the innovation agenda to stem the tide of ever-rising NHEs is an essential strategy to promote widespread access to care—as well as high-value preventive care—in this country. In the words of investors across Silicon Valley: Cost-reducing innovation is no longer a “nice-to-have,” but a “need-to-have” for the future of health and overall well-being this country.

So Do We Need A New Way of Disseminating Scientific Information?  Can Curation Help?

We had high hopes for Science 2.0, in particular the smashing of data and knowledge silos. However the digital age along with 2.0 platforms seemed to excaccerbate this somehow. We still are critically short on analysis!

Old Science 1.0 is still the backbone of all scientific discourse, built on the massive amount of experimental and review literature. However this literature was in analog format, and we moved to a more accesible digital open access format for both publications as well as raw data. However as there was a structure for 1.0, like the Dewey decimal system and indexing, 2.0 made science more accesible and easier to search due to the newer digital formats. Yet both needed an organizing structure; for 1.0 that was the scientific method of data and literature organization with libraries as the indexers. In 2.0 this relied on an army mostly of volunteers who did not have much in the way of incentivization to co-curate and organize the findings and massive literature.

The Intenet and the Web is rapidly adopting a new “Web 3.0” format, with decentralized networks, enhanced virtual experiences, and greater interconnection between people. Here we start the discussion what will the move from Science 2.0, where dissemination of scientific findings was revolutionized and piggybacking on Web 2.0 or social media, to a Science 3.0 format. And what will it involve or what paradigms will be turned upside down?

We have discussed this in other posts such as

Will Web 3.0 Do Away With Science 2.0? Is Science Falling Behind?


Curation Methodology – Digital Communication Technology to mitigate Published Information Explosion and Obsolescence in Medicine and Life Sciences

For years the pharmaceutical industry has toyed with the idea of making innovation networks and innovation hubs

It has been the main focus of whole conferences

Tales from the Translational Frontier – Four Unique Approaches to Turning Novel Biology into Investable Innovations @BIOConvention #BIO2018

However it still seems these strategies have not worked

Is it because we did not have an Execution plan? Or we did not understand the lead measures for success?

Other Related Articles on this Open Access Scientific Journal Include:

Old Industrial Revolution Paradigm of Education Needs to End: How Scientific Curation Can Transform Education

Analysis of Utilizing LPBI Group’s Scientific Curation Platform as an Educational Tool: New Paradigm for Student Engagement

Global Alliance for Genomics and Health Issues Guidelines for Data Siloing and Sharing

Multiple Major Scientific Journals Will Fully Adopt Open Access Under Plan S

eScientific Publishing a Case in Point: Evolution of Platform Architecture Methodologies and of Intellectual Property Development (Content Creation by Curation) Business Model 

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EmTech MIT 2021 – Day 3: Leading with innovation, Virtual MIT Technology Review’s flagship event, September 28-30, 2021

EmTech MIT hosted by MIT Technology Review 

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence (LPBI) Group

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence (LPBI) Group

Covering the event in REAL TIME with

Social Media @pharma_BI @AVIVA1950 #EmTechMIT

In attendance

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, Founder, LPBI Group: 1.0 & 2.0

AGENDA Overview




Day 3: Powering Our World (11:30 a.m. – 5:00 p.m.)

11:30 a.m .Welcome RemarksJames TempleSenior Editor for Energy, MIT Technology Review

Ensuring Energy Resilience (11:35 a.m. – 1:05 p.m.)

From next-generation power grids to nuclear power and renewable energy, understanding the impact, scalability, and tradeoffs of different energy technologies is critical to powering our future.

11:35 a.m.Transitioning toward Renewable Energy Solutions

With energy demands increasing dramatically in India, we examine the critical steps that renewable energy companies need to take to compete and continue to grow. Learn how these lessons can apply to other regions and what it will take to reliably meet regional electricity needs when it matters most, while actively transitioning toward cleaner and smarter energy choices.

Sumant Sinha Founder, Chairman & Managing Director, Renew Power

>>>India exceeded Paris Guidelines, Government involved in Renewable energies. Faster adoption. cost of renewal energy is plummeting. Demand increased by 5%-10% in coming 3 years, In 10 years 10%-15% – compromise of economic growth not favorable to all stakeholders. Intermittency regarding transmission and distribution of clean energy sources. Renewable only 15%, 2030 35%. Government GRID Management solar resource, storage cost will solve intermittency.

12:00 p.m.Cleaning Up the Power Sector

Today’s carbon-based power sources won’t safely sustain our growing electricity needs as climate change accelerates. The path forward requires decarbonizing the grid as rapidly as possible. We take a deep dive into the technologies, policies, and strategies needed to keep the lights on as rising demands and shifting climate conditions put ever greater strains on our power grids. What choices will have the greatest impact in delivering the clean energy required to run our world?

Jesse Jenkins Assistant Professor, Princeton University

>>> Cleaners energies 2030 50% lower emission Presidential mandate. Cost of batteries of electric cars, cost of Wind decreased by energy policy, push from oil energy to zero emission cars, accelerate clean energy is on the way.

Bill McKibben Cofounder & Senior Advisor, 350.org

>>> Washington Clean Energy Incentives, Utilities are engaged, Demand from the Public, investment $50Trillion divestment by Universities from Oil related investment. Climate change challenging fossil fuel energy industry. Changing is hard against Utilities and Oil interests

Leah Stokes Associate Professor, UC Santa Barbara

>>> Clean Energy to power homes and cars, pollution is draining the Power potential. FOssil fuel infrastructure IMPEDE decrease of Temperature by 5 degrees Celcius. Let’s make Clean energy cheaper by policy incentives to use and afford then deal with incease tax of fossil fuel.

Julian Brave NoisenCat Vice President, Policy & Strategy, Data for ProgressModerator


12:45 p.m.Transforming Clean Energy with Green Hydrogen

Hydrogen is energy-dense and burns cleanly, emitting no carbon dioxide. But until now, most hydrogen has been made from natural gas using a polluting and energy-intensive process. Get an early look at a transformational clean approach to producing hydrogen that has the potential to revolutionize the global energy sector. As featured in the 10 Breakthrough Technologies 2021

.Christoph Noeres Head of Green Hydrogen, thyssenkrupp Uhde Chlorine Engineers

@pharma_BI@AVIVA1950 #EmTechMIT Christoph Noeres Head of Green Hydrogen (GH) Electrolysis process of production of GH de-carbonizing by CO2 free for green housing low cost renewable industry at scale to push forward transport supply chain Green Hydrogen industry transformation

MIT Inside Track (1:05 p.m. – 1:45 p.m.)

Join the Inside Track sessions to engage more deeply with our content, speakers, and your fellow attendees during mainstage programming breaks.

1:05 p.m.Networking Break

1:20 p.m.Scaling Solutions for Emerging Economies

Creating scalable technology solutions in developing countries comes with its own unique constraints and opportunities. Gain insight into entrepreneurship in emerging economies including lessons in adapting existing technology and creating unique design assembly methods.

Harald Quintus Bosz CTO, Scaletech Countering Climate Change

>>> Building blocks of economic complexity

(1:45 p.m. – 3:20 p.m.)

