Posts Tagged ‘bone marrow’


Nanoparticles can turn off genes in bone marrow cells

Reporter : Irina Robu, PhD

MIT engineers developed an alternative to turn off specific genes which play a vital role in producing blood cells of the bone marrow using specialized nanoparticles. These nanoparticles can be made-to-order to treat heart disease or increase the yield of stem cells in patience who need stem cell transplants. The particles are coated with lipids that help stabilize them, and they can target organs such as the lungs, heart, and spleen, depending on the particles’ composition and molecular weight. This genetic therapy, also known as RNA interference is difficult to target organs other than the liver, where most of the nanoparticles tend to collect.

RNA interference is an approach that could theoretically be used to treat a variety of diseases by delivering short strands of RNA that block specific genes from being turned on in a cell. Yet, the main obstacle to this kind of therapy has been  delivering it to the right part of the body. When injected into the bloodstream, nanoparticles carrying RNA tend to accrue in the liver, which various biotech companies have taken advantage of to develop new experimental treatments for liver disease.

In their recent study, scientists set out to adapt the nanoparticles so that they could reach the bone marrow which contains stem cells that produce different types of blood cells. Stimulating the process , they could enhance the yield of hematopoietic stem cells for stem cell transplantation and they created variants that have different arrangements of surface coating, polyethylene glycol. They were able to test 15 particles and determined one that was able to avoid being caught in the liver or the lungs, and that could effectively accumulate in endothelial cells of the bone marrow. They also showed that RNA carried by this particle could reduce the expression of a target gene by up to 80 percent.

The scientists then tested this approach with two genes. The first gene, SDF1 is a molecule that normally prevents hematopoietic stem cells from leaving the bone marrow. They realized that turning off the SDF1 gene could have the same effect as the drugs that are being used to induce hematopoietic stem cell release in patients who need undergo radiation treatments for blood cancers. These stem cells are later transplanted to repopulate the patient’s blood cells. By knocking down SDF1, they could boost the release of hematopoietic cells fivefold which is comparable to the levels achieved by the drugs that are now used to enhance stem cell release.

The second gene researchers use is MCP1, a molecule that plays a key role in heart disease.  They realized that when MCP1 is released by bone marrow cells after a heart attack, it stimulates a flood of immune cells to leave the bone marrow and travel to the heart. Researchers realize that by delivering RNA that targets MCP1 reduced the number of immune cells that went to the heart after a heart attack.

Using these new particles, researchers hypothesized that they could further develop treatments for heart disease and other conditions.



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Monitoring AML with “cell specific” blood test

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator



‘Liquid Biopsy’ Blood Test Replaces Painful Bone Marrow Biopsy for Leukemia

Mon, 01/11/2016  by BioFluidica, Inc.  http://www.mdtmag.com/news/2016/01/liquid-biopsy-blood-test-replaces-painful-bone-marrow-biopsy-leukemia


BioFluidica, Inc. has released the clinical data for minimal residual disease detection in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) patients using circulating leukemic cells selected from blood. The data was published in the peer reviewed journal the Analyst (141 (2016) 640). AML is a rapidly developing leukemic disease with ~20,000 cases reported in 2015 with a 5-year survival rate of only 25%.

The goal of this study was to detect early stages of disease relapse following stem cell transplantation. Currently AML relapse is detected using bone marrow biopsy samples that are painful for the patient and using existing commercial tests, limits the frequency of testing and thus resulting in poor outcomes for AML patients. The paper describes that using BioFluidica’s analytical technology relapse could be detected nearly 2 months earlier than conventional tests. In addition, test frequency could be significantly increased using BioFluidica’s technology compared to tests requiring bone marrow biopsies.

Professor Steven A. Soper, the scientific founder of BioFluidica and co-author of the paper with Dr. Paul Armistead, a hematologist, both at the University of North Carolina states that “the use of a blood test compared to a bone marrow biopsy would be a tremendous advancement in diagnostic capability that can dramatically improve the survival rate of patients with AML.”

