Advertisements
Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Posts Tagged ‘immune system’


Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

During pregnancy, the baby is mostly protected from harmful microorganisms by the amniotic sac, but recent research suggests the baby could be exposed to small quantities of microbes from the placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood and fetal membranes. One theory is that any possible prenatal exposure could ‘pre-seed’ the infant microbiome. In other words, to set the right conditions for the ‘main seeding event’ for founding the infant microbiome.

When a mother gives birth vaginally and if she breastfeeds, she passes on colonies of essential microbes to her baby. This continues a chain of maternal heritage that stretches through female ancestry for thousands of generations, if all have been vaginally born and breastfed. This means a child’s microbiome, that is the trillions of microorganisms that live on and in him or her, will resemble the microbiome of his/her mother, the grandmother, the great-grandmother and so on, if all have been vaginally born and breastfed.

As soon as the mother’s waters break, suddenly the baby is exposed to a wave of the mother’s vaginal microbes that wash over the baby in the birth canal. They coat the baby’s skin, and enter the baby’s eyes, ears, nose and some are swallowed to be sent down into the gut. More microbes form of the mother’s gut microbes join the colonization through contact with the mother’s faecal matter. Many more microbes come from every breath, from every touch including skin-to-skin contact with the mother and of course, from breastfeeding.

With formula feeding, the baby won’t receive the 700 species of microbes found in breast milk. Inside breast milk, there are special sugars called human milk oligosaccharides (HMO’s) that are indigestible by the baby. These sugars are designed to feed the mother’s microbes newly arrived in the baby’s gut. By multiplying quickly, the ‘good’ bacteria crowd out any potentially harmful pathogens. These ‘good’ bacteria help train the baby’s naive immune system, teaching it to identify what is to be tolerated and what is pathogen to be attacked. This leads to the optimal training of the infant immune system resulting in a child’s best possible lifelong health.

With C-section birth and formula feeding, the baby is not likely to acquire the full complement of the mother’s vaginal, gut and breast milk microbes. Therefore, the baby’s microbiome is not likely to closely resemble the mother’s microbiome. A baby born by C-section is likely to have a different microbiome from its mother, its grandmother, its great-grandmother and so on. C-section breaks the chain of maternal heritage and this break can never be restored.

The long term effect of an altered microbiome for a child’s lifelong health is still to be proven, but many studies link C-section with a significantly increased risk for developing asthma, Type 1 diabetes, celiac disease and obesity. Scientists might not yet have all the answers, but the picture that is forming is that C-section and formula feeding could be significantly impacting the health of the next generation. Through the transgenerational aspect to birth, it could even be impacting the health of future generations.

References:

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/shortchanging-a-babys-microbiome/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23926244

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26412384

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25290507

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25974306

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24637604

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22911969

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25650398

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27362264

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27306663

http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/14/11/2036

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4464665/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24848255

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26412384

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28112736

http://ndnr.com/gastrointestinal/the-infant-microbiome-how-environmental-maternal-factors-influence-its-development/

Advertisements

Read Full Post »


New subgroups of ILC immune cells discovered through single-cell RNA sequencing

Reporter: Stephen J Williams, PhD

 

SOURCE

http://ki.se/en/news/new-subgroups-of-ilc-immune-cells-discovered-through-single-cell-rna-sequencing?elqTrackId=f79885cef36049e281109c02da213910&elq=ac700a4d4374478b9d6e10e301ae6b90&elqaid=14707&elqat=1&elqCampaignId=14

Updated on 2016-02-15. Published on 2016-02-15Denna sida på svenska

Jenny Mjösberg and Rickard Sandberg are principal investigators at Karolinska Institutet’s Department of Medicine, Huddinge and Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, respectively. Credit: Stefan Zimmerman.

A relatively newly discovered group of immune cells known as ILCs have been examined in detail in a new study published in the journal Nature Immunology. By analysing the gene expression in individual tonsil cells, scientists at Karolinska Institutet have found three previously unknown subgroups of ILCs, and revealed more about how these cells function in the human body.

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of immune cells that have only relatively recently been discovered in humans. Most of current knowledge about ILCs stems from animal studies of e.g. inflammation or infection in the gastrointestinal tract. There is therefore an urgent need to learn more about these cells in humans.

Previous studies have shown that ILCs are important for maintaining the barrier function of the mucosa, which serves as a first line of defence against microorganisms in the lungs, intestines and elsewhere. However, while there is growing evidence to suggest that ILCs are involved in diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, asthma and intestinal cancer, basic research still needs to be done to ascertain exactly what part they play.

Two research groups, led by Rickard Sandberg and Jenny Mjösberg, collaborated on a study of ILCs from human tonsils. To date, three main groups of human ILCs are characterized. In this present study, the teams used a novel approach that enabled them to sort individual tonsil cells and measure their expression across thousands of  genes. This way, the researchers managed to categorise hundreds of cells, one by one, to define the types of ILCs found in the human tonsils.

Unique gene expression profiles

Rickard Sandberg, credit: Stefan Zimmerman,

“We used cluster analyses to demonstrate that ILCs congregate into ILC1, ILC2, ILC3 and NK cells, based on their unique gene expression profiles,” says Professor Sandberg at Karolinska Institutet’sDepartment of Cell and Molecular Biology, and the Stockholm branch of Ludwig Cancer Research. “Our analyses also discovered the expression of numerous genes of previously unknown function in ILCs, highlighting that these cells are likely doing more than what we previously knew.”

By analysing the gene expression profiles (or transcriptome) of individual cells, the researchers found that one of the formerly known main groups could be subdivided.

Jenny Mjösberg, credit: Stefan Zimmerman.

“We’ve identified three new subgroups of ILC3s that evince different gene expression patterns and that differ in how they react to signalling molecules and in their ability to secrete proteins,” says Dr Mjösberg at Karolinska Institutet’s Department of Medicine in Huddinge, South Stockholm. “All in all, our study has taught us a lot about this relatively uncharacterised family of cells and our data will serve as an important resource for other researchers.”

The study was financed by grants from a number of bodies, including the Swedish Research Council, the Swedish Cancer Society, the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, the Swedish Society for Medical Research, the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research and Karolinska Institutet.

Publication

The heterogeneity of human CD127+ innate lymphoid cells revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing
Åsa K. Björklund, Marianne Forkel, Simone Picelli, Viktoria Konya, Jakob Theorell, Danielle Friberg, Rickard Sandberg, Jenny Mjösberg
Nature Immunology, online 15 February 2016, doi:10.1038/ni.3368

Read Full Post »

Proteomics, Metabolomics, Signaling Pathways, and Cell Regulation: a Compilation of Articles in the Journal http://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com


Compilation of References by Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence in the Journal http://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com about
Proteomics, Metabolomics, Signaling Pathways, and Cell Regulation

Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

Proteomics

  1. The Human Proteome Map Completed

Reporter and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/28/the-human-proteome-map-completed/

  1. Proteomics – The Pathway to Understanding and Decision-making in Medicine

Author and Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/06/24/proteomics-the-pathway-to-
understanding-and-decision-making-in-medicine/

3. Advances in Separations Technology for the “OMICs” and Clarification of Therapeutic Targets

Author and Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/22/advances-in-separations-technology-for-the-omics-and-clarification-         of-therapeutic-targets/

  1. Expanding the Genetic Alphabet and Linking the Genome to the Metabolome

Author and Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/24/expanding-the-genetic-alphabet-and-linking-the-genome-to-the-                metabolome/

5. Genomics, Proteomics and standards

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Author and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/06/genomics-proteomics-and-standards/

6. Proteins and cellular adaptation to stress

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Author and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/08/proteins-and-cellular-adaptation-to-stress/

 

Metabolomics

  1. Extracellular evaluation of intracellular flux in yeast cells

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/25/extracellular-evaluation-of-intracellular-flux-in-yeast-cells/

  1. Metabolomic analysis of two leukemia cell lines. I.

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/23/metabolomic-analysis-of-two-leukemia-cell-lines-_i/

  1. Metabolomic analysis of two leukemia cell lines. II.

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/24/metabolomic-analysis-of-two-leukemia-cell-lines-ii/

  1. Metabolomics, Metabonomics and Functional Nutrition: the next step in nutritional metabolism and biotherapeutics

Reviewer and Curator, Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/22/metabolomics-metabonomics-and-functional-nutrition-the-next-step-          in-nutritional-metabolism-and-biotherapeutics/

  1. Buffering of genetic modules involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism provides homeomeostatic regulation

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/27/buffering-of-genetic-modules-involved-in-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-              metabolism-provides-homeomeostatic-regulation/

Metabolic Pathways

  1. Pentose Shunt, Electron Transfer, Galactose, more Lipids in brief

Reviewer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/21/pentose-shunt-electron-transfer-galactose-more-lipids-in-brief/

  1. Mitochondria: More than just the “powerhouse of the cell”

Ritu Saxena, PhD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/09/mitochondria-more-than-just-the-powerhouse-of-the-cell/

  1. Mitochondrial fission and fusion: potential therapeutic targets?

Ritu saxena

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/31/mitochondrial-fission-and-fusion-potential-therapeutic-target/

4.  Mitochondrial mutation analysis might be “1-step” away

Ritu Saxena

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/14/mitochondrial-mutation-analysis-might-be-1-step-away/

  1. Selected References to Signaling and Metabolic Pathways in PharmaceuticalIntelligence.com

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/14/selected-references-to-signaling-and-metabolic-pathways-in-                     leaders-in-pharmaceutical-intelligence/

  1. Metabolic drivers in aggressive brain tumors

Prabodh Kandal, PhD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/11/metabolic-drivers-in-aggressive-brain-tumors/

  1. Metabolite Identification Combining Genetic and Metabolic Information: Genetic association links unknown metabolites to functionally related genes

Writer and Curator, Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/22/metabolite-identification-combining-genetic-and-metabolic-                        information-genetic-association-links-unknown-metabolites-to-functionally-related-genes/

  1. Mitochondria: Origin from oxygen free environment, role in aerobic glycolysis, metabolic adaptation

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, author and curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/26/mitochondria-origin-from-oxygen-free-environment-role-in-aerobic-            glycolysis-metabolic-adaptation/

  1. Therapeutic Targets for Diabetes and Related Metabolic Disorders

Reporter, Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/20/therapeutic-targets-for-diabetes-and-related-metabolic-disorders/

10.  Buffering of genetic modules involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism provides homeomeostatic regulation

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/27/buffering-of-genetic-modules-involved-in-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-              metabolism-provides-homeomeostatic-regulation/

11. The multi-step transfer of phosphate bond and hydrogen exchange energy

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator:

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/19/the-multi-step-transfer-of-phosphate-bond-and-hydrogen-                          exchange-energy/

12. Studies of Respiration Lead to Acetyl CoA

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/18/studies-of-respiration-lead-to-acetyl-coa/

13. Lipid Metabolism

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/15/lipid-metabolism/

14. Carbohydrate Metabolism

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/13/carbohydrate-metabolism/

15. Update on mitochondrial function, respiration, and associated disorders

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Author and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/08/update-on-mitochondrial-function-respiration-and-associated-                   disorders/

16. Prologue to Cancer – e-book Volume One – Where are we in this journey?

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/04/13/prologue-to-cancer-ebook-4-where-are-we-in-this-journey/

17. Introduction – The Evolution of Cancer Therapy and Cancer Research: How We Got Here?

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/04/04/introduction-the-evolution-of-cancer-therapy-and-cancer-research-          how-we-got-here/

18. Inhibition of the Cardiomyocyte-Specific Kinase TNNI3K

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/11/01/inhibition-of-the-cardiomyocyte-specific-kinase-tnni3k/

19. The Binding of Oligonucleotides in DNA and 3-D Lattice Structures

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/15/the-binding-of-oligonucleotides-in-dna-and-3-d-lattice-structures/

20. Mitochondrial Metabolism and Cardiac Function

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/14/mitochondrial-metabolism-and-cardiac-function/

21. How Methionine Imbalance with Sulfur-Insufficiency Leads to Hyperhomocysteinemia

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/04/sulfur-deficiency-leads_to_hyperhomocysteinemia/

22. AMPK Is a Negative Regulator of the Warburg Effect and Suppresses Tumor Growth In Vivo

Author and Curator: Stephen J. Williams, PhD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/03/12/ampk-is-a-negative-regulator-of-the-warburg-effect-and-suppresses-         tumor-growth-in-vivo/

23. A Second Look at the Transthyretin Nutrition Inflammatory Conundrum

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/03/a-second-look-at-the-transthyretin-nutrition-inflammatory-                         conundrum/

24. Mitochondrial Damage and Repair under Oxidative Stress

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/28/mitochondrial-damage-and-repair-under-oxidative-stress/

25. Nitric Oxide and Immune Responses: Part 2

Author and Curator: Aviral Vatsa, PhD, MBBS

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/28/nitric-oxide-and-immune-responses-part-2/

26. Overview of Posttranslational Modification (PTM)

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/29/overview-of-posttranslational-modification-ptm/

27. Malnutrition in India, high newborn death rate and stunting of children age under five years

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/15/malnutrition-in-india-high-newborn-death-rate-and-stunting-of-                   children-age-under-five-years/

28. Update on mitochondrial function, respiration, and associated disorders

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/08/update-on-mitochondrial-function-respiration-and-associated-                  disorders/

29. Omega-3 fatty acids, depleting the source, and protein insufficiency in renal disease

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/06/omega-3-fatty-acids-depleting-the-source-and-protein-insufficiency-         in-renal-disease/

30. Introduction to e-Series A: Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume Four Part 2: Regenerative Medicine

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, writer, and Aviva Lev- Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/04/27/larryhbernintroduction_to_cardiovascular_diseases-                                  translational_medicine-part_2/

31. Epilogue: Envisioning New Insights in Cancer Translational Biology
Series C: e-Books on Cancer & Oncology

Author & Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Series C Content Consultant

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/03/29/epilogue-envisioning-new-insights/

32. Ca2+-Stimulated Exocytosis:  The Role of Calmodulin and Protein Kinase C in Ca2+ Regulation of Hormone                         and Neurotransmitter

Writer and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and
Curator and Content Editor: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/23/calmodulin-and-protein-kinase-c-drive-the-ca2-regulation-of-                    hormone-and-neurotransmitter-release-that-triggers-ca2-stimulated-exocy

33. Cardiac Contractility & Myocardial Performance: Therapeutic Implications of Ryanopathy (Calcium Release-                           related Contractile Dysfunction) and Catecholamine Responses

Author, and Content Consultant to e-SERIES A: Cardiovascular Diseases: Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC
Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP
and Article Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/28/cardiac-contractility-myocardium-performance-ventricular-arrhythmias-      and-non-ischemic-heart-failure-therapeutic-implications-for-cardiomyocyte-ryanopathy-calcium-release-related-                    contractile/

34. Role of Calcium, the Actin Skeleton, and Lipid Structures in Signaling and Cell Motility

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP Author: Stephen Williams, PhD, and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/26/role-of-calcium-the-actin-skeleton-and-lipid-structures-in-signaling-and-cell-motility/

35. Identification of Biomarkers that are Related to the Actin Cytoskeleton

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Author and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/10/identification-of-biomarkers-that-are-related-to-the-actin-                           cytoskeleton/

36. Advanced Topics in Sepsis and the Cardiovascular System at its End Stage

Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/18/advanced-topics-in-Sepsis-and-the-Cardiovascular-System-at-its-              End-Stage/

37. The Delicate Connection: IDO (Indolamine 2, 3 dehydrogenase) and Cancer Immunology

Demet Sag, PhD, Author and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/04/the-delicate-connection-ido-indolamine-2-3-dehydrogenase-and-               immunology/

38. IDO for Commitment of a Life Time: The Origins and Mechanisms of IDO, indolamine 2, 3-dioxygenase

Demet Sag, PhD, Author and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/04/ido-for-commitment-of-a-life-time-the-origins-and-mechanisms-of-             ido-indolamine-2-3-dioxygenase/

39. Confined Indolamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO) Controls the Homeostasis of Immune Responses for Good and Bad

Curator: Demet Sag, PhD, CRA, GCP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/31/confined-indolamine-2-3-dehydrogenase-controls-the-hemostasis-           of-immune-responses-for-good-and-bad/

40. Signaling Pathway that Makes Young Neurons Connect was discovered @ Scripps Research Institute

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/26/signaling-pathway-that-makes-young-neurons-connect-was-                     discovered-scripps-research-institute/

41. Naked Mole Rats Cancer-Free

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/20/naked-mole-rats-cancer-free/

42. Late Onset of Alzheimer’s Disease and One-carbon Metabolism

Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/06/alzheimers-disease-and-one-carbon-metabolism/

43. Problems of vegetarianism

Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/22/problems-of-vegetarianism/

44.  Amyloidosis with Cardiomyopathy

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/03/31/amyloidosis-with-cardiomyopathy/

45. Liver endoplasmic reticulum stress and hepatosteatosis

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/03/10/liver-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-hepatosteatosis/

46. The Molecular Biology of Renal Disorders: Nitric Oxide – Part III

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/26/the-molecular-biology-of-renal-disorders/

47. Nitric Oxide Function in Coagulation – Part II

Curator and Author: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/26/nitric-oxide-function-in-coagulation/

48. Nitric Oxide, Platelets, Endothelium and Hemostasis

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/08/nitric-oxide-platelets-endothelium-and-hemostasis/

49. Interaction of Nitric Oxide and Prostacyclin in Vascular Endothelium

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/14/interaction-of-nitric-oxide-and-prostacyclin-in-vascular-endothelium/

50. Nitric Oxide and Immune Responses: Part 1

Curator and Author:  Aviral Vatsa PhD, MBBS

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/18/nitric-oxide-and-immune-responses-part-1/

51. Nitric Oxide and Immune Responses: Part 2

Curator and Author:  Aviral Vatsa PhD, MBBS

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/28/nitric-oxide-and-immune-responses-part-2/

52. Mitochondrial Damage and Repair under Oxidative Stress

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/28/mitochondrial-damage-and-repair-under-oxidative-stress/

53. Is the Warburg Effect the cause or the effect of cancer: A 21st Century View?

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/17/is-the-warburg-effect-the-cause-or-the-effect-of-cancer-a-21st-                 century-view/

54. Ubiquinin-Proteosome pathway, autophagy, the mitochondrion, proteolysis and cell apoptosis

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/30/ubiquinin-proteosome-pathway-autophagy-the-mitochondrion-                  proteolysis-and-cell-apoptosis/

55. Ubiquitin-Proteosome pathway, Autophagy, the Mitochondrion, Proteolysis and Cell Apoptosis: Part III

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/02/14/ubiquinin-proteosome-pathway-autophagy-the-mitochondrion-                   proteolysis-and-cell-apoptosis-reconsidered/

56. Nitric Oxide and iNOS have Key Roles in Kidney Diseases – Part II

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/26/nitric-oxide-and-inos-have-key-roles-in-kidney-diseases/

57. New Insights on Nitric Oxide donors – Part IV

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/26/new-insights-on-no-donors/

58. Crucial role of Nitric Oxide in Cancer

Curator and Author: Ritu Saxena, Ph.D.

