Posts Tagged ‘NO’

Proteomics, Metabolomics, Signaling Pathways, and Cell Regulation: a Compilation of Articles in the Journal

Compilation of References by Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence in the Journal about
Proteomics, Metabolomics, Signaling Pathways, and Cell Regulation

Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP


  1. The Human Proteome Map Completed

Reporter and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

  1. Proteomics – The Pathway to Understanding and Decision-making in Medicine

Author and Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

3. Advances in Separations Technology for the “OMICs” and Clarification of Therapeutic Targets

Author and Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP         of-therapeutic-targets/

  1. Expanding the Genetic Alphabet and Linking the Genome to the Metabolome

Author and Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP                metabolome/

5. Genomics, Proteomics and standards

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Author and Curator

6. Proteins and cellular adaptation to stress

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Author and Curator



  1. Extracellular evaluation of intracellular flux in yeast cells

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and Curator

  1. Metabolomic analysis of two leukemia cell lines. I.

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and Curator

  1. Metabolomic analysis of two leukemia cell lines. II.

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and Curator

  1. Metabolomics, Metabonomics and Functional Nutrition: the next step in nutritional metabolism and biotherapeutics

Reviewer and Curator, Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP          in-nutritional-metabolism-and-biotherapeutics/

  1. Buffering of genetic modules involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism provides homeomeostatic regulation

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and curator              metabolism-provides-homeomeostatic-regulation/

Metabolic Pathways

  1. Pentose Shunt, Electron Transfer, Galactose, more Lipids in brief

Reviewer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

  1. Mitochondria: More than just the “powerhouse of the cell”

Ritu Saxena, PhD

  1. Mitochondrial fission and fusion: potential therapeutic targets?

Ritu saxena

4.  Mitochondrial mutation analysis might be “1-step” away

Ritu Saxena

  1. Selected References to Signaling and Metabolic Pathways in

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP                     leaders-in-pharmaceutical-intelligence/

  1. Metabolic drivers in aggressive brain tumors

Prabodh Kandal, PhD

  1. Metabolite Identification Combining Genetic and Metabolic Information: Genetic association links unknown metabolites to functionally related genes

Writer and Curator, Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RD                        information-genetic-association-links-unknown-metabolites-to-functionally-related-genes/

  1. Mitochondria: Origin from oxygen free environment, role in aerobic glycolysis, metabolic adaptation

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, author and curator            glycolysis-metabolic-adaptation/

  1. Therapeutic Targets for Diabetes and Related Metabolic Disorders

Reporter, Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RD

10.  Buffering of genetic modules involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism provides homeomeostatic regulation

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and curator              metabolism-provides-homeomeostatic-regulation/

11. The multi-step transfer of phosphate bond and hydrogen exchange energy

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator:                          exchange-energy/

12. Studies of Respiration Lead to Acetyl CoA

13. Lipid Metabolism

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

14. Carbohydrate Metabolism

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

15. Update on mitochondrial function, respiration, and associated disorders

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Author and Curator                   disorders/

16. Prologue to Cancer – e-book Volume One – Where are we in this journey?

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

17. Introduction – The Evolution of Cancer Therapy and Cancer Research: How We Got Here?

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP          how-we-got-here/

18. Inhibition of the Cardiomyocyte-Specific Kinase TNNI3K

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

19. The Binding of Oligonucleotides in DNA and 3-D Lattice Structures

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

20. Mitochondrial Metabolism and Cardiac Function

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

21. How Methionine Imbalance with Sulfur-Insufficiency Leads to Hyperhomocysteinemia

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

22. AMPK Is a Negative Regulator of the Warburg Effect and Suppresses Tumor Growth In Vivo

Author and Curator: Stephen J. Williams, PhD         tumor-growth-in-vivo/

23. A Second Look at the Transthyretin Nutrition Inflammatory Conundrum

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP                         conundrum/

24. Mitochondrial Damage and Repair under Oxidative Stress

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

25. Nitric Oxide and Immune Responses: Part 2

Author and Curator: Aviral Vatsa, PhD, MBBS

26. Overview of Posttranslational Modification (PTM)

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

27. Malnutrition in India, high newborn death rate and stunting of children age under five years

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP                   children-age-under-five-years/

28. Update on mitochondrial function, respiration, and associated disorders

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP                  disorders/

29. Omega-3 fatty acids, depleting the source, and protein insufficiency in renal disease

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator         in-renal-disease/

30. Introduction to e-Series A: Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume Four Part 2: Regenerative Medicine

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, writer, and Aviva Lev- Ari, PhD, RN                                  translational_medicine-part_2/

31. Epilogue: Envisioning New Insights in Cancer Translational Biology
Series C: e-Books on Cancer & Oncology

Author & Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Series C Content Consultant

32. Ca2+-Stimulated Exocytosis:  The Role of Calmodulin and Protein Kinase C in Ca2+ Regulation of Hormone                         and Neurotransmitter

Writer and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and
Curator and Content Editor: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN                    hormone-and-neurotransmitter-release-that-triggers-ca2-stimulated-exocy

33. Cardiac Contractility & Myocardial Performance: Therapeutic Implications of Ryanopathy (Calcium Release-                           related Contractile Dysfunction) and Catecholamine Responses

Author, and Content Consultant to e-SERIES A: Cardiovascular Diseases: Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC
Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP
and Article Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN      and-non-ischemic-heart-failure-therapeutic-implications-for-cardiomyocyte-ryanopathy-calcium-release-related-                    contractile/

34. Role of Calcium, the Actin Skeleton, and Lipid Structures in Signaling and Cell Motility

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP Author: Stephen Williams, PhD, and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

35. Identification of Biomarkers that are Related to the Actin Cytoskeleton

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Author and Curator                           cytoskeleton/

36. Advanced Topics in Sepsis and the Cardiovascular System at its End Stage

Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP              End-Stage/

37. The Delicate Connection: IDO (Indolamine 2, 3 dehydrogenase) and Cancer Immunology

Demet Sag, PhD, Author and Curator               immunology/

38. IDO for Commitment of a Life Time: The Origins and Mechanisms of IDO, indolamine 2, 3-dioxygenase

Demet Sag, PhD, Author and Curator             ido-indolamine-2-3-dioxygenase/

39. Confined Indolamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO) Controls the Homeostasis of Immune Responses for Good and Bad

Curator: Demet Sag, PhD, CRA, GCP           of-immune-responses-for-good-and-bad/

40. Signaling Pathway that Makes Young Neurons Connect was discovered @ Scripps Research Institute

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN                     discovered-scripps-research-institute/

41. Naked Mole Rats Cancer-Free

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

42. Late Onset of Alzheimer’s Disease and One-carbon Metabolism

Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

43. Problems of vegetarianism

Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

44.  Amyloidosis with Cardiomyopathy

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

45. Liver endoplasmic reticulum stress and hepatosteatosis

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

46. The Molecular Biology of Renal Disorders: Nitric Oxide – Part III

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

47. Nitric Oxide Function in Coagulation – Part II

Curator and Author: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

48. Nitric Oxide, Platelets, Endothelium and Hemostasis

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

49. Interaction of Nitric Oxide and Prostacyclin in Vascular Endothelium

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

50. Nitric Oxide and Immune Responses: Part 1

Curator and Author:  Aviral Vatsa PhD, MBBS

51. Nitric Oxide and Immune Responses: Part 2

Curator and Author:  Aviral Vatsa PhD, MBBS

52. Mitochondrial Damage and Repair under Oxidative Stress

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

53. Is the Warburg Effect the cause or the effect of cancer: A 21st Century View?

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP                 century-view/

54. Ubiquinin-Proteosome pathway, autophagy, the mitochondrion, proteolysis and cell apoptosis

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP                  proteolysis-and-cell-apoptosis/

55. Ubiquitin-Proteosome pathway, Autophagy, the Mitochondrion, Proteolysis and Cell Apoptosis: Part III

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP                   proteolysis-and-cell-apoptosis-reconsidered/

56. Nitric Oxide and iNOS have Key Roles in Kidney Diseases – Part II

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

57. New Insights on Nitric Oxide donors – Part IV

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

58. Crucial role of Nitric Oxide in Cancer

Curator and Author: Ritu Saxena, Ph.D.