BioFluidica is developing innovative technologies for the isolation and analysis of rare, circulating biomarkers in the blood. The company’s first platform has the capacity to isolate circulating tumor cells, exosomes and cfDNA from the blood with unprecedented recovery and purity. The technology is based on patented microfluidics designs which has been clinically validated for 6 different cancer types including Colorectal, Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Ovarian, Breast, Multiple Myeloma and AML. Additionally, stroke detection and infectious disease identification have also obtained clinical validation using the BioFluidica test. The company was cofounded by Dr. Soper who is currently a Professor in Biomedical Engineering and Chemistry at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH). He is also Director of a new center on the UNC-CH campus, Center for BioModular Multi-scale Systems for Precision Medicine, focused on developing new tools for the molecular analysis of circulating biomarkers.

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Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

The Bone Marrow Niche, Stem Cells, and Leukemia: Impact of Drugs, Chemicals, and the Environment

May 29 – 31, 2013
The New York Academy of Sciences

Presented by Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and the New York Academy of Sciences

Register Now

Over 20,000 Americans are diagnosed each year with bone marrow failure syndromes. Environmental, chemical, and genetic factors have been linked to the development of lymphomas, leukemias, and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Additionally, some anti-cancer drugs have been shown to themselves induce DNA damage and secondary cancers. In light of increasing societal exposure to toxic environmental agents that may be carcinogenic, including chemicals and pharmaceuticals, we face the potential for a rise in the incidence of bone marrow failure and malignancy. In order to better understand leukemia it may be necessary to examine it from the perspective that it is an environmental disease.

To date, two separate groups of scientists and physicians have been studying bone marrow: toxicologists who examine the effects of chemicals and the environment on healthy marrow, and hematologists and oncologists who investigate bone marrow abnormalities and malignancies. Thus, there is a clear, unmet need for collaboration between these fields within academia, industry, and government in order to accelerate our investigation and understanding both of basic bone marrow biology and chemically-induced diseases of the marrow.

This 2.5-day conference will bring together representatives from two areas of research, toxicology and hematology, around a jointly shared goal — to better understand, prevent, and treat myeloid neoplasms. Conference Sessions will combine basic science and toxicology research at the level of the bone marrow niche with clinical findings from healthy subjects and patients. Topics for discussion will include bone marrow niche structure and function, the maturation and differentiation of healthy and leukemogenic hematopoietic stem cells, and the environmental, chemical, and genetic factors involved in the development of myeloid abnormalities including MDS and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The meeting will feature a series of plenary lectures, panel discussions, a poster session, and short talk presentations selected from abstracts submitted by early career investigators.

Organizing Committee*

Conference Organizers

Michael A. Gallo, PhD

Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute; Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Helmut Greim, MD

Technical University of Munich

Robert Snyder, PhD (Chair)

Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute; Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Subcommittee Chairs


Robert Snyder, PhD

Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute; Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

International Advisory Committee:

Helmut Greim, MD

Technical University of Munich


Debra Kaden, PhD

Environ International Corporation


Richard Larson, MD

University of Chicago

David Ross, PhD

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus


Jerry M. Rice, PhD

Georgetown University Medical Center

* Please click on the Speakers tab for a complete listing of the Organizing Committee

Registration Pricing

By 4/26/2013 After 4/26/2013 Onsite
Member $350 $400 $500
Student/Postdoc Member $200 $250 $300
Nonmember (Academia) $400 $450 $550
Nonmember (Corporate) $500 $550 $650
Nonmember (Non-profit) $400 $450 $550
Nonmember (Student / Postdoc / Fellow) $200 $250 $300

Registration includes a complimentary, one-year membership to the New York Academy of Sciences. Complimentary memberships are provided to non-members only and cannot be used to renew or extend existing or expiring memberships. A welcome email will be sent upon registration which will include your membership credentials.