As climate change marches on, the financial costs to businesses and nations are set to soar. Adopting climate-smart strategies will help to reduce risk while making a positive impact using the latest in green building technologies and more.

1:45 p.m. Weathering the Storm

Wildfires, heatwaves, and other extreme weather events are becoming more common and severe as the planet warms. Investigate the science behind climate change, how humans are influencing it, and what we can still do to address the rising dangers.

Kate Marvel NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies; Professor, Columbia University

>>> Problem Space, Physical Climate Scientist Human are causing ALL the climate change, volcanos not responsible for warming TEMP altering the weather Heat waves, sea level rise, transfer of water from continents to oceans stronger hurricanes, tropical cyclone are stronger, increase in FIRES, Evaporation leads to droughts, Cold snaps like TX, cold air and Jet stream, Air quality particle level Ozon, high Probabilities based of 1988 projections of Temp getting it right for 2010 Warming is expected How bad gets. Climate sensitivity, cutting CO2 cutting Emission, Actions do matters, uncertainty is human behavior, sensitive climate What humans do? 5 degree Celcius is in Humans actions. 2020 – COVID Pandemic, 7% decrease in CO2 pollution caused increase in warming by clearing the sky. Avoid catastrophic effect. Positive view, under Human control are policies and effects behavior. Next year stop burn fossil fuel,

2:15 p.m.Creating Climate-Smart Buildings

The spaces where we live and work must adapt to the changing climate. Before investing in new spaces, discover how climate-smart innovations can boost our buildings’ efficiencies, including cooling, water recycling, and sustainable design.

Mircea Dinca Professor, MIT; Cofounder, Transaera

>>> AC new generation 50% more efficient than 2021 technology in AC

Meagan Mauter Associate Professor, Stanford University

>>> Automation, Precision preparation of resilient systems manage separation processing margilarity in water consumption electrify smart. Upgrading water and road infrastructure. Budget issues, achieve low carbon future. large centralized infrastructure become in adequate, build new small scale hybrid systems at the edge. Better use existing sunk costs. Water desalination manufacturing to save water and energy. Municipal treatment efficiencies next generation systems. Reuse of desalinated water. Retrofit buildings.

Anthony Brower Director of Sustainable Design, Gensler

>>> Building geometry, low tech shift from Rectangular to Square foot print. move stairs outside the building. Roof design Green rook sun is absorbed, eliminate lighting by sensor lighting reduce energy construction. 2030-2050 Building code in CA GREEN in 2045. Retrofitting buildings: this is the best 1st step.

Innovators Under 35 (2:50 p.m. – 3:20 p.m.)

2:50 p.m.Corporate Citizenship and the Risk We are not Thinking about – Presented by JPMorgan Chase

Awareness of the impending climate change challenges is growing in leadership circles, and the stakes are high. The imperative to integrate sustainability in business practices not only bolsters customer loyalty and attracts talent, it addresses climate change as an increasing risk to business as usual – worldwide.

Lori Beer Global CIO, JPMorgan Chase

2:55 p.m.Eliminating Carbon Emissions from Cement

Cement production accounts for approximately 7% of the planet’s carbon emissions. Learn how electrochemical synthesis of cement can eliminate carbon emissions for concrete production. As featured in the 2021 Innovators Under 35.

Leah Ellis CEO and Cofounder, Sublime Systems

>>> Patent-pending electrochemical system based on MIT research totally decarbonized cement commercially viable technology to scale cement made today. Green cement batch of tons of Cement not using fossil fuel.

3:10 p.m.Energy Transitions for Emerging Economies

Emerging economies require an intense amount of power. What does it take to create a scalable system that delivers reliable power as needed, where needed, and when needed? As featured in the 2021 Innovators Under 35.

Varun Sivaram Senior Director, Clean Energy & Innovation, U.S. Department of State

>>> Varun Sivaram Senior Director, Clean Energy & Innovation, U.S. Department of State Clean energy transition US will leverage technologies around the Global Drive down cost for Cleaner technologies National Labs lessons to be shared technical talent. Transportation and clean energy.

MIT Inside Track (3:20 p.m. – 3:55 p.m.)

Join the Inside Track sessions to engage more deeply with our content, speakers, and your fellow attendees during mainstage programming breaks.

3:20 p.m.Networking Break

3:30 p.m.Endless Ecosystems

Endless ecosystems is a framework for sustainable construction that combines design, digital fabrication, material development, and energy evaluation that uses 100% natural, recyclable materials. Inspired by nature, these modern materials and building practices bring the power and sustainability of the natural world to human systems.

Nic Lee Research Assistant, MIT Media Lab

Andy LippmanAssociate Director, MIT Media Lab

Turning Innovation Into Action (3:55 p.m. – 5:00 p.m.)

Research and innovation are only a few steps to achieving impactful change. Assess unique leadership approaches to chart the course for implementation from the lab to the real world.

3:55 p.m.Driving Innovation

The new era of autonomous vehicles is revolutionizing transportation. Take a deep dive into the process of changing an industry and reimagine the way we think about innovation, leadership, and design.

Jesse Levinson Co-Founder & CTO, Zoox

>>> Autonomous Vehicle for Urban Challenge Competition

History of Zoox, 2014 – Better way to create a new type of car optimize on Drivers experience vs autonomous vehicle Symmetrical and Bi-directional, shorter car, interior more space Passenger different experience add premium features, car is rented for few hours only.RObotTaxi like LIFT without a driver, each ride is in the same car. Expirience is UNIQUE to Zoox. 1/3 of Traffic is seeking for Parking this car will enable to convert Parking lots into Gardens, reduce road injuries. Congestion in Urban area requires a new vehicle. How to keep this car secure? AI driven. Zoox is not for sale. it is only for rent. so stealing, GPS knows where all Zoox are at any minute. AI ascertain safety. Passenger can stop the vehicle and can open the door and leave. TRUST is built over time. Zoox was acquired by Amazon. Amazon was attracted to Big Ideas will have Societal impact. Economic Opportunities of RoboTaxis and Societal Public good benefit.

4:25 p.m. The Future of Research and Innovation

The MIT Media Lab is the innovation center of MIT, bringing together researchers from across the globe to explore and develop new technologies that will transform the future of research as well as real-world applications. What are the issues, obstacles, and opportunities that will have the greatest impact on the world? Step with us into the lab where they lead with innovation. Dava Newman Director, MIT Media Lab

>>> Transition from a financial crisis and the Pandemic interruption – emergence into great opportunities with societal impact. New directions Bionics and prostetics for kids 3D Printing Assists Health and Wellness. Surgery and MGH collaboration Robotics Limbs. Videos using systemic view. Co-create the vision AI and data from Satellite Bridge ML and Data physics Predict crime in cities, inequality sensors in Urban environment to change behavior in Cities near Coast line floods. Buildings, manufacturing, Green and Clean. Responsibility and implementation equitable diversity challenging ideas: Art, design, Engineering, Science

4:50 p.m.Closing Remarks

Mat Honan Editor in Chief, MIT Technology Review

>>> James Temple, MIT TR Green Hydrogen was a surprise the need and the interest cost is deceasing it is in our capacity to overcome Amy Nordrum innovators under 35 small satellite hand size CRISPR as Diagnostics.