59. Nitric Oxide has a ubiquitous role in the regulation of glycolysis -with a concomitant influence on mitochondrial function

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP         a-concomitant-influence-on-mitochondrial-function/

60. Targeting Mitochondrial-bound Hexokinase for Cancer Therapy

Curator and Author: Ziv Raviv, PhD, RN 04/06/2013

61. Biochemistry of the Coagulation Cascade and Platelet Aggregation – Part I

Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

Genomics, Transcriptomics, and Epigenetics

  1. What is the meaning of so many RNAs?

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

  1. RNA and the transcription the genetic code

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Writer and Curator

  1. A Primer on DNA and DNA Replication

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

4. Synthesizing Synthetic Biology: PLOS Collections

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari

5. Pathology Emergence in the 21st Century

Author and Curator: Larry Bernstein, MD, FCAP

6. RNA and the transcription the genetic code

Writer and Curator, Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

7. A Great University engaged in Drug Discovery: University of Pittsburgh

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter and Curator

8. microRNA called miRNA-142 involved in the process by which the immature cells in the bone  marrow give                              rise to all the types of blood cells, including immune cells and the oxygen-bearing red blood cells

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, Author and Curator                   immature-cells-in-the-bone-marrow-give-rise-to-all-the-types-of-blood-cells-including-immune-cells-and-the-oxygen-             bearing-red-blood-cells/

9. Genes, proteomes, and their interaction

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Writer and Curator

10. Regulation of somatic stem cell Function

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Writer and Curator    Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, Curator

11. Scientists discover that pluripotency factor NANOG is also active in adult organisms

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter           adult-organisms/

12. Bzzz! Are fruitflies like us?

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Author and Curator

13. Long Non-coding RNAs Can Encode Proteins After All

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter

14. Michael Snyder @Stanford University sequenced the lymphoblastoid transcriptomes and developed an
allele-specific full-length transcriptome

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, Author and Curator            transcriptomes-and-developed-an-allele-specific-full-length-transcriptome/

15. Commentary on Biomarkers for Genetics and Genomics of Cardiovascular Disease: Views by Larry H                                     Bernstein, MD, FCAP

Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP                        cardiovascular-disease-views-by-larry-h-bernstein-md-fcap/

16. Observations on Finding the Genetic Links in Common Disease: Whole Genomic Sequencing Studies

Author an curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

17. Silencing Cancers with Synthetic siRNAs

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and Curator

18. Cardiometabolic Syndrome and the Genetics of Hypertension: The Neuroendocrine Transcriptome Control Points

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

19. Developments in the Genomics and Proteomics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Treatment Targets

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and Curator           mellitus-and-treatment-targets/

20. Loss of normal growth regulation

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

21. CT Angiography & TrueVision™ Metabolomics (Genomic Phenotyping) for new Therapeutic Targets to Atherosclerosis

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN           new-therapeutic-targets-to-atherosclerosis/

22.  CRACKING THE CODE OF HUMAN LIFE: The Birth of BioInformatics & Computational Genomics

Genomics Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP                      computational-genomics/

23. Big Data in Genomic Medicine

Author and Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

24. From Genomics of Microorganisms to Translational Medicine

Author and Curator: Demet Sag, PhD                      microorganisms-to-translational-medicine/

25. Summary of Genomics and Medicine: Role in Cardiovascular Diseases

Author and Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

 26. Genomic Promise for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Dementias, Autism Spectrum, Schizophrenia, and Serious                      Depression

Author and Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP        spectrum-schizophrenia-and-serious-depression/

 27.  BRCA1 a tumour suppressor in breast and ovarian cancer – functions in transcription, ubiquitination and DNA repair

Sudipta Saha, PhD         in-transcription-ubiquitination-and-dna-repair/

28. Personalized medicine gearing up to tackle cancer

Ritu Saxena, PhD

29. Differentiation Therapy – Epigenetics Tackles Solid Tumors

Stephen J Williams, PhD

30. Mechanism involved in Breast Cancer Cell Growth: Function in Early Detection & Treatment

     Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN          detection-treatment/

31. The Molecular pathology of Breast Cancer Progression

Tilde Barliya, PhD

32. Gastric Cancer: Whole-genome reconstruction and mutational signatures

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN                   signatures-2/

33. Paradigm Shift in Human Genomics – Predictive Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine –                                                       Part 1 (

Aviva  Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

34. LEADERS in Genome Sequencing of Genetic Mutations for Therapeutic Drug Selection in Cancer                                         Personalized Treatment: Part 2

A Lev-Ari, PhD, RN       drug-selection-in-cancer-personalized-treatment-part-2/

35. Personalized Medicine: An Institute Profile – Coriell Institute for Medical Research: Part 3

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN        research-part-3/

36. Harnessing Personalized Medicine for Cancer Management, Prospects of Prevention and Cure: Opinions of                           Cancer Scientific Leaders @

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN Cancer_Management-      Prospects_of_Prevention_and_Cure/

37.  GSK for Personalized Medicine using Cancer Drugs needs Alacris systems biology model to determine the in silico
effect of the inhibitor in its “virtual clinical trial”

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN             systems-biology-model-to-determine-the-in-silico-effect-of-the-inhibitor-in-its-virtual-clinical-trial/

38. Personalized medicine-based cure for cancer might not be far away

Ritu Saxena, PhD

39. Human Variome Project: encyclopedic catalog of sequence variants indexed to the human genome sequence

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN         indexed-to-the-human-genome-sequence/

40. Inspiration From Dr. Maureen Cronin’s Achievements in Applying Genomic Sequencing to Cancer Diagnostics

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN                genomic-sequencing-to-cancer-diagnostics/

41. The “Cancer establishments” examined by James Watson, co-discoverer of DNA w/Crick, 4/1953

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN         of-dna-wcrick-41953/

42. What can we expect of tumor therapeutic response?

Author and curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

43. Directions for genomics in personalized medicine

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

44. How mobile elements in “Junk” DNA promote cancer. Part 1: Transposon-mediated tumorigenesis.

Stephen J Williams, PhD            mediated-tumorigenesis/

45. mRNA interference with cancer expression

Author and Curator, Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

46. Expanding the Genetic Alphabet and linking the genome to the metabolome

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RD               metabolome/

47. Breast Cancer, drug resistance, and biopharmaceutical targets

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

48.  Breast Cancer: Genomic profiling to predict Survival: Combination of Histopathology and Gene Expression                            Analysis

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RD           histopathology-and-gene-expression-analysis

49. Gastric Cancer: Whole-genome reconstruction and mutational signatures

Aviva  Lev-Ari, PhD, RD                   signatures-2/

50. Genomic Analysis: FLUIDIGM Technology in the Life Science and Agricultural Biotechnology

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RD                   agricultural-biotechnology/

51. 2013 Genomics: The Era Beyond the Sequencing Human Genome: Francis Collins, Craig Venter, Eric Lander, et al.