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/16/crucial-role-of-nitric-oxide-in-cancer/

59. Nitric Oxide has a ubiquitous role in the regulation of glycolysis -with a concomitant influence on mitochondrial function

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/16/nitric-oxide-has-a-ubiquitous-role-in-the-regulation-of-glycolysis-with-         a-concomitant-influence-on-mitochondrial-function/

60. Targeting Mitochondrial-bound Hexokinase for Cancer Therapy

Curator and Author: Ziv Raviv, PhD, RN 04/06/2013

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/06/targeting-mitochondrial-bound-hexokinase-for-cancer-therapy/

61. Biochemistry of the Coagulation Cascade and Platelet Aggregation – Part I

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/26/biochemistry-of-the-coagulation-cascade-and-platelet-aggregation/

Genomics, Transcriptomics, and Epigenetics

  1. What is the meaning of so many RNAs?

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/06/what-is-the-meaning-of-so-many-rnas/

  1. RNA and the transcription the genetic code

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Writer and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/02/rna-and-the-transcription-of-the-genetic-code/

  1. A Primer on DNA and DNA Replication

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/29/a_primer_on_dna_and_dna_replication/

4. Synthesizing Synthetic Biology: PLOS Collections

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/17/synthesizing-synthetic-biology-plos-collections/

5. Pathology Emergence in the 21st Century

Author and Curator: Larry Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/03/pathology-emergence-in-the-21st-century/

6. RNA and the transcription the genetic code

Writer and Curator, Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/02/rna-and-the-transcription-of-the-genetic-code/

7. A Great University engaged in Drug Discovery: University of Pittsburgh

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/15/a-great-university-engaged-in-drug-discovery/

8. microRNA called miRNA-142 involved in the process by which the immature cells in the bone  marrow give                              rise to all the types of blood cells, including immune cells and the oxygen-bearing red blood cells

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, Author and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/24/microrna-called-mir-142-involved-in-the-process-by-which-the-                   immature-cells-in-the-bone-marrow-give-rise-to-all-the-types-of-blood-cells-including-immune-cells-and-the-oxygen-             bearing-red-blood-cells/

9. Genes, proteomes, and their interaction

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Writer and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/28/genes-proteomes-and-their-interaction/

10. Regulation of somatic stem cell Function

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Writer and Curator    Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/29/regulation-of-somatic-stem-cell-function/

11. Scientists discover that pluripotency factor NANOG is also active in adult organisms

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/10/scientists-discover-that-pluripotency-factor-nanog-is-also-active-in-           adult-organisms/

12. Bzzz! Are fruitflies like us?

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Author and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/07/bzzz-are-fruitflies-like-us/

13. Long Non-coding RNAs Can Encode Proteins After All

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/06/29/long-non-coding-rnas-can-encode-proteins-after-all/

14. Michael Snyder @Stanford University sequenced the lymphoblastoid transcriptomes and developed an
allele-specific full-length transcriptome

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, Author and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/014/06/23/michael-snyder-stanford-university-sequenced-the-lymphoblastoid-            transcriptomes-and-developed-an-allele-specific-full-length-transcriptome/

15. Commentary on Biomarkers for Genetics and Genomics of Cardiovascular Disease: Views by Larry H                                     Bernstein, MD, FCAP

Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/16/commentary-on-biomarkers-for-genetics-and-genomics-of-                        cardiovascular-disease-views-by-larry-h-bernstein-md-fcap/

16. Observations on Finding the Genetic Links in Common Disease: Whole Genomic Sequencing Studies

Author an curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/18/observations-on-finding-the-genetic-links/

17. Silencing Cancers with Synthetic siRNAs

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/09/silencing-cancers-with-synthetic-sirnas/

18. Cardiometabolic Syndrome and the Genetics of Hypertension: The Neuroendocrine Transcriptome Control Points

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/12/cardiometabolic-syndrome-and-the-genetics-of-hypertension-the-neuroendocrine-transcriptome-control-points/

19. Developments in the Genomics and Proteomics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Treatment Targets

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/08/developments-in-the-genomics-and-proteomics-of-type-2-diabetes-           mellitus-and-treatment-targets/

20. Loss of normal growth regulation

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/06/loss-of-normal-growth-regulation/

21. CT Angiography & TrueVision™ Metabolomics (Genomic Phenotyping) for new Therapeutic Targets to Atherosclerosis

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/11/15/ct-angiography-truevision-metabolomics-genomic-phenotyping-for-           new-therapeutic-targets-to-atherosclerosis/

22.  CRACKING THE CODE OF HUMAN LIFE: The Birth of BioInformatics & Computational Genomics

Genomics Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/30/cracking-the-code-of-human-life-the-birth-of-bioinformatics-                      computational-genomics/

23. Big Data in Genomic Medicine

Author and Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/17/big-data-in-genomic-medicine/

24. From Genomics of Microorganisms to Translational Medicine

Author and Curator: Demet Sag, PhD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/03/20/without-the-past-no-future-but-learn-and-move-genomics-of-                      microorganisms-to-translational-medicine/

25. Summary of Genomics and Medicine: Role in Cardiovascular Diseases

Author and Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/01/06/summary-of-genomics-and-medicine-role-in-cardiovascular-diseases/

 26. Genomic Promise for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Dementias, Autism Spectrum, Schizophrenia, and Serious                      Depression

Author and Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/02/19/genomic-promise-for-neurodegenerative-diseases-dementias-autism-        spectrum-schizophrenia-and-serious-depression/

 27.  BRCA1 a tumour suppressor in breast and ovarian cancer – functions in transcription, ubiquitination and DNA repair

Sudipta Saha, PhD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/04/brca1-a-tumour-suppressor-in-breast-and-ovarian-cancer-functions-         in-transcription-ubiquitination-and-dna-repair/

28. Personalized medicine gearing up to tackle cancer

Ritu Saxena, PhD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/01/07/personalized-medicine-gearing-up-to-tackle-cancer/

29. Differentiation Therapy – Epigenetics Tackles Solid Tumors

Stephen J Williams, PhD

      https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/01/03/differentiation-therapy-epigenetics-tackles-solid-tumors/

30. Mechanism involved in Breast Cancer Cell Growth: Function in Early Detection & Treatment

     Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/01/17/mechanism-involved-in-breast-cancer-cell-growth-function-in-early-          detection-treatment/

31. The Molecular pathology of Breast Cancer Progression

Tilde Barliya, PhD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/01/10/the-molecular-pathology-of-breast-cancer-progression

32. Gastric Cancer: Whole-genome reconstruction and mutational signatures

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/24/gastric-cancer-whole-genome-reconstruction-and-mutational-                   signatures-2/

33. Paradigm Shift in Human Genomics – Predictive Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine –                                                       Part 1 (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)

Aviva  Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

http://pharmaceuticalntelligence.com/2013/01/13/paradigm-shift-in-human-genomics-predictive-biomarkers-and-personalized-medicine-part-1/

34. LEADERS in Genome Sequencing of Genetic Mutations for Therapeutic Drug Selection in Cancer                                         Personalized Treatment: Part 2

A Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/01/13/leaders-in-genome-sequencing-of-genetic-mutations-for-therapeutic-       drug-selection-in-cancer-personalized-treatment-part-2/

35. Personalized Medicine: An Institute Profile – Coriell Institute for Medical Research: Part 3

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/01/13/personalized-medicine-an-institute-profile-coriell-institute-for-medical-        research-part-3/

36. Harnessing Personalized Medicine for Cancer Management, Prospects of Prevention and Cure: Opinions of                           Cancer Scientific Leaders @http://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/01/13/7000/Harnessing_Personalized_Medicine_for_ Cancer_Management-      Prospects_of_Prevention_and_Cure/

37.  GSK for Personalized Medicine using Cancer Drugs needs Alacris systems biology model to determine the in silico
effect of the inhibitor in its “virtual clinical trial”

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/14/gsk-for-personalized-medicine-using-cancer-drugs-needs-alacris-             systems-biology-model-to-determine-the-in-silico-effect-of-the-inhibitor-in-its-virtual-clinical-trial/

38. Personalized medicine-based cure for cancer might not be far away

Ritu Saxena, PhD

  https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/20/personalized-medicine-based-cure-for-cancer-might-not-be-far-away/

39. Human Variome Project: encyclopedic catalog of sequence variants indexed to the human genome sequence

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/24/human-variome-project-encyclopedic-catalog-of-sequence-variants-         indexed-to-the-human-genome-sequence/

40. Inspiration From Dr. Maureen Cronin’s Achievements in Applying Genomic Sequencing to Cancer Diagnostics

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/01/10/inspiration-from-dr-maureen-cronins-achievements-in-applying-                genomic-sequencing-to-cancer-diagnostics/

41. The “Cancer establishments” examined by James Watson, co-discoverer of DNA w/Crick, 4/1953

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/01/09/the-cancer-establishments-examined-by-james-watson-co-discover-         of-dna-wcrick-41953/

42. What can we expect of tumor therapeutic response?

Author and curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/05/what-can-we-expect-of-tumor-therapeutic-response/

43. Directions for genomics in personalized medicine

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/01/27/directions-for-genomics-in-personalized-medicine/

44. How mobile elements in “Junk” DNA promote cancer. Part 1: Transposon-mediated tumorigenesis.

Stephen J Williams, PhD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/31/how-mobile-elements-in-junk-dna-prote-cancer-part1-transposon-            mediated-tumorigenesis/

45. mRNA interference with cancer expression

Author and Curator, Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

 https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/26/mrna-interference-with-cancer-expression/

46. Expanding the Genetic Alphabet and linking the genome to the metabolome

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/24/expanding-the-genetic-alphabet-and-linking-the-genome-to-the-               metabolome/

47. Breast Cancer, drug resistance, and biopharmaceutical targets

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/18/breast-cancer-drug-resistance-and-biopharmaceutical-targets/

48.  Breast Cancer: Genomic profiling to predict Survival: Combination of Histopathology and Gene Expression                            Analysis

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/24/breast-cancer-genomic-profiling-to-predict-survival-combination-of-           histopathology-and-gene-expression-analysis

49. Gastric Cancer: Whole-genome reconstruction and mutational signatures

Aviva  Lev-Ari, PhD, RD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/24/gastric-cancer-whole-genome-reconstruction-and-mutational-                   signatures-2/

50. Genomic Analysis: FLUIDIGM Technology in the Life Science and Agricultural Biotechnology

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/22/genomic-analysis-fluidigm-technology-in-the-life-science-and-                   agricultural-biotechnology/

51. 2013 Genomics: The Era Beyond the Sequencing Human Genome: Francis Collins, Craig Venter, Eric Lander, et al.

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013_Genomics

52. Paradigm Shift in Human Genomics – Predictive Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine – Part 1

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/Paradigm Shift in Human Genomics_/

Signaling Pathways

  1. Proteins and cellular adaptation to stress

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/08/proteins-and-cellular-adaptation-to-stress/

  1. A Synthesis of the Beauty and Complexity of How We View Cancer:
    Cancer Volume One – Summary

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/03/26/a-synthesis-of-the-beauty-and-complexity-of-how-we-view-cancer/

  1. Recurrent somatic mutations in chromatin-remodeling and ubiquitin ligase complex genes in
    serous endometrial tumors

Sudipta Saha, PhD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/19/recurrent-somatic-mutations-in-chromatin-remodeling-ad-ubiquitin-           ligase-complex-genes-in-serous-endometrial-tumors/

4.  Prostate Cancer Cells: Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Induce Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

Stephen J Williams, PhD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/30/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-induce-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-              transition-in-prostate-cancer-cells/

5. Ubiquinin-Proteosome pathway, autophagy, the mitochondrion, proteolysis and cell apoptosis

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/30/ubiquinin-proteosome-pathway-autophagy-the-mitochondrion-                   proteolysis-and-cell-apoptosis/

6. Signaling and Signaling Pathways

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/12/signaling-and-signaling-pathways/

7.  Leptin signaling in mediating the cardiac hypertrophy associated with obesity

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/11/03/leptin-signaling-in-mediating-the-cardiac-hypertrophy-associated-            with-obesity/

  1. Sensors and Signaling in Oxidative Stress

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/11/01/sensors-and-signaling-in-oxidative-stress/

  1. The Final Considerations of the Role of Platelets and Platelet Endothelial Reactions in Atherosclerosis and Novel
    Treatments

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/10/15/the-final-considerations-of-the-role-of-platelets-and-platelet-                      endothelial-reactions-in-atherosclerosis-and-novel-treatments

10.   Platelets in Translational Research – Part 1

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter and Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/10/07/platelets-in-translational-research-1/

11.  Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis: Cardiomyocytes and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: The Cardiac and
Cardiovascular Calcium Signaling Mechanism

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Author, and Content Consultant to e-SERIES A:
Cardiovascular Diseases: Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/09/12/disruption-of-calcium-homeostasis-cardiomyocytes-and-vascular-             smooth-muscle-cells-the-cardiac-and-cardiovascular-calcium-signaling-mechanism/

12. The Centrality of Ca(2+) Signaling and Cytoskeleton Involving Calmodulin Kinases and
Ryanodine Receptors in Cardiac Failure, Arterial Smooth Muscle, Post-ischemic Arrhythmia,
Similarities and Differences, and Pharmaceutical Targets

     Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Author, and Content Consultant to
e-SERIES A: Cardiovascular Diseases: Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and
Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/09/08/the-centrality-of-ca2-signaling-and-cytoskeleton-involving-calmodulin-       kinases-and-ryanodine-receptors-in-cardiac-failure-arterial-smooth-muscle-post-ischemic-arrhythmia-similarities-and-           differen/

13.  Nitric Oxide Signalling Pathways

Aviral Vatsa, PhD, MBBS

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/22/nitric-oxide-signalling-pathways/

14. Immune activation, immunity, antibacterial activity

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/06/immune-activation-immunity-antibacterial-activity/

15.  Regulation of somatic stem cell Function

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Writer and Curator    Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/29/regulation-of-somatic-stem-cell-function/

16. Scientists discover that pluripotency factor NANOG is also active in adult organisms

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/10/scientists-discover-that-pluripotency-factor-nanog-is-also-active-in-adult-organisms/

Read Full Post »


Computationally designed “self”-peptide could be used to better target drugs to tumors, to ensure pacemakers are not rejected, and to enhance medical imaging technologies

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Synthetic Peptide Fools Immune System

Researchers have created a molecule that helps nanoparticles evade immune attack and could improve drug delivery.

By Dan Cossins | February 21, 2013

 

A macrophage at work in a mouse, stretching itself to gobble up two smaller particlesFLICKR, MAGNARAMA synthetic molecule attached to nanoparticles acts like a passport, convincing immune cells to let the particles pass unimpeded through the body, according to a study published today (February 21) in Science. The computationally designed “self”-peptide could be used to better target drugs to tumors, to ensure pacemakers are not rejected, and to enhance medical imaging technologies.

“It’s the first molecule that can be attached to anything to attenuate the innate immune system, which is currently limiting us from delivering therapeutic particles and implanting devices,” saidDennis Discher, a professor of biophysical engineering at the University of Pennsylvania and a coauthor of the study.

“This is really interesting work,” said Joseph DeSimone, a chemical engineer at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, who was not involved in the research, in an e-mail to The Scientist. “[It] strongly validates the idea of using biological evasion strategies.”

Macrophages recognize, engulf, and clear out foreign invaders, whether they’re microbes entering through a wound or a drug-loaded nanoparticle injected to target disease. Previously, researchers have attempted to escape this response by coating nanoparticles with polymer “brushes” to physically block the adhesion of blood proteins that alert macrophages to the particles’ presence. But these brushes can only delay the macrophage-signaling proteins for so long, and they can hinder uptake by the diseased cells being targeted.

With that in mind, Discher and colleagues tried instead to find a way to convince macrophages that nanoparticles are part of the body. Their previous research had shown that a membrane protein called CD47, which binds to macrophages in humans, signals “self” to the immune system, so that particles with this protein are not attacked.

Examining the architecture of the bond between CD47 and its macrophage receptor, SIRPα, the researchers were able to design a synthetic self-peptide with a similarly snug fit. “This is the key, literally, to unlocking innate immune pacification,” said Discher.

When they chemically synthesized the 21-amino-acid self-peptide and attached it to nanobeads as small as viruses in mice genetically engineered to have human-like SIRPα receptors, the researchers showed that beads with the self-peptide stayed in the blood of for longer than beads with no peptide: 30 minutes after being injected with equal numbers of each type, there were 4 times as many beads with the peptide attached than without. The results demonstrate that the synthetic molecule can reduce the rate at which phagocytes clear the beads from the body, said Discher.

Then, in mice with human lung cancer, the researchers injected fluorescently dyed beads with and without the peptide, and saw that the “self”-beads got through the macrophage-filled spleen and liver and accumulated in greater numbers in the tumor, providing a brighter signal under when imaged. In fact, the self-beads provided a signal from the tumor as strong as beads coated with human CD47.

Finally, to see whether the biological evasion strategy can be successfully combined with targeting, the researchers loaded an anticancer drug into self-beads also coated with antibodies that target cancer cells. Sure enough, these antibody-coated self-beads consistently shrank tumors more than antibody-coated beads lacking the peptide. This confirmed that when antibodies draw the attention of the macrophage, the self-peptides inhibit the macrophage’s response, acting as a “don’t-eat-me” signal, said Discher.

The results demonstrate that the synthetic peptide can provide therapeutic nanoparticles with extra time in the body—time that improves drug delivery. Furthermore, the relative simplicity of the peptide means it can be easily synthesized, making it an attractive component for use in a variety of future applications.

“The findings are “compelling” and “the technology merits moving forward,” Omid Farokhzad, director of the Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Biomaterials at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, part of Harvard Medical School, said in an e-mail to The Scientist.

A crucial next step is to test the efficacy of synthetic self-peptides in humans, Farokhzad added. “The truly relevant test is looking at human pharmacokinetics to see circulating half-life advantages of nanoparticles and their effect on therapeutic outcome.”

P.L. Rodriguez et al., “Minimal ‘self’ peptides that inhibit phagocytic clearance and enhance delivery of nanoparticles,” Science, 339: 971-74, 2013.

SOURCE

 

Read Full Post »


The Delicate Connection:  IDO (Indolamine 2, 3 dehydrogenase) and Cancer Immunology

Author and Curator: Demet Sag, PhD, CRA, GCP      

Table of Contents:

  1. Abstract
  2. Dual role for IDO
  3. Immune System and IDO
  4. Autoimmune disorders and IDO
  5. Cancer and Ido
  6. Clinical Interventions
  7. Clinical Trials
  8. Future Actions for Molecular Dx and Targeted Therapies:
  9. Conclusion
  10. References

TABLE 1- IDO Clinical Trials

TABLE 2- Kyn induced Genes

TABLE 3 Possible biomarkers and molecular diagnostics targets

TABLE 4: Current Interventions ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

ABSTRACT:

Overall purpose is to find a method to manipulate IDO for clinical applications, mainly the focus of this review is is cancer prevention and treatment.  The first study proving the connection between IDO and immune response came from, a very natural event, a protection of pregnancy in human. This led to discover that high IDO expression is a common factor in cancer tumors. Thus, attention promoted investigations on IDO’s role in various disease states, immune disorders, transplantation, inflammation, women health, mood disorders.
Many approaches, vaccines and adjuvants are underway to find new immunotherapies by combining the power of DCs in immune response regulation and specific direction of siRNA.  As a result, with this unique qualities of IDO, DCs and siRNA, we orchestrated a novel intervention for immunomodulation of IDO by inhibiting with small interference RNA, called siRNA-IDO-DCvax.  Proven that our DCvax created a delay and regression of tumor growth without changing the natural structure and characterization of DCs in melanoma and breast cancers in vivo. (** The shRNA IDO- DCvax is developed by Regen BioPhrama, San Diego, CA ,  Thomas Ichim, Ph.D, CSO. and David Koos, CEO)

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Double-Edged Sword of IDO: The Good and The Bad for Clinical intervention and Developments

IDO almost has a dual role. There is a positive side of high expression of IDO during pregnancy (29; 28; 114), transplants (115; 116; 117; 118; 119), infectious diseases (96) and but this tolerance is negative during autoimmune-disorders (120; 121; 122), tumors of cancer (123; 124; 117; 121; 125; 126; 127) (127), and mood disorders (46). The increased IDO expression has a double-edged sword in human physiology provides a positive role during protection of fetus and grafts after transplantations but becomes a negative factor during autoimmune disorders, cancer, sepsis and mood disorders.

Prevention of allogeneic fetal rejection is possible by tryptophan metabolism (26) rejecting with lack of IDO but allocating if IDO present (29; 28; 114). These studies lead to find “the natural regulation mechanism” for protecting the transplants from graft versus host disease GVHD (128) and getting rid of tumors.

The plasticity of  mammary and uterus during reproduction may hold some more answers to prevent GVHD and tumors of cancer with good understanding of IDO and tryptophan mechanism (129; 130). After allogeneic bone marrow transplants the risk of solid tumor development increased about 80% among 19,229 patients even with a greater risk among patients under 18 years old (117).  The adaptation of tolerance against host mechanism is connected to the IDO expression (131). During implantation and early pregnancy IDO has a role by making CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and expressing in DCs and  MQs  (114; 132; 133).

Clonal deletion mechanism prevents mother to react with paternal products since female mice accepted the paternal MHC antigen-expressing tumor graft during pregnancy and rejected three weeks after delivery (134). CTLA-4Ig gene therapy alleviates abortion through regulation of apoptosis and inhibition of spleen lymphocytes (135).  

 Immune System and IDO DCs are the orchestrator of the immune response (56; 57; 58) with list of functions in uptake, processing, and presentation of antigens; activation of effector cells, such as T-cells and NK-cells; and secretion of cytokines and other immune-modulating molecules to direct the immune response. The differential regulation of IDO in distinct DC subsets is widely studied to delineate and correct immune homeostasis during autoimmunity, infection and cancer and the associated immunological outcomes. Genesis of antigen presenting cells (APCs), eventually the immune system, require migration of monocytes (MOs), which is originated in bone marrow. Then, these MOs move from bloodstream to other tissues to become macrophages and DCs (59; 60).

Initiation of immune response requires APCs to link resting helper T-cell with the matching antigen to protect body. DCs are superior to MQs and MOs in their immune action model. When DCs are first described (61) and classified, their role is determined as a highly potent antigen-presenting cell (APC) subset with 100 to 1000-times more effective than macrophages and B-cells in priming T-cells. Both MQs and monocytes phagocytize the pathogen, and their cell structure contains very large nucleus and many internal vesicles. However, there is a nuance between MQ and DCs, since DCs has a wider capacity of stimulation, because MQs activates only memory T cells, yet DCs can activate both naïve and memory T cells.

DCs are potent activators of T cells and they also have well controlled regulatory roles. DC properties determine the regulation regardless of their origin or the subset of the DCs. DCs reacts after identification of the signals or influencers for their inhibitory, stimulatory or regulatory roles, before they express a complex repertoire of positive and negative cytokines, transmembrane proteins and other molecules. Thus, “two signal theory” gains support with a defined rule.  The combination of two signals, their interaction with types of cells and time are critical.

In short, specificity and time are matter for a proper response. When IDO mRNA expression is activated with CTL40 ligand and IFNgamma, IDO results inhibition of T cell production (4).  However, if DCs are inhibited by 1MT, an inhibitor of IDO, the response stop but IgG has no affect (10).  In addition, if the stimulation is started by a tryptophan metabolite, which is downstream of IDO, such as 3-hydroxyantranilic or quinolinic acids, it only inhibits Th1 but not Th2 subset of T cells (62).

Furthermore, inclusion of signal molecules, such as Fas Ligand, cytochrome c, and pathways also differ in the T cell differentiation mechanisms due to combination, time and specificity of two-signals.  The co-culture experiments are great tool to identify specific stimuli in disease specific microenvironment (63; 12; 64) for discovering the mechanism and interactions between molecules in gene regulation, biochemical mechanism and physiological function during cell differentiation.

As a result, the simplest differential cell development from the early development of DCs impact the outcome of the data. For example, collection of MOs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with IL4 and GM-CSF leads to immature DCs (iDCs). On next step, treatment of iDCs with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or other plausible cytokines (TGFb1, IFNgamma, IFNalpha,  IFNbeta, IL6 etc.) based on the desired outcome differentiate iDCs  into mature DCs (mDCs). DCs live only up to a week but MOs and generated MQs can live up to a month in the given tissue. B cells inhibit T cell dependent immune responses in tumors (65).

AutoImmune Disorders:

The Circadian Clock Circuitry and the AHR

The balance of IDO expression becomes necessary to prevent overactive immune response self-destruction, so modulation in tryptophan and NDA metabolisms maybe essential.  When splenic IDO-expressing CD11b (+) DCs from tolerized animals applied, they suppressed the development of arthritis, increased the Treg/Th17 cell ratio, and decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines in the spleen (136).