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Day 2: Leading with innovation, Virtual MIT Technology Review’s flagship event, September 28-30, 2021

EmTech MIT hosted by MIT Technology Review 

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence (LPBI) Group

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence (LPBI) Group

Covering the event in REAL TIME with Social Media

@pharma_BI @AVIVA1950 #EmTechMIT @EmtechMIT

In attendance

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, Founder, LPBI Group: 1.0 & 2.0

AGENDA Overview




Day 2: Mind, Body, Work (11:30 a.m. – 5:20 p.m.)

11:30 a.m.Welcome Remarks

Will Douglas Heaven Senior Editor for AI, MIT Technology Review

AI as a Global Disruptor (11:35 a.m. – 1:00 p.m.)

Artificial intelligence’s superhuman data processing capabilities have far-reaching implications. Unpack the oncoming effects on industry and society and explore the issues of ethics, inequity, and more that we’ll face as we strive to maintain control of algorithms that are controlling us.

11:35 a.m.Building a Better AI

To date, every major milestone in AI has been achieved by deep learning, but whether this approach will lead us to artificial general intelligence remains to be seen. To have true AI, must we first understand the brain? This session explores a neuroscience-based approach to AI that may lead to true machine intelligence.

Jeff Hawkins Cofounder and Chief Scientist, Numenta

>>> Model of the World, learning through movement, Current AI is pretty dump, machines that are truly intelligent, Road map for AI, his Thousand Brains Book, Not build the Brain, Two elements of new modeling: (1) fastest NN (2) Sparsity – existing NeuroNets and make them xxx times faster, learn new information Integration of these theoretical concept into companies building products. Add the thousands Brain model concept into AI to get Intelligent systems. The concept of competition, Structure of the Brain is known speculation of building AI to be human’s like in terms of Intelligence. The Goal is not Human’s Like bur Intelligent machine will act in the World, not have to be like Humans. Computing models can be smart not human but helping humans in Pattern recognition. Humans is the only species knowing about time, the universe, preserve and propagate, peer reviewed was also censored,

AI as a Global Disruptor

>>> Image processing and Computer Vision, finished PhD. Negative impact of AI, animate tools used for can be socially Bias. While at Google questioning AI experiences isolation. Labor rights and anti-discrimination rights, censoring research sounds like propaganda, outside the Tech company to impact the industry, to keep Tech companies accountable from the inside silencing. labor protection laws needed. Create own institute AI technologies to be built, critiquing AI. Ideas coming from the Researchers. AI to benefit Humanity vs Tech companies Profiting from Researchers work – Labor laws. Apples treatment of workers oppressive. Coalition of people around you: Scholars. Look at the marginalized group vs dominate group. Technology is built by both.

>>> Federated Learning beneficial – Distributed AI Learning Model. Where does the Data comes from Two canonical approaches in Federated Design: Centralized Learning vs Federated Learning – training at the Edge. Federate Learning (FL): (1) Cross Silo [high availability] vs (2) Cross device Federate Learning [communication bottleneck] – Distributive model [Privacy] different devices interoperability [heterogeniety}. Personalized FT: One for each device and among the devices improves Accuracy. Bias in Data. Privacy is Key. Google deploys Federated Design. FT design for Autonomous Vehicles construction behavior, rad conditions AI – work to be done for deployment. FT is not production ready. Centralized learning vs Federated Learning. Hospitals: FT is more expansive with greater benefits.

Challenge: Privacy [Criptographic technique] and secure the learned Model

Single Purpose Model vs Multi Purpose Model (1) General Models (2) Understand (3) Question and get answers. Learning Skills, Learning Concepts, Search Engine Data to teach after learning skills and concepts using richer vocabularies using Visual and Text data. Learn to interact, navigate. A game of Cache: Hide & Seek. AI agents, CEREBRA – Cognitive Rudiments for building AI Models – multi skills models simulators, robots, based on physical principles Multi modal AI Visual, Audio, Text. Building models that understand TEMPORAL behavior.

1:15 PM EDT

  • >>> Synthetic Biology – complexity biology: Pathways and Disease state (1) Sensing (2) Logic Processing (3) Therapeutics development. Controlling Stem cell differentiation. Programming a cell development for drug development via organelle development for building organelles for replacement: Liver vascularization dysfunction, Pancreas function by design mature Organoids Cyp3A4 – for druggability. Cancer immunotherapy will be first to benefit numeric synthetic Biology for therapeutic intervention to improve precision.

2:00 p.m.Can We Trust Tech to Police AI?

We are all subject to AI, even if it’s faulty, beyond our control, and biased. Massive AI models are being developed, but how do we ensure fair systems are created? Whether you’re building your own AI or working with vendors, learn the essential elements of fair and equitable AI.

Timnit Gebru Cofounder, Black in AI; Formerly, Google

12:25 p.m.AI Learning Models: Distributed vs Centralized

More secure methods of processing and storing massive volumes of data for AI are needed to alleviate privacy concerns. Is federated learning the best option? Examine how distributed learning works for AI and the potential benefits and risks for your organization.

Virginia Smith Assistant Professor, Carnegie Mellon University

12:45 p.m.New Advances in Multi-Skilled AI

AI robotics still struggle to match the skill level of a child. Human intelligence emerges from our combination of senses and language abilities; the same might be true for artificial intelligence. Is combining vision, audio, and language processing into a single AI system possible—and will it solve the problem? Explore the implications for AI and its potential use cases. As featured in the 10 Breakthrough Technologies 2021.

Ani Kembhavi Research Manager, Allen Institute for AI

MIT Inside Track (1:00 p.m. – 1:40 p.m.)

Join the Inside Track sessions to engage more deeply with our content, speakers, and your fellow attendees during mainstage programming breaks.

1:00 p.m.Networking Break

1:15 p.m.Programming DNA

Today with synthetic biology, we can assemble DNA for the purpose of modifying individual cells. But we’ve arrived at an age where it’s now possible to write DNA programs, analogous to writing to software, that impact cell information and behavior in a given sequence for even greater impact. We’ll talk about possibilities, limitations, and timelines for this amazing advancement.

Ron Weiss Professorr, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

AI as a Global Disruptor Cont’d (1:40 p.m. – 2:05 p.m.)

Artificial intelligence’s superhuman data processing capabilities have far-reaching implications. Unpack the oncoming effects on industry and society and explore the issues of ethics, inequity, and more that we’ll face as we strive to maintain control of algorithms that are controlling us.

1:40 p.m.Trustworthy AI in High-Stakes Environments – Presented by Raytheon Intelligence & Space

The high-stakes environment of intelligence and space is overflowing with data, where signals lurk in a sea of noise, best discoverable with AI. With no tolerance for error, engineering teams must drive trust and explainability in AI decisions so that human-machine teams, working in areas from synthetic biology to next-generation GPS, find the right solutions, every time, at speed.

Roy Azevedo President, Raytheon Intelligence & Space

Elizabeth Bramson-Boudreau CEO and Publisher, MIT Technology Review

>>> High-stake environments: National Security, Logistics, Cyber Satellite, Weather Storms, Deploy AI to explain the recommendation for trust into the decision making. AI is distrusted as it nears autonomy, edge or situation is unique, AI-ML recommendation require explainability for system automomy. Knowhow Satellite system for Weather prediction system data run through scenarios ethics applied before using AI-ML algorithm latency is not affordable, operator make decision at the edge Trust & Verify Modeling & Simulation perform.Education and Training 37,000 employees 5,000 were hired during the Pandemic. Three innovation new engine work, radio frequencies Radars, cyber technology

Biotech and Biothreats (2:05 p.m. – 3:20 p.m.)