Presented by

  • The New York Academy of Sciences
  • Rutgers University


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Positioning a Therapeutic Concept for Endogenous Augmentation of cEPCs — Therapeutic Indications for Macrovascular Disease: Coronary, Cerebrovascular and Peripheral

Author and Investigator Initiated Study: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN


Macrovascular Disease – Therapeutic Potential of cEPCs: Promise for CV Risk Reduction

  • Introduction
  • Biomarker Discovery – a comprehensive Post on this topic is forthcoming
  • What are our Contributions in the Domain of Macrovascular Disease – Therapeutic Potential of cEPCs: Reduction Methods for CV Risk
  • Postulates of Multiple Indications for the Method Presented: Positioning of a Therapeutic Concept for Endogenous Augmentation of cEPCs — Potential Therapeutic Indications for ElectEagle
  • A Three Component Method for Endogenous Augmentation of cEPCs — Macrovascular Diseases – Therapeutic Potential of cEPCs
  • The Promise of the Proposed Pharmacotherapy as a Method of CVD Risk Reduction
  • Emergence of Clinical Trial Results on Genous R stent — Healthy Endothelial Accelerated Lining Inhibits Neointimal Growth – (HEALING II)
  • Conclusions
  • References

Key words: coronary artery disease, circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells (cEPCs), Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPC), genetic engineering, CVD, CAD, CHF, myocardial infarction, neovascularization, vascular repair, “multimarker biomarker”, macrovascular disease, Endogenous Augmentation of cEPCs, Primary Endpoint, Secondary Endpoint.

Abbreviations used: ED, endothelial dysfunction; CAD, coronary artery disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; cEPCs, circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells; EPC, Endothelial Progenitor Cells; CHF, congestive heart failure; MI, myocardial infarction; MNC, mononuclear cells; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; BMMNCs, bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells; G-CSF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; SDF, stromal derived factor; PB-MNCs, peripheral blood-mononuclear cells; EF, ejection fraction; PO2, partial pressure of oxygen; BMS, bare-metal stent; CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; DES, drug-eluting stent; GP, glycoprotein; LAD, left anterior descending; LCx, left circumflex; MI, myocardial infarction; RCA, right coronary artery; S/P , status-post stent implantation; MACE, Major Adverse Cardiac Events; TLR, target lesion revascularization; TVR, target vessel revascularization; TVF, target lesion vessel failure; eNOS, endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase 


Cardinal to the study of reendothelialization and neovascularization is the mechanism of action (MOA) of EPCs. It requires exact biological phenotype of the true EPC and its MOA on the endothelium. Is the EPC autocrine or paracrine in its functional role? It is critical to understand this biological unknown for planning therapeutic approaches. Patients with unstable angina and no evidence of cardiac necrosis exhibited increased cEPCs. Systemic inflammation and recognized growth factors may play a role in peripheral mobilization of EPCs in patients with unstable anginal syndromes. Proportion of cEPCs in coronary ischemia, acute or chronic and its potential for restoring left ventricular dysfunction is still experimental. EC injury facilitates an accelerated development of atherosclerotic plaque which triggers cardiovascular risk factors where the magnitude of the endothelial dysfunction predicts the level of risk for a macrovascular event (George, 2004).

Diminished level of cEPCs is associated with risk factors for CVD implicating impaired endothelial repair as a contributor to a dynamic state of endothelial dysfunction. cEPCs is further reduced if multiple risk factors for CVD are present. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with cEPCs counts. It is only if cEPCs counts are low then endothelial dysfunction (ED) emerges. In the case of ED, the cells were more senescent compared with an age group without CVD and the risk factors involved with it. Impaired repair capacity due to reduced availability of cEPCs enhances the exposure to risk factors when injury occurs due to endothelial denudation, ischemic tissue, neointima build up and remodeling.