The role of Nicotinamide prevention on type 1 diabetes and ameliorates multiple sclerosis in animal model presented with activities of  NDAs stimulating GPCR109a to produce prostaglandins to induce IDO expression, then these PGEs and PGDs converted to the anti-inflammatory prostaglandin, 15d-PGJ(2) (137; 138; 139).  Thus, these events promotes endogenous signaling mechanisms involving the GPCRs EP2, EP4, and DP1 along with PPARgamma. (137).

Modulating the immune response at non-canonical at canonocal pathway while keeping the non-canonical Nf-KB intact may help to mend immune disorders. As a result, the targeted blocking in canonical at associated kinase IKKβ and leaving non-canonocal Nf-kB pathway intact, DCs tips the balance towards immune supression. Hence, noncanonical NF-κB pathway for regulatory functions in DCs required effective IDO induction, directly or indirectly by endogenous ligand Kyn and negative regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. As a result, this may help to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis, or allergy or transplant rejection.

While the opposite action needs to be taken during prevention of tumors, that is inhibition of non-canonical pathway.  Inflammation induces not only relaxation of veins and lowering blood pressure but also stimulate coagulopathies that worsen the microenvironment and decrease survival rate of patients after radio or chemotherapies.Cancer Generating tumor vaccines and using adjuvants underway (140).

Clinical correlation and genetic responses also compared in several studies to diagnose and target the system for cancer therapies (127; 141; 131).  The recent surveys on IDO expression and human cancers showed that IDO targeting is a candidate for cancer therapy since IDO expression recruiting Tregs, downregulates MHC class I and creating negative immune microenvironment for protection of development of tumors (125; 27; 142).  Inhibition of IDO expression can make advances in immunotherapy and chemotherapy fields (143; 125; 131; 144).

IDO has a great importance on prevention of cancer development (126). There are many approaches to create the homeostasis of immune response by Immunotherapy.  However, given the complexity of immune regulations, immunomodulation is a better approach to correct and relieve the system from the disease.  Some of the current IDO targeted immunotherapy or immmunomodulations with RNA technology for cancer prevention (145; 146; 147; 148; 149; 150) or applied on human or animals  (75; 151; 12; 115; 152; 9; 125) or chemical, (153; 154) or  radiological (155).  The targeted cell type in immune system generally DCs, monocytes (94)T cells (110; 156)and neutrophils (146; 157). On this paper, we will concentrate on DCvax on cancer treatments.

 T-reg, regulatory T cells; Th, T helper; CTLA-4, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4; TCR, T cell receptor; IDO, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. (refernece: http://www.pnas.org/content/101/28/10398/suppl/DC)

T-reg, regulatory T cells; Th, T helper; CTLA-4, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4; TCR, T cell receptor; IDO, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. (refernece: http://www.pnas.org/content/101/28/10398/suppl/DC)

IDO and the downstream enzymes in tryptophan pathway produce a series of immunosuppressive tryptophan metabolites that may lead into Tregs proliferation or increase in T cell apoptosis (62; 16; 27; 158), and some can affect NK cell function (159).

The interesting part of the mechanism is even without presence of IDO itself, downstream enzymes of IDO in the kynurenine tryptophan degradation still show immunosuppressive outcome (160; 73) due to not only Kyn but also TGFbeta stimulated long term responses. DC vaccination with IDO plausible (161) due to its power in immune response changes and longevity in the bloodstream for reversing the system for Th17 production (162).

Clinical Interventions are taking advantage of the DC’s central role and combining with enhancing molecules for induction of immunity may overcome tolerogenic DCs in tumors of cancers (163; 164).

The first successful application of DC vaccine used against advanced melanoma after loading DCs with tumor peptides or autologous cell lysate in presence of adjuvants keyhole limpet hematocyanin (KLH) (165).  Previous animal and clinical studies show use of DCs against tumors created success (165; 166; 167) as well as some problems due to heterogeneity of DC populations in one study supporting tumor growth rather than diminishing (168).

DC vaccination applied onto over four thousand clinical trial but none of them used siRNA-IDO DC vaccination method. Clinical trials evaluating DCs loaded ex vivo with purified TAAs as an anticancer immunotherapeutic interventions also did not include IDO (Table from (169). This table presented the data from 30 clinical trials, 3 of which discontinued, evaluating DCs loaded ex vivo with TAAs as an anticancer immunotherapy for 12 types of cancer [(AML(1), Breast cancer (4), glioblastoma (1), glioma (2), hepatocellular carcinoma (1), hematological malignancies (1), melanoma (6), neuroblastoma sarcoma (2), NSCLC (1), ovarian cancer (3), pancreatic cancer (3), prostate cancer (10)] at phase I, II or I/II.

Tipping the balance between Treg and Th17 ratio has a therapeutic advantage for restoring the health that is also shown in ovarian cancer by DC vaccination with adjuvants (161).  This rebalancing of the immune system towards immunogenicity may restore Treg/Th17 ratio (162; 170) but it is complicated. The stimulation of IL10 and IL12 induce Treg produce less Th17 and inhibiting CTL activation and its function (76; 171; 172) while animals treated with anti-TGFb before vaccination increase the plasma levels of IL-15 for tumor specific T cell survival in vivo (173; 174) ovarian cancer studies after human papilloma virus infection present an increase of IL12 (175).

Opposing signal mechanism downregulates the TGFb to activate CTL and Th1 population with IL12 and IL15 expression (162; 173).  The effects of IL17 on antitumor properties observed by unique subset of CD4+ T cells (176) called also CD8+ T cells secrete even more IL17 (177).

Using cytokines as adjuvants during vaccination may improve the efficacy of vaccination since cancer vaccines unlike infections vaccines applied after the infection or disease started against the established adoptive immune response.  Adjuvants are used to improve the responses of the given therapies commonly in immunotherapy applications as a combination therapy (178).

Enhancing cancer vaccine efficacy via modulation of the microenvironment is a plausible solution if only know who are the players.  Several molecules can be used to initiate and lengthen the activity of intervention to stimulate IDO expression without compromising the mechanism (179).  The system is complicated so generally induction is completed ex-vivo stimulation of DCs in cell lysates, whole tumor lysates, to create the microenvironment and natural stimulatory agents. Introduction of molecules as an adjuvants on genetic regulation on modulation of DCs are critical, because order and time of the signals, specific location/ tissue, and heterogeneity of personal needs (174; 138; 180). These studies demonstrated that IL15 with low TGFb stimulates CTL and Th1, whereas elevated TGFb with IL10 increases Th17 and Tregs in cancer microenvironments.

IDO and signaling gene regulation

For example Ret-peptide antitumor vaccine contains an extracellular fragment of Ret protein and Th1 polarized immunoregulator CpG oligonucleotide (1826), with 1MT, a potent inhibitor of IDO, brought a powerful as well as specific cellular and humoral immune responses in mice (152).

The main idea of choosing Ret to produce vaccine in ret related carcinomas fall in two criterion, first choosing patients self-antigens for cancer therapy with a non-mutated gene, second, there is no evidence of genetic mutations in Ret amino acids 64-269. Demonstration of proliferating hemangiomas, benign endothelial tumors and often referred as hemangiomas of infancy appearing at head or neck, express IDO and slowly regressed as a result of immune mediated process.

After large scale of genomic analysis show insulin like growth factor 2 as the key regulator of hematoma growth (Ritter et al. 2003). We set out to develop new technology with our previous expertise in immunotherapy and immunomodulation (181; 182; 183; 184), correcting Th17/Th1 ratio (185), and siRNA technology (186; 187).  We developed siRNA-IDO-DCvax. Patented two technologies “Immunomodulation using Altered DCs (Patent No: US2006/0165665 A1) and Method of Cancer Treatments using siRNA Silencing (Patent No: US2009/0220582 A1).

In melanoma cancer DCs were preconditioned with whole tumor lysate but in breast cancer model pretreatment completed with tumor cell lysate before siRNA-IDO-DCvax applied. Both of these studies was a success without modifying the autanticity of DCs but decreasing the IDO expression to restore immunegenity by delaying tumor growth in breast cancer (147) and in melanoma (188).  Thus, our DCvax specifically interfere with Ido without disturbing natural structure and content of the DCs in vivo showed that it is possible to carry on this technology to clinical applications.

Furthermore, our method of intervention is more sophisticated since it has a direct interaction mechanism with ex-vivo DC modulation without creating long term metabolism imbalance in Trp/Kyn metabolite mechanisms since the action is corrective and non-invasive.

There were several reasons.

First, prevention of tumor development studies targeting non-enzymatic pathway initiated by pDCs conditioned with TGFbeta is specific to IDO1 (189).

Second, IDO upregulation in antigen presenting cells allowing metastasis show that most human tumors express IDO at high levels (123; 124).

Third, tolerogenic DCs secretes several molecules some of them are transforming growth factor beta (TGFb), interleukin IL10), human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and non-secreted program cell death ligand 1 (PD-1 L) and IDO, indolamine 2.3-dioxygenase, which promote tumor tolerance. Thus, we took advantage of DCs properties and Ido specificity to prevent the tolerogenicity with siRNA-IDO DC vaccine in both melanoma and breast cancer.

Fourth, IDO expression in DCs make them even more potent against tumor antigens and create more T cells against tumors. IDOs are expressed at different levels by both in broad range of tumor cells and many subtypes of DCs including monocyte-derived DCs (10), plasmacytoid DCs (142), CD8a+ DCs (190), IDO compotent DCs (17), IFNgamma-activated DCs used in DC vaccination.  These DCs suppress immune responses through several mechanisms for induction of apoptosis towards activated T cells (156) to mediate antigen-specific T cell anergy in vivo (142) and for enhancement of Treg cells production at sites of vaccination with IDO-positive DCs+ in human patients (142; 191; 192; 168; 193; 194). If DCs are preconditioned with tumor lysate with 1MT vaccination they increase DCvax effectiveness unlike DCs originated from “normal”, healthy lysate with 1MT in pancreatic cancer (195).  As a result, we concluded that the immunesupressive effect of IDO can be reversed by siRNA because Treg cells enhances DC vaccine-mediated anti-tumor-immunity in cancer patients.

Gene silencing is a promising technology regardless of advantages simplicity for finding gene interaction mechanisms in vitro and disadvantages of the technology is utilizing the system with specificity in vivo (186; 196).  siRNA technology is one of the newest solution for the treatment of diseases as human genomics is only producing about 25,000 genes by representing 1% of its genome. Thus, utilizing the RNA open the doors for more comprehensive and less invasive effects on interventions. Thus this technology is still improving and using adjuvants. Silencing of K-Ras inhibit the growth of tumors in human pancreatic cancers (197), silencing of beta-catenin in colon cancers causes tumor regression in mouse models (198), silencing of vascular endothelial growth factor (VGEF) decreased angiogenesis and inhibit tumor growth (199).

Combining siRNA IDO and DCvax from adult stem cell is a novel technology for regression of tumors in melanoma and breast cancers in vivo. Our data showed that IDO-siRNA reduced tumor derived T cell apoptosis and tumor derived inhibition of T cell proliferation.  In addition, silencing IDO made DCs more potent against tumors since treated or pretreated animals showed a delay or decreased the tumor growth (188; 147)

 

Clinical Trials:

First FDA approved DC-based cancer therapies for treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer as autologous cellular immunotherapy (163; 164).  However, there are many probabilities to iron out for a predictive outcome in patients.

Table 2 demonstrates the current summary of clinical trials report.  This table shows 38 total studies specifically Ido related function on cancer (16), eye (3), surgery (2), women health (4), obesity (1), Cardiovascular (2), brain (1), kidney (1), bladder (1), sepsis shock (1), transplant (1),  nervous system and behavioral studies (4), HIV (1) (Table 4).  Among these only 22 of which active, recruiting or not yet started to recruit, and 17 completed and one terminated.

Most of these studies concentrated on cancer by the industry, Teva GTC ( Phase I traumatic brain injury) Astra Zeneca (Phase IV on efficacy of CRESTOR 5mg for cardiovascular health concern), Incyte corporation (Phase II ovarian cancer) NewLink Genetics Corporation Phase I breast/lung/melanoma/pancreatic solid tumors that is terminated; Phase II malignant melanoma recruiting, Phase II active, not recruiting metastatic breast cancer, Phase I/II metastatic melanoma, Phase I advanced malignancies) , HIV (Phase IV enrolling by invitation supported by Salix Corp-UC, San Francisco and HIV/AIDS Research Programs).

Many studies based on chemotherapy but there are few that use biological methods completed study with  IDO vaccine peptide vaccination for Stage III-IV non-small-cell lung cancer patients (NCT01219348), observational study on effect of biological therapy on biomarkers in patients with untreated hepatitis C, metastasis melanoma, or Crohn disease by IFNalpha and chemical (ribavirin, ticilimumab (NCT00897312), polymorphisms of patients after 1MT drug application in treating patients with metastatic or unmovable refractory solid tumors by surgery (NCT00758537), IDO expression analysis on MSCs (NCT01668576), and not yet recruiting intervention with adenovirus-p53 transduced dendric cell vaccine , 1MT , radiation, Carbon C 11 aplha-methyltryptophan- (NCT01302821).

Among the registered clinical trials some of them are not interventional but  observational and evaluation studies on Trp/Kyn ratio (NCT01042847), Kyn/Trp ratio (NCT01219348), Kyn levels (NCT00897312, NCT00573300),  RT-PCR analysis for Kyn metabolism (NCT00573300, NCT00684736, NCT00758537), and intrinsic IDO expression of mesenchymal stem cells in lung transplant with percent inhibition of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation toward donor cells (NCT01668576), determining polymorphisms (NCT00426894). These clinical trials/studies are immensely valuable to understand the mechanism and route of intervention development with the data collected from human populations   

Future Actions for Molecular Dx and Targeted Therapies:

Viable tumor environment. Tumor survival is dependent upon an exquisite interplay between the critical functions of stromal development and angiogenesis, local immune suppression and tumor tolerance, and paradoxical inflammation. TEMs: TIE-2 expressing monocytes; “M2” TAMs: tolerogenic tumor-associated macrophages; MDSCs: myeloid-derived suppressor cells; pDCs: plasmacytoid dendritic cells; co-stim.: co-stimulation; IDO: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor; EGF: epidermal growth factor; MMP: matrix metaloprotease; IL: interleukin; TGF-β: transforming growth factor-beta; TLRs: toll-like receptors.  (reference: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdi/2012/937253/fig1/)

Viable tumor environment. Tumor survival is dependent upon an exquisite interplay between the critical functions of stromal development and angiogenesis, local immune suppression and tumor tolerance, and paradoxical inflammation. TEMs: TIE-2 expressing monocytes; “M2” TAMs: tolerogenic tumor-associated macrophages; MDSCs: myeloid-derived suppressor cells; pDCs: plasmacytoid dendritic cells; co-stim.: co-stimulation; IDO: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor; EGF: epidermal growth factor; MMP: matrix metaloprotease; IL: interleukin; TGF-β: transforming growth factor-beta; TLRs: toll-like receptors. (reference: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdi/2012/937253/fig1/)

Current survival or response rate is around 40 to 50 % range.  By using specific cell type, selected inhibition/activation sequence based on patient’s genomic profile may improve the efficacy of clinical interventions on cancer treatments. Targeted therapies for specific gene regulation through signal transduction is necessary but there are few studies with genomics based approach.

On the other hand, there are surveys, observational or evaluations (listed in clinical trials section) registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov that will provide a valuable short-list of molecules.  Preventing stimulation of Ido1 as well as Tgfb-1gene expression by modulating receptor mediated phosphorylation between TGFb/SMAD either at Mad-Homology 1 (MH1) or Mad-Homology 1 (MH2) domains maybe possible (79; 82; 80). Within Smads are the conserved Mad-Homology 1 (MH1) domain, which is a DNA binding module contains tightly bound Zinc atom.

Smad MH2 domain is well conserved and one the most diverse protein-signal interacting molecule during signal transduction due to two important Serine residues located extreme distal C-termini at Ser-Val-Ser in Smad 2 or at pSer-X-PSer in RSmads (80). Kyn activated orphan G protein–coupled receptor, GPR35 with unknown function with a distinct expression pattern that collides with IDO sites since its expression at high levels of the immune system and the gut (63) (200; 63).  

The first study to connect IDO with cancer shows that group (75).  The directly targeting to regulate IDO expression is another method through modulating ISREs in its promoter with RNA-peptide combination technology. Indirectly, IDO can be regulated through Bin1 gene expression control over IDO since Bin1 is a negative regulator of IDO and prevents IDO expression.  IDO is under negative genetic control of Bin1, BAR adapter–encoding gene Bin1 (also known as Amphiphysin2). Bin1 functions in cancer suppression since attenuation of Bin1 observed in many human malignancies (141; 201; 202; 203; 204; 205; 206) .  Null Bin-/- mice showed that when there is lack of Bin1, upregulation of IDO through STAT1- and NF-kB-dependent expression of IDO makes tumor cells to escape from T cell–dependent antitumor immunity.

This pathway lies in non-enzymatic signal transducer function of IDO after stimulation of DCs by TGFb1.  The detail study on Bin1 gene by alternative spicing also provided that Bin1 is a tumor suppressor.  Its activities also depends on these spliced outcome, such as  Exon 10, in muscle, in turn Exon 13 in mice has importance in role for regulating growth when Bin1 is deleted or mutated C2C12 myoblasts interrupted due to its missing Myc, cyclinD1, or growth factor inhibiting genes like p21WAF1 (207; 208).

On the other hand alternative spliced Exon12A contributing brain cell differentiation (209; 210). Myc as a target at the junction between IDO gene interaction and Trp metabolism.  Bin1 interacts with Myc either early-dependent on Myc or late-independent on Myc, when Myc is not present. This gene regulation also interfered by the long term signaling mechanism related to Kynurenine (Kyn) acting as an endogenous ligand to AHR in Trp metabolite and TGFb1 and/or IFNalpha and IFNbeta up regulation of DCs to induce IDO in noncanonical pathway for NF-kB and myc gene activations (73; 74).  Hence, Trp/Kyn, Kyn/Trp, Th1/Th17 ratios are important to be observed in patients peripheral blood. These direct and indirect gene interactions place Bin1 to function in cell differentiation (211; 212; 205).

Regulatory T-cel generation via reverse and non-canonical signaliing to pDCs

Table 3 contains the microarray analysis for Kyn affect showed that there are 25 genes affected by Kyn, two of which are upregulated and 23 of them downregulated (100). This list of genes and additional knowledge based on studies creating the diagnostics panel with these genes as a biomarker may help to analyze the outcomes of given interventions and therapies. Some of these molecules are great candidate to seek as an adjuvant or co-stimulation agents.  These are myc, NfKB at IKKA, C2CD2, CREB3L2, GPR115, IL2, IL8, IL6, and IL1B, mir-376 RNA, NFKB3, TGFb, RelA, and SH3RF1. In addition, Lip, Fox3P, CTLA-4, Bin1, and IMPACT should be monitored.

In addition, Table 4 presents the other possible mechanisms. The highlights of possible target/biomarkers are specific TLRs, conserved sequences of IDO across its homologous structures, CCR6, CCR5, RORgammat, ISREs of IDO, Jak, STAT, IRFs, MH1 and MH2 domains of Smads. Endothelial cell coagulation activation mechanism and pDC maturation or immigration from lymph nodes to bloodstream should marry to control not only IDO expression but also genesis of preferred DC subsets. Stromal mesenchymal cells are also activated by these modulation at vascular system and interferes with metastasis of cancer. First, thrombin (human factor II) is a well regulated protein in coagulation hemostasis has a role in cell differentiation and angiogenesis.

Protein kinase activated receptors (PARs), type of GPCRs, moderate the actions. Second, during hematopoietic response endothelial cells produce hematopoietic growth factors (213; 214). Third, components of bone marrow stroma cells include monocytes, adipocytes, and mesenchymal stem cells (215). As a result, addressing this issue will prevent occurrence of coagulapathologies, namely DIC, bleeding, thrombosis, so that patients may also improve response rate towards therapies. Personal genomic profiles are powerful tool to improve efficacy in immunotherapies since there is an influence of age (young vs. adult), state of immune system (innate vs. adopted or acquired immunity). Table 5 includes some of the current studies directly with IDO and indirectly effecting its mechanisms via gene therapy, DNA vaccine, gene silencing and adjuvant applications as an intervention method to prevent various cancer types.

CONCLUSION

IDO has a confined function in immune system through complex interactions to maintain hemostasis of immune responses. The genesis of IDO stem from duplication of bacterial IDO-like genes.  Inhibition of microbial infection and invasion by depleting tryptophan limits and kills the invader but during starvation of trp the host may pass the twilight zone since trp required by host’s T cells.  Thus, the host cells in these small pockets adopt to new microenvironment with depleted trp and oxygen poor conditions. Hence, the cell metabolism differentiate to generate new cellular structure like nodules and tumors under the protection of constitutively expressed IDO in tumors, DCs and inhibited T cell proliferation.

On the other hand, having a dichotomy in IDO function can be a potential limiting factor that means is that IDOs impact on biological system could be variable based on several issues such as target cells, IDO’s capacity, pathologic state of the disease and conditions of the microenvironment. Thus, close monitoring is necessary to analyze the outcome to prevent conspiracies since previous studies generated paradoxical results.

Current therapies through chemotherapies, radiotherapies are costly and effectiveness shown that the clinical interventions require immunotherapies as well as coagulation and vascular biology manipulations for a higher efficacy and survival rate in cancer patients. Our siRNA and DC technologies based on stem cell modulation will provide at least prevention of cancer development and hopefully prevention in cancer.

11.       References

1. Biochemistry of tryptophan in health and disease. BenderDA. 1983, Mol Aspects Med , pp. 6:101–197.

2. Molecular insights into substrate recognition and catalysis by indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Forouhar, F., Anderson, R., Mowat, C.F, et al. 2006, PNAS, pp. vol. 104, no:2, 473-478.