Pandemic shutdowns focused a spotlight on biotech. Glimpse advances from drug development to gene editing, and which ones will help us through the next crisis.

2:05 p.m.Mitigating the Impact of Biological Threats

Our global society has become hyper-aware of biological pathogens and threats. We investigate some of the current and recent threat types, dispelling myths and confirming facts, while considering what comes next in the way of prevention, detection, and response for the next bio threat on the horizon.

Christina Rudzinski Assistant Division Head, Lincoln Laboratory, MIT

>>> Reducing Biological threats. COVID19 is a Global Pandemic by a pathogen, diagnostics deployed, genome of the virus gaps remain. Future pathogen will cause infections. Novel to genetically engineered pathogens, infectious agents, pathones evolve, can be used and have been used maliciously Infection progression: Pre-exposure Human transmission incubation symptoms onset illness early environmental detection population surveilence Bio-signal data for detection of host’s response to infection. Priority is both detection in advance and the vaccine capability virus detected as pathogen Active biological weapons Nation states as adversary Lab escape virus is a possibility Lab Survelience systems.

2:30 p.m.Turning CRISPR off

Genetic therapeutics has advanced to the point where we can turn genes off and on without altering DNA. Innovations like CRISPRoff affect cutting-edge research on viruses and the fight against diseases and other genetic disorders. Explore the possibilities and questions on how to manage ethical concerns and unintended consequences.

Jonathan Weissman Professor, MIT; Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

>>> CRISPR 2.0 under DARPA Chemical and BioChem funding. CRISPR gene editing correct the underlining genetics, where to cut the DNA for changing the sequence Cas9 – complicated technology. Turn up and down -Silence a gene, an existing gene programmable Epigenetic memory engineering (15 month) new opportunity in Medicine CRISP off Variant 1 vs CRISPR off Variant 2 only the targeted gene precision editing. Memorizing Gene Silencing. Silencing then reverse not permanent silencing. Germ line engineering. Motorneuron disease are good indications for Memorizing Gene Silencing

Innovators Under 35 (2:50 p.m. – 3:20 p.m.)

2:50 p.m.Scale Innovation and Ideas – Presented by JPMorgan Chase

Innovation drives results and creates value, and it must be supported by vision, leadership, purpose, and a clear path to scale. The right ecosystem is essential. From accelerator labs to automation, dynamic process transformation is built on collective intelligence put toward a common objective: to achieve real digital transformation for employees, customers, partners, and suppliers alike.

Lori Beer Global CIO, JPMorgan Chase

2:55 p.m.Next-Generation Disease Detection

New advances in CRISPR platforms are pushing biotechnology to the next level of disease detection and treatment. What does that mean for reducing human intervention, increasing diagnostics, and scalability? As featured in the 2021 Innovators Under 35.

Janice Chen Cofounder & CTO, Mammoth Biosciences

>>> On Demand DIagnostic Tool based on CRISPR: read, detect, Protein Discovery – Metagenomics – proteins Cas14, delivery advantages. Target proteins for diagnostics: detect DNA and RNA the exact sequence Future of CRISPR Diagnostics delivered to Mobile. Molecular lab accuracy in the mobile device for the results TEST to TREATMENT. CRISPR is a platform for Diagnostics it is also a therapeutics target via gene editing vs medicinal chemistry.

3:10 p.m.Microscopic Robots that Move

Programmable, autonomous, microscopic robots are coming, and now they can move. These tiny bots have the potential to revolutionize engineering new materials, rid crops of pests, act as cellular-level surgeons, and more. Get an early look at this emerging tech. As featured in the 2021 Innovators Under 35.

Marc Miskin Assistant Professor, University of Pennsylvania

>>> application of microelectronic CMOS for design of robots microorganism size not visible to eye laser spot is a control function parallel design of one robot allows deployment of an army of robots like microorganisms Repair of nerves. A factor of 10 in size power low, cost low,

MIT Inside Track (3:20 p.m. – 3:55 p.m.)

Join the Inside Track sessions to engage more deeply with our content, speakers, and your fellow attendees during mainstage programming breaks.

3:20 p.m.Networking Break

3:30 p.m.From a Mouse to a Bird

The ubiquitous computer mouse allows us to manipulate our 2D desktops. The jump to virtual worlds will require new tools to help us interact with 3D objects. Get an early look at the grasping technology called Bird.

Aubrey Simonson Graduate Student, MIT Media Lab

Andy Lippman Associate Director, MIT Media Lab

Extending the Workplace (3:55 p.m. – 5:15 p.m.)

The events of 2020 forced us to reimagine the workplace. Explore extended reality (XR) technology projects, including augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), and mixed reality (MR), poised to change the way we work.

3:55 p.m.Planning for an Immersive Workplace

Extended reality (XR) technologies are transforming workspaces. Bridging the virtual and physical worlds with AR/VR/MR enables immersive experiences for team collaboration, staff training, and customer experience. Get industry insight on how these technologies are impacting work and generating surprising results.

Timoni West Vice President, XR Tools, Unity

4:20 p.m.Preparing for a New Reality

Immersion technologies are estimated to become a $57 billion industry by 2027. Get a look under the hood at how these systems work, what kind of infrastructure is needed, and tips for integrating immersion tech into existing workflow systems.

Urho Konttori Cofounder and CTO, Varjo

>>> VR and XR headsets: True Telepresence, device will be size of goggles. In 2025 standardization of the Industry.Human communication iwll be come Teleportation

4:40 p.m.Extended Reality Use Cases

Extended reality tools are already being incorporated into standard business operations in enterprise-level systems. Industry experts walkthrough real-world applications in health care, training, and construction to demonstrate the value immersion technologies can bring to the workplace.

Amitai Ziv Director, Extended Reality Hub, Sheba’s Innovation Center

>>>> Patients education with VR, Chemo Treatment VR can take patients to Paris or London. Used in Surgery CT overlaid on the Spine surgery site. Moving organ during surgery Heart, abdomen. Expectation. Assist device, not the only one. Simulation is not reality.

Will Adams Emerging Technologies Developer, M.A. Mortenson Company

>>> Rendering images of construction sites, technology is cool

Gordon Cooke Director, Research and Strategy, The U.S. Military Academy at West Point

>>> Training, new content creation is an issue.

Last Call with the Editors (5:15 p.m. – 6:20 p.m.)

Attendees and speakers are invited to attend our online EmTech MIT reception in virtual reality, which kicks off with a short talk on creating and navigating immersive spaces. Join us under the MIT Dome from your web browser or your VR headset as we mix and mingle in this unique networking session and hands on demo.

Before we send everyone home for the night, join our last call with all of our editors to get their analysis on the day’s topics, themes, and guests.