Mobilization and EPC-mediated neovascularization is critically regulated. Statins and physical exercise are stimulatory while risk factors for CAD are inhibitory in the modulation function of the level of cEPCs. Recruitment of cEPCs requires a coordinated sequence of adhesive and signaling events including adhesion and migration by integrins, chemoattraction of SDF-1/CXCR4 and differentiation of EC.

Bone-marrow derived cells in the circulating blood have an endothelial phenotype and peripheral blood can be cultured to generate ECs. cEPCs provide both diagnostic and prognostic information on CVD. EPCs are analyzed by their phenotypic markers, as discerned by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis as well as by their functional capability to produce colonies in culture conditions.

Kiernan (2006) identifies the two classes of therapeutic applications of cEPCs: (a) induction of angiogenesis and (b) large vessel repair. Transplantation of autologous EPCs over-expressing eNOS in injured vessels enhances the vasculoprotective properties of the reconstituted endothelium, leading to inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia. This cell-based gene therapy strategy may be useful in treatment of vascular disease. Stents coated in CD34 antibody which binds to the CD34 antigen of cEPCs have the capability to promote re-endothelialisation in minutes to hours. This mechanism seeks to restore the normal biology of the vessel wall rather than perpetuate the wall disruption as drug eluting stents are found recently to be implicated to cause both restenosis and thrombosis (Tung et al., 2006). Thus, cEPCs are of cardinal importance in healing cardiovascular injury. Identification of augmentation methods which are endogenous in nature, are systemic rather than local, as cell-based therapy is, and therefore, it will deliver systemic protective measures against atherosclerosis delaying angioplasty and potentially avoiding cell implantation or vascular engrafting.

Biomarker Discovery – a comprehensive Post on this topic is forthcoming

A comprehensive review of “Traditional” vs. “Novel” risk markers for cardiovascular disease was recently undertaken by Folsom et al., (2006) and the Editorial to this article by Lloyd-Jones and Tian (2006). Among the “Traditional” Risk Markers, they list: Age, Race, Sex, Total/HDL levels, Smoking Status, Diabetes, Systolic BP and Use of antihypertensive  drugs. The list of “Novel” Risk Markers is impressively longer and includes: CRP, Lp-PLA2, E-Selectin, Fibrinogen, PAI-1, Vitamin B6, D-dimer, ICAM-1, Homocysteine, IL-6, HSV-1 Antibody, CMV Antibody and Folate.

Only two risk factors make the top five list following the data adjustment to Age and /or All the Traditional Risk Factors, respectively, I would conclude that only the following two are of paramount importance for clinical application and drug therapy design.

Risk Factor RANKING

Risk Factor RANKING if

Data Adjusted to


Risk Factor RANKING if

Data Adjusted to

All “Traditional” Risk Factors

1 Chlamydia Intracellular adhesion molecule
2 Lp-PLA2 lipoprotein-associatedphospholipase A2 Cytomegalovirus
3 Tisshe Plasminogen Activator D-Dimer
4 Tissue inhibitor of Metalloproteinase1 IL-6
5 Intracellular adhesion molecule Tissue inhibitor of Metalloproteinase1

In light of these results, chiefly edified by Folsom et al., (2006)  conclusion that: “Based on the totality of evidence, however, CRP level does not emerge as a clinically useful addition to basic risk factor assessment for identifying patients at risk of a first CHD event.” (Folsom, 2006, 1372).

What are our Contributions in the Domain of

Macrovascular Disease – Therapeutic Potential of cEPCs: Reduction Methods for CV Risk

(a) This is the first paper to look at cEPCs from two academic schools of thought.  One, represented by the review article of Dzau et al., Hypertension, 2005 with 122 references which treats cEPCs from two perspectives: Vascular Biology and Molecular Cardiology. The other, is the review article by Lapidot & Petit, Experimental Hematology, 2002 with 86 references which treats cEPCs as stem cells and covers the research in Immunology and in Hematology, cEPCs is circulating in our blood, it is a stem cell! The overlap between the references N=122 in Dzau and N=86 in Lapidot & Petit is zero. These two schools do not cite the findings of the other school. That happens when both schools (Vascular Biology/Molecular Cardiology) and (Immunology/Hematology), BOTH schools are researching the same biologic phenomenon, i.e., one circulating EPC. We are the first to put together in one paper the two schools in the context of cEPCs. The pathophysiology of cECs, cEPCs and Trans-Endothelium Cell Migration in one location.