3. Importance of the Two Interferon-stimulated Response Element. Konan KV, Taylor, MW. 1996, J. Biol. Chem.-, pp. 19140-5.

4. Induction of indolamine 2,3 dioxygenase: A mechanism of the anti-tumor activity of interferon gamma. Ozaki, Y., Edelstein, M.P., Duch, D.S. 1998, PNAS USA., pp. vol:85, 1242-1246.

5. Localization of the human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) gene to the pericentromeric region of human chromosome . Burkin, D. J., Kimbro, K. S., Barr, B. L., Jones, C., Taylor, M. W., Gupta, S. L. 1993, Genomics , pp. 17: 262-263.

6. Localization of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase gene (INDO) to chromosome 8p12-p11 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Najfeld, V., Menninger, J., Muhleman, D., Comings, D. E., Gupta, S. L. 1993, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. , pp. 64: 231-232.

7. Molecular cloning, sequencing and expression of human interferon-gamma-inducible indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase cDNA.  Dai, W., Gupta, S. L. 1990, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. , pp. 168: 1-8.

8. Gene structure of human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Kadoya, A., Tone, S., Maeda, H., Minatogawa, Y., Kido, R. 1992, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. , pp. 189: 530-536.

9. A gene atlas of th emouse and human protein-encoding transcriptomes. Andrew I. Su, Tim Wiltshire, Serge Batalov , Hilmar Lapp , Keith A. Ching , David Block, Jie Zhang , Richard Soden , Mimi Hayakawa , Gabriel Kreiman , Michael P. Cooke , John R. Walker , and John B. Hogenesch. 2004, PNAS, pp. vol. 101, no. 166062-6067 (http://dx.doi.org:/10.1073/pnas.0400782101).

10. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase production by human dendritic cells results in the inhibition of T cell proliferation. Hwu P, Du MX, Lapointe R, Do M, Taylor MW, Young HA. 2000, J. Immunol, pp. 164:3596–3599.

11. Inhibition of T cell proliferation by acrophage tryptophan catabolism. Munn, D.H. et al. 1999, J. Exp. Med., p. 189:1363.

12. HeLa cells cocultured with peripheral blood lymphocytes acquire an immuno-inhibitory phenotype through up-regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. Logan, G. J., Smyth, C. M. F., Earl, J. W., Zaikina, I., Rowe, P. B., Smythe, J. A., Alexander, I. E. 2002, Immunology, pp. 105:478-487.

13. Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase – Is It an Immun Suppressor? Soliman H, Mediaville-Varela M, Antonia S. 2010, Cancer J. , pp. 16:354-359.

14. Targeting the immunoregulatory indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase pathway in immunotherapy. Johnson BA, III, Baban B, Mellor AL. 2009, Immunotherapy. , pp. 645–661.

15. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and regulation of T cell immunity. AL., Mellor. 2005, Biochem Biophys Res Commun. , pp. 338(1):20–24.

16. Modulation of tryptophan catabolism by regulatory T cells. Fallarino, F., Grohmann, U., Hwang, K. W., Orabona, C., Vacca, C., Bianchi, R., Belladonna, M. L., Fioretti, M. C., Alegre, M.-L., Puccetti, P. 2003, Nature Immun., pp. 4: 1206-1212.

17. CTLA-4-Ig regulates tryptophan catabolism in vivo. Grohmann, U., Orabona, C., Fallarino, F., Vacca, C., Calcinaro, F., Falorni, A., Candeloro, P., Belladonna, M. L., Bianchi, R., Fioretti, M. C., Puccetti, P. 2002, Nature Immun. , pp. 3: 1097-1101.

18. Reverse signaling through GITR ligand enables dexamethasone to activate IDO in allergy. Grohmann, U., Volpi, C., Fallarino, F., Bozza, S., Bianchi, R., Vacca, C., Orabona, C., Belladonna, M. L., Ayroldi, E., Nocentini, G., Boon, L., Bistoni, F., Fioretti, M. C., Romani, L., Riccardi, C., Puccetti, P. 2007, Nature Med., pp. 13:579-586.

19. Cells expressing indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibit T cell responses. Mellor, A. L., Keskin, D. B., Johnson, T., Chandler, P., Munn, D. H. 2002, J. Immun. , pp. 168: 3771-3776.

20. Chon, SY, Hassanain, HH, Piine, R., and Gupta, SL. 1995, J. Interferon Cytokine Res. , pp. 15, 517-526.

21. Levy, ED, KEsler, DS, Pine, R., Reich, N, and Darnell, JE.Jr et al. 1988, Genes Dev, pp. 2,383-393.

22. Benoist, C. and Manthis, D. 1990, Annu. Rev of Immunol., pp. 8, 681-715.

23. Dorn, A, Durand, B., Marling, C., Meur, M.L., Beoist, C., and Mathis, D. 1987, PNAS USA, pp. 34, 6249-6253.

24. Konan, K.V. Ph.D. Thesis. Transcriptional Regulation of the Indolamine 2,3-oxygenase Gene. s.l. : Indiana University, Bloominigton, 1995.

25. Tryptophan pyrrolase of rabbit intestine: D- and L–tryptophan cleaving enzyme or enzymes. Yamamoto, S., and Hayashi, O. 1967, J Biol Chem, pp. 242: 5260-5266.

26. Prevention of allogeneic fetal rejection by tryptophan catabolism. Munn, DH, Zhou M, Attwood JT, Bondarev I, Conway SJ, Marshall B, Brown C, Mellor AL. 1998, Science, pp. 281:1191–3.

27. Evidence for a tumoral immune resistance mechanismbased on tryptophan degradation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Uyttenhove, C. et al. 2003, Nature Med. 9, pp. 1269–1274 .

28. Pregnancy: success and failure within the Th1/Th2/Th3 paradigm. Raghupathy, R. 2001., Seminars in Immunology, pp. Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 219–227.

29. Why is the fetal allograft not rejected? Davies, C. J. March 2007 , J ANIM SCI , pp. vol. 85 no. 13 suppl E32-E35 .

30. Exploring the mechanism of tryptoophan 2,3-dioxygenase. Thackray, S., Mowat, C.G., Chapman, K. 2008, Biochem. Society Transaction., pp. 36, 1120-1123.

31. The new life of a centenarian: signalling functions of NAD(P). Berger F, Ramírez-Hernández MH, Ziegler M. 2004, Trends Biochem Sci , pp. 29:111–118 .

32. Biochemistry of tryptophan in health and disease. DA, Bender. 1983, Mol Aspects Med, pp. 6:101–197. 33. Poliovirus induces indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase and quinolinic acid synthesis in macaque brain. Heyes MP, Saito K, Jacobowitz D, Markey SP, Takikawa O, Vickers JH. 1992, FASEB J., pp. 6:2977–2989.

34. Dramatic changes in oxidative tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway in experimental cerebral and noncerebral malaria. . Sanni LA, Thomas SR, Tattam BN, Moore DE, Chaudhri G, Stocker R, Hunt NH. 1998, Am J Pathol, pp. 152:611–619.

35. Induction of pulmonary indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase by intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. . Yoshida R, Hayaishi O. 1978, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA , pp. 75:3998–4000.

36. Induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in mouse lung during virus infection. Yoshida R, Urade Y, Tokuda M, Hayaishi O. 1979, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA , pp. 76:4084–4086.

37. Induction of pulmonary indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase by intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Yoshida R, Hayaishi. 1978, PNAS USA, pp. 3998-4000.

38. Sequence of human 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2): presence of a glucorticoid response-like element composed of a GTT repeat and intronic CCCCT repeat. Comings DE, Muhleman D, Dietz G, Sherman M, Forest. 1995, Genomics, pp. 29:390-396165.

39. Studies on the biosynthesis of Nicotinamide adenine inucleotide. II.Arole of picolinic carboxylase in the Biosynthesisofnicotinamideadeninedinucleotidefromtryptophan in mammals. Ikeda M, Tsuji H, Nakamura S, Ichiyama A, Nishizuka Y, HayaishiO. 1965, J. Biol. Chem. , pp. 240: 1395-1401.

40. The Secret Life of NAD+: An Old Metabolite Controlling New Metabolic Signaling Pathways. Houtkooper R.H., Carles Cantó C. , Wanders, R.J. and Auwerx, J. 2010, Endocrine Reviews , pp. vol. 31 no. 2 194-223, http://dx.doi.org:/10.1210/er.2009-0026.

41. Stimulation of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthetic pathways delays axonal degeneration after axotomy. Sasaki Y, Araki T, Milbrandt J. 2006, J Neurosci , pp. 26: 8484–8491.

42. European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial (ENDIT): a randomised controlled trial of intervention before the onset of type 1 diabetes. Gale EA, Bingley PJ, Emmett CL, CollierT. 2004, Lancet., pp. 363:925–931.

43. Safety of high-dose nicotinamide: a review. Knip M, Douek IF, Moore WP, Gillmor HA, McLean AE, Bingley PJ, Gale EA. 2000, Diabetologia, pp. 43:1337–1345.

44. Large supplements of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide increase tissue NAD and poly(ADP-ribose) levels but do not affect diethylnitrosamine-induced altered hepatic foci in Fischer-344 rats. JacksonTM, Rawling JM, Roebuck BD, Kirkland JB. 1995, J Nutr , p. 125:1455.

45. Characterization and evolution of vertebrate indelamine 2,3-dihydrogenases IDOs from monotremes and marsupials. Yuasa, HJ, Ball, HJ, Ho, YF, Austin, CJ, et al. 2009, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. Biochem.. Mol. Biol., pp. 153 (2): 137-144.

46. Novel tryptophan catabolic enzyme IDO2 is the preferred biochemical target of the antitumor indolamine 2,3-dihydrogenase inhibitor compound D-1 methyl-tryptophan. Metz, R., Duhadaway, JB, Kamasani, U, Laury-Kleintop, L., Muller, AJ, Prendergast, GC. 2007, Cancer Res., pp. 67 (15): 7082-7087.

47. Total synthesis of exiguamines A and B inspired by catechollamine chemistry. Sofiyev, V, Lumb, JP, Volgraf, M., Trauner, D. 2012, Chemistry., pp. 18 (16): 4999-5005.

48. Molecular evolution of bacterial indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Yuasa, H J, Ushigoe, A, Ball, HJ. 2011, Gene., pp. 484 (1) : 22-31.

49. Infectious tolerance and the long-term acceptance of transplant tissue. Waldman, H., Adams, E., Fairchild, P., and Cobbold, S. 2006, J. Immunol., pp. 212:301-313.

50. Molecular evolution and characterizationof fungal indolamine 2,3-dioxygenases. Yuasa, HJ and Ball, HJ. 2012, J. Mol. Eval., pp. 72 (2): 160-168.

51. convergent evolution. The gene structure of Sulculus 41 kDa myoglobin is homologous with tht of human indolamine dioxygenase. Suzuki, T, Imai, K. 1996, Biochim. Biophys. Acta., pp. 1308(1):41-48.

52. Evolutionof myoglobin. Suzuki, T., Imai, K. 1998, Cell Mol Life Sci, pp. 54(9):979-1004.

53. A myoglobin evolved from indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase, trtptophan-degrading enzyme. Suzuki, T., Kawamichi, H., Imai, K. 1998, Comp Biochem Phisiol. Mol. Biol., pp. 121(2):117-128.

54. Do molluscs possess indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase? Yuasa, HJ and Suzuki, T. 2005, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. Biochem. Mol. Biol. , pp. (3) 445-454.

55. Comparison studies of the indolamine dioxygenase-like myoglobin from the abalone Sulculus diversicolor. Suzuki, T., Imai, K. 1997, Comp. Biohem. Phsiol B Biochem Mol Biol, pp. 117 (4)599-604.

56. Orchestration of the immune response by dendritic cells. Buckwalter MR, Albert ML. 2009, Curr Biol., pp. 19(9):355–361.

57. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Banchereau J, Steinman RM. 1998, Nature., pp. 245–52.

58. IDO expression by dendritic cells: tolerance and tryptophan catabolism. . Munn DH, Mellor AL. 2004, Nat Rev Immunol. , pp. 762–74.

59. Monocyte and Macrophage. Gordon, S. and Taylor, P.R. 2005, NATURE REVIEWS | IMMUNOLOGY , pp. vol:5, 953-964.

60. Blood monocytes consist of two principal subsets with distinct migratory properties. Geissmann F, Jung S, Littman DR. 2003, Immunity. , pp. 19:71–82.

61. Identification of a novel cell type in peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. I Morphology, quantitation, tissue distribution. . Steinman RM, Cohn ZA. 1973, J Exp Med., pp. 137(5):1142–1162.

62. T cell apoptosis by tryptophan catabolism. Fallarino F, Grohmann U, Vacca C, Bianchi R, Orabona C, Spreca A, Fioretti MC, Puccetti P. 2002, Cell Death Differ , pp. 9:1069–1077.

63. Kynurenine is a novel endothelium derived relaxing factor produced during inflammation. Wang, et al. 2010, Nat. Med., pp. 16(3): 279-285.

64. Activation of the noncanonical NF-kB pathway by HIV controls a Dendritic cell immunoregulatory phenotype. Manches, O. Fernandez, V.M.,, Plumas, J., Chaperot, L., and Bhardwaj, N. 2012, PNAS, pp. vol: 109, 14122-14127.

65. B cells inhibit induction of T cell-dependent tumor immunity. Qin, Z., Richter, G., Schuler, T., Ibe, S., Cao, X, Blakenstein, T. 1998, Nat. Med, p. 4:627.

66. Different partners, Opposite Outcmes: A new perspective of immunobiology of Indolamine 2,3 dioxygenase. Orabona, C., Pallotta, M.T., Grohman, U. 2012, Molecular Medicine., pp. 18:834-842.

67. Indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase: From catalyst to signaling function. Fallarino, F., Grohman, U., and Puccetti, P. 2012, Eurepean J. of Immunol. , pp. 42:1932-1937.

68. IDO: more than an enzyme. Chen, W. 2011, Nature Immonology, pp. 809-811.

69. Indolamine2,3-dehydrogenase in lung dendritic cells promotes Th2 responses and allergic inflammation. Xu, H., Oriss, T.B., Fei, M., Henry, A.C., Melgert, B.N., Chen, L., Mellor, A.L. 2008, PNAS USA, pp. 105: 6690-6695.

70. The immunoregulatory enzyme IDO paradoxically drives B-cellmediated autoimmunity. Scott, G.N., DuHadaway, J., Pigott, E., Ridge, N., Prendergast, G.C., Muller, A.J., Mandik-Nayak, L. 2009, J. Immunol., pp. 182:7509-7517.

71. Tryptophan deprivation sensitizes activated T cells to apoptosis prior to cell division. Lee GK, Park HJ, Macleod M, Chandler P, Munn DH, Mellor AL. 2002, Immunology , pp. 107:452–460.

72. Enzymology of NAD+ homeostasis in man. . Magni G, Amici A, Emanuelli M, Orsomando G, Raffaelli N, Ruggieri S. 2004, Cell Mol Life Sci , pp. 61:19–34.

73. Kynurenine pathway enzymes in dendritic cells initiate tolerogenesis in the absence of functional IDO. . Belladonna ML, Grohmann U, Guidetti P, Volpi C, Bianchi R, Fioretti MC, Schwarcz R, Fallarino F, Puccetti P. 2006, J Immunol. , pp. ;177:130–7.

74. An indogenous tumour promoting ligand of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Opitz, et. al. 2011, pp. http://dx.doi.org:/10.1038/nature10491.

75. Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, animmunoregulatorytarget of the cancer suppression gene Bin1, potentiates cancer chemotherapy. Muller, A. J. et al. 2005, Nature Med. , pp. 11, 312–319 .

76. TGF-b; a master of all T cell trades. Li, M.O., Fravell, R.A. 2008, Cell. , pp. 134: 392-404.

77. Palotta, M.T. et al. 2011, Nat. Immunol., pp. 12:870-878. 78. Chen, W. et al. 2003, J. Exp. Immunol., p. 198: 1875.

79. Smads: transcriptional activators of TGF-beta responses. . Derynck R, Zhang Y, Feng XH. 1998, Cell , pp. 95 (6): 737–40.
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81696-7.  PMID 9865691.

80. Smad transcription factors. Massagué J, Seoane J, Wotton D. 2005, Genes Dev, pp. 19 (23): 2783–810.
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1101/gad.1350705. PMID .

81. A structural basis for mutational inactivation of the tumour suppressor Smad4. Shi Y, Hata A, Lo RS, Massagué J, Pavletich NP. 1997, Nature., pp. 388 (6637): 87–93.   http://dx.doi.org:/10.1038/40431. PMID 9214508.

82. Promoting bone morphogenetic protein signaling through negative regulation of inhibitory Smads. Itoh F, Asao H, Sugamura K, Heldin CH, ten Dijke P, Itoh S. 2001, EMBO J., pp. 20 (15): 4132–     http://dx.doi.org:/10.1093/emboj/20.15.4132. PMC 149146. PMID 11483516.

83. SMAD_Signaling_Network. http://www.sabiosciences.com. [Online] 2013. http://www.sabiosciences.com/pathway.php?sn=SMAD_Signaling_Network.

84. Immune inhibitory receptors. Revetch, J.V., and Lanier, L.L. 2000, Science., pp. 290:84-89.

85. Soc3 drives proteasomal degradation of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and antagonizes IDO-dependent tolerogenesis. Orabona, C., Pallotta, M., Volpi, C., et al. 2008, PNAS USA, pp. 105: 20828-20833.

86. Cutting edge; silencing supressor of cytokine signaling3 expression in dendritic cells turns CD28-Ig from immune adjuvant to supressant. Orabona, C.,, Belladonna, M.L., et all. 2005, J. Immunol., pp. 174: 6582-6586.

87. Molecular signatures of T-cell inhibition in HIV-1 infection. Larsson, M., Shankar. E.M, Che, K.F., Ellegard, R., Barathan, M., Velu, V., and Kamarulzaman, A. 2013, Retrovirology, p. 10:31.

88. TGF-beta and CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells. Huber, S. and Schramn, C. 2006, Front. Bioscie., pp. 11:1014-1023.

89. Immune Escape as a fundemental trait of cancer; focus on IDO. Prendergast, G.C. 2008, Oncogene., pp. 27, 3889-3900.

90. Il-6 inhibits the tolerogenic functionof CD8+ dendritic cells expressing indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Grohman, U., Fallarino, F., et al. 2001, J. Immunol., pp. 167:708-714.

91. Avoiding horror autotoxicus: Th eimportance of dentritic cells in peripheral T cell tolerance. Steinman, R.M., and Nussenzweig, M.C. 2002, PNAS, pp. no:1, 351-358.

92. Dendritic-cell function in Toll-like receptor- and MyD88-knockout mice . Kaisho, T., Akira, S. 2001, Trends Immunol , pp. 22,78-83.

93. Innate sensing of self and non-self RNAs by Toll-like receptors. Sioud, M. 2006., Trends Mol Med., pp. 12:67–76.

94. Impaired expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase in monocyte-derived dendritic cells in response to Toll-like receptor-7/8 ligands. Furset, G., Fløisand, Y. and Sioud, M. 2008, Immunology., pp. 123(2): 263–271,  http://dx.doi.org:/10.1111/j.1365-2567.2007.02695.x.

95. Toll-;ike receptor 9 mediated induction of the immunorepressor pathway of tryptophan metabolism. Fallarino, F., and Puccetti, P. 2006, Eur. J. of Imm., pp. 36:8-11.

96. Toll-like receptors and host defense against microbial pathogens: bringing specificity to the innate immune system. . Netea MG, der Graaf C, Van der Meer JWM, Kullberg BJ. 2004, J Leukoc Biol. , pp. 75:749–55.

97. Species-specific recognition of single-stranded RNA via toll-like receptor 7 and 8. . Heil F, Hemmi H, Hochrein H, et al. 2004, Science. , pp. 303:1526–9.

98. Innate antiviral responses by means of TLR7-mediated recognition of single-stranded RNA. . Diebold SS, Kaisho T, Hemmi H, Akira S, Reis e Sousa C. 2004., Science. , pp. 303:1529–31.

99. The role of CpG motifs in innate immunity. Krieg, A.M. 2000., Curr Opin Immunol., pp. 12:35–43.

100. Anendogenous tumour-promoting ligand of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Opitz, C.A., Litzenburger, U.M., Sahm, F., Ott,M., Tritschler, I., Trump, S. 2011, Nature, pp. vol 478; 197-203.

101. Impaired impression of Indolamine 2,3-deoxygenase in monocyte derived DCs in response to TLR-7/8. Furset, G., Floisand, Y., Sioud, M. 2007, Immunology, pp. 263-271.

102. Activationof the noncanonical NF-kB pathway by HIV controls a Dendritic cell immunoregulatory phenotype. Manches, O. Fernandez, V.M.,, Plumas, J., Chaperot, L., and Bhardwaj, N. 2012, PNAS, pp. vol: 109, 14122-14127.

103. Regulation of dendritic cell numbers and maturation by lipopolysaccharide in vivo . de Smedt, T., Pajak, B., Muraille, E., Lespagnard, L., Heinen, E., De Baetselier, P., Urbain, J., Leo, O., Moser, M. 1996, J. Exp. Med., pp. 184,1413-1424.

104. Subsets of dendritic cell precursors express different Toll-like receptors and respond to different microbial antigens . Kadowaki, N., Ho, S., Antonenko, S., de Waal Malefyt, R., Kastelein, R. A., Bazan, F., Liu, Y-J. 2001, J. Exp. Med., pp. 194,863-869 .

105. TRAF6 is a critical factor for dendritic cell maturation and development . Kobayashi, T., Walsh, P. T., Walsh, M. C., Speirs, K. M., Chiffoleau, E., King, C. G., Hancock, W. W., Caamano, J. H., Hunter, C. A., Scott, P., Turka, L. A., Choi, Y. 2003, Immunity , pp. 19,353-363 .