5:20 p.m.EmTech MIT VR Reception Under the MIT Dome

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EmTech MIT 2021 – Agenda Overview & Speakers: Leading with innovation, Virtual MIT Technology Review’s flagship event, September 28-30, 2021

Day 1: Leading with innovation, Virtual MIT Technology Review’s flagship event, September 28-30, 2021

EmTech MIT hosted by MIT Technology Review 

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence (LPBI) Group

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence (LPBI) Group

Covering the event in REAL TIME with Social Media

@pharma_BI @AVIVA1950 #EmTechMIT @EmtechMIT

In attendance

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, Founder, LPBI Group: 1.0 & 2.0

Aviva Lev- Ari, Founder, 1.0 LPBI and 2.0 LPBI Group

AGENDA Overview & Speakers at EmTech MIT 2021



The digital future

The road to cyber-resiliency

The destructive rise of ransomware has quantified the cost of cybersecurity and elevated cyber-resilience from an IT concern to an executive mandate. Learn how we can defend against infinite threats with finite resources.

The business of blockchain

Digital value is changing the fundamental rules of business. Digital currencies, NFTs, and smart contracts are shifting power and creating new opportunities for those who understand their possibilities and potential.

Convergence in the cloud

Together, the cloud, edge computing, and 5G are altering what’s possible. Grasp the tangible benefits of real-world intelligent cloud computing and learn how it’s transforming business.


Mind, body, work

AI as a global disruptor

Artificial intelligence’s superhuman data processing capabilities have far-reaching implications. Unpack the oncoming effects on industry and society and explore the issues of ethics, inequity, and more that we’ll face as we strive to maintain control of algorithms that are controlling us.

Biotechnology for a post-pandemic world

The pandemic shutdowns focused a new spotlight on biotech. See the emerging advances in everything from drug development to vaccine next steps to gene editing, and glimpse which ones will help us through the next crisis.

Extending the workplace

The events of 2020 forced us to reimagine the workplace as never before, with remote workers, hybrid workplaces, and distributed teams. Explore real-world augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) projects poised to change the way we work when we’re no longer constrained by space and walls.


Powering our world

Ensuring energy resilience

As every aspect of our lives rapidly becomes digitized, ensuring energy resilience and efficiency is critical to powering the technologies we rely on in our businesses and our lives. From the future of the power grid to nuclear power and renewable energy, assess the knowledge needed for choosing the right energy source.

Countering climate change

As climate change marches on, affecting business, society, and the planet, the financial tipping point is around the corner. Adopt strategies to advance environmental responsibility and reduce risk with the latest in carbon capture technologies, green building, and more.

Turning innovation into action

Research and innovation are only a few steps to achieving impactful change. Assess unique leadership approaches to chart the course for implementation from the lab to the real world.

SPEAKERS at EmTech MIT 2021


Emerging Technologies Developer M.A. Mortenson Company

President Raytheon Intelligence & Space

Senior Partner McKinsey Technology

Global CIO JPMorgan Chase

CEO and Publisher MIT Technology Review

Director of Sustainable Design Gensler

Cofounder & CTO Mammoth Biosciences

Director, Research and Strategy The U.S. Military Academy at West Point

Professor, MIT; Cofounder Transaera

CEO and Cofounder Sublime Systems

Cofounder, Black in AI; Formerly Google

Senior AI Reporter MIT Technology Review

Cofounder and Chief Scientist Numenta

Will Douglas
Senior Editor for AI MIT Technology Review

Editor in Chief MIT Technology Review

CEO and Founder, Input Output Global; Founder, Cardano; Cofounder Ethereum

CIO Federal Reserve System

Assistant Professor Princeton University

Senior Editor MIT Technology Review

Research ManagerAllen Institute for AI

Cofounder and CTO Varjo

Co-Founder & CTO Zoox

NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies; Professor Columbia University

Associate Professor Stanford University

Cofounder & Senior Advisor 350.org

Assistant Professor University College London

Founder Algorand

Assistant Professor University of Pennsylvania

Head of Advisory CISOs Cisco

Director MIT Media Lab

Head of Green Hydrogen thyssenkrupp Uhde Chlorine Engineers

Julian Brave
Vice President, Policy & Strategy Data for Progress

Commissioning Editor MIT Technology Review

Head of Atomic Clock Division ColdQuanta

Patrick Howell
Senior Editor for Cybersecurity MIT Technology Review

Senior Editor, Biomedicine MIT Technology Review

Senior editor, Computing MIT Technology Review

Assistant Division Head, Lincoln Laboratory MIT

CTO & EVP, Technology and Research Microsoft

Chief Security Officer Paxos Trust Company

Founder, Chairman & Managing Director Renew Power

Senior Director, Clean Energy & Innovation U.S. Department of State

Assistant Professor Carnegie Mellon University

CEO & Cofounder Swarm Technologies

Associate Professor UC Santa Barbara

Senior Editor for Podcasts and Live Journalism MIT Technology Review

Senior Editor for Energy MIT Technology Review

Founder and Chief Innovation Officer Vecna Robotics

Professor, MIT; Investigator Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Cofounder & Co-CTO Everactive

Vice President, XR Tools Unity

Director, Extended Reality HubSheba’s Innovation Center

MIT Inside Track

Chief Content Officer CoinDesk

Reporter, News MIT Technology Review

Research Assistant MIT Media Lab

Associate Director MIT Media Lab

VP, Business Development & Strategy Spatial

Metaverse Architect M2 Studio

Quintus Bosz
CTO Scaletech

Graduate Student MIT Media Lab

Head of Community Spatial

Professor Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Graduate Research Assistant MIT Media Lab

Day 1: The Digital Future (11:30 a.m. – 5:20 p.m.)

11:30 a.m.Welcome RemarksMat HonanEditor in Chief, MIT Technology Review

11:35 a.m.Leading with Innovation

Leadership requires innovation to succeed. On the most significant issues shaping the future, unpack what innovation must do, learn what to anticipate, and discover the technologies required to thrive and lead through the next 12-24 months. Kevin ScottCTO & EVP, Technology and Research, Microsoft

>>> start with function wish to write – micro-language representation model for code

writing. Compute is the only constraint. Open source version of OpenAI API no need to build OS. Responsible AI within Microsoft – Standard for the whole company to be rolled up soon. Regulation to consider where we are going to be. BioScience breakthroughs quick deployment of molecular innovations in Drug development – teach a machine how to solve a problem. Machines are excellent in doing functions that Human can’t and Humans are adept in reasoning an like machines. Technology can be harmful to society by intent , biases to overcome human in the loop for decision to deploy computer vision accomodation for gender and ethnicity if you do not use synthetic data – Face recognition need to be regulated.

The Road to Cyber Resiliency (12:05 p.m. – 1:00 p.m.)

>>> We get better at detection

The destructive rise of ransomware has quantified the cost of cybersecurity and elevated cyber-resilience from an IT concern to an executive mandate. Learn how we can defend against infinite threats with finite resources.12:05 p.m.Aftermath of a Breach

Go inside the war room to get a firsthand account of a cyberattack and what it’s like to discover your defenses have been breached and your data exposed. This first-person walkthrough prepares you for the technical, legal, and public-relations considerations to create your own response plan. Nick Selby Chief Security Officer, Paxos Trust Company

>>> at Timehop GDPR a bridge of security disclosure to US Citizens 5% of EU opt out 7/418 ADM password changed User database was compromised protect customers data Recovery architecture monitor Testing the backups – they need to be disconnected, security communication De-perimiterization for infection detection, pre-annuncement Challenges, De-activate all social media mobile phones numbers in Millions. Integrity & Transparency: Bring in MEDIA, NBC News, How you handle when you get a data breach. Threats had changed since 2018. Customers data can lead to Identity Theft, from phone numbers, e-mail to bank accounts.