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RD

52. Paradigm Shift in Human Genomics – Predictive Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine – Part 1

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RD Shift in Human Genomics_/

Signaling Pathways

  1. Proteins and cellular adaptation to stress

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

  1. A Synthesis of the Beauty and Complexity of How We View Cancer:
    Cancer Volume One – Summary

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

  1. Recurrent somatic mutations in chromatin-remodeling and ubiquitin ligase complex genes in
    serous endometrial tumors

Sudipta Saha, PhD           ligase-complex-genes-in-serous-endometrial-tumors/

4.  Prostate Cancer Cells: Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Induce Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

Stephen J Williams, PhD              transition-in-prostate-cancer-cells/

5. Ubiquinin-Proteosome pathway, autophagy, the mitochondrion, proteolysis and cell apoptosis

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP                   proteolysis-and-cell-apoptosis/

6. Signaling and Signaling Pathways

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter and Curator

7.  Leptin signaling in mediating the cardiac hypertrophy associated with obesity

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter and Curator            with-obesity/

  1. Sensors and Signaling in Oxidative Stress

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter and Curator

  1. The Final Considerations of the Role of Platelets and Platelet Endothelial Reactions in Atherosclerosis and Novel

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter and Curator                      endothelial-reactions-in-atherosclerosis-and-novel-treatments

10.   Platelets in Translational Research – Part 1

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter and Curator

11.  Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis: Cardiomyocytes and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: The Cardiac and
Cardiovascular Calcium Signaling Mechanism

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Author, and Content Consultant to e-SERIES A:
Cardiovascular Diseases: Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN             smooth-muscle-cells-the-cardiac-and-cardiovascular-calcium-signaling-mechanism/

12. The Centrality of Ca(2+) Signaling and Cytoskeleton Involving Calmodulin Kinases and
Ryanodine Receptors in Cardiac Failure, Arterial Smooth Muscle, Post-ischemic Arrhythmia,
Similarities and Differences, and Pharmaceutical Targets

     Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Author, and Content Consultant to
e-SERIES A: Cardiovascular Diseases: Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and
Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN       kinases-and-ryanodine-receptors-in-cardiac-failure-arterial-smooth-muscle-post-ischemic-arrhythmia-similarities-and-           differen/

13.  Nitric Oxide Signalling Pathways

Aviral Vatsa, PhD, MBBS

14. Immune activation, immunity, antibacterial activity

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

15.  Regulation of somatic stem cell Function

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Writer and Curator    Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, Curator

16. Scientists discover that pluripotency factor NANOG is also active in adult organisms

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter


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Nitric Oxide and it’s impact on Cardiothoracic Surgery

Author, curator: Tilda Barliya PhD


In the past few weeks we’ve had extensive in-depth series about nitric oxide (NO) and it’s role in renal function and donors in renal disorders, coagulation, endothelium and hemostasis. This inspired this new post regarding the impact of NO on cardiothoratic surgery.  You can read and follow up on these posts here:

Atherosclerosis in the form of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects approximately eight million Americans, which includes 12 to 20% of individuals over the age of 65.  Approximately 20% of patients with PAD have typical symptoms of lower extremity claudication, rest pain, ulceration, or gangrene, and one-third have atypical exertional symptoms. Persons with PAD have impaired function and quality of life even if they do not report symptoms and experience a decline in lower extremity function over time. Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in patients with intermittent claudication; the annual rate of cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes) is 5 to 7%.  Thus, PAD represents a significant source of morbidity and mortality. (1) (

Several options exist for treating atherosclerotic lesions, including:

  • percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with and without stenting,
  • endarterectomy
  • bypass grafting

Unfortunately, patency rates for each of these procedures continue to be suboptimal secondary to the development of neointimal hyperplasia. A universal feature of all vascular surgical procedures is the removal of or damage to the endothelial cell monolayer that occurs whether the procedure performed is endovascular or open. This endothelial damage leads to a decreased or absent production of nitric oxide (NO) at the site of injury.


he relationship between NO and the cardiovascular system has proven to be a landmark discovery, and the scientists credited for its discovery were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1998. Since its discovery, NO has proven to be one of the most important molecules in vascular homeostasis. In fact, the term endothelial dysfunction has now become synonymous with the reduced biologic activity of NO.

NO produced by endothelial cells has been shown to have many beneficial effects on the vasculature.

As described above,

  • NO stimulates vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) relaxation, which leads to vessel vasodilatation.  
  • NO has opposite beneficial affects on endothelial cells compared with VSMCs.
  • Whereas NO stimulates endothelial cell proliferation and prevents endothelial cell apoptosis,  it inhibits VSMC growth and migration  and stimulates VSMC apoptosis.  
  • NO also has many thromboresistant properties, such as inhibition of platelet aggregation, adhesion, and activation;  inhibition of leukocyte adhesion and migration;  and inhibition of matrix formation

 As stated before, the endothelial cell monolayer is often removed or damaged during the time of vascular procedures, which leads to a local decrease in the production of NO. It is now understood that this loss of local NO synthesis by endothelial cells at the site of vascular injury is one of the inciting events that allows platelet aggregation, inflammatory cell infiltration, and VSMC proliferation and migration to occur in excess, which, taken together, leads to neointimal hyperplasia.

Reendothelialization of the injured artery can restore proper function to the artery and potentially halt the restenotic process. Many studies have attempted to improve the patency of bypass grafts and stents by coating them with endothelial cells in the hope that this would restore the thromboresistant nature of native blood vessels.

Unfortunately, although it has been possible to coat these devices with endothelial cells, these cells do not behave like normal endothelial cells and their NO production is often diminished or absent. Because the vasoprotective properties of endothelial cells are largely carried out by NO alone, investigators are engaged in research to improve the bioavailability of NO at the site of vascular injury in an attempt to reduce the risk of thrombosis and restenosis after successful revascularization. The overall goal of using a NO-based approach is to reproduce the same thromboresistive moiety observed with normal NO production.

Why of delivering NO to the injured site:

  • Systemic delivery
  • Local delivery

Systemic Delivery

One simple mechanism by which to deliver NO to the body is via inhalational therapy. Inhaled NO has been used clinically in the past to selectively reduce pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with pulmonary hypertension, as well as a potential therapy for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Because the gas is delivered only to the pulmonary system and has a very short half-life, it was thought that there would be no systemic effects of the drug. Subsequently, studies in the mid- to late 1990s suggested that inhaled NO had beneficial antiplatelet and antileukocyte properties without adverse systemic side effects (2,3)

To test if inhaled NO had any beneficial systemic properties specifically on the vasculature, Lee and colleagues evaluated the effect of inhaled NO on neointimal hyperplasia in rats undergoing carotid balloon injury, Unfortunately, the treatment was required for the full 2 weeks to see any difference between the treatment and the control group, thereby limiting its clinical utility.

Despite some of the early animal studies, investigations with healthy human volunteers failed to reproduce these findings.I t was speculated that despite the obvious effects of inhaled NO on the pulmonary vasculature, systemic bioavailability could not be reliably achieved because of the immediate binding and depletion of NO by hemoglobin as soon as it entered the systemic circulation.

Hamon and colleagues tested the ability of orally supplementing l-arginine (2.25%), the precursor to NO, in the drinking water of rabbits to reduce the formation of neointimal hyperplasia after injuring the iliac arteries with a balloon.  This amount of l-arginine is approximately sixfold higher than normal daily intake. When the arteries were studied 4 weeks after injury, the l-arginine-fed group exhibited less neointimal hyperplasia and greater acetylcholine-induced relaxation compared with the control animals. The authors speculated that the improved outcomes were due to increased bioavailability of NO secondary to the l-arginine-supplemented diets. To test the ability of this supplemented diet to reduce neointimal hyperplasia in a vein bypass graft model, Davies and colleagues fed rabbits l-arginine (2.25%) 7 days prior to and 28 days after common carotid vein bypass grafts. A 51% decrease in the formation of neointimal hyperplasia was demonstrated in the l-arginine-fed groups, and their vein grafts exhibited preserved NO-mediated relaxation.