106. Activation of interferon regulatory factor-3 via toll-like receptor 3 and immunomodulatory functions detected in A549 lung epithelial cells exposed to misplaced U1-snRNA. Sadik CD, Bachmann M, Pfeilschifter J, Mühl H. 2009, Nucleic Acids Res. , pp. 37(15):5041-56. http://dx.doi.org:/10.1093/nar/gkp525. Epub 2009 Jun 18.

107. Triggering of the dsRNA sensors TLR3, MDA5, and RIG-I induces CD55 expression in synovial fibroblasts. Karpus ON, Heutinck KM, Wijnker PJ, Tak PP, Hamann J. 2012, PLoS One., p. 7(5):e35606.  http://dx.doi.org:/10.1371/journal.pone.0035606. Epub 2012 May 10.

108. The structure of the TLR5-flagellin complex: a new mode of pathogen detection, conserved receptor dimerization for signaling. Lu J, Sun PD. 2012, Sci Signal., p. 5(216):pe11.  http://dx.doi.org:/10.1126/scisignal.2002963.

109. Flagellin/Toll-like receptor 5 response was specifically attenuated by keratan sulfate disaccharide via decreased EGFR phosphorylation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Shirato K, Gao C, Ota F, Angata T, Shogomori H, Ohtsubo K, Yoshida K, Lepenies B, Taniguchi N. 2013, Biochem Biophys Res Commun., pp. doi:pii: S0006-291X(13)00779-1. http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.05.009. [Epub ahead of print].

110. Differential induction of interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 in dendritic cells by microbial Toll-like receptor activators and skewing of T-cell cytokine profiles Infect. Qi, H., Denning, T. L., Soong, L. 2003, Immun. , pp. 71,3337-3342 .

111. Activation of Toll-like receptor 2 on human dendritic cells triggers induction of IL-12, but not IL-10 . Thoma-Uszynski, S., Kiertscher, S. M., Ochoa, M. T., Bouis, D. A., Norgard, M. V., Miyake, K., Godowski, P. J., Roth, M. D., Modlin, R. L. 2000, J. Immunol. , pp. 165,3804-3810.

112. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 differentially activate human dendritic cells . Re, F., Strominger, J. L. 2001, J. Biol. Chem. , pp. 276,37692-37699.

113. Pasare, C., Medzhitov, R. (2003) Toll pathway-dependent blockade of CD4+CD25+ T cell-mediated suppression by dendritic cells. Pasare, C., Medzhitov, R. 2003, Science , pp. 299,1033-1036 .

114. What is the role of regulatory T cells in the success of implantation and early pregnancy? Saito, S., Shima, T., Nakashima, A., Shiozaki, A., Ito, M., Sasaki, Y. 2007, J Assist Reprod Genet, pp. 24: 379-386.

115. Sleeping Beauty-based gene therapy with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibits lung allograft fibrosis. Liu H, Liu L, Fletcher BS, Visner GA. 2006, FASEB J, pp. 20:2384-2386.

116. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in transplanted NOD Islets prolongs graft survival after adoptive transfer of diabetogenic splenocytes. Alexander AM, Crawford M, Bertera S, et al. 2002, Diabetes. , pp. 51(2):356–365.

117. Solid Cancers after Bone Marrow Transplantatioin. Curtis, R.E., Rowlings, P.A., Deeg, J., Schirer, D.A. et al. 1997, The New England Journal of Medicine., pp. 336, No: 13: 897-904.

118. More ADO about IDO; GVHD (commentary). Curti, A., Trabanelli, S., Lemoli, M. 2008, Blood, p. 2950.

119. Jasperson, et al, . 2008, Blood, p. 3257.

120. Tolerance, DCs and tryptophan: much ado about IDO. Grohmann U, Fallarino F, Puccetti P. 2003, Trends Immunol, pp. 24:242-248.

121. Evidence for a tumoral immune resistance mechanism based on tryptophan degradation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Uyttenhove C, Pilotte L, Théate I, Stroobant V, Colau D, Parmentier N, et al. 2003, Nat Med , pp. 9:1269–74.

122. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is a critical regulator of acute graft-versus-host disease lethality. Lisa K. Jasperson, Christoph Bucher, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Patricia A. Taylor, Andrew L. Mellor, David H. Munn, and Bruce R. Blazar. 2008., Blood., pp. 111:3257-3265.

123. The metabolism of tryptophan. 2. The metabolism of tryptophan in patients suffering from cancer of the bladder. . Boyland, E. & Willliams, D.C. 1956, Biochem. J., pp. 64, 578−582 .

124. Tryptophan metabolism in carcinoma of the breast. . Rose, D. 1967, Lancet , pp. 1, 239−241. 

125. Inhibitors of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase for cancer therapy: can we see the wood for the trees? . Löb S, Königsrainer A, Rammensee HG, Opelz G, Terness P. 2009;, Nat Rev Cancer , pp. 9:445–52.  http://dx.doi.org:/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-1331.

126. The hallmarks of cancer. . Hanahan, D. & Weinberg, R.A. 2000., Cell., pp. 100, 57−70.

127. Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Expression in Human Cancers: Clinical and Immunologic Perspectives. Godin-Ethier, J., Hanafi,L.A., Piccirillo,C.A. and Lapointe, R. 2011, Clin Cancer Res, pp. 17; 6985,  http://dx.doi.org:/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-1331.

128. Dendritic cell modification as a route to inhibiting corneal graft rejection by the indirect pathway of allorecognition. Khan A, Fu H, Tan LA, Harper JE, Beutelspacher SC, Larkin DF, Lombardi G, McClure MO, George AJ. 2013, Eur J Immunol., pp. 43(3):734-46. http://dx.doi.org:/10.1002/eji.201242914. Epub 2013 Jan 18.

129. Possible role of the ‘IDO-AhR axis’ in maternal-foetal tolerance. . Hao K, Zhou Q, Chen W, Jia W, Zheng J, Kang J, Wang K, Duan T. 2013, Cell Biol Int., pp. 37(2):105-8.  http://dx.doi.org:/10.1002/cbin.10023. Epub 2013 Jan 2.

130. Implication of indolamine 2,3 dioxygenase in the tolerance toward fetuses, tumors, and allografts. . Dürr S, Kindler V. 2013, J Leukoc Biol. , pp. 93(5):681-7.
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1189/jlb.0712347. Epub 2013 Jan 16.

131. Evidence for a tumoral immune resistance mechanism based on tryptophan degradation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Uyttenhove C, Pilotte L, Théate I, Stroobant V, Colau D, Parmentier N, et al. 2003, Nat Med, pp. 9:1269–74.

132. NAturally arising CD4+ regulatory T cells for immunologic self-tolerance and negative control of immune responses. Sagaguchi, S. 2004, Annu. Rev. of Immunol., pp. 22: 531-562.

133. Regulatory T cells in transplantation tolerance. Wood, K.J., zZSakaguchi, S.,. 2003, Nat. Rev. Immunol., pp. 3; 199-210.

134. The cell awareness of paternal alloantigens during pregnancy. Tafuri, A., Alferink, J., Hammerling, G.J., Arnold, B. 1995, Science, pp. 270; 630-3.

135. Adenovirus mediated CTLA4Ig transgene therapy alleviates abortion by inhibiting spleen lymphocyte proliferation and regulating apoptosis in the feto-placental unit. Li W, Li B, Li S. 2013, J Reprod Immunol. , pp. 97(2):167-74.

136. A distinct tolerogenic subset of splenic IDO(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells from orally tolerized mice is responsible for induction of systemic immune tolerance and suppression of collagen-induced arthritis. Park MJ, Park KS, Park HS, Cho ML, Hwang SY, Min SY, Park MK, Park SH, Kim HY. 2012, Cell Immunol. , pp. 278(1-2):45-54. http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.cellimm.2012.06.009. Epub 2012 Jul 10.

137. Pharmacological targeting of IDO-mediated tolerance for treating autoimmune disease. Penberthy, W.T. 2007, Curr. Drug Metab., pp. 8:(3):245-266.

138. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in transplanted NOD Islets prolongs graft survival after adoptive transfer of diabetogenic splenocytes. Alexander AM, Crawford M, Bertera S, et al. 2002, Diabetes. , pp. 51(2):356–365.

139. Heme oxygenase-1 plays an important protective role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. . Liu Y, Zhu B, Luo L, Li P, Paty DW, Cynader MS. 2001., NeuroReport. , pp. 12(9):1841–1845.

140. Tumor vaccines in 2010: need for integration. Koos, D., Josephs, SF, Alexandrescu, DT et al. 2010, Cell Immunol, pp. 263: 138-147.

141. BIN1 is a novel MYC-interacting protein with features of a tumor suppressor. . Sakamuro, D., Elliott, K., Wechsler-Reya, R. & Prendergast, G.C. 1996, Nat. Genet. , pp. 14, 69−77.

142. Expression of Indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase by plasmacytoid dendritic cells in tumor draining nodes. Munn, S.H., Sharma, M.D., Hou, D., Baban, B. et al. 2004, J. Clin. Invest. , pp. 114: 280-290.

143. Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Expression in Human Cancers: Clinical and Immunologic Perspectives. Jessica Godin-Ethier, Laïla-Aïcha Hanafi, Ciriaco A. Piccirillo, and Réjean Lapointe. 2011 , Clin Cancer Res, pp. 17; 6985, http://dx.doi.org:/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-1331.

144. Potential regulatory function of human dendritic cells expressing indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. . Munn, D.H. et al. 2002, Science 297, 1867−1870, pp. 297, 1867−1870 .

145. An HDAC inhibitor enhances cancer therapeutic efficiency of RNA polymerase III promoter-driven IDO shRNA. Yen MC, Weng TY, Chen YL, Lin CC, Chen CY, Wang CY, Chao HL, Chen CS, Lai MD. 2013, Cancer Gene Ther. , p. http://dx.doi.org:/10.1038/cgt.2013.27. [Epub ahead of print].

146. Systemic delivery of Salmonella typhimurium transformed with IDO shRNA enhances intratumoral vector colonization and suppresses tumor growth. Blache CA, Manuel ER, Kaltcheva TI, Wong AN, Ellenhorn JD, Blazar BR, Diamond DJ. 2012, Cancer Res. , pp. 72(24):6447-56.
http://dx.doi.org:/ZZ1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-0193. Epub 2012 Oct 22.

147. Silencing IDO in dendritic cells: a novel approach to enhance cancer immunotherapy in a murine breast cancer model. Zheng X, Koropatnick J, Chen D, Velenosi T, Ling H, Zhang X, Jiang N, Navarro B, Ichim TE, Urquhart B, Min W. 2013, Int J Cancer., pp.132(4):967-77. http://dx.doi.org:/10.1002/ijc.27710. Epub 2012 Jul 20.

148. Immunosuppressive CD14+HLA-DRlow/neg IDO+ myeloid cells in patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Mougiakakos D, Jitschin R, von Bahr L, Poschke I, Gary R, Sundberg B, Gerbitz A, Ljungman P, Le Blanc K. 2013, Leukemia. , pp. 27(2):377-88.
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1038/leu.2012.215. Epub 2012 Jul 25.

149. Upregulated expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase in primary breast cancer correlates with increase of infiltrated regulatory T cells in situ and lymph node metastasis. Yu J, Sun J, Wang SE, Li H, Cao S, Cong Y, Liu J, Ren X. 2011, Clin Dev Immunol. , p. 11:469135.
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1155/2011/469135. Epub 2011 Oct 24.

150. Skin delivery of short hairpin RNA of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase induces antitumor immunity against orthotopic and metastatic liver cancer. Huang TT, Yen MC, Lin CC, Weng TY, Chen YL, Lin CM, Lai MD. 2011, Cancer Sci. , pp. 102(12):2214-20. http://dx.doi.org:/10.1111/j.1349-7006.2011.02094.x.

151. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in transplanted NOD Islets prolongs graft survival after adoptive transfer of diabetogenic splenocytes. . Alexander AM, Crawford M, Bertera S, et al. 2002, Diabetes. , pp. 51(2):356–365.

152. Prevention of Spontaneous Tumor Development in a ret Transgenic Mouse Model by Ret Peptide Vaccination with Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Inhibitor 1-Methyl Tryptophan. Zeng, J., Cai, S., Yi, Y., et al. 2009, Cancer Res., pp. 69: 3963-3970,  http://dx.doi.org:/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-2476.

153. Medicinal electronomics bricolage design of hypoxia-targeting antineoplastic drugs and invention of boron tracedrugs as innovative future-architectural drugs. Hori H, Uto Y, Nakata E. 2010, Anticancer Res. , pp. 30(9):3233-42.

154. Synthesis of 4-cyano and 4-nitrophenyl 1,6-dithio-D-manno-, L-ido- and D-glucoseptanosides possessing antithrombotic activity. Bozó E, Gáti T, Demeter A, Kuszmann J. 2002, Carbohydr Res. , pp. 3;337(15):1351-65.

155. Radiopharmaceuticals XXVII. 18F-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose as a radiopharmaceutical for measuring regional myocardial glucose metabolism in vivo: tissue distribution and imaging studies in animals. Gallagher BM, Ansari A, Atkins H, Casella V, Christman DR, Fowler JS, Ido T, MacGregor RR, Som P, Wan CN, Wolf AP, Kuhl DE, Reivich M. 1977, J Nucl Med. , pp. 18(10):990-6.

156. Tryptophan deprivation sensitizes activated T cells to apoptosis prior to cell division. Lee GK, Park HJ, Macleod M, Chandler P, Munn DH, Mellor AL. 2002, Immunology, pp. 107:452–460.

157. Induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase by uropathogenic bacteria attenuates innate responses to epithelial infection. Loughman JA, Hunstad DA. 2012 , J Infect Dis. , pp. 205(12):1830-9.  http://dx.doi.org:/10.1093/infdis/jis280.

158. Inhibition of allogeneic T cell proliferation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing dendritic cells: mediation of suppression by tryptophan metabolites. . Terness, P., et al. 2002, J. Exp. Med.196:447–457., pp. 196:447–457.

159. The tryptophan catabolite L-kynurenine inhibits the surface expression of NKp46- and NKG2D-activating receptors and regulates NK-cell function. . Chiesa, M.D., et al. 2006, Blood. , pp. 108:4118–4125.38.

160. Differential effects of the tryptophan metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid on the proliferation of human CD8+ T cells induced by TCR triggering or homeostatic cytokines. Weber, W.P., et al. 2006, Eur. J. Immunol. , pp. 36:296-304.

161. Dendritic cell vaccination against ovarian cancer–tipping the Treg/TH17 balance to therapeutic advantage? Cannon MJ, Goyne H, Stone PJ, Chiriva-Internati M. 2011, Expert Opin Biol Ther. , pp. 11(4):441-5. http://dx.doi.org:/10.1517/14712598.2011.554812.

162. Phenotype, distribution, generation, and functional and clinical relevance of Th17 cells in the human tumor environments. . Kryczek I, Banerjee M, Cheng P, et al. 2009, Blood., pp. 114:1141–1149.

163. The use of dendritic cells in cancer immunitherapy. Schuler, G., Schuker-Turner, B., Steinman, RM, 2003, Curr. Opin. Immunol., pp. 15: 138-147.

164. Clinical applications of dentritic cell vaccines. Morse, MA, Lyerly, HK. 2000, Curr. Opin. Mol Ther., pp. 2:20-28.

165. Vaccination of melanoma patients with peptide or tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells. Nestle, FO, Alijagic, S., Gillet, M. et al. 1998, Nat. Med., pp. 4: 328-332.

166. Dentritic cell based tumor vaccination in prostate and renal cell cancer: a systamatic review. Draube, A., Klein-Gonzales, Matheus, S et al. 2011, Plos One, p. 6:e1881.

167. [Online] http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/CellularGeneTherapy-Products/ApprovedProducts/ucm210215.htm.

168. Dendritic cell based antitumor vaccination: impact of functional indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression. Wobster, m., Voigt, H., Houben, R. et al. 2007, Cancer Immunol Immunother, pp. 56:1017-1024. 169. [Online] oncoimmunology.2012 October1; 1(17):1111-1134,  http://dx.doi.org:/10.4161/onci.21494.

170. Interleukins 1beta and 6 but not transforming growth factor-beta are essential for the differentiation of interleukin 17-producing human T helper cells. Acosta-Rodriguez EV, Napolitani G, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. 2007 , Nat Immunol. , pp. 8(9):942-9.

171. IFNgamma promotes generationof Il-10 secreting CD4+ T cells that suppress generationof CD8responses in an antigen-experienced host. Liu, X.S., Leerberg, J., MacDonald, K., Leggatt, G.R., Frazer, I.H. 2009, J. Immunol., pp. 183: 51-58.

172. Antigen, in the presence of TGF-beta, induces up-regulationof FoxP3gfp+ in CD4+ TCR transgenic T cells that mediate linked supressionof CD8+ T cell responses. . Kapp, J.A., Honjo, K., Kapp, L.M., Goldsmith, K., Bucy, R.P. 2007, J. Immunol., pp. 179: 2105-2114.

173. Opposing effects of TGF-beta and IL-15 cytokines control the number of short lived effecctor CD8+ T cells. Sanjabi, S, Mosaheb, M.M., Flavell, R.A. 2009, Immunity., pp. 31; 131-144.

174. Synergestic enhancement of CD8+ T cell mediated tumor vaccines efficacy by an anti-tumor forming growth factor-beta monoclonal antibody. . Terabe, M., Ambrosino, E., Takaku, S. et al. 2009, Clin. Cancer Res., pp. 15; 6560-9.

175. IL-12 enhances CTL synapse formationand induces self-reactivity. Markinewicz, MA, Wise, EL, Buchwald, ZS et al. 2009, J. Immunol., pp. 182: 1351-1362.

176. Tumor specific Th17-polarized cells eradicate large established melanoma. Muranski, P., Boni, A., Antony, PA, et al. 2008, Blood, pp. 112; 362-373.

177. Type17 CD8+ T cells dispplay enhanced antitumor immunity. Hinrichs, C.S., Kaiser, A., Paulos, C.M., et al. 2008, Blood., pp. 112:362-373.

178. Marying Immunotherapy with Chemotherapy: Why Say IDO? Muller, AJ, and Prendergrast, GC. 2005, Cancer Research, pp. 65: 8065-8068.

179. Enhancing Cancer Vaccine efficacy via Modulationof the Tumor Environment. Disis, ML. 2009, Clin Cancer Res, pp. 15: 6476-6478.

180. Systemic inhibition of transforming growth factor beta 1 in glioma bearing mice improves the therapeutic efficacy of glioma-associated antigen peptide vaccines. Ueda, R., Fujita, M., Zhu, X., et al. 2009, Clin. Cancer res., pp. 15: 6551-9.

181. Immune modulation by silencing IL-12 productionin dendritic cells using smal interfering RNA. Hill, JA, Ichim, TE, Kusznieruk, KP, et al. 2003, J. Immunol, pp. 171:809-813.

182. Immune modulation and tolerance induction by RelB-silenced dentritic cells through RNA interference. Li, M. Zang, X, Zheng, X, et al. 2007, J. Immunol, pp. 178: 5480-7.

183. RNAi mediated CD40-CD54 interruption promotes tolerance in autoimmune arthritis. . Zheng, X., Suzuki, M., Zhang, X., et al. 2010, Arthritis Res. Ther., p. 12:R13.

184. Dendritic cells genetically engineered to express Fas ligand induce donor-specific hyporesponsiveness and prolong allograft survival. Min, WP. Gorczynki, R., huang, XY et al. 2000, J. Immunol., pp. 164:161-167.

185. LF15-0195 generates tolerogenic dendritic cells by supressionof NF-kappaB signaling through inhibitionof IKK activity. . Yang, J., Bernier, SM, Ichim, TE, et al. 2003, J Leukoc. Biol., pp. 74: 438-447.

186. RNA interfrence: A potent tool for gene specific therapeutics. . Ichim, TE, Li, M., Qian, H., Popov, HI, Rycerz, K., Zheng, X., White, D., Zhong, R., and Min, WP. 2004, Am. J. Transplant, pp. 4:1227-1236.

187. A novel in vivo siRNA delivery system specifically targeting dendritic cells and silencing CD40 genes for immunomodulation. Zheng, X., Vladau, C., Zhang, X. et al. 2009, Blood, pp. 113:2646-2654.

188. Reinstalling Antitumor Immunity by Inhibiting Tumor derived ImmunoSupressive Molecule IDO through RNA interference. Zheng, X et al. 2006, Int. Journal of Immunology., pp. 177:5639-5646.

189. Roles of TGFbeta in metastasis. Padua, D., Massague, J. 2009, Cell Res., pp. 19;89-102.

190. Functional expression of indolamine2,3-dioxygenase by murine CDalpha+dendritic cells. Fallarino, F., Vacca, C, Orabona, C et al. 2002, Int Immunol., pp. 14:65-8.

191. Indolamine2,3-dioxygenase controls conversion of Fox3+ Tregs to TH17-like cells in tumor draining lymph nodes. Sharma, MD, Hou, DY, Liu, Y et al. 2009, Blood, pp.113: 6102-11.

192. IDO upregulates regulatory T cells via tryptoophan catabolite and supresses encephalitogenic T cell responses in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Yan, Y, Zhang, GX, Gran, B et al. 2010, J Immunol, pp. 185; 5953-61.

193. IDO activates regulatory T cells and blocks their conversion into Th-17-like T cells. Baban, B, Chandler, PR, Sharma, MD et al. 2009, J Immunol, pp. 183; 2475-83.

194. Enhancement of vaccine-mediated antitumor immunity in cancer patients after depletionof regulatory T cells. Dannull, J., Farrand, KJ, Mathews, SA, et al. 2005, J Clin Invest, pp. 115: 3623-33.