12:35 p.m.Cyber Threat Analysis and Prevention

Before your defenses are breached, a strong cyber-resiliency plan is essential in protecting your infrastructure from attack. Understand the current attack vectors and what you can do to assess threats and implement preventive practices. Wendy Nather Head of Advisory CISOs, Cisco

>>>> mid 90s Two-way authentications Who are the attackers, changes, abuse of the platform by users Technology to buy Proactive Refresh Tech done by vendor is best security practice. Security poverty line – Incidence reporting is better than nothing. Evidence based security guidance BioMetrix on the Phone is easy to use Apple did beautiful design. Sterile Operating Theater HOW to do two way authentication? risk analyzed in design of products. Figuring out is there is a breach or not, it need to be reported anyway. Special Access privileges needed to investigate a breach. Mandatory Breach assigned.

MIT Inside Track (1:00 p.m. – 1:40 p.m.)

Join the Inside Track sessions to engage more deeply with our content, speakers, and your fellow attendees during mainstage programming breaks.

1:00 p.m.Networking Break

1:15 p.m.Demystifying Decentralized Finance

Views differ on Bitcoin, but few doubt the transformative potential of blockchain technology. Blockchain can restore personal control over our data, assets, and identities; grant billions of excluded people access to the global economy; and shift the balance of power to revive society’s faith in itself.We reveal the implications for industries including finance, tech, legal, and shipping as decentralization disrupts the money world. Michael CaseyChief Content Officer, CoinDesk

The Business of Blockchain (1:40 p.m. – 3:05 p.m.)

Bobbie Johnson, MIT Technology Review

>>> Emerging technologies

Is Blockchain that did not realized its potential will it work for you? What are Smart contract

Digital value is changing the fundamental rules of business. Digital currencies, NFTs, and smart contracts are shifting power and creating new opportunities for those who understand their possibilities and potential.1:40 p.m.Decentralized Digital Currencies and Contracts

Digital currencies and contracts are growing in number and scope, powered by Bitcoin and Ethereum. As these technologies mature, new options such as Ada and Cardano are challenging the status quo. Understand the technical, social, business, and global implications of a world where digital contracts and currencies exponentially facilitate the trade capabilities of our current financial system. Charles Hoskinson CEO and Founder, Input Output Global; Founder, Cardano; Cofounder, Ethereum

>>> Charles Hoskinson CEO and Founder, Input Output Global; Founder, Cardano, 2015 Nation scale [Ethiopia] and Global scale – records ledger and smart contracts, credentials identity, reversible auditable that operates at scale; Cofounder, Ethereum

Portability of credentials in Ethiopia for outside, Build reputation for credit scoring.

What is in El Salvador for crypto currency? Cardano ? Contract system, EDA is transaction system, consensus protocol, energy consumption comes from hash for every step, representation not actual, 2015 – decentralization of energy consumption, hardware with limited supply, 3rd generation systems become decentralized. Speed of Networks, base ledge proof of reserve, auction computation – hybrid model decentralized and centralized at the same time. Space is more inclusive, diverse industry. Mongolia has bitcoin and Nigeria and Vietnam had adopted bitcoin and microfinance in Kenia and Philippines

2:10 p.m.A National Digital Dollar

The role of digital currencies in business is rapidly changing from speculation to reality. Today, countries are already looking to adopt a national digital currency. Learn how to leverage digital currencies for real-world business impact and the implications of an economy based on a global digital dollar. Silvio Micali Founder, Algorand

>>> How one assesses scalability transactions on chain with interoperability, Consensus of teminology. El Salvador can’t afford VISA transaction fees. Blockchain is very affordable in offering payments opportunity: in Columbia, provide tool sets.

Nation States vs Corporations: Objective of longevity, security – direct education and regulators involved in education on population. Decentralized systems have longevity vs decentralized systems. Intelligent adaptation of a new technology.

Innovators Under 35 (2:35 p.m. – 3:05 p.m.) – 500 applicants/nominees for 35 to be selected

2:35 p.m.Enabling Digital Transformation in the New Economy – Presented by JPMorgan Chase

The convergence of cloud computing, technology at the edge, and other next-gen computing trends enable digital transformation at speed and scale. Move your organization forward with critical insights from emerging research-to-market solutions contributing to the digital revolution.Lori Beer Global CIO, JPMorgan Chase

Contributors to Computing Power: Quantum computing, AI,

2:40 p.m.Transforming Compute Power

Significant improvements in energy, efficiency, and speed are needed to transform AI. Memristor technology has that potential, though to date no one has been able to convert the theory into practice. Have we reached a new breakthrough that will accelerate AI at lower power? As featured in the 2021 Innovators Under 35.

Adnan Mehonic Assistant Professor, University College London

>>> Training an AI Model using Memistore silicon oxide for digital memory it can be used for In memory computing, Neuromorphic Computing:

Digital CMOS, xxx, Neuromorphic Computing

2:55 p.m.Connecting at the Edge

A low-cost global network of tiny satellites for internet-of-things devices can transform  business, providing connectivity to the edge and  from anywhere on the planet. As featured in the 2021 Innovators Under 35.

Sara Spangelo CEO & Cofounder, Swarm Technologies

>>> 150 satellites offering for $5 per month IoT Global Network connectivity

Risks: Collision among tiny satellite, encryption technology for the communication been transmitted

MIT Inside Track (3:05 p.m. – 3:40 p.m.)

Join the Inside Track sessions to engage more deeply with our content, speakers, and your fellow attendees during mainstage programming breaks.

3:05 p.m.Networking Break3:15 p.m.The Soul of a Robot

To date, much of the work in robotics has focused on the mechanical engineering of physical movement. But as interactive technologies are applied in more social settings, it’s imperative that the technologies be socially engaging, and connect with humans.Randi WilliamsGraduate Research Assistant, MIT Media LabAndy Lippman Associate Director, MIT Media Lab

Living on the Edge (3:40 p.m. – 5:15 p.m.)

Together, the cloud, edge computing, and 5G are altering what’s possible. Grasp the tangible benefits of real-world intelligent cloud computing and learn how it’s transforming business.

3:40 p.m.Capturing Value from the Cloud – Presented by McKinsey Technology

More companies are starting to see the real benefits of cloud, which has been heralded as a catalyst for innovation and digital transformation. Across a range of industries, organizations have successfully implemented cloud to achieve impressive results. This discussion will explore best practices these companies follow and recent research that identifies the pools of value for adoption and drivers of that value.

Aamer Baig Senior Partner, McKinsey Technology Ghada Ijam CIO, Federal Reserve System

Aamer Baig Senior Partner, McKinsey Technology

>>> Cloud:

Enabler and catalist (a) Strategy & Management (b) Business domain adoption (c) Processes and risk postures

1. Innovate

2. Rejuvenate

3. Pioneer adoption of New technologies: Blockchain,

Aamer Baig Senior Partner, McKinsey Technology Cloud migration Scale and where the value comes from CIO, CFO, CEO Cloud has cost components Business opportunity that business process and business transformation

Create evangelists in the organization Top management transparency how an organization work

4:05 p.m.Robotics at the Edge

Robotics accelerate the supply chain by enabling warehouses and machinery to think, sense, and act. Learn how robotics at the edge moves AI from the cloud to independent devices.