Despite some of the positive findings in animals, similar studies in humans have failed to show any benefit with l-arginine supplementation. Shiraki and colleagues studied the effects of short-term high-dose l-arginine on restenosis after PTCA.  Thirty-four patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and PTCA for angina pectoris received 500 mg of l-arginine administered through the cardiac catheter immediately prior to PTCA and 30 g per day of l-arginine administered via the peripheral vein for 5 days after PTCA. No significant statistical differences in restenosis were observed between the two groups (34% vs 44%). The authors speculated that the lack of effect was secondary to the fact that although the levels of l-arginine in the plasma increased significantly, NO and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) did not. (4)

Table 1.  Comparison of Different Nitric Oxide Donor Drugs Currently Used for Clinical or Research Purposes
Drug Mechanism of NO Release Unique Properties
Diazeniumdiolates Spontaneous when in contact with physiologic fluidsNO release follows first-order kinetics Stable as solidsVarious reliable half-lives depending on the structure of the nucleophile it is attached to
Nitrosamines can form as by-products
S-Nitrosothiols Copper ion-mediated decomposition Stable as a solid
Direct reaction with ascorbate Must be protected from light
Homeolytic cleavage by light Present in circulating blood
Potential for unlimited NO release
Sydnonimines Requires enzymatic cleavage by liver esterases to form active metabolite Stable as a solidMust be protected from light
Requires molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor Requires alkaline pHReleases superoxide as a by-product, which may have negative effects
l-Arginine Substrate for NOS genes Stable as a solid
Ease of administration
Dependent on presence of NOS for NO production
Sodium nitroprusside Requires a one-electron reduction to release NO Stable as a solid
Must be protected from light
Light can induce NO release Must be given intravenously
Releases cyanide as a by-product
Organic nitrates Either by enzymatic cleavage or nonenzymatic bioactivation with sulfhydryl or thiol groups Stable as a solid
Must be protected from light
Ease of administration
Development of tolerance limits efficacy
NO-releasing aspirin Require enzymatic cleavage to break the covalent bond between the aspirin and the NO moiety Stable as a solid
Ease of administration
Inherent benefits of aspirin also
Does not affect systemic blood pressure

Despite the ease of administration, the reliability of drug delivery, and the relative safety of these NO-donating drugs, there are limitations associated with systemic administration. One such limitation is that NO is rapidly inactivated by hemoglobin in the circulating blood, resulting in limited bioavailability. Furthermore, in attempts to increase the amount of drug delivered to obtain the desired clinical effect, unwanted systemic circulatory effects (eg, vasodilation) and unwanted hemostatic effects (eg, bleeding) often preclude administration of biologically effective doses of NO.

Because NO produces systemic side effects, lower doses of NO have been used in many of the human studies. One of the reasons for the differences observed between the animal studies and the human studies was the 10- to 50-fold lower doses of drugs used in the human studies compared with the animal studies. Thus, local delivery of NO may achieve improved results.

Local Delivery

The local delivery of drugs allows for the administration of the maximally effective dose of a drug without the unwanted systemic side effects. Because the target vessels are easily accessible during most vascular procedures, a local pharmacologic approach to administer a drug during the intervention can be easily performed.

Suzuki and colleagues performed a prospective, randomized, single-center clinical trial. (7)

The study population consisted of patients with symptomatic ischemic heart disease who were undergoing coronary artery stent placement. After stent deployment, l-arginine (600 mg/6 mL) or saline (6 mL) was locally delivered via a catheter over 15 minutes. The patients were followed with serial angiography and intravascular ultrasonography to assess for neointimal thickness for up to 6 months. The authors found that in the l-arginine-treated groups, there was slightly less neointimal volume, but this was not statistically significant.

Because it was not known if the addition of l-arginine actually translated to increased NO production, several studies have focused on the addition of NO donors directly to the site of injury.However, Critics of some of the highlighted animal studies point out that the evaluation of neointimal hyperplasia was performed radiographically, which could be subjectively biased. Furthermore, infusing the drug through a catheter for an extended period of time during the procedure to achieve an effect is not clinically feasible. Because of this, other studies have aimed to develop a clinically applicable approach to deliver NO locally to the site of injury.

  • Hydrogels
  • Vascular grafts
  • Gene therapy

represents another method by which to locally increase the level of NO at the site of vascular injury, tested in different multiple creative animal models. Thought, most of this studies shown great preliminary results, only the gene therapy moved forward into randomized clinical trial in humans using gene therapy to reduce neointimal hyperplasia.

In December 2000, the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee at the National Institutes of Health voted unanimously to proceed with the first phase of clinical evaluation of iNOS lipoplex-mediated gene transfer, called REGENT-1: Restenosis Gene Therapy Trial. (8). The primary objective of this multicenter, prospective, single-blind, dose escalation study was to obtain safety and tolerability information of iNOS-lipoplex gene therapy for reducing restenosis following coronary angioplasty. As of 2002, 27 patients had been enrolled overseas and the process had been determined to be safe. To date, no results have been published as it appears that this trial lost its funding and closed. On April 5, 2002, a notification was issued that the trial had been closed without enrolling any individuals in the United States.

Unfortunately, despite the promising findings shown with NOS therapy, the field of gene therapy has been mottled by two widely known complications. One case occurred as the result of administering a large viral load that led to the death of a patient. In addition, in France, there were at least two cases of malignancy following retroviral gene therapy.  (9)


Atherosclerosis in the form of coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease continues to be a major source of morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the procedures and materials that are currently used to alleviate these disease states are temporary at best because of the inevitable injury to the native endothelium and the subsequent impairment of NO release. Since the discovery of NO and its role in vascular biology, a main focus in vascular research has been to create novel mechanisms to use NO to combat neointimal hyperplasia. To date, numerous animal studies have restored NO production to the vasculature and have shown that this inhibits neointimal hyperplasia, improves patency rates, and is safe to the animal. Clinical studies using these novel NO-releasing compounds in humans are on the horizon.


1. Daniel A. Popowich, Vinit Varu, Melina R. Kibbe. Nitric Oxide: What a Vascular Surgeon Needs to Know. Vascular. 2007;15(6):324-335. (

2.  Gries A, Bode C, Peter K, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide inhibits human platelet aggregation, P-selectin expression, and fibrinogen binding in vitro and in vivo Circulation 1998;97:1481-7.

3.  Lee JS, Adrie C, Jacob HJ, et al. Chronic inhalation of nitric oxide inhibits neointimal formation after balloon-induced arterial injury Circ Res 1996;78:337-42.

4.  Shiraki T, Takamura T, Kajiyama A, et al. Effect of short-term administration of high dose l-arginine on restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty J Cardiol 2004;44:13-20.

5. David A. Fullerton, MD, Robert C. McIntyre, Jr, MD. Inhaled Nitric Oxide: Therapeutic Applications in Cardiothoracic Surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 1996;61:1856-1864.

6. Owen I.Miller,Swee Fong Tang, Anthony Keech,Nicholas B.Pigott, Elaine Beller and David S. Celemajer.  Inhaled nitric oxide and prevention of pulmonary hypertension after congenital heart surgery: a randomised double-blind study. The Lancet,2000:356; 9240 Pages 1464 – 1469,

7. Suzuki T, Hayase M, Hibi K, et al. Effect of local delivery of l-arginine on in-stent restenosis in humans Am J Cardiol 2002;89:363-7.

8. von der Leyen HE, Chew N. Nitric oxide synthase gene transfer and treatment of restenosis: from bench to bedside Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006;62:83-89

9.  Barbato JE, Tzeng E. iNOS gene transfer for graft disease Trends Cardiovasc Med 2004;14:267-72.

10. E. Matevossian, A. Novotny, C. Knebel, T. Brill, M. Werner, I. Sinicina, M. Kriner, M. Stangl, S. Thorban, and N. Hüser. The Effect of Selective Inhibition of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase on Cytochrome P450 After Liver Transplantation in a Rat Model. Transplantation Proceedings 2008, 40, 983–985.