195. 1-MT enhances potency of tumor cell lysate pulled dentritic cells against pancreatic adenocarcinoma by downregulating percentage of Tregs. Li, Y, Xu, J, Zhou, H. et al. 2010, J Huazhong Univ Sci Technol Med Sci , pp. 30: 344-8.

196. siRNA mediated antitumorigenesis for drug target validation and therapeutics. Lu, PY, Xie, FY and Woodle, MC. 2003, Curr Opin Mol. Ther., pp. 5:225-234.

197. Stable supression of tumorigenicity by virus-mediated RNA interference. Brumellkamp, TR, Bernards, R, Agami, R. 2002, Cancer Cell, pp. 2; 243-247.

198. Small interferring RNAs directed against beta-catenin inhibit the in vitro and in vivo growth of colon cancer cells. Verma, UN, Surabhi, RM, Schmaltieg, A., Becerra, C., Gaynor, RB. 2003, Clin. Cancer. Res., pp. 9:1291-1300.

199. siRNA mediated inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor severely limits tumor resistance to antiangiogeneic thromboposdin-1 and slows tumor vascularization and growth. Filleur, S., Courtin, A, Ait-Si-Ali, S., Guglielmi, J., Merel, C., Harel-Bellan, A., CLezardin, P., and Cabon, F. 2003, Cancer Res, pp. 63; 3919-3922.

200. Kynurenic acid as a ligand for orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR35. . Wang, J., et al. 2006, J. Biol.Chem. , pp. 281:22021–22028. 201. Bin1 functionally interacts with Myc in cells and inhibits cell proliferation by multiple mechanisms. Elliott, K. et al. 1999, Oncogene , pp. 18, 3564−3573 .

202. Mechanism for elimination of a tumor suppressor: aberrant splicing of a brain-specific exon causes loss of function of Bin1 in melanoma. . Ge, K. et al. 1999, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, pp. 96, 9689−9694. 

203. Losses of the tumor suppressor Bin1 in breast carcinoma are frequent and reflect deficits in a programmed cell death capacity. Ge, K. et al. 2000, Int. J. Cancer , pp. 85, 376−383.

204. Loss of heterozygosity and tumor suppressor activity of Bin1 in prostate carcinoma. Ge, K. et al. 2000, Int. J. Cancer , pp. 86, 155−161.

205. Expression of a MYCN-interacting isoform of the tumor suppressor BIN1 is reduced in neuroblastomas with unfavorable biological features. . Tajiri, T. et al. 2003, Clin. Cancer Res., pp. 9, 3345−3355.

206. Targeted deletion of the suppressor gene Bin1/Amphiphysin2 enhances the malignant character of transformed cells. Muller, A.J., DuHadaway, J.B., Donover, P.S., Sutanto-Ward, E. & Prendergast, G.C. 2004, Cancer Biol. Ther. , p. 3.

207. Interactions of myogenic factors and the retinoblastoma protein mediates muscle commitment and cell differentiation. Gu, WJ., Scheniider,W., Condrolli,G., Kaushal,, S, Mahdavi,V., Nadal-Gnard, B. 1993, Cell, pp. 72; 309-324.

208. Structural analysis of the human BIN1 gene: evidence of tissue-specific transcriptional regualtion and alternate splicing. Wechsler-Reya, R, Sakamuro, J., Zhang, J., DuHadaway, J., and Predengast. 1998, J of Biol Chem.

209. A role for th ePutative Tuimor Supressor Bin1 in Muscle Differentiation. Wechsler-Reya, R., Elliott, KJ, Prendergast, GC. 1998, Molecular and Cellular Biology, p. 18 (1) :566.

210. The putative tumor repressor BIN1 is a short lived nuclear phosphoprotein whose localization is altered in malignant cells. Wechsler-Reya, R., Elliot, K., Herlyn, M., Prendergast, GC. 1997, Cancer Res, pp. 57: 3258-3263.

211. Transformation selective apoptosis by farnesyltransferase inhibitors requires Bin1. DuHadaway, J.B. et al. 2003, Oncogene, pp. 22, 3578−3588 (2003).

212. The c-Myc-interacting adapter protein Bin1 activates a caspase-independent cell death program. Elliott, K., Ge, K., Du, W. & Prendergast, G.C. 2000., Oncogene , pp. 19, 4669−4684.

213. Growth stimulation of human bone marrow cells in agar culture by vascular cells. Knudtzon, S., and Mortensen, BT. 1975, Blood, pp. 46 (6) 937-943.

214. Exogenous endothelial cells as accelerators of hematopoietic reconstitution. Mizer, C., Ichim, TE, Alexandrescu, DT, DAsanu, CA, Ramos, F., Turner, A., Woods, EJ, Bogon, V., Murphy, MP, Koos, D., and Patel, A. 2013, J. Translational Medicine, p. 10: 231.

215. Dissecting the bone marrow microenvironment . Torok-Storb, B. et al. 1999, Annals of New York Academy of Science, pp. 872: 164-170. 217. Yuasa, XX and Ball YY. 2011.

218. Possible role of the ‘IDO-AhR axis’ in maternal-foetal tolerance. Hao K, Zhou Q, Chen W, Jia W, Zheng J, Kang J, Wang K, Duan T. 2013, Cell Biol Int. , pp. 37(2):105-8. http://dx.doi.org:/10.1002/cbin.10023.

219. Toll pathway-dependent blockade of CD4+CD25+ T cell-mediated suppression by dendritic cells. Pasare, C., Medzhitov, R. 2003, Science , pp. 299,1033-1036 .

220. Activation of Toll-like receptor 2 on human dendritic cells triggers induction of IL-12, but not IL-10. Thoma-Uszynski, S., Kiertscher, S. M., Ochoa, M. T., Bouis, D. A., Norgard, M. V., Miyake, K., Godowski, P. J., Roth, M. D., Modlin, R. L. 2000, J. Immunol. , pp. 165,3804-3810.

Read Full Post »


 

Abstract:

The immune response mechanism is the holy grail of the human defense system for health.   IDO, indolamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, is a key gene for homeostasis of immune responses and producing an enzyme catabolizing the first rate-limiting step in tryptophan degradation metabolism. The hemostasis of immune system is complicated.  In this review, the  properties of IDO such as basic molecular genetics, biochemistry and genesis will be discussed.

IDO belongs to globin gene family to carry oxygen and heme.  The main function and genesis of IDO comes from the immune responses during host-microbial invasion and choice between tolerance and immunegenity.  In human there are three kinds of IDOs, which are IDO1, IDO2, and TDO, with distinguished mechanisms and expression profiles. , IDO mechanism includes three distinguished pathways: enzymatic acts through IFNgamma, non-enzymatic acts through TGFbeta-IFNalpha/IFNbeta and moonlighting acts through AhR/Kyn.

The well understood functional genomics and mechanisms is important to translate basic science for clinical interventions of human health needs. In conclusion, overall purpose is to find a method to manipulate IDO to correct/fix/modulate immune responses for clinical applications.

The first part of the review concerns the basic science information gained overall several years that lay the foundation where translational research scientist should familiar to develop a new technology for clinic. The first connection of IDO and human health came from a very natural event that is protection of pregnancy in human. The focus of the translational medicine is treatment of cancer or prevention/delay cancer by stem cell based Dendritic Cell Vaccine (DCvax) development.

Table of Contents:

  • Abstract

1         Introduction: IDO gene encodes a heme enzyme

2        Location, location, location

3        Molecular genetics

4        Types of IDO:

4.1       IDO1,

4.2       IDO2,

4.3       IDO-like proteins

5        Working mechanisms of IDO

6        Infection Diseases and IDO

7. Conclusion

  1. 1.     Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) gene encodes a heme enzyme

IDO is a key homeostatic regulator and confined in immune system mechanism for the balance between tolerance and immunity.  This gene encodes indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) – a heme enzyme (EC=1.13.11.52) that catalyzes the first rate-limiting step in tryptophan catabolism to N-formyl-kynurenine and acts on multiple tryptophan substrates including D-tryptophan, L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxy-tryptophan, tryptamine, and serotonin.

The basic genetic information describes indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1, IDO, INDO) as an enzyme located at Chromosome 8p12-p11 (5; 6) that active at the first step of the Tryptophan catabolism.    The cloned gene structure showed that IDO contains 10 exons ad 9 introns (7; 8) producing 9 transcripts.

After alternative splicing only five of the transcripts encode a protein but the other four does not make protein products, three of transcripts retain intron and one of them create a nonsense code (7).  Based on IDO related studies 15 phenotypes of IDO is identified, of which, twelve in cancer tumor models of lung, kidney, endometrium, intestine, two in nervous system, and one HGMD- deletion.

  1. 2.     Location, Location and Location

The specific cellular location of IDO is in cytosol, smooth muscle contractile fibers and stereocilium bundle. The expression specificity shows that IDO is present very widely in all cell types but there is an elevation of expression in placenta, pancreas, pancreas islets, including dendritic cells (DCs) according to gene atlas of transcriptome (9).  Expression of IDO is common in antigen presenting cells (APCs), monocytes (MO), macrophages (MQs), DCs, T-cells, and some B-cells. IDO present in APCs (10; 11), due to magnitude of role play hierarchy and level of expression DCs are the better choice but including MOs during establishment of three DC cell subset, CD14+CD25+, CD14++CD25+ and CD14+CD25++ may increase the longevity and efficacy of the interventions.

IDO is strictly regulated and confined to immune system with diverse functions based on either positive or negative stimulations. The positive stimulations are T cell tolerance induction, apoptotic process, and chronic inflammatory response, type 2 immune response, interleukin-12 production (12).  The negative stimulations are interleukin-10 production, activated T cell proliferation, T cell apoptotic process.  Furthermore, there are more functions allocating fetus during female pregnancy; changing behavior, responding to lipopolysaccharide or multicellular organismal response to stress possible due to degradation of tryptophan, kynurenic acid biosynthetic process, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, small molecule metabolic process, producing kynurenine process (13; 14; 15).

IDO plays a role in a variety of pathophysiological processes such as antimicrobial and antitumor defense, neuropathology, immunoregulation, and antioxidant activity (16; 17; 18; 19).

 

 3.     Molecular Genetics of IDO:

A: Structure of human IDO2 gene and transcripts. Complete coding region is 1260 bps encoding a 420 aa polypeptide. Alternate splice isoforms lacking the exons indicated are noted. Hatch boxes represent a frameshift in the coding region to an alternate reading frame leading to termination. Black boxes represent 3' untranslated regions. Nucleotide numbers, intron sizes, and positioning are based on IDO sequence files NW_923907.1 and GI:89028628 in the Genbank database. (reference: http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/IDO2ID44387ch8p11.html)

A: Structure of human IDO2 gene and transcripts. Complete coding region is 1260 bps encoding a 420 aa polypeptide. Alternate splice isoforms lacking the exons indicated are noted. Hatch boxes represent a frameshift in the coding region to an alternate reading frame leading to termination. Black boxes represent 3′ untranslated regions. Nucleotide numbers, intron sizes, and positioning are based on IDO sequence files NW_923907.1 and GI:89028628 in the Genbank database.
(reference: http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/IDO2ID44387ch8p11.html)

Molecular genetics data from earlier findings based on reporter assay results showed that IDO promoter is regulated by ISRE-like elements and GAS-sequence at -1126 and -1083 region (20).  Two cis-acting elements are ISRE1 (interferon sequence response element 1) and interferon sequence response element 2 (ISRE2).

Analyses of site directed and deletion mutation with transfected cells demonstrated that introduction of point mutations at these elements decreases the IDO expression. Removing ISRE1 decreases the effects of IFNgamma induction 50 fold and deleting ISRE1 at -1126 reduced by 25 fold (3). Introducing point mutations in conserved t residues at -1124 and -1122 (from T to C or G) in ISRE consensus sequence NAGtttCA/tntttNCC of IFNa/b inducible gene ISG4 eliminates the promoter activity by 24 fold (21).

ISRE2 have two boxes, X box (-114/1104) and Y Box 9-144/-135), which are essential part of the IFNgamma response region of major histocompatibility complex class II promoters (22; 23).  When these were removed from ISRE2 or introducing point mutations at two A residues of ISRE2 at -111 showed a sharp decrease after IFNgamma treatment by 4 fold (3).

The lack of responses related to truncated or deleted IRF-1 interactions whereas IRF-2, Jak2 and STAT91 levels were similar in the cells, HEPg2 and ME180 (3). Furthermore, 748 bp deleted between these elements did not affect the IDO expression, thus the distance between ISRE1 and ISRE2 elements have no function or influence on IDO (3; 24)

B: Amino acid alignment of IDO and IDO2. Amino acids determined by mutagenesis and the crystal structure of IDO that are critical for catalytic activity are positioned below the human IDO sequence. Two commonly occurring SNPs identified in the coding region of human IDO2 are shown above the sequence which alter a critical amino acid (R248W) or introduce a premature termination codon (Y359stop).

B: Amino acid alignment of IDO and IDO2. Amino acids determined by mutagenesis and the crystal structure of IDO that are critical for catalytic activity are positioned below the human IDO sequence. Two commonly occurring SNPs identified in the coding region of human IDO2 are shown above the sequence which alter a critical amino acid (R248W) or introduce a premature termination codon (Y359stop).

4.     There are three types of IDO in human genome:

IDO was originally discovered in 1967 in rabbit intestine (25). Later, in 1990 the human IDO gene is cloned and sequenced (7).  However, its importance and relevance in immunology was not created until prevention of allocation of fetal rejection and founding expression in wide range of human cancers (26; 27).

There are three types of IDO, pro-IDO like, IDO1, and IDO2.  In addition, another enzyme called TDO, tryptophan 2, 3, dehydrogenase solely degrade L-Trp at first-rate limiting mechanism in liver and brain.

4.1.  IDO1:

IDO1 mechanism is the target for immunotherapy applications. The initial discovery of IDO in human physiology is protection of pregnancy (1) since lack of IDO results in premature recurrent abortion (28; 26; 29).   The initial rate-limiting step of tryptophan metabolism is catalyzed by either IDO or tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase (TDO).

Structural studies of IDO versus TDO presenting active site environments, conserved Arg 117 and Tyr113, found both in TDO and IDO for the Tyr-Glu motif, but His55 in TDO replaced by Ser167b in IDO (30; 2). As a result, they are regulated with different mechanisms (1; 2) (30).  The short-lived TDO, about 2h, responds to level of tryptophan and its expression regulated by glucorticoids (31; 32).  Thus, it is a useful target for regulation and induced by tryptophan so that increasing tryptophan induces NAD biosynthesis. Whereas, IDO is not activated by the level of Trp presence but inflammatory agents with its interferon stimulated response elements (ISRE1 and ISRE2) in its (33; 34; 35; 36; 3; 10) promoter.

TDO promoter contains glucorticoid response elements (37; 38) and regulated by glucocorticoids and other available amino acids for gluconeogenesis. This is how IDO binds to only immune response cells and TDO relates to NAD biosynthesis mechanisms. Furthermore, TDO is express solely in liver and brain (36).  NAD synthesis (39) showed increased IDO ubiquitous and TDO in liver and causing NAD level increase in rat with neuronal degeneration (40; 41).  NAM has protective function in beta-cells could be used to cure Type1 diabetes (40; 42; 43). In addition, knowledge on NADH/NAD, Kyn/Trp or Trp/Kyn ratios as well as Th1/Th2, CD4/CD8 or Th17/Threg are equally important (44; 40).

Active site of IDO–PI complex. (A) Stereoview of the residues around the heme of IDO viewed from the side of heme plane. The proximal ligand H346 is H-bonded to wa1. The 6-propionate of the heme contacts with wa2 and R343 Nε. The wa2 is H-bonded to wa1, L388 O, and 6-propionate. Mutations of F226, F227, and R231 do not lose the substrate affinity but produce the inactive enzyme. Two CHES molecules are bound in the distal pocket. The cyclohexan ring of CHES-1 (green) contacts with F226 and R231. The 7-propionate of the heme interacts with the amino group of CHES-1 and side chain of Ser-263. The mutational analyses for these distal residues are shown in Table 1. (B) Top view of A by a rotation of 90°. The proximal residues are omitted. (http://www.pnas.org/content/103/8/2611/F3.expansion.html)

Active site of IDO–PI complex. (A) Stereoview of the residues around the heme of IDO viewed from the side of heme plane. The proximal ligand H346 is H-bonded to wa1. The 6-propionate of the heme contacts with wa2 and R343 Nε. The wa2 is H-bonded to wa1, L388 O, and 6-propionate. Mutations of F226, F227, and R231 do not lose the substrate affinity but produce the inactive enzyme. Two CHES molecules are bound in the distal pocket. The cyclohexan ring of CHES-1 (green) contacts with F226 and R231. The 7-propionate of the heme interacts with the amino group of CHES-1 and side chain of Ser-263. The mutational analyses for these distal residues are shown in Table 1. (B) Top view of A by a rotation of 90°. The proximal residues are omitted. (http://www.pnas.org/content/103/8/2611/F3.expansion.html)

4.2. IDO2:

The third type of IDO, called IDO2 exists in lower vertebrates like chicken, fish and frogs (45) and in human with differential expression properties. The expression of IDO2 is only in DCs, unlike IDO1 expresses on both tumors and DCs in human tissues.  Yet, in lower invertebrates IDO2 is not inhibited by general inhibitor of IDO, D-1-methyl-tryptophan (1MT) (46).   Recently, two structurally unusual natural inhibitors of IDO molecules, EXIGUAMINES A and B, are synthesized (47).  LIP mechanism cannot be switch back to activation after its induction in IDO2 (46).

Crucial cancer progression can continue with production of IL6, IL10 and TGF-beta1 to help invasion and metastasis.  Inclusion of two common SNPs affects the function of IDO2 in certain populations.  SNP1 reduces 90% of IDO2 catalytic activity in 50% of European and Asian descent and SNP2 produce premature protein through inclusion of stop-codon in 25% of African descent lack functional IDO2 (Uniport).

4.3. IDO-like proteins: The Origin of IDO:

Knowing the evolutionary steps will helps us to identify how we can manage the regulator function to protect human health in cancer, immune disorders, diabetes, and infectious diseases.

Bacterial IDO has two types of IDOs that are group I and group II IDO (48).  These are the earliest version of the IDO, pro-IDO like, proteins with a quite complicated function.  Each microorganism recognized by a specific set of receptors, called Toll-Like Receptors (TLR), to activate the IDO-like protein expression based on the origin of the bacteria or virus (49; 35).   Thus, the genesis of human IDO originates from gene duplication of these early bacterial versions of IDO-like proteins after their invasion interactions with human host.  IDO1 only exists in mammals and fungi.

Fungi also has three types of IDO; IDOa, IDO beta, and IDO gamma (50) with different properties than human IDOs, perhaps multiple IDO is necessary for the world’s decomposers.

All globins, haemoglobins and myoglobins are destined to evolve from a common ancestor, which  is only 14-16kDa (51) length. Binding of a heme and being oxygen carrier are central to the enzyme mechanism of this family.  Globins are classified under three distinct origins; a universal globin, a compact globin, and IDO-like globin (52) IDO like globin widely distributed among gastropodic mollusks (53; 51).  The indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1–like “myoglobin” (Myb) was discovered in 1989 in the buccal mass of the abalone Sulculus diversicolor (54).

The conserved region between Myb and IDO-like Myb existed for at least 600 million years (53) Even though the splice junction of seven introns was kept intact, the overall homolog region between Myb and IDO is only about 35%.

No significant evolutionary relationship is found between them after their amino acid sequence of each exon is compared to usual globin sequences. This led the hint that molluscan IDO-like protein must have other functions besides carrying oxygen, like myoglobin.   Alignment of S. cerevisiae cDNA, mollusk and vertebrate IDO–like globins show the key regions for controlling IDO or myoglobin function (55). These data suggest that there is an alternative pathways of myoglobin evolution.  In addition, understanding the diversity of globin may help to design better protocols for interventions of diseases.

Mechanisms of IDO:

The dichotomy of IDO mechanism lead the discovery that IDO is more than an enzyme as a versatile regulator of innate and adaptive immune responses in DCs (66; 67; 68). Meantime IDO also involve with Th2 response and B cell mediated autoimmunity showing that it has three paths, short term (acute) based on enzymatic actions, long term (chronic) based on non-enzymatic role, and moonlighting relies of downstream metabolites of tryptophan metabolism (69; 70).

IFNgamma produced by DC, MQ, NK, NKT, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, after stimulation with IL12 and IL8.  Inflammatory cytokine(s) expressed by DCs produce IFNgamma to stimulate IDO’s enzymatic reactions in acute response.  Then, TDO in liver and tryptophan catabolites act through Aryl hydrocarbon receptor induction for prevention of T cell proliferation. This mechanism is common among IDO, IDO2 (expresses in brain and liver) and TDO expresses in liver) provide an acute response for an innate immunity (30). When the pDCs are stimulated with IFNgamma, activation of IDO is go through Jak, STAT signaling pathway to degrade Trp to Kyn causing Trp depletion. The starvation of tryptophan in microenvironment inhibits generation of T cells by un-read t-RNAs and induce apoptosis through myc pathway.  In sum, lack of tryptophan halts T cell proliferation and put the T cells in apoptosis at S1 phase of cell division (71; 62).

The intermediary enzymes, functioning during Tryptophan degradation in Kynurenine (Kyn) pathway like kynurenine 3-hydroxylase and kynureninase, are also induced after stimulation with liposaccaride and proinflammatory cytokines (72). They exhibit their function in homeostasis through aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) induction by kynurenine as an endogenous signal (73; 74).  The endogenous tumor-promoting ligand of AhR are usually activated by environmental stress or xenobiotic toxic chemicals in several cellular processes like tumorigenesis, inflammation, transformation, and embryogenesis (Opitz ET. Al, 2011).