Daniel Theobald Founder and Chief Innovation Officer, Vecna Robotics

>>> Where the Optimization will come from? Supply Chain problem solving. Edge computing like Cloud computing allows to collect data Robots collect data – automated guided vehicles, now for optimization the opportunity arrived. Robots navigate and make decisions an obstacle or challenge one individual robot transmit data collected from each robot to the Cloud for analysis for quick processing. Place compute on the Robot before transmitting to the Cloud about where to deploy robots, collect data and improve performance. Data goes in many directions. Local Servers vs the Cloud: Resilience

Interoperability Standard – Robots sharing information in a Standard Open API way.

In the Edge: IoT and Robots – it is a continuum, Only Robots move and sense – standard API to the Cloud autonomy and sensors on top to operate on fire doors, elevators, conveyers. Robots sense around them – deal with obstacles in real time. Three MMM will be done by robots in the future, massive labor shortages. Practical approach. Massive value to be capture in the warehouse.

4:30 p.m.Internet of Things: Batteries Not Included

Internet-of-things sensors can provide 24/7 monitoring of facilities and locations, but the power they require is not always available in the locations where monitoring is required. Explore the latest advances in battery-free, low-maintenance devices that enable monitoring in previously unreachable areas.

David Wentzloff Cofounder & Co-CTO, Everactive

>>> Evolution of computing, wireless communications New Paradigm: Pervasive Computing: Machine Health Monitoring, adoption by EM and ABB, Nasdac, Localization and computing at the EDGE. 1Billion data points collected. Partnering beyond manufacturing: Logistics, agriculture, consumer applications and verticals. Move from the Cloud to the Edge. Computations on the nodes. AI involved power level.

5:00 p.m.Beyond GPS: Hyper-accurate Positioning

New hyper-accurate positioning technologies have brought the world into dramatically sharper focus than GPS with accuracies within a few millimeters, which opens new opportunities in the way we farm, transport goods, and navigate our world. As featured in the 10 Breakthrough Technologies 2021.

Judith Olson Head of Atomic Clock Division, ColdQuanta

>>> Next generation of GPS


Polls of Blockchain: many (34%) said it change the World. Few said will invest in it or will use it. Call to have more regulations Congress try to regulate the Internet may e coming Technology & Ingenuity gap robots can empower humans unfamiliar

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Developing Machine Learning Models for Prediction of Onset of Type-2 Diabetes

Reporter: Amandeep Kaur, B.Sc., M.Sc.

A recent study reports the development of an advanced AI algorithm which predicts up to five years in advance the starting of type 2 diabetes by utilizing regularly collected medical data. Researchers described their AI model as notable and distinctive based on the specific design which perform assessments at the population level.

The first author Mathieu Ravaut, M.Sc. of the University of Toronto and other team members stated that “The main purpose of our model was to inform population health planning and management for the prevention of diabetes that incorporates health equity. It was not our goal for this model to be applied in the context of individual patient care.”

Research group collected data from 2006 to 2016 of approximately 2.1 million patients treated at the same healthcare system in Ontario, Canada. Even though the patients were belonged to the same area, the authors highlighted that Ontario encompasses a diverse and large population.

The newly developed algorithm was instructed with data of approximately 1.6 million patients, validated with data of about 243,000 patients and evaluated with more than 236,000 patient’s data. The data used to improve the algorithm included the medical history of each patient from previous two years- prescriptions, medications, lab tests and demographic information.

When predicting the onset of type 2 diabetes within five years, the algorithm model reached a test area under the ROC curve of 80.26.

The authors reported that “Our model showed consistent calibration across sex, immigration status, racial/ethnic and material deprivation, and a low to moderate number of events in the health care history of the patient. The cohort was representative of the whole population of Ontario, which is itself among the most diverse in the world. The model was well calibrated, and its discrimination, although with a slightly different end goal, was competitive with results reported in the literature for other machine learning–based studies that used more granular clinical data from electronic medical records without any modifications to the original test set distribution.”

This model could potentially improve the healthcare system of countries equipped with thorough administrative databases and aim towards specific cohorts that may encounter the faulty outcomes.

Research group stated that “Because our machine learning model included social determinants of health that are known to contribute to diabetes risk, our population-wide approach to risk assessment may represent a tool for addressing health disparities.”




Ravaut M, Harish V, Sadeghi H, et al. Development and Validation of a Machine Learning Model Using Administrative Health Data to Predict Onset of Type 2 Diabetes. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(5):e2111315. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11315 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2780137

Other related articles were published in this Open Access Online Scientific Journal, including the following:

AI in Drug Discovery: Data Science and Core Biology @Merck &Co, Inc., @GNS Healthcare, @QuartzBio, @Benevolent AI and Nuritas

Reporters: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN and Irina Robu, PhD


Can Blockchain Technology and Artificial Intelligence Cure What Ails Biomedical Research and Healthcare

Curator: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.


HealthCare focused AI Startups from the 100 Companies Leading the Way in A.I. Globally

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN


AI in Psychiatric Treatment – Using Machine Learning to Increase Treatment Efficacy in Mental Health

Reporter: Aviva Lev- Ari, PhD, RN


Vyasa Analytics Demos Deep Learning Software for Life Sciences at Bio-IT World 2018 – Vyasa’s booth (#632)

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN


New Diabetes Treatment Using Smart Artificial Beta Cells

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD


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MIT Technology Review announced list of “Innovators Under 35, 2020”

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN


Innovators Under 35, 2020

In chaotic times it can be reassuring to see so many people working toward a better world. That’s true for medical professionals fighting a pandemic and for ordinary citizens fighting for social justice. And it’s true for those among us striving to employ technology to address those problems and many others.

The 35 young innovators in these pages aren’t all working to fight a pandemic, though some are: see Omar Abudayyeh and Andreas Puschnik. And they’re not all looking to remedy social injustices though some are: see Inioluwa Deborah Raji and Mohamed Dhaouafi. But even those who aren’t tackling those specific problems are seeking ways to use technology to help people. They’re trying to solve our climate crisis, find a cure for Parkinson’s, or make drinking water available to those who are desperate for it.

We’ve been presenting our list of innovators under 35 for the past 20 years. We do it to highlight the things young innovators are working on, to show at least some of the possible directions that technology will take in the coming decade. This contest generates more than 500 nominations each year. The editors then face the task of picking 100 semifinalists to put in front of our 25 judges, who have expertise in artificial intelligence, biotechnology, software, energy, materials, and so on. With the invaluable help of these rankings, the editors pick the final list of 35.


Their innovations point toward a future with new types of batteries, solar panels, and microchips.
  • Omar Abudayyeh

    He’s working to use CRISPR as a covid-19 test that you could take at home.

    Omar Abudayyeh
  • Christina Boville

    She modifies enzymes to enable production of new compounds for industry.

    Christina Boville
  • Manuel Le Gallo

    He uses novel computer designs to make AI less power hungry.