(b) Table of content of Part I yielded a theoretical treatment of cEPCs not in existence anywhere.  We defined for the first time that the Clinical Frontier for cEPCs is of quadruple nature: (Vascular Biology/Molecular Cardiology) PLUS (Immunology/Hematology). We made the statement that the Clinical Frontier has 20 Future Fast Acting Therapy modality currently under research. We cited the limitation of exogenous methods for augmentation of cEPCs as a scientifically derived justification for our selection of an endogenous augmentation method.

Upon selection of the endogenous method, we specified three components:

–   inhibition of ET-1

–   induction of eNOS

–   stimulation of PPAR-gamma

The proposed combination drug therapy yielded a new multimarker biomarker for reduction of CVD risk for macrovascular events, called the ElectEagle Version I. We specified the potential indications for the ElectEagle Version I method in terms of cardiovascular disease and co-morbidity with other endothelial dysfunction derived disease.

Method name:            ElectEagle


E – Efficient

L – Ligands of cEPCs

E – Elective and Individualized Diagnosis and Therapy

C – Cardiovascular diseases & secondary sequalea

T – Treatment adjustable by three agents


E – Endogenous

A – Augmentation

G – Gamma-PPAReceptor

L – Ligand occupied ETA and ETA-ETB – binding Nitric Oxide

E – EPCs fast generator

ElectEaglestands for an Efficient Ligands of cEPCs Elective and Individualized Diagnosis and Therapy for Cardiovascular diseases & secondary vascular sequalea, using Treatment adjustable by three agents. It is a method for Endogenous Augmentation of circulating EPCs by using Gamma-PPAR agonists, inhibitors of Ligand occupied ETA and ETA-ETB and agonist for binding Nitric Oxide and induce eNOS.

A Three Component Method for Endogenous Augmentation of cEPCs — Macrovascular Diseases – Therapeutic Potential of cEPCs

Observations on Intellectual Property Development For an Unrecognized Future Fast Acting Therapy for Patients at High Risk for Macrovascular events

ElectEagle represents a discovery of a novel “multimarker biomarker” for cardiovascular disease that innovates on four counts.

First, it proposes new therapeutic indications for acceptable drugs.

Second, it defines a specific combination of therapeutic agents, thus, it put forth a proprietary drug combination.

Third, it targets receptor systems that have not been addressed in the context of cEPCs augmentation methods. Chiefly, modulation of the following three-targeted receptor systems: (a) inhibition of ET-1, ETA and ETA-ETB receptors by antagonists (b) induction of eNOS, by agonists and NO stimulation and (c) upregulation of PPAReceptor-gamma by agonists (TZD). While (b) and (c) are implicated as having favorable effects of cEPCs count, each exerting its effect by a different pathway, it is suggested in this project that (a) might be identify to be the more powerful of the three markers. Our method, ElectEagleis the FIRST to postulate the following: (1) time concentration dependence on eNOS reuptake (2) dose concentration dependence on NO production (3) time and dose concentration dependence for ET-1, ETA and ETA-ETB inhibition, and (4) dose concentration dependence on PPAReceptor-gamma. Points First, Second and Third are covered in Part II where a special focus is placed on ET-1, ETA and ETA-ETB receptors.