Human tumor cells constitutively produce TDO also contributes to production of Kyn as an endogenous ligand of the AhR (75; 27).  Degradation of tryptophan by IDO1/2 in tumors and tumor-draining lymph nodes occur. As a result, there are animal studies and Phase I/II clinical trials to inhibit the IDO1/2 to prevent cancer and poor prognosis (NewLink Genetics Corp. NCT00739609, 2007).

 IDO mechanism for immune response

Systemic inflammation (like in sepsis, cerebral malaria and brain tumor) creates hypotension and IDO expression has the central role on vascular tone control (63).  Moreover, inflammation activates the endothelial coagulation activation system causing coagulopathies on patients.  This reaction is namely endothelial cell activation of IDO by IFNgamma inducing Trp to Kyn conversion. After infection with malaria the blood vessel tone has decreases, inflammation induce IDO expression in endothelial cells producing Kyn causing decreased trp, lower arterial relaxation, and develop hypotension (Wang, Y. et. al 2010).  Furthermore, existing hypotension in knock out Ido mice point out a secondary mechanism driven by Kyn as an endogenous ligand to activate non-canonical NfKB pathway (63).

Another study also hints this “back –up” mechanism by a significant outcome with a differential response in pDCs against IMT treatment.  Unlike IFN gamma conditioned pDC blocks T cell proliferation and apoptosis, methyl tryptophan fails to inhibit IDO activity for activating naïve T cells to make Tregs at TGF-b1 conditioned pDCs (77; 78).

 Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase; IDO dioxygenase; Indeolamine-2,3

The second role of the IDO relies on non-enzymatic action as being a signal molecule. Yet, IDO2 and TDO are devoid of this function. This role mainly for maintenance of microenvironment condition. DCs response to TGFbeta-1 exposure starts the kinase Fyn induce phosphorylation of IDO-associated immunoreceptor tyrosine–based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) for propagation of the downstream signals involving non-canonical (anti-inflammatory) NF-kB pathway for a long term response. When the pDCs are conditioned with TGF-beta1 the signaling (68; 77; 78) Phospho Inositol Kinase3 (PIK-3)-dependent and Smad independent pathways (79; 80; 81; 82; 83) induce Fyn-dependent phosphorylation of IDO ITIMs.  A prototypic ITIM has the I/V/L/SxYxxL/V/F sequence (84), where x in place of an amino acid and Y is phosphorylation sites of tyrosines (85; 86).

Smad independent pathway stimulates SHP and PIK3 induce both SHP and IDO phosphorylation. Then, formed SHP-IDO complex can induce non-canonical (non-inflammatory) NF-kB pathway (64; 79; 80; 82) by phosphorylation of kinase IKKa to induce nuclear translocation of p52-Relb towards their targets.  Furthermore, the SHP-IDO complex also may inhibit IRAK1 (68). SHP-IDO complex activates genes through Nf-KB for production of Ido1 and Tgfb1 genes and secretion of IFNalpha/IFNbeta.  IFNa/IFNb establishes a second short positive feedback loop towards p52-RelB for continuous gene expression of IDO, TGFb1, IFNa and IFNb (87; 68).  However, SHP-IDO inhibited IRAK1 also activates p52-RelB.  Nf-KB induction at three path, one main and two positive feedback loops, is also critical.  Finally, based on TGF-beta1 induction (76) cellular differentiation occurs to stimulate naïve CD4+ T cell differentiation to regulatory T cells (Tregs).  In sum, TGF-b1 and IFNalpha/IFNbeta stimulate pDCs to keep inducing naïve T cells for generation of Treg cells at various stages, initiate, maintain, differentiate, infect, amplify, during long-term immune responses (67; 66).

Moonlighting function of Kyn/AhR is an adaptation mechanism after the catalytic (enzymatic) role of IDO depletes tryptophan and produce high concentration of Kyn induce Treg and Tr1 cell expansion leading Tregs to use TGFbeta for maintaining this environment (67; 76). In this role, Kyn pathway has positive-feedback-loop function to induce IDO expression.

In T cells, tryptophan starvation induces Gcn2-dependent stress signaling pathway, which initiates uncharged Trp-tRNA binding onto ribosomes. Elevated GCN2 expression stimulates elF2alfa phosphorylation to stop translation initiation (88). Therefore, most genes downregulated and LIP, an alternatively initiated isoform of the b/ZIP transcription factor NF-IL6/CEBP-beta (89).

This mechanism happens in tumor cells based on Prendergast group observations. As a result, not only IDO1 propagates itself while producing IFNalpha/IFNbeta, but also demonstrates homeostasis choosing between immunegenity by production of TH17or tolerance by Tregs. This mechanism acts like a see-saw. Yet, tolerance also can be broken by IL6 induction so reversal mechanism by SOC-3 dependent proteosomal degradation of the enzyme (90).  All proper responses require functional peripheral DCs to generate mature DCs for T cells to avoid autoimmunity (91).

Niacin (vitamin B3) is the final product of tryptophan catabolism and first molecule at Nicotinomic acid (NDA) Biosynthesis.  The function of IDO in tryptophan and NDA metabolism has a great importance to develop new clinical applications (40; 42; 41).  NAD+, biosynthesis and tryptophan metabolisms regulate several steps that can be utilize pharmacologically for reformation of healthy physiology (40).

IDO for protection in Microbial Infection with Toll-like Receptors

The mechanism of microbial response and infectious tolerance are complex and the origination of IDO based on duplication of microbial IDO (49).  During microbial responses, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a role to differentiate and determine the microbial structures as a ligand to initiate production of cytokines and pro-inflammatory agents to activate specific T helper cells (92; 93; 94; 95). Uniqueness of TLR comes from four major characteristics of each individual TLR by ligand specificity, signal transduction pathways, expression profiles and cellular localization (96). Thus, TLRs are important part of the immune response signaling mechanism to initiate and design adoptive responses from innate (naïve) immune system to defend the host.

TLRs are expressed cell type specific patterns and present themselves on APCs (DCs, MQs, monocytes) with a rich expression levels (96; 97; 98; 99; 93; 100; 101; 102; 87). Induction signals originate from microbial stimuli for the genesis of mature immune response cells.  Co-stimulation mechanisms stimulate immature DCs to travel from lymphoid organs to blood stream for proliferation of specific T cells (96).  After the induction of iDCs by microbial stimuli, they produce proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IL-12, which can activate differentiation of T cells into T helper cell, type one (Th1) cells. (103).

Utilizing specific TLR stimulation to link between innate and acquired responses can be possible through simple recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or co-stimulation of PAMPs with other TLR or non-TLR receptors, or even better with proinflammatory cytokines.   Some examples of ligand- TLR specificity shown in Table1, which are bacterial lipopeptides, Pam3Cys through TLR2 (92; 104; 105).  Double stranded (ds) RNAs through TLR3 (106; 107), Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through TLR4, bacterial flagellin through TLR5 (108; 109), single stranded RNAs through TLR7/8 (97; 98), synthetic anti-viral compounds imiquinod through TLR 7 and resiquimod through TLR8, unmethylated CpG DNA motifs through TLR9 (Krieg, 2000).

IDO action

Then, the specificity is established by correct pairing of a TLR with its proinflammatory cytokines, so that these permutations influence creation and maintenance of cell differentiation. For example, leading the T cell response toward a preferred Th1 or Th2 response possible if the cytokines TLR-2 mediated signals induce a Th2 profile when combined with IL-2 but TLR4 mediated signals lean towards Th1 if it is combined with IL-10 or Il-12, (110; 111)  (112).

TLR ligand TLR Reference
Lipopolysaccharide, LPS TLR4 (96).  (112).
Lipopeptides, Pam3Cys TLR2 (92; 104; 105)
Double stranded (ds) RNAs TLR3 (106; 107)
Bacterial flagellin TLR5 (108; 109)
Single stranded RNAs TLR7/8 (97; 98)
Unmethylated CpG DNA motifs TLR9 (Krieg, 2000)
Synthetic anti-viral compounds imiquinod and resiquimod TLR7 and TLR8 (Lee J, 2003)

Furthermore, if the DCs are stimulated with IL-6, DCs relieve the suppression of effector T cells by regulatory T cells (113).

The modification of IDO+ monocytes manage towards specific subset of T cell activation with specific TLRs are significantly important (94).

The type of cell with correct TLR and stimuli improves or decreases the effectiveness of stimuli. Induction of IDO in monocytes by synthetic viral RNAs (isRNA) and CMV was possible, but not in monocyte derived DCs or TLR2 ligand lipopeptide Pam3Cys since single- stranded RNA ligands target TLR7/8 in monocytes derive DCs only (Lee J, 2003).  These data show that TLRs has ligand specificity, signal transduction pathways, expression profiles and cellular localization so design of experiments should follow these rules.

Conclusion:

Overall our purpose of this information is to find a method to manipulate IDO to correct/fix/modulate immune responses for clinical applications.  This first part of the review concerns the basic science information gained overall several years that lay the foundation that translational research scientist should familiar to develop a new technology for clinic. The first connection of IDO and human health came from a very natural event that is protection of pregnancy in human. The focus of the translational medicine is treatment of cancer or prevention/delay cancer by stem cell based Dendritic Cell Vaccine (DCvax) development.

References

1. Biochemistry of tryptophan in health and disease. BenderDA. 1983, Mol Aspects Med , pp. 6:101–197.

2. Molecular insights into substrate recognition and catalysis by indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Forouhar, F., Anderson, R., Mowat, C.F, et al. 2006, PNAS, pp. vol. 104, no:2, 473-478.

3. Importance of the Two Interferon-stimulated Response Element. Konan KV, Taylor, MW. 1996, J. Biol. Chem.-, pp. 19140-5.

4. induction of indolamine 2,3 dioxygenase: A mechanism of the anti-tumor activity of interferon gamma. Ozaki, Y., Edelstein, M.P., Duch, D.S. 1998, PNAS USA., pp. vol:85, 1242-1246.

5. Localization of the human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) gene to the pericentromeric region of human chromosome 8. . Burkin, D. J., Kimbro, K. S., Barr, B. L., Jones, C., Taylor, M. W., Gupta, S. L. 1993, Genomics , pp. 17: 262-263.

6. Localization of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase gene (INDO) to chromosome 8p12-p11 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Najfeld, V., Menninger, J., Muhleman, D., Comings, D. E., Gupta, S. L. 1993, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. , pp. 64: 231-232.

7. Molecular cloning, sequencing and expression of human interferon-gamma-inducible indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase cDNA. . Dai, W., Gupta, S. L. 1990, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. , pp. 168: 1-8.

8. Gene structure of human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Kadoya, A., Tone, S., Maeda, H., Minatogawa, Y., Kido, R. 1992, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. , pp. 189: 530-536.

9. A gene atlas of th emouse and human protein-encoding transcriptomes. Andrew I. Su, Tim Wiltshire, Serge Batalov , Hilmar Lapp , Keith A. Ching , David Block, Jie Zhang , Richard Soden , Mimi Hayakawa , Gabriel Kreiman , Michael P. Cooke , John R. Walker , and John B. Hogenesch. 2004, PNAS, pp. vol. 101, no. 166062-6067 (10.1073/pnas.0400782101).

10. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase production by human dendritic cells results in the inhibition of T cell proliferation. Hwu P, Du MX, Lapointe R, Do M, Taylor MW, Young HA. 2000, J. Immunol, pp. 164:3596–3599.

11. Inhibition of T cell proliferation by acrophage tryptophan catabolism. Munn, D.H. et al. 1999, J. Exp. Med., p. 189:1363.

12. HeLa cells cocultured with peripheral blood lymphocytes acquire an immuno-inhibitory phenotype through up-regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. Logan, G. J., Smyth, C. M. F., Earl, J. W., Zaikina, I., Rowe, P. B., Smythe, J. A., Alexander, I. E. 2002, Immunology, pp. 105:478-487.

13. Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase – Is It an Immun Suppressor? Soliman H, Mediaville-Varela M, Antonia S. 2010, Cancer J. , pp. 16:354-359.

14. Targeting the immunoregulatory indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase pathway in immunotherapy. Johnson BA, III, Baban B, Mellor AL. 2009, Immunotherapy. , pp. 645–661.

15. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and regulation of T cell immunity. AL., Mellor. 2005, Biochem Biophys Res Commun. , pp. 338(1):20–24.

16. Fallarino, F., Grohmann, U., Hwang, K. W., Orabona, C., Vacca, C., Bianchi, R., Belladonna, M. L., Fioretti, M. C.Modulation of tryptophan catabolism by regulatory T cells. Fallarino, F., Grohmann, U., Hwang, K. W., Orabona, C., Vacca, C., Bianchi, R., Belladonna, M. L., Fioretti, M. C., Alegre, M.-L., Puccetti, P. 2003, Nature Immun., pp. 4: 1206-1212.

17. CTLA-4-Ig regulates tryptophan catabolism in vivo. Grohmann, U., Orabona, C., Fallarino, F., Vacca, C., Calcinaro, F., Falorni, A., Candeloro, P., Belladonna, M. L., Bianchi, R., Fioretti, M. C., Puccetti, P. 2002, Nature Immun. , pp. 3: 1097-1101.

18. Reverse signaling through GITR ligand enables dexamethasone to activate IDO in allergy. Grohmann, U., Volpi, C., Fallarino, F., Bozza, S., Bianchi, R., Vacca, C., Orabona, C., Belladonna, M. L., Ayroldi, E., Nocentini, G., Boon, L., Bistoni, F., Fioretti, M. C., Romani, L., Riccardi, C., Puccetti, P. 2007, Nature Med., pp. 13:579-586.

19. Cells expressing indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibit T cell responses. Mellor, A. L., Keskin, D. B., Johnson, T., Chandler, P., Munn, D. H. 2002, J. Immun. , pp. 168: 3771-3776.

20. Chon, SY, Hassanain, HH, Piine, R., and Gupta, SL. 1995, J. Interferon Cytokine Res. , pp. 15, 517-526.

21. Levy, ED, KEsler, DS, Pine, R., Reich, N, and Darnell, JE.Jr et al. 1988, Genes Dev, pp. 2,383-393.

22. Benoist, C. and Manthis, D. 1990, Annu. Rev of Immunol., pp. 8, 681-715.

23. Dorn, A, Durand, B., Marling, C., Meur, M.L., Beoist, C., and Mathis, D. 1987, PNAS USA, pp. 34, 6249-6253.

24. Konan, K.V. Ph.D. Thesis. Transcriptional Regulation of the Indolamine 2,3-oxygenase Gene. s.l. : Indiana University, Bloominigton, 1995.

25. Tryptophan pyrrolase of rabbit intestine: D- and L–tryptophan cleaving enzyme or enzymes. Yamamoto, S., and Hayashi, O. 1967, J Biol Chem, pp. 242: 5260-5266.

26. Prevention of allogeneic fetal rejection by tryptophan catabolism. Munn, DH, Zhou M, Attwood JT, Bondarev I, Conway SJ, Marshall B, Brown C, Mellor AL. 1998, Science, pp. 281:1191–3.

27. Evidence for a tumoral immune resistance mechanismbased on tryptophan degradation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Uyttenhove, C. et al. 2003, Nature Med. 9,, pp. 1269–1274 .

28. Pregnancy: success and failure within the Th1/Th2/Th3 paradigm. Raghupathy, R. 2001., Seminars in Immunology, pp. Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 219–227.

29. Why is the fetal allograft not rejected? Davies, C. J. March 2007 , J ANIM SCI , pp. vol. 85 no. 13 suppl E32-E35 .

30. Exploring the mechanism of tryptoophan 2,3-dioxygenase. Thackray, S., Mowat, C.G., Chapman, K. 2008, Biochem. Society Transaction., pp. 36, 1120-1123.

31. The new life of a centenarian: signalling functions of NAD(P). Berger F, Ramírez-Hernández MH, Ziegler M. 2004, Trends Biochem Sci , pp. 29:111–118 .

32. Biochemistry of tryptophan in health and disease. DA, Bender. 1983, Mol Aspects Med, pp. 6:101–197.

33. Poliovirus induces indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase and quinolinic acid synthesis in macaque brain. Heyes MP, Saito K, Jacobowitz D, Markey SP, Takikawa O, Vickers JH. 1992, FASEB J., pp. 6:2977–2989.

34. Sanni LA, Thomas SR, Tattam BN, Moore DE, Chaudhri G, Stocker R, Hunt NH 1998Dramatic changes in oxidative tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway in experimental cerebral and noncerebral malaria. . Sanni LA, Thomas SR, Tattam BN, Moore DE, Chaudhri G, Stocker R, Hunt NH. 1998, Am J Pathol, pp. 152:611–619.

35. Induction of pulmonary indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase by intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. . Yoshida R, Hayaishi O. 1978, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA , pp. 75:3998–4000.

36. Induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in mouse lung during virus infection. . Yoshida R, Urade Y, Tokuda M, Hayaishi O. 1979, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA , pp. 76:4084–4086.

37. Induction of pulmonary indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase by intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Yoshida R, Hayaishi. 1978, PNAS USA, pp. 3998-4000.

38. Sequence of human 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2): presence of a glucorticoid response-like element composed of a GTT repeat and intronic CCCCT repeat. Comings DE, Muhleman D, Dietz G, Sherman M, Forest. 1995, Genomics, pp. 29:390-396165.

39. Studies on the biosynthesis of Nicotinamide adenine inucleotide. II.Arole of picolinic carboxylase in the Biosynthesisofnicotinamideadeninedinucleotidefromtryptophan in mammals. Ikeda M, Tsuji H, Nakamura S, Ichiyama A, Nishizuka Y, HayaishiO. 1965, J. Biol. Chem. , pp. 240: 1395-1401.

40. The Secret Life of NAD+: An Old Metabolite Controlling New Metabolic Signaling Pathways. Houtkooper R.H., Carles Cantó C. , Wanders, R.J. and Auwerx, J. 2010, Endocrine Reviews , pp. vol. 31 no. 2 194-223, doi: 10.1210/er.2009-0026.

41. Stimulation of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthetic pathways delays axonal degeneration after axotomy. Sasaki Y, Araki T, Milbrandt J. 2006, J Neurosci , pp. 26: 8484–8491.

42. European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial (ENDIT): a randomised controlled trial of intervention before the onset of type 1 diabetes. Gale EA, Bingley PJ, Emmett CL, CollierT. 2004, Lancet., pp. 363:925–931.

43. Safety of high-dose nicotinamide: a review. Knip M, Douek IF, Moore WP, Gillmor HA, McLean AE, Bingley PJ, Gale EA. 2000, Diabetologia, pp. 43:1337–1345.

44. Large supplements of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide increase tissue NAD and poly(ADP-ribose) levels but do not affect diethylnitrosamine-induced altered hepatic foci in Fischer-344 rats. JacksonTM, Rawling JM, Roebuck BD, Kirkland JB. 1995, J Nutr , p. 125:1455.

45. Characterization and evolution of vertebrate indelamine 2,3-dihydrogenases IDOs from monotremes and marsupials. Yuasa, HJ, Ball, HJ, Ho, YF, Austin, CJ, et al. 2009, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. Biochem.. Mol. Biol., pp. 153 (2): 137-144.

46. Novel tryptophan catabolic enzyme IDO2 is the preferred biochemical target of the antitumor indolamine 2,3-dihydrogenase inhibitor compound D-1 methyl-tryptophan. Metz, R., Duhadaway, JB, Kamasani, U, Laury-Kleintop, L., Muller, AJ, Prendergast, GC. 2007, Cancer Res., pp. 67 (15): 7082-7087.

47. Total synthesis of exiguamines A and B inspired by catechollamine chemistry. Sofiyev, V, Lumb, JP, Volgraf, M., Trauner, D. 2012, Chemistry., pp. 18 (16): 4999-5005.

48. Molecular evolution of bacterial indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Yuasa, H J, Ushigoe, A, Ball, HJ. 2011, Gene., pp. 484 (1) : 22-31.

49. Infectious tolerance and the long-term acceptance of transplant tissue. Waldman, H., Adams, E., Fairchild, P., and Cobbold, S. 2006, J. Immunol., pp. 212:301-313.

50. Molecular evolution and characterizationof fungal indolamine 2,3-dioxygenases. Yuasa, HJ and Ball, HJ. 2012, J. Mol. Eval., pp. 72 (2): 160-168.

51. convergent evolution. The gene structure of Sulculus 41 kDa myoglobin is homologous with tht of human indolamine dioxygenase. Suzuki, T, Imai, K. 1996, Biochim. Biophys. Acta., pp. 1308(1):41-48.

52. Evolutionof myoglobin. Suzuki, T., Imai, K. 1998, Cell Mol Life Sci, pp. 54(9):979-1004.

53. A myoglobin evolved from indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase, trtptophan-degrading enzyme. Suzuki, T., Kawamichi, H., Imai, K. 1998, Comp Biochem Phisiol. Mol. Biol., pp. 121(2):117-128.

54. Do molluscs possess indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase? Yuasa, HJ and Suzuki, T. 2005, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. Biochem. Mol. Biol. , pp. (3) 445-454.

55. Comparison studies of the indolamine dioxygenase-like myoglobin from the abalone Sulculus diversicolor. Suzuki, T., Imai, K. 1997, Comp. Biohem. Phsiol B Biochem Mol Biol, pp. 117 (4)599-604.

56. Orchestration of the immune response by dendritic cells. Buckwalter MR, Albert ML. 2009, Curr Biol., pp. 19(9):355–361.

57. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Banchereau J, Steinman RM. 1998, Nature., pp. 245–52.

58. IDO expression by dendritic cells: tolerance and tryptophan catabolism. . Munn DH, Mellor AL. 2004, Nat Rev Immunol. , pp. 762–74.

59. Monocyte and Macrophage. Gordon, S. and Taylor, P.R. 2005, NATURE REVIEWS | IMMUNOLOGY , pp. vol:5, 953-964.

60. Blood monocytes consist of two principal subsets with distinct migratory properties. Geissmann F, Jung S, Littman DR. 2003, Immunity. , pp. 19:71–82.