    Manuel Le Gallo
  • Nadya Peek

    She builds novel modular machines that can do just about anything you can imagine.

    Nadia Peek
  • Leila Pirhaji

    She developed an AI-based system that can identify more small molecules in a patient’s body, faster than ever before.

    Leila Pirhaji
  • Randall Jeffrey Platt

    His recording tool provides a video of genes turning on or off.

    Randall Jeffrey Platt
  • Rebecca Saive

    She found a way to make solar panels cheaper and more efficient.

    Rebecca Saive
  • Venkat Viswanathan

    His work on a new type of battery could make EVs much cheaper.

    Venkat Viswanathan
  • Anastasia Volkova

    Her platform uses remote sensing and other techniques to monitor crop health—helping farmers focus their efforts where they’re most needed.

    Anastasia Volkova
  • Sihong Wang

    His stretchable microchips promise to make all sorts of new devices possible.

    Sihong Wang


Their technological innovations bust up the status quo and lead to new ways of doing business.
  • Jiwei Li

    In the last few months, Google and Facebook have both released new chatbots. Jiwei Li’s techniques are at the heart of both.

    Jiwei Li
  • Atima Lui

    She’s using technology to correct the cosmetics industry’s bias toward light skin.

    Atima Lui
  • Tony Pan

    His company revamps an old device to allow you to generate electricity in your own home.

    Tony Pan


Their innovations are leading to breakthroughs in AI, quantum computing, and medical implants.
  • Leilani Battle

    Her program sifts through data faster so scientists can focus more on science.

    Leilani Battle
  • Morgan Beller

    She was a key player behind the idea of a Facebook cryptocurrency.

  • Eimear Dolan

    Medical implants are often thwarted as the body grows tissue to defend itself. She may have found a drug-free fix for the problem.

    Eimear Dolan
  • Rose Faghih

    Her sensor-laden wristwatch would monitor your brain states.

    Rose Fagih
  • Bo Li

    By devising new ways to fool AI, she is making it safer.

    Bo Li
  • Zlatko Minev

    His discovery could reduce errors in quantum computing.

    Zlatko Minev
  • Miguel Modestino

    He is reducing the chemical industry’s carbon footprint by using AI to optimize reactions with electricity instead of heat.

    Miguel Modestino
  • Inioluwa Deborah Raji

    Her research on racial bias in data used to train facial recognition systems is forcing companies to change their ways.

    Inioluwa Deborah Raji
  • Adriana Schulz

    Her tools let anyone design products without having to understand materials science or engineering.

    Adriana Schulz
  • Dongjin Seo

    He is designing computer chips to seamlessly connect human brains and machines.


They’re using technology to cure diseases and make water, housing, and prosthetics available to all.
  • Mohamed Dhaouafi

    His company’s artificial limbs are not only high-functioning but cheap enough for people in low-income countries.

    Mohamed Dhaouafi
  • Alex Le Roux

    A massive 3D-printing project in Mexico could point the way to the future of affordable housing.

    Alex Le Roux
  • Katharina Volz

    A loved one’s diagnosis led her to employ machine learning in the search for a Parkinson’s cure.

    Katharina Volz
  • David Warsinger

    His system could alleviate the drawbacks of existing desalination plants.

    David Warsinger


Their innovations lead the way to biodegradable plastics, textiles that keep you cool, and cars that “see.”
  • Ghena Alhanaee

    Heavy dependence on infrastructure like oil rigs, nuclear reactors, and desalination plants can be catastrophic in a crisis. Her data-driven framework could help nations prepare.

    Ghena Alhanaee
  • Avinash Manjula Basavanna

    His biodegradable plastic protects against extreme chemicals, but heals itself using water.

  • Lili Cai

    She created energy-efficient textiles to break our air-conditioning habit.

    Lili Cai
  • Gregory Ekchian

    He invented a way to make radiation therapy for cancer safer and more effective.

    Gregory Ekchian
  • Jennifer Glick

    If quantum computers work, what can we use them for? She’s working to figure that out.

  • Andrej Karpathy

    He’s employing neural networks to allow automated cars to “see.”

  • Siddharth Krishnan

    A tiny, powerful sensor for making disease diagnosis cheaper, faster, and easier.

    Siddharth Krishnan
  • Andreas Puschnik

    Seeking a universal treatment for viral diseases, he might leave us much better prepared for the next pandemic.

    Andreas Puschnik



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2020 World Medical Innovation Forum – COVID-19, AI  – Life Science and Digital Health Investments, MGH & BWH, Virtual Event: Monday, May 11, 8:15 a.m. – 5:15 p.m. ET

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN




Life science and digital health investments have continued at a strong pace during the COVID-19 crisis. Senior investment leaders discuss what to expect. Will:

  • social distancing affect deal making?
  • key asset categories remain strong – venture, private equity, public offerings, acquisitions?
  • valuations hold up in some categories while others fall?

Moderator: Roger Kitterman, VP, Venture and Managing Partner, Partners Innovation Fund, Mass General Brigham

Jan Garfinkle
, Founder & Manager Partner, Arboretum Ventures, Chair NVCA

Phillip Gross, Managing Director, Adage Capital Management

Christopher Viehbacher, Managing Partner, Gurnet Point Capital


VIEW VIDEOS from the event


From: “Coburn, Christopher Mark” <CMCOBURN@PARTNERS.ORG>

Date: Tuesday, May 12, 2020 at 6:48 AM

To: “Coburn, Christopher Mark” <CMCOBURN@PARTNERS.ORG>

Subject: REGISTRANT RECAP | World Medical Innovation Forum  


Dear World Forum Attendee, 

On behalf of Mass General Brigham CEO Anne Klibanski MD and Forum co-Chairs Gregg Meyer MD and Ravi Thadhani MD, many thanks for being among the nearly 11,000 registrants representing 93 countries, 46 states and 3200 organizations yesterday. A community was established around many pressing topics that  will continue long into the future. We hope you have a chance to examine the attached survey results. There are several revealing items that should be the basis for ongoing discussion. We expect to be in touch regularly during the year. Among the plans is a “First Look” video series highlighting top Mass General Brigham Harvard faculty as well as emerging Harvard investigators.  As promised, we  wanted to also share visual Forum session summaries.  You will be able to access the recordings on the Forum’s YouTube page . The first set will go up this morning

We hope you will join us for the 2021 Forum!  

Thanks again, Chris

e-Proceedings 2020 World Medical Innovation Forum – COVID-19, AI and the Future of Medicine, Featuring Harvard and Industry Leader Insights – MGH & BWH, Virtual Event: Monday, May 11, 8:15 a.m. – 5:15 p.m. ET


Tweets & Retweets 2020 World Medical Innovation Forum – COVID-19, AI and the Future of Medicine, Featuring Harvard and Industry Leader Insights – MGH & BWH, Virtual Event: Monday, May 11, 8:15 a.m. – 5:15 p.m. ET


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Real Time Coverage @BIOConvention #BIO2019: Gene Therapy 2.0: No Longer Science Fiction 1:00-2:15 pm June 3 Philadelphia PA

Reporter: Stephen J. Williams Ph.D. @StephenJWillia2


Other Articles on Gene Therapy on this Open Access Journal Include:

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