Fourth, ElectEagle proposes a platform with triple modes of delivery and use of the test, as described in Part III. The triple modes are as follows: (A) an automated platform from a centralized lab with integration to Lab’s information management system. (B) a point-of-care testing device with appropriate display of test results (small benchtop analyzers in PCP office). (C) a device used for home monitoring of analytes (the hand-held device facilitates rapid read of scores and their translation to drug concentration of each of the three therapeutic agents, with computation of the three drug concentrations done by the device. Thus, it offers quicker optimization of treatment.  ElectEagle is the FIRST to propose a CVD patient kit, hand-held device, which calculates on demand an adjustable therapeutic regimen as a function of cEPCs count biomarker. In this regard, a similarity to the pump, in management of blood sugar in DM patients, exists. Since there is a high co-morbidity between DM and CVD, our methods, ElectEagle may eventually become a targeted therapy for the DM Type 2 population.

Postulates of Multiple Indications for the Method Presented: Positioning of a Therapeutic Concept for Endogenous Augmentation of cEPCs — Potential Therapeutic Indications for ElectEagle

ElectEagle can become the drug therapy of choice for the following indications:

  •      CAD patients
  •      Endothelial Dysfunction in DM patients with or without Erectile Dysfunction
  •      Atherosclerosis patients: Arteries and or veins
  •      pre-stenting treatment phase
  •      post-stenting treatment phase
  •      if stent is a Bare Metal stent (BMS)
  •      if stent is Drug Eluting stent (DES)
  •      if stent is EPC antibody coated (the ElectEagle method increase cEPCs generation in vitro) so availability of cEPCs is increased
  •      post CABG patients (the ElectEagle enhances healing by endogenous augmentation of cEPCs)
  •      target sub segments of CVD patients on blood thinner drugs (the ElectEagle does not require treatment with antiplatelet agents, it is suitable for all patients on Coumadin. This population have a counter indication for antiplatelet agents which is a follow up treatment after stent implantation for 30 days, with stent-eluting long term regimen of antiplatelet agents, 6 months and in some cases indefinitely (Tung, 2006).
  •      ElectEagle is based on systemic therapeutics (versus the localized stent solution requiring multiple and even overlapping stents)
  •      ElectEagle will be having potential in three contexts

(a) Coronary disease

(b) Periphery vascular disease

(c) Cerebrovascular

Comparative analysis of endogenous and exogenous cEPCs augmentation methods:

A. Endogenous augmentation method properties:

  •         temporal – while drug therapy in use – drug action is interruptible
  •         time concentration on eNOS reuptake
  •         dose concentration on NO production
  •         time and dose concentration manner for ETB inhibition
  •         dose concentration on PPAR-gamma

B.  Cell-based and other exogenous methods

  • permanent colonization till apoptosis if no repeated attempts of re-transfer,
  • re-implantation as the protocol usually has several stages

The Promise of the Proposed Pharmacotherapy as a Method of CVD Risk Reduction

It is expected that ElectEagle will be resulting in potential delay of stenting implantation. Patients that are target for stenting may benefit form ElectEagle that will facilitate and accelerate healing after the stent is in place. EPC antibody coated stents will work if and only if the patient has more that just low cEPCs, most patient undergoing stenting tend to have low level of cEPC. The ElectEagle method can be coupled with that type of new stents, called Genous, now in clinical trials (HEALING II, III). These stents enhance the body ability in mobilization of cEPCs, only. However, if the initial population of cEPCs is low, an endogenous fast acting cell augmentation method is needed for pretreatment before the PCI procedure with Genous is scheduled.