61. Identification of a novel cell type in peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. I Morphology, quantitation, tissue distribution. . Steinman RM, Cohn ZA. 1973, J Exp Med., pp. 137(5):1142–1162.

62. T cell apoptosis by tryptophan catabolism. Fallarino F, Grohmann U, Vacca C, Bianchi R, Orabona C, Spreca A, Fioretti MC, Puccetti P. 2002, Cell Death Differ , pp. 9:1069–1077.

63. Kynurenine is a novel endothelium derived relaxing factor produced during inflammation. Wang, et al. 2010, Nat. Med., pp. 16(3): 279-285.

64. Activation of the noncanonical NF-kB pathway by HIV controls a Dendritic cell immunoregulatory phenotype. Manches, O. Fernandez, V.M.,, Plumas, J., Chaperot, L., and Bhardwaj, N. 2012, PNAS, pp. vol: 109, 14122-14127.

65. B cells inhibit induction of T cell-dependent tumor immunity. Qin, Z., Richter, G., Schuler, T., Ibe, S., Cao, X, Blakenstein, T. 1998, Nat. Med, p. 4:627.

66. Different partners, Opposite Outcmes: A new perspective of immunobiology of Indolamine 2,3 dioxygenase. Orabona, C., Pallotta, M.T., Grohman, U. 2012, Molecular Medicine., pp. 18:834-842.

67. Indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase: From catalyst to signaling function. Fallarino, F., Grohman, U., and Puccetti, P. 2012, Eurepean J. of Immunol. , pp. 42:1932-1937.

68. IDO: more than an enzyme. Chen, W. 2011, Nature Immonology, pp. 809-811.

69. Indolamine2,3-dehydrogenase in lung dendritic cells promotes Th2 responses and allergic inflammation. Xu, H., Oriss, T.B., Fei, M., Henry, A.C., Melgert, B.N., Chen, L., Mellor, A.L. 2008, PNAS USA, pp. 105: 6690-6695.

70. The immunoregulatory enzyme IDO paradoxically drives B-cellmediated autoimmunity. Scott, G.N., DuHadaway, J., Pigott, E., Ridge, N., Prendergast, G.C., Muller, A.J., Mandik-Nayak, L. 2009, J. Immunol., pp. 182:7509-7517.

71. Tryptophan deprivation sensitizes activated T cells to apoptosis prior to cell division. Lee GK, Park HJ, Macleod M, Chandler P, Munn DH, Mellor AL. 2002, Immunology , pp. 107:452–460.

72. Enzymology of NAD+ homeostasis in man. . Magni G, Amici A, Emanuelli M, Orsomando G, Raffaelli N, Ruggieri S. 2004, Cell Mol Life Sci , pp. 61:19–34.

73. Kynurenine pathway enzymes in dendritic cells initiate tolerogenesis in the absence of functional IDO. . Belladonna ML, Grohmann U, Guidetti P, Volpi C, Bianchi R, Fioretti MC, Schwarcz R, Fallarino F, Puccetti P. 2006, J Immunol. , pp. ;177:130–7.

74. An indogenous tumour promoting ligand of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Opitz, et. al. 2011, pp. doi: 10.1038/nature10491,.

75. Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, animmunoregulatorytarget of the cancer suppression gene Bin1, potentiates cancer chemotherapy. Muller, A. J. et al. 2005, Nature Med. , pp. 11, 312–319 .

76. TGF-b; a master of all T cell trades. Li, M.O., Fravell, R.A. 2008, Cell. , pp. 134: 392-404.

77. Palotta, M.T. et al. 2011, Nat. Immunol., pp. 12:870-878.

78. Chen, W. et al. 2003, J. Exp. Immunol., p. 198: 1875.

79. Smads: transcriptional activators of TGF-beta responses. . Derynck R, Zhang Y, Feng XH. 1998, Cell , pp. 95 (6): 737–40. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81696-7.PMID 9865691. .

80. Smad transcription factors. Massagué J, Seoane J, Wotton D. 2005, Genes Dev, pp. 19 (23): 2783–810. doi:10.1101/gad.1350705. PMID .

81. A structural basis for mutational inactivation of the tumour suppressor Smad4. Shi Y, Hata A, Lo RS, Massagué J, Pavletich NP. 1997, Nature., pp. 388 (6637): 87–93.doi:10.1038/40431. PMID 9214508.

82. Promoting bone morphogenetic protein signaling through negative regulation of inhibitory Smads. Itoh F, Asao H, Sugamura K, Heldin CH, ten Dijke P, Itoh S. 2001, EMBO J., pp. 20 (15): 4132– doi:10.1093/emboj/20.15.4132. PMC 149146. PMID 11483516.

83. SMAD_Signaling_Network. http://www.sabiosciences.com. [Online] 2013. http://www.sabiosciences.com/pathway.php?sn=SMAD_Signaling_Network.

84. Immune inhibitory receptors. Revetch, J.V., and Lanier, L.L. 2000, Science., pp. 290:84-89.

85. Soc3 drives proteasomal degradation of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and antagonizes IDO-dependent tolerogenesis. Orabona, C., Pallotta, M., Volpi, C., et al. 2008, PNAS USA, pp. 105: 20828-20833.

86. Cutting edge; silencing supressor of cytokine signaling3 expression in dendritic cells turns CD28-Ig from immune adjuvant to supressant. Orabona, C.,, Belladonna, M.L., et all. 2005, J. Immunol., pp. 174: 6582-6586.

87. Molecular signatures of T-cell inhibition in HIV-1 infection. Larsson, M., Shankar. E.M, Che, K.F., Ellegard, R., Barathan, M., Velu, V., and Kamarulzaman, A. 2013, Retrovirology, p. 10:31.

88. TGF-beta and CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells. Huber, S. and Schramn, C. 2006, Front. Bioscie., pp. 11:1014-1023.

89. Immune Escape as a fundemental trait of cancer; focus on IDO. Prendergast, G.C. 2008, Oncogene., pp. 27, 3889-3900.

90. Il-6 inhibits the tolerogenic functionof CD8+ dendritic cells expressing indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Grohman, U., Fallarino, F., et al. 2001, J. Immunol., pp. 167:708-714.

91. Avoiding horror autotoxicus: Th eimportance of dentritic cells in peripheral T cell tolerance. Steinman, R.M., and Nussenzweig, M.C. 2002, PNAS, pp. no:1, 351-358.

92. Dendritic-cell function in Toll-like receptor- and MyD88-knockout mice . Kaisho, T., Akira, S. 2001, Trends Immunol , pp. 22,78-83.

93. Innate sensing of self and non-self RNAs by Toll-like receptors. Sioud, M. 2006., Trends Mol Med., pp. 12:67–76.

94. Impaired expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase in monocyte-derived dendritic cells in response to Toll-like receptor-7/8 ligands. Furset, G., Fløisand, Y. and Sioud, M. 2008, Immunology., pp. 123(2): 263–271, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2007.02695.x.

95. Toll-;ike receptor 9 mediated induction of the immunorepressor pathway of tryptophan metabolism. Fallarino, F., and Puccetti, P. 2006, Eur. J. of Imm., pp. 36:8-11.

96. Toll-like receptors and host defense against microbial pathogens: bringing specificity to the innate immune system. . Netea MG, der Graaf C, Van der Meer JWM, Kullberg BJ. 2004, J Leukoc Biol. , pp. 75:749–55.

97. Species-specific recognition of single-stranded RNA via toll-like receptor 7 and 8. . Heil F, Hemmi H, Hochrein H, et al. 2004, Science. , pp. 303:1526–9.

98. Innate antiviral responses by means of TLR7-mediated recognition of single-stranded RNA. . Diebold SS, Kaisho T, Hemmi H, Akira S, Reis e Sousa C. 2004., Science. , pp. 303:1529–31. .

99. The role of CpG motifs in innate immunity. Krieg, A.M. 2000., Curr Opin Immunol., pp. 12:35–43.

100. Anendogenous tumour-promoting ligand of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Opitz, C.A., Litzenburger, U.M., Sahm, F., Ott,M., Tritschler, I., Trump, S. 2011, Nature, pp. vol 478; 197-203.

101. Impaired impression of Indolamine 2,3-deoxygenase in monocyte derived DCs in response to TLR-7/8. Furset, G., Floisand, Y., Sioud, M. 2007, Immunology, pp. 263-271.

102. Activationof the noncanonical NF-kB pathway by HIV controls a Dendritic cell immunoregulatory phenotype. Manches, O. Fernandez, V.M.,, Plumas, J., Chaperot, L., and Bhardwaj, N. 2012, PNAS, pp. vol: 109, 14122-14127.

103. Regulation of dendritic cell numbers and maturation by lipopolysaccharide in vivo . de Smedt, T., Pajak, B., Muraille, E., Lespagnard, L., Heinen, E., De Baetselier, P., Urbain, J., Leo, O., Moser, M. 1996, J. Exp. Med., pp. 184,1413-1424.

104. Subsets of dendritic cell precursors express different Toll-like receptors and respond to different microbial antigens . Kadowaki, N., Ho, S., Antonenko, S., de Waal Malefyt, R., Kastelein, R. A., Bazan, F., Liu, Y-J. 2001, J. Exp. Med., pp. 194,863-869 .

105. TRAF6 is a critical factor for dendritic cell maturation and development . Kobayashi, T., Walsh, P. T., Walsh, M. C., Speirs, K. M., Chiffoleau, E., King, C. G., Hancock, W. W., Caamano, J. H., Hunter, C. A., Scott, P., Turka, L. A., Choi, Y. 2003, Immunity , pp. 19,353-363 .

106. Activation of interferon regulatory factor-3 via toll-like receptor 3 and immunomodulatory functions detected in A549 lung epithelial cells exposed to misplaced U1-snRNA. Sadik CD, Bachmann M, Pfeilschifter J, Mühl H. 2009, Nucleic Acids Res. , pp. 37(15):5041-56. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp525. Epub 2009 Jun 18.

107. Triggering of the dsRNA sensors TLR3, MDA5, and RIG-I induces CD55 expression in synovial fibroblasts. Karpus ON, Heutinck KM, Wijnker PJ, Tak PP, Hamann J. 2012, PLoS One., p. 7(5):e35606. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035606. Epub 2012 May 10.

108. The structure of the TLR5-flagellin complex: a new mode of pathogen detection, conserved receptor dimerization for signaling. Lu J, Sun PD. 2012, Sci Signal., p. 5(216):pe11. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.2002963. .

109. Flagellin/Toll-like receptor 5 response was specifically attenuated by keratan sulfate disaccharide via decreased EGFR phosphorylation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Shirato K, Gao C, Ota F, Angata T, Shogomori H, Ohtsubo K, Yoshida K, Lepenies B, Taniguchi N. 2013, Biochem Biophys Res Commun., pp. doi:pii: S0006-291X(13)00779-1. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.05.009. [Epub ahead of print].

110. Differential induction of interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 in dendritic cells by microbial Toll-like receptor activators and skewing of T-cell cytokine profiles Infect. Qi, H., Denning, T. L., Soong, L. 2003, Immun. , pp. 71,3337-3342 .

111. Thoma-Uszynski, S., Kiertscher, S. M., Ochoa, M. T., Bouis, D. A., Norgard, M. V., Miyake, K., Godowski, P. J., Roth, M. D.Activation of Toll-like receptor 2 on human dendritic cells triggers induction of IL-12, but not IL-10 . Thoma-Uszynski, S., Kiertscher, S. M., Ochoa, M. T., Bouis, D. A., Norgard, M. V., Miyake, K., Godowski, P. J., Roth, M. D., Modlin, R. L. 2000, J. Immunol. , pp. 165,3804-3810.

112. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 differentially activate human dendritic cells . Re, F., Strominger, J. L. 2001, J. Biol. Chem. , pp. 276,37692-37699.

113. Pasare, C., Medzhitov, R. (2003) Toll pathway-dependent blockade of CD4+CD25+ T cell-mediated suppression by dendritic cells. Pasare, C., Medzhitov, R. 2003, Science , pp. 299,1033-1036 .

 

  

Read Full Post »


Larry H Bernstein, MD, Writer, Curator
http://pharmaceutical intelligence.com/2013/06/22/ Demythologizing sharks, cancer, and shark fins/lhbern

 

Sharks have survived some 400 million years on Earth. Could their longevity be due in part to an extraordinary resistance to cancer and other diseases? If so, humans might someday benefit from the shark’s secrets—but leading researchers caution that today’s popular shark cartilage “cancer cures” aren’t part of the solution.

 

The belief that sharks do not get cancer is not supported in fact, but it is the basis for decimating a significant part of the shark population for shark fins, and for medicinal use.  The unfortunate result is that there is no benefit.

 

A basis for this thinking is that going back to the late 1800s, sharks have been fished commercially and there have been few reports of anything out of the ordinary when removing internal organs or preparing meat for the marketplace.  In addition, pre-medical students may have dissected dogfish sharks in comparative anatomy, but you don’t see reports of cancerous tumors.

 

Carl Luer of the MOTE Marine Laboratory’s Center for Shark Research in Sarasota, Florida, has been studying sharks’ cancer resistance for some 25 years.  Systematic surveys of sharks are difficult to conduct, as capturing the animals in large numbers is time-consuming, and cancer tests would likely require the deaths of large numbers of sharks. Of the thousands of fish tumors in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution, only about 15 are from elasmobranchs, and only two of these are thought to have been malignant.

 

Scientists have been studying cancerous tumors in sharks for 150 years.

 

The first chondrichthyes’ (cartilaginous fishes, including sharks) tumor was found on a skate and recorded by Dislonghamcps in 1853. The first shark tumor was recorded in 1908. Scientists have since discovered benign and cancerous tumors in 18 of the 1,168 species of sharks. Scarcity of studies on shark physiology has perhaps allowed this myth to be accepted as fact for so many years.

 

In April 2000, John Harshbarger and Gary Ostrander countered this shark myth with a presentation on 40 benign and cancerous tumors known to be found in sharks, and soon after a blue shark was found with cancerous tumors in both its liver and testes. Several years later a cancerous gingival tumor was removed from the mouth of a captive sand tiger shark, Carcharias Taurus. Advances in shark research continue to produce studies on types of cancer found in various species of shark.  Sharks, like fish, encounter and take in large quantities of environmental pollutants, which may actually make them more susceptible to tumorous growth. Despite recorded cases of shark cancer and evidence that shark cartilage has no curative powers against cancer sharks continue to be harvested for their cartilage.

 

Sharks and their relatives, the skates and rays, have enjoyed tremendous success during their nearly 400 million years of existence on earth, according to Dr. Luer. He points out that one reason for this certainly is their uncanny ability to resist disease. Sharks do get sick, but their incidence of disease is much lower than among the other fishes. While statistics are not available on most diseases in fishes, reptiles, amphibians, and invertebrates, tumor incidence in these animals is carefully monitored by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.

 

The Smithsonian’s enormous database, called the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals, catalogs tissues suspected of being tumorous, including cancers, from all possible sources throughout the world. Of the thousands of tissues in the Registry, most of them are from fish but only a few are from elasmobranchs. Only 8 to 10 legitimate tumors are among all the shark and ray tissues examined, and only two of these are thought to have been malignant.

 

An observation by Gary Ostrander, a Professor at Johns Hopkins University, is that there may be fundamental differences in shark immune systems so that they aren’t as prone to cancer.  The major thrust of the Motes research focuses on the immunity of sharks and their relatives the skates and rays. While skates aren’t as interesting to the public as their shark relatives, their similar biochemical immunology and their ability to breed in captivity make them perhaps more vital to Luer’s lab work.   The result is to study the differences and similarities to the higher animals, and what might possibly be the role of the immune system in their low incidence of disease.

 

This low incidence of tumors among the sharks and their relatives has prompted biochemists and immunologists at Mote Marine Laboratory (MML) to explore the mechanisms that may explain the unusual disease resistance of these animals. To do this, they established the nurse shark and clearnose skate as laboratory animals. They designed experiments to see whether tumors could be induced in the sharks and skates by exposing them to potent carcinogenic (cancer-causing) chemicals, and then monitored pathways of metabolism or detoxification of the carcinogens in the test animals. While there were similarities and differences in the responses when compared with mammals, no changes in the target tissues or their genetic material ever resulted in cancerous tumor formation in the sharks or skates.

 

The chemical exposure studies led to investigations of the shark immune system. As with mammals, including humans, the immune system of sharks probably plays a vital role in the overall health of these animals. But there are some important differences between the immune arsenals of mammals and sharks. The immune system of mammals typically consists of two parts which utilize a variety of immune cells as well as several classes of proteins called immunoglobulins (antibodies).

 

Compared to the mammalian system, which is quite specialized, the shark immune system appears primitive but remarkably effective. Sharks apparently possess immune cells with the same functions as those of mammals, but the shark cells appear to be produced and stimulated differently. Furthermore, in contrast to the variety of immunoglobulins produced in the mammalian immune system, sharks have only one class of immunoglobulin (termed IgM). This Immunoglobulin normally circulates in shark blood at very high levels and appears to be ready to attack invading substances at all times.

 

Another difference lies in the fact that sharks, skates, and rays lack a bony skeleton, and so do not have bone marrow. In mammals, immune cells are produced and mature in the bone marrow and other sites, and, after a brief lag time, these cells are mobilized to the bloodstream to fight invading substances. In sharks, the immune cells are produced in the spleen, thymus and unique tissues associated with the gonads (epigonal organ) and esophagus (Leydig organ). Some maturation of these immune cells occurs at the sites of cell production, as with mammals. But a significant number of immune cells in these animals actually mature as they circulate in the bloodstream. Like the ever-present IgM molecule, immune cells already in the shark’s blood may be available to respond without a lag period, resulting in a more efficient immune response.

 

Research was being carried out during the 1980’s at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and at Mote Marine Laboratory designed to understand how cartilage is naturally able to resist penetration by blood capillaries. If the basis for this inhibition could be identified, it was reasoned, it might lead to the development of a new drug therapy. Such a drug could control the spread of blood vessels feeding a cancerous tumor, or the inflammation associated with arthritis.

 

The results of the research showed only that a very small amount of an active material, with limited ability to control blood vessel growth, can be obtained from large amounts of raw cartilage. The cartilage must be subjected to several weeks of harsh chemical procedures to extract and concentrate the active ingredients. Once this is done, the resulting material is able to inhibit blood vessel growth in laboratory tests on animal models, when the concentrated extract is directly applied near the growing blood vessels.  One cannot assume that comparable material in sufficient amount and strength is released passively from cartilage when still in the animal to inhibit blood vessel growth anywhere in the body.

 

Tumors release chemicals stimulating the capillary growth so a nutrient-rich blood supply is created to feed the tumorous cells. This process is called angiogenesis. If scientists can control angiogenesis, they could limit tumor growth. Cartilage lacks capillaries running through it. Why should this be a surprise?  Cartilage cells are called chondrocytes, and they fuction to produce a acellular interstitial matrix consisting of hyaluronan (complex carbohydrate formed from hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate) which is protective of interlaced collagen.   Early research into the anti-angiogenesis properties of cartilage revealed that tiny amounts of proteins could be extracted from cartilage, and, when applied in concentration to animal tumors, the formation of capillaries and the spread of tumors was inhibited.

 

Henry Brem and Judah Folkman from the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine first noted that cartilage prevented the growth of new blood vessels into tissues in the 1970s. The creation of a blood supply, called angiogenesis, is a characteristic of malignant tumors, as the rapidly dividing cells need lots of nutrients to continue growing.  It is valuable to consider that these neovascular generating cells are not of epithelial derivation, but are endothelial and mesenchymal. To support their very high metabolism, tumors secrete a hormone called ‘angiogenin’ which causes nearby blood vessels to grow new branches that surround the tumor, bringing in nutrients and carrying away waste products

 

Brem and Folkman began studying cartilage to search for anti-angiogenic compounds. They reasoned that since all cartilage lacks blood vessels, it must contain some signaling molecules or enzymes that prevent capillaries from forming. They found that inserting cartilage from baby rabbits alongside tumors in experimental animals completely prevented the tumors from growing. Further research showed calf cartilage, too, had anti-angiogenic properties.

 

 

 

A young researcher by the name of Robert Langer repeated the initial rabbit cartilage experiments, except this time using shark cartilage. Indeed, shark cartilage, like calf and rabbit cartilage, inhibited blood vessels from growing toward tumors. Research by Dr. Robert Langer of M.I.T. and other workers revealed a promising anti-tumor agent obtainable in quantity from shark cartilage. The compound antagonistic to the effects of angiogenin, called ‘angiogenin inhibitor’, inhibits the formation of new blood vessels, neovascularization, that is essential for supporting cancer growth.

 

The consequence of the”shark myth” is not surprising. An inhabitant of the open ocean, the Silky Shark is ‘hit’ hard by the shark fin and shark cartilage industries – away from the prying eyes of a mostly land bound public. As a consequence of this ‘invisibility’, mortality of Silkies is difficult to estimate or regulate.  North American populations of sharks have decreased by up to 80% in the past decade, as cartilage companies harvest up to 200,000 sharks every month in US waters to create their products. One American-owned shark cartilage plant in Costa Rica is estimated to destroy 2.8 million sharks per year. Sharks are slow growing species compared to other fish, and simply cannot reproduce fast enough to survive such sustained, intense fishing pressure. Unless fishing is dramatically decreased worldwide, a number of species of sharks will go extinct before we even notice.

 

Sources:
1.  National Geographic News: NATIONALGEOGRAPHIC.COM/NEWS

 

2. Do Sharks Hold Secret to Human Cancer Fight?
by Brian Handwerk for National Geographic News.  August 20, 2003

 

3. Busting Marine Myths: Sharks DO Get Cancer!
by Christie Wilcox   November 9th 2009

 

 

 

 

 

Sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus) at the Ne...

Sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus) at the Newport Aquarium. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

Angiogenesis

Angiogenesis (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The immune response

The immune response (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

Read Full Post »

Older Posts »