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Telling NO to Cardiac Risk

DDAH Says NO to ADMA(1); The DDAH/ADMA/NOS Pathway(2)

Author-Writer-Reporter:  Stephen J. Williams, PhD

Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be vasoprotective.  Nitric oxide enhances endothelial cell survival, inhibits excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, regulates vascular smooth muscle tone, and prevents platelets from sticking to the endothelial wall.  Together with evidence from preclinical and human studies, it is clear that impairment of the NOS pathway increases risk of cardiovascular disease (3-5).

This post contains two articles on the physiological regulation of nitric oxide (NO) by an endogenous NO synthase inhibitor asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) and ADMA metabolism by the enzyme DDAH(1,2).  Previous posts on nitric oxide, referenced at the bottom of the page, provides excellent background and further insight for this posting. In summary plasma ADMA levels are elevated in patients with cardiovascular disease and several large studies have shown that plasma ADMA is an independent biomarker for cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality(6-8).



Figure 1 A. Cardiac risks of ADMA B. Effects of ADMA (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

ADMA Production and Metabolism

Nuclear proteins such as histones can be methylated on arginine residues by protein-arginine methyltransferases, enzymes which use S-adenosylmethionine as methyl groups.  This methylation event is thought to regulate protein function, much in the way of protein acetylation and phosphorylation (9).  And much like phosphorylation, these modifications are reversible through methylesterases.   The proteolysis of these arginine-methyl modifications lead to the liberation of free guanidine-methylated arginine residues such as L-NMMA, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetrical methylarginine (SDMA).

The first two, L-NMMA and ADMA, have been shown to inhibit the activity of the endothelial NOS.  This protein turnover is substantial: for instance the authors note that each day 40% of constitutive protein in adult liver is newly synthesized protein. And in several diseases, such as muscular dystrophy, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes, it has been known since the 1970’s that protein catabolism rates are very high, with corresponding increased urinary excretion of ADMA(10-13).  Methylarginines are excreted in the urine by cationic transport.  However, the majority of ADMA and L-NMMA are degraded within the cell by dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), first cloned and purified in rat(14).

endogenous NO inhibitors from pubchem

Figure 2.  Endogenous inhibitors of NO synthase.  Chemical structures generated from PubChem.


DDAH specifically hydrolyzes ADMA and L-NMMA to yield citruline and demethylamine and usually shows co-localization with NOS. Pharmacologic inhibition of DDAH activity causes accumulation of ADMA and can reverse the NO-mediated bradykinin-induced relaxation of human saphenous vein.

Two isoforms have been found in human:

  • DDAH1 (found in brain and kidney and associated with nNOS) and
  • DDAH2 (highly expressed in heart, placenta, and kidney and associated with eNOS).

DDAH2 can be upregulated by all-trans retinoic acid (atRA can increase NO production).  Increased reactive oxygen species and possibly homocysteine, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, can decrease DDAH activity(15,16).

  • The importance of DDAH activity can also be seen in transgenic mice which overexpress DDAH, exhibiting increased NO production, increased insulin sensitivity, and reduced vascular resistance  (17).  Likewise,
  • Transgenic mice, null for the DDAH1, showed increase in blood pressure, decreased NO production, and significant increase in tissue and plasma ADMA and L-NMMA.


Figure 3.  The DDAH/ADMA/NOS cycle. Figure adapted from Cooke and Ghebremarian (1).

As mentioned in the article by Cooke and Ghebremariam, the authors state: the weight of the evidence indicates that DDAH is a worthy therapeutic target. Agents that increase DDAH expression are known, and 1 of these, a farnesoid X receptor agonist, is in clinical trials

An alternate approach is to

  • develop an allosteric activator of the enzyme.  Although
  • development of an allosteric activator is not a typical pharmaceutical approach, recent studies indicate that this may be achievable aim(18).


1.            Cooke, J. P., and Ghebremariam, Y. T. : DDAH says NO to ADMA.(2011) Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 31, 1462-1464

2.            Tran, C. T., Leiper, J. M., and Vallance, P. : The DDAH/ADMA/NOS pathway.(2003) Atherosclerosis. Supplements 4, 33-40

3.            Niebauer, J., Maxwell, A. J., Lin, P. S., Wang, D., Tsao, P. S., and Cooke, J. P.: NOS inhibition accelerates atherogenesis: reversal by exercise. (2003) American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology 285, H535-540

4.            Miyazaki, H., Matsuoka, H., Cooke, J. P., Usui, M., Ueda, S., Okuda, S., and Imaizumi, T. : Endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a novel marker of atherosclerosis.(1999) Circulation 99, 1141-1146

5.            Wilson, A. M., Shin, D. S., Weatherby, C., Harada, R. K., Ng, M. K., Nair, N., Kielstein, J., and Cooke, J. P. (2010): Asymmetric dimethylarginine correlates with measures of disease severity, major adverse cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Vasc Med 15, 267-274

6.            Kielstein, J. T., Impraim, B., Simmel, S., Bode-Boger, S. M., Tsikas, D., Frolich, J. C., Hoeper, M. M., Haller, H., and Fliser, D. : Cardiovascular effects of systemic nitric oxide synthase inhibition with asymmetrical dimethylarginine in humans.(2004) Circulation 109, 172-177

7.            Kielstein, J. T., Donnerstag, F., Gasper, S., Menne, J., Kielstein, A., Martens-Lobenhoffer, J., Scalera, F., Cooke, J. P., Fliser, D., and Bode-Boger, S. M. : ADMA increases arterial stiffness and decreases cerebral blood flow in humans.(2006) Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation 37, 2024-2029

8.            Mittermayer, F., Krzyzanowska, K., Exner, M., Mlekusch, W., Amighi, J., Sabeti, S., Minar, E., Muller, M., Wolzt, M., and Schillinger, M. : Asymmetric dimethylarginine predicts major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with advanced peripheral artery disease.(2006) Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 26, 2536-2540

9.            Kakimoto, Y., and Akazawa, S.: Isolation and identification of N-G,N-G- and N-G,N’-G-dimethyl-arginine, N-epsilon-mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine, and glucosylgalactosyl- and galactosyl-delta-hydroxylysine from human urine. (1970) The Journal of biological chemistry 245, 5751-5758

10.          Inoue, R., Miyake, M., Kanazawa, A., Sato, M., and Kakimoto, Y.: Decrease of 3-methylhistidine and increase of NG,NG-dimethylarginine in the urine of patients with muscular dystrophy. (1979) Metabolism: clinical and experimental 28, 801-804

11.          Millward, D. J.: Protein turnover in skeletal muscle. II. The effect of starvation and a protein-free diet on the synthesis and catabolism of skeletal muscle proteins in comparison to liver. (1970) Clinical science 39, 591-603

12.          Goldberg, A. L., and St John, A. C.: Intracellular protein degradation in mammalian and bacterial cells: Part 2. (1976) Annual review of biochemistry 45, 747-803

13.          Dice, J. F., and Walker, C. D.: Protein degradation in metabolic and nutritional disorders. (1979) Ciba Foundation symposium, 331-350

14.          Ogawa, T., Kimoto, M., and Sasaoka, K.: Purification and properties of a new enzyme, NG,NG-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase, from rat kidney. (1989) The Journal of biological chemistry 264, 10205-10209

15.          Ito, A., Tsao, P. S., Adimoolam, S., Kimoto, M., Ogawa, T., and Cooke, J. P.: Novel mechanism for endothelial dysfunction: dysregulation of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase. (1999) Circulation 99, 3092-3095

16.          Stuhlinger, M. C., Tsao, P. S., Her, J. H., Kimoto, M., Balint, R. F., and Cooke, J. P. : Homocysteine impairs the nitric oxide synthase pathway: role of asymmetric dimethylarginine.(2001) Circulation 104, 2569-2575

17.          Sydow, K., Mondon, C. E., Schrader, J., Konishi, H., and Cooke, J. P.: Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase overexpression enhances insulin sensitivity. (2008) Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 28, 692-697

18.          Zorn, J. A., and Wells, J. A.: Turning enzymes ON with small molecules. (2010) Nature chemical biology 6, 179-188

Other research papers on Nitric Oxide and Cardiac Risk  were published on this Scientific Web site as follows:

The Nitric Oxide and Renal is presented in FOUR parts:

Part I: The Amazing Structure and Adaptive Functioning of the Kidneys: Nitric Oxide

Part II: Nitric Oxide and iNOS have Key Roles in Kidney Diseases

Part III: The Molecular Biology of Renal Disorders: Nitric Oxide

Part IV: New Insights on Nitric Oxide donors

Cardiac Arrhythmias: A Risk for Extreme Performance Athletes

What is the role of plasma viscosity in hemostasis and vascular disease risk?

Cardiovascular Risk Inflammatory Marker: Risk Assessment for Coronary Heart Disease and Ischemic Stroke – Atherosclerosis.

Endothelial Dysfunction, Diminished Availability of cEPCs, Increasing CVD Risk for Macrovascular Disease – Therapeutic Potential of cEPCs

Biochemistry of the Coagulation Cascade and Platelet Aggregation – Part I

Nitric Oxide Function in Coagulation

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English: ATP producing pathways of glucose met...

English: ATP producing pathways of glucose metabolism in aerobic respiration (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Author: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP,  

Writer, Author, Responder Clinical Pathologist, Biochemist, and Transfusion Physician _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Heterogeneity The heterogeneity is a problem that will take at least another decade to unravel because of the number of signaling pathways and the crosstalk that is specifically at issue. I must refer back to the work of Frank Dixon, Herschel Sidransky, and others, who did much to develop a concept of neoplasia occurring in several stages – minimal deviation and fast growing. These have differences in growth rates, anaplasia, and biochemical. This resembles the multiple “hit” theory that is described in “systemic inflammatory” disease leading to a final stage, as in sepsis and septic shock.

Tumor heterogeneity is problematic because of differences among the metabolic variety among types of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, confounding treatment response and prognosis. A group of investigators from Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada who evaluated the feasibility and safety of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy for prostate cancer in humans. Their study’s objective was to prove that using real-time MRI guidance of HIFU treatment is possible and it guarantees that the location of ablated tissue indeed corresponds to the locations planned for treatment.  The real-time MRI guidance is an improvement in imaging technology.

The ability to allow resection with removal of the tumor, and adjacent tissue at risk is unproved, and is related to the length of remission.

See comment written for :

Knowing the tumor’s size and location, could we target treatment to THE ROI by applying…..


The Response vs. Recurrence Free Interval Conundrum

There is a difference between expected response to esophageal or gastric neoplasms both biologically and in expected response, even given variability within a class. The expected time to recurrence is usually longer in the latter case, but the confounders are –

  1. age at time of discovery,
  2. biological time of detection,
  3. presence of lymph node and/or
  4. distant metastasis, microscopic vascular invasion.

There is a long latent period in abdominal cancers before discovery, unless a lesion is found incidentally in surgery for another reason. The undeniable reality is that it is not difficult to identify the main lesion, but it is difficult to identify adjacent epithelium that is at risk (transitional or pretransitional). Pathologists have a very good idea about precancerous cervical neoplasia.

The heterogeneity rests within each tumor and between the primary and metastatic sites, which is expected to be improved by targeted therapy directed by tumor-specific testing. Despite rapid advances in our understanding of targeted therapy for GI cancers, the impact on cancer survival has been marginal. Brücher BLDM, Bilchik A, Nissan A, Avital I & Stojadinovic A. Can tumor response to therapy be predicted, thereby improving the selection of patients for cancer treatment?  Future Oncology 2012; 8(8): 903-906 , DOI 10.2217/fon.12.78 (doi:10.2217/fon.12.78)   The heterogeneity is a problem that will take at least another decade to unravel because of the number of signaling pathways and the crosstalk that is specifically at issue.

Anaerobic Glycolysis and Respiratory Impairment  In 1920, Otto Warburg received the Nobel Prize for his work on respiration. He postulated that cancer cells become anaerobic compared with their normal counterpart that uses aerobic respiration to meet most energy needs. He attributed this to “mitochondrial dysfunction. In fact, we now think that in response to oxidative stress, the mitochondrion relies on the Lynen Cycle to make more cells and the major source of energy becomes glycolytic, which is at the expense of the lean body mass (muscle), which produces gluconeogenic precursors from muscle proteolysis (cancer cachexia).

There is a loss of about 26 ATP ~Ps in the transition. The mitochondrial gene expression system includes the mitochondrial genome, mitochondrial ribosomes, and the transcription and translation machinery needed to regulate and conduct gene expression as well as mtDNA replication and repair. Machinery involved in energetics includes the enzymes of the Kreb’s citric acid or TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle, some of the enzymes involved in fatty acid catabolism (β-oxidation), and the proteins needed to help regulate these systems. The inner membrane is central to mitochondrial physiology and, as such, contains multiple protein systems of interest. These include the protein complexes involved in the electron transport component of oxidative phosphorylation and proteins involved in substrate and ion transport. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Mitochondrial Roles in Cellular Homeostasis Mitochondrial roles in, and effects on, cellular homeostasis extend far beyond the production of ATP, but the transformation of energy is central to most mitochondrial functions. Reducing equivalents are also used for anabolic reactions. The energy produced by mitochondria is most commonly thought of to come from the pyruvate that results from glycolysis, but it is important to keep in mind that the chemical energy contained in both fats and amino acids can also be converted into NADH and FADH2 through mitochondrial pathways.

The major mechanism for harvesting energy from fats is β-oxidation; the major mechanism for harvesting energy from amino acids and pyruvate is the TCA cycle. Once the chemical energy has been transformed into NADH and FADH2 (also discovered by Warburg and the basis for a second Nobel nomination in 1934), these compounds are fed into the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The hydroxyl free radical is extremely reactive. It will react with most, if not all, compounds found in the living cell (including DNA, proteins, lipids and a host of small molecules).

The hydroxyl free radical is so aggressive that it will react within 5 (or so) molecular diameters from its site of production. The damage caused by it, therefore, is very site specific. The reactions of the hydroxyl free radical can be classified as hydrogen abstraction, electron transfer, and addition. The formation of the hydroxyl free radical can be disastrous for living organisms. Unlike superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which are mainly controlled enzymatically, the hydroxyl free radical is far too reactive to be restricted in such a way – it will even attack antioxidant enzymes. Instead, biological defenses have evolved that reduce the chance that the hydroxyl free radical will be produced and, as nothing is perfect, to repair damage. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Impairment Currently, some endogenous markers are being proposed as useful measures of total “oxidative stress” e.g., 8-hydroxy-2’deoxyguanosine in urine. The ideal scavenger must be non-toxic, have limited or no biological activity, readily reach the site of hydroxyl free radical production (i.e., pass through barriers such as the blood-brain barrier), react rapidly with the free radical, be specific for this radical, and neither the scavenger nor its product(s) should undergo further metabolism. Nitric oxide has a single unpaired electron in its π*2p antibonding orbital and is therefore paramagnetic. This unpaired electron also weakens the overall bonding seen in diatomic nitrogen molecules so that the nitrogen and oxygen atoms are joined by only 2.5 bonds. The structure of nitric oxide is a resonance hybrid of two forms. In living organisms nitric oxide is produced enzymatically. Microbes can generate nitric oxide by the reduction of nitrite or oxidation of ammonia.

In mammals nitric oxide is produced by stepwise oxidation of L-arginine catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide is formed from the guanidino nitrogen of the L-arginine in a reaction that consumes five electrons and requires flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), flavin mononucleotide (FMN) tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), and iron protoporphyrin IX as cofactors. The primary product of NOS activity may be the nitroxyl anion that is then converted to nitric oxide by electron acceptors. The thiol-disulfide redox couple is very important to oxidative metabolism. GSH is a reducing cofactor for glutathione peroxidase, an antioxidant enzyme responsible for the destruction of hydrogen peroxide.

Thiols and disulfides can readily undergo exchange reactions, forming mixed disulfides. Thiol-disulfide exchange is biologically very important. For example, GSH can react with protein cystine groups and influence the correct folding of proteins, and it GSH may play a direct role in cellular signaling through thiol-disulfide exchange reactions with membrane bound receptor proteins (e.g., the insulin receptor complex), transcription factors (e.g., nuclear factor κB), and regulatory proteins in cells. Conditions that alter the redox status of the cell can have important consequences on cellular function.  So the complexity of life is not yet unravelled.


Warburgh Effect

Cells seem to be well-adjusted to glycolysis. While Otto Warburg first proposed that cancer cells show increased levels of glucose consumption and lactate fermentation even in the presence of ample oxygen (known as “Warburg Effect”), which requires oxidative phosphorylation to switch to glycolysis promoting the proliferation of cancer cells., many studies have demonstrated glycolysis as the main metabolic pathway in cancer cells. It is now accepted that glycolysis provides cancer cells with the most abundant extracellular nutrient, glucose, to make ample ATP metabolic intermediates, such as ribose sugars, glycerol and citrate, nonessential amino acids, and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, which serve as building blocks for cancer cells.


Dampened Mitochondrial Respiration
Since, cancer cells have increased rates of aerobic glycolysis, investigators argue over the function of mitochondria in cancer cells. Mitochondrion, a one of the smaller organelles, produces most of the energy in the form of ATP to supply the body. In Warburg’s theory, the function of cellular mitochondrial respiration is dampened and mitochondria are not fully functional. There are many studies backing this theory. A recent review on hypoxia nicely summarizes some current studies and speculates that the “Warburg Effect” provides a benefit to the tumor not by increasing glycolysis but by decreasing mitochondrial activity.


Glycolysis is enhanced and beneficial to cancer cells. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been well discussed in its role to promote glycolysis; recent literature has revealed some new mechanisms of how glycolysis is promoted during skin cancer development.

On the other hand, Akt is not only involved in the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism in skin cancer but also of glycolysis. Activation of Akt has been found to phosphorylate FoxO3a, a downstream transcription factor of Akt, which promotes glycolysis by inhibiting apoptosis in melanoma. In addition, activated Akt is also associated with stabilized c-Myc and activation of mTOR, which both increase glycolysis for cancer cells.
Nevertheless, ras mutational activation prevails in skin cancer. Oncogenic ras induces glycolysis. In human squamous cell carcinoma, the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal Kinase (JNK) is activated as a mediator of ras signaling, and is essential for ras-induced glycolysis, since pharmacological inhibitors if JNK suppress glycolysis. CD147/basigin, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is high expressed in melanoma and other cancers.
Glyoxalase I (GLO1) is a ubiquitous cellular defense enzyme involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic byproduct of glycolysis. In human melanoma tissue, GLO1 is upregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels.
Knockdown of GLO1 sensitizes A375 and G361 human metastatic melanoma cells to apoptosis.
The transcription factor HIF-1 upregulates a number of genes in low oxygen conditions including glycolytic enzymes, which promotes ATP synthesis in an oxygen independent manner. Studies have demonstrated that hypoxia induces HIF-1 overexpression and its transcriptional activity increases in parallel with the progression of many tumor types. A recent study demonstrated that in malignant melanoma cells, HIF-1 is upregulated, leading to elevated expression of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 1 (PDK1), and downregulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption.
The M2 isoform of Pyruvate Kinase (PKM2), which is required for catalyzing the final step of aerobic glycolysis, is highly expressed in cancer cells; whereas the M1 isoform (PKM1) is expressed in normal cells. Studies using the skin cell promotion model (JB6 cells) demonstrated that PKM2 is activated whereas PKM1 is inactivated upon tumor promoter treatment. Acute increases in ROS inhibited PKM2 through oxidation of Cys358 in human lung cancer cells. The levels of ROS and stage of tumor development may be pivotal for the role of PKM2.


Dampening Mitochondrial Both Cause and Effect 

Warburg effect is both, a cause and effect of cancer…Review article mentioned in link below explains how different factors can contribute to metabolic reprogramming and Warburg effect….The Supply-based model and Traditional model clearly explains how the cancer cells will progress during different availability of growth factors and nutrients…And recent studies including my project (under process of getting published) will also suggest that growth factors can drive cancer cells to undergo Warburg effect regardless of the presence of oxygen…

Otto Warburg proposed that “EVEN IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN, cancer cells can reprogram their glucose metabolism, and thus their energy production, by limiting their energy metabolism largely to glycolysis” .

Metabolic reprogramming: a cancer hallmark even warburg did not anticipate (Ward & Thompson) Posted by Nirav Patel


The autophagic tumor stroma model of cancer metabolism.
Cancer cells induce oxidative stress in adjacent cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). This activates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and autophagy. ROS production in CAFs, via the bystander eff ect, serves to induce random mutagenesis in epithelial cancer cells, leading to double-strand DNA breaks and aneuploidy. Cancer cells mount an anti-oxidant defense and upregulate molecules that protect them against ROS and autophagy, preventing them from undergoing apoptosis. So, stromal fibroblasts conveniently feed and mutagenize cancer cells, while protecting them against death. See the text for more details. A+, autophagy positive; A-, autophagy negative; AR, autophagy resistant.

1. Recycled Nutrients
2. Random Mutagenesis
3. Protection Against Apoptosis


The reverse Warburg effect.
Via oxidative stress, cancer cells activate two major transcription factors in adjacent stromal fibroblasts (hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α and NFκB).
This leads to the onset of both autophagy and mitophagy, as well as aerobic glycolysis, which then produces recycled nutrients (such as lactate, ketones, and glutamine).
These high-energy chemical building blocks can then be transferred and used as fuel in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) in adjacent cancer cells.
The outcome is high ATP production in cancer cells, and protection against cell death. ROS, reactive oxygen species.


The choline dependent methylation of PP2A is the brake, the “antidote”, which limits “the poison” resulting from an excess of insulin signaling. Moreover, it seems that choline deficiency is involved in the L to M2 transition of PK isoenzymes. The negative regulation of Ras/MAP kinase signals mediated by PP2A phosphatase seems to be complex.

The serine-threonine phosphatase does more than simply counteracting kinases; it binds to the intermediate Shc protein on the signaling cascade, which is inhibited. The targeting of PP2A towards proteins of the signaling pathway depends of the assembly of the different holoenzymes.

The relative decrease of methylated PP2A in the cytosol, not only cancels the brake over the signaling kinases, but also favors the inactivation of PK and PDH, which remain phosphorylated, contributing to the metabolic anomaly of tumor cells. In order to prevent tumors, one should then favor the methylation route rather than the phosphorylation route for choline metabolism.


Martin Canazales observes….

(, is responsible of overactivation of the PI3K…

the produced peroxide via free radicals over activate the cyclooxigenase and consequently the PI3K pathway, thereby activating  the most important protein-kinase.  This brakes the Warburg effect, and stops the PI3K activation.


Then all the cancer protein related with the generation of tumor (pAKT,pP70S6K, Cyclin D1, HIF1, VEGF, EGFrc, GSK, Myc, etc, etc, etc)  get down regulated. That is what happens when one knocks down the new protein-kinase in pancreatic cancer cell lines.  These pancreatic cancer cell lines divide very-very-very slowly.


I now transition from what is understood about the metabolic signatures of cancer that tend to behave more alike than the cell of origin, but not initially.  This is perhaps a key to therapeutics.  >>>

Time of intervention>>> and right intervention.


Can tumor response to therapy be predicted, thereby improving the selection of patients for cancer treatment? The goal is not just complete response. Histopathological response seems to be related post-treatment histopathological assessment but it is not free from the challenge of accurately determining treatment response, as this method cannot delineate whether or not there are residual cancer cells. Functional imaging to assess metabolic response by 18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET also has its limits, as the results are impacted significantly by several variables:

  1. tumor type
  2. sizing
  3. doubling time
  4. anaplasia?
  5. extent of tumor necrosis
  6. presence of tumor at the margin of biopsy
  7. lymph node and/or distant metastasis
  8. vascular involvement
  9. type of antitumor therapy and the time when response was determined.

The new modality should be based on individualized histopathology as well as tumor molecular, genetic and functional characteristics, and individual patients’ characteristics, a greater challenge in an era of ‘minimally invasive treatment’. This has been pointed out by Brücher et al. if the International Consortium on Cancer with respect to the shortcoming of MIS as follows: Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) vs. conventional surgery dissection applied to cancer tissue with the known pathophysiology of recurrence and remission cycles has its short term advantages.

  1. in many cases MIS is not the right surgical decision
  2. predicting the uncertain future behavior of the tumor with respect to its response to therapeutics bears uncertain outcomes.

An increase in the desirable outcomes of MIS as a modality of treatment, will be assisted in the future, when anticipated progress is made in the field of

  • Cancer Research,
  • Translational Medicine and
  • Personalized Medicine,

when each of the cancer types, above,  will already have a Genetic Marker allowing the Clinical Team to use the marker(s) for:

  • prediction of Patient’s reaction to Drug induction
  • design of Clinical Trials to validate drug efficacy on small subset of patients predicted to react favorable to drug regimen, increasing validity and reliability
  • Genetical identification of patients at no need to have a drug administered if non sensitivity to the drug has been predicted by the genetic marker.

See listing of cancers provided by Dr. Aviva Lev-Ari.

Lev-Ari A. Personalized Medicine: Cancer Cell Biology and Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS). ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ See comment: 

Judging the ‘Tumor response’-there is more food for thought 


That is an optimistic order to effectively carry out in the face of the statistical/mathematical challenge imposed for any real success.

Brücher BLDM, Bilchik A, Nissan A, Avital I & Stojadinovic A. Can tumor response to therapy be predicted, thereby improving the selection of patients for cancer treatment?  Future Oncology 2012; 8(8): 903-906 , DOI 10.2217/fon.12.78 (doi:10.2217/fon.12.78) _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ A Model Based on Kullback Entropy and Identifying and Classifying Anomalies This listing suggests that for every cancer the following data has to be collected (except doubling time). If there are 8 variables, the classification based on these alone would calculate to be very sizable based on Eugene Rypka’s feature extraction and classification. But looking forward,

Treatment for cure is not the endpoint, but the best that can be done is to extend the time of survival to a realistic long term goal and retain a quality of life. Brücher BLDM, Piso P, Verwaal V et al. Peritoneal carcinomatosis: overview and basics. Cancer Invest.30(3),209–224 (2012). Brücher BLDM, Swisher S, Königsrainer A et al. Response to preoperative therapy in upper gastrointestinal cancers. Ann. Surg. Oncol.16(4),878–886 (2009). Miller AB, Hoogstraten B, Staquet M, Winkler A. Reporting results of cancer treatment. Cancer47(1),207–214 (1981). Therasse P, Arbuck SG, Eisenhauer EA et al. New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, National Cancer Institute of the United States, National Cancer Institute of Canada. J. Natl Cancer Inst.92(3),205–216 (2000). Brücher BLDM, Becker K, Lordick F et al. The clinical impact of histopathological response assessment by residual tumor cell quantification in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer106(10),2119–2127 (2006). _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The critical question encountered by the pathologist is that key histological stains have been used for some time, such as Her2, and a number of others to establish tumor cell type, and differences with cell types.  The number will grow as the genomic identifiers are explored and put to use.  It doesn’t appear that the pathologist will be displaced any time soon.  This is separate from older observations of nuclear polymorphism, anaplastic changes related to cell adhesion, etc.  These do not displace the information gained from staging criteria.  Clearly, there is much information that is used for individual decisions about therapeutic approach, which will undergo further refinement even before the end of this decade.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Melanoma Example A marker for increased glycolysis in melanoma is the elevated levels of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) in the blood of patients with melanoma, which has proven to be an accurate predictor of prognosis and response to treatments. LDH converts pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, to lactate when oxygen is absent. High concentrations of lactate, in turn, negatively regulate LDH. Therefore, targeting acid excretion may provide a feasible and effective therapeutic approach for melanoma. For instance, JugloSne, a main active component in walnut, has been used in traditional medicines.

Studies have shown that Juglone causes cell membrane damage and increased LDH levels in a concentration-dependent manner in cultured melanoma cells. As one of the rate-limiting enzyme of glycolysis, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase isozyme 3 (PFKFB3) is activated in neoplastic cells. Studies have confirmed that an inhibitor of PFKFB3, 3-(3-pyridinyl)-1-(4-pyridinyl)-2-propen-1-one (3PO), suppresses glycolysis in neoplastic cells. In melanoma cell lines, the concentrations of Fru-2, 6-BP, lactate, ATP, NAD+, and NADH are diminished by 3PO. Therefore, targeting PFKFB3 using 3PO and other PFKFB3 specific inhibitors could be effective in melanoma chemotherapy.

This is only one example of the encouraging results from targeted therapy. An unexplored idea was provided to me that is interesting and be highly conditional, by loading with high concentrations of ketones to offset the glycolytic pathway redirected bypass of mitochondrial pathways.  There is an inherent problem with muscle proteolysis raising the glucose level from gluconeogenesis. The effect is uncertain with respect to TCA cycle intermediates. It seems plausible that cure is not necessarily attainable due to inability to identify portions of proximate local tumor, modification and drug resistance. The reliable extension of disease free survival and maintaining a patient acceptable quality of life is improvable. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Ward PS, Thompson CB. Metabolic Reprogramming: A Cancer Hallmark Even Warburg Did Not Anticipate. Cancer Cell. 2012; 21(3):297-308.

  1. Quiescent versus Proliferating Cells: Both Use Mitochondria, but to Different Ends
  2. Altered Metabolism Is a Direct Response to Growth-Factor Signaling
  3. PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 Activation: Driving Anabolic Metabolism and Tumorigenesis by Reprogramming Mitochondria

Full-size image (51 K) Bhowmick NA. Metastatic Ability: Adapting to a Tissue Site Unseen.  Cancer Cell  2012; 22(5): 563-564. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Therapeutic strategies that target glycolysis and biosynthetic pathways in cancer cells are currently the main focus of research in the field of cancer metabolism. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Hitosugi and colleagues show that targeting PGAM1 could be a way of “killing two birds with one stone”. Chaneton B, Gottlieb E. PGAMgnam Style: A Glycolytic Switch Controls Biosynthesis. Cancer Cell 2012; 22(5): 565-566. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Polycomb epigenetic silencing protein EZH2 is affected by gain-of-function somatic mutations in B cell lymphomas. Two recent reports describe the development of highly selective EZH2 inhibitors and reveal mutant EZH2 as playing an essential role in maintaining lymphoma proliferation. EZH2 inhibitors are thus a promising new targeted therapy for lymphoma. Melnick A. Epigenetic Therapy Leaps Ahead with Specific Targeting of EZH2. Cancer Cell 22(5): 569-570. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The microenvironment of the primary as well as the metastatic tumor sites can determine the ability for a disseminated tumor to progress. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Calon and colleagues find that systemic TGF-β can facilitate colon cancer metastatic engraftment and expansion. Calon A, Espinet E, Palomo-Ponce S, Tauriello DVF, et