Emergence of Clinical Trial Results on Genous R stent — Healthy Endothelial Accelerated Lining Inhibits Neointimal Growth – (HEALING II)

Latest publications on HEALING II – Clinical Trial of EPC coated stent

Genous R stent
Healthy Endothelial Accelerated Lining Inhibits Neointimal Growth – II

S Silber et al; 12 Month Outcomes of the e-HEALING (Healthy Endothelial Accelerated Lining Inhibits Neointimal Growth) Worldwide Registry; EuroIntervention 2011;6:819-825

P Damman et al; Coronary Stenting With the Genous Bio-engineered R stent in Elderly Patients – 12-month Outcomes From the e-HEALING Registry; Circulation Journal 2011;75(11):2590-2597

P Damman et al; Twelve-month Outcomes After Coronary Stenting With the Genous Bio-Engineered R Stent in Diabetic Patients from the e-HEALING Registry; Journal of Interventional Cardiology 2011;24(4):285-94 

J Aoki et al; Endothelial progenitor cell capture by stents coated with antibody against CD34: the HEALING-FIM (Healthy Endothelial Accelerated Lining Inhibits Neointimal Growth-First In Man) Registry.J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 2005 May 17;45(10):1574-9


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Aoki, J., Serruys, P.W., van Beusekom, H., Ong, A.T., McFadden, E.P., Sianos, G., et al. (2005). Endothelial progenitor cell capture by stents coated with antibody against CD34: the HEALING-FIM (Healthy Endothelial Accelerated Lining Inhibits Neointimal Growth-First In Man) Registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 45 (10), 1574–1579.

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Assmus B, Schachlinger V, Teupe C, Britten M, Lehmann R, Dobert N, Grunwald F, Aicher A, Urbich C, Martin H, Hoelzer D, Dimmeler S, Zeiher AM, (2002). Transplantation of progenitor cells and regeneration enhancement in acute myocardial infarction (TOPCARE-AMI). Circulation, 106:3009 –3017

Bennett MR, O’Sullivan MO (2001). Mechanisms of angioplasty and stent restenosis: implications for design of rational therapy. Pharmacol Ther., 91:149 –166.

Ben-Shoshan, J and George, J. (2006). Endothelial progenitor cells as therapeutic vectors in cardiovascular disorders: from experimental models to human trials  Pharmacology Therapeutics (impact factor: 8.9). 08/2007; 115(1):25-36.

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Britten MB, Abolmaali ND, Assmus B, Lehman R, Honold J, Schmitt J, Vogl TJ, Martin H, Schachinger V, Dimmeler S, Zeiher AM, (2003). Infarct remodeling after intracoronary progenitor cell treatment in patients with acute myocardial infarction (TOPCARE-AMI): mechanistic insights from serial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation, 108:2212–2218.

Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation in Type 2 Diabetics (BARI 2D) ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00006305, 2000-2007


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Reporter: Aviral Vatsa MBBS PHD


Wnt signaling is essential for osteogenesis and also functions as an adipogenic switch, but it is not known if interrupting wnt signaling via knockout of β‐catenin from osteoblasts would cause bone marrow adiposity. In this study the authors determined whether postnatal deletion of β‐catenin in preosteoblasts, through conditional cre expression driven by the osterix promoter, causes bone marrow adiposity. Postnatal disruption of β‐catenin in the preosteoblasts led to extensive bone marrow adiposity and low bone mass in adult mice. In cultured bone marrow‐derived cells isolated from the knockout mice, adipogenic differentiation was dramatically increased, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly decreased. As myoblasts, in the absence of wnt/β‐catenin signaling, can be reprogrammed into the adipocyte lineage, we sought to determine whether the increased adipogenesis we observed partly resulted from a cell‐fate shift of preosteoblasts that had to express osterix, (lineage‐committed early osteoblasts), from the osteoblastic to the adipocyte lineage. Using lineage tracing both in vivo and in vitro we demonstrated that the loss of β‐catenin from preosteoblasts caused a cell‐fate shift of these cells from osteoblasts to adipocytes, a shift that may at least partly contribute to the bone marrow adiposity and low bone mass in the knockout mice. These novel findings indicate that wnt/β‐catenin signaling exerts control over the fate of lineage‐committed early osteoblasts, with respect to their differentiation into osteoblastic vs. adipocytic populations in bone, and thus offers potential insight into the origin of bone marrow adiposity. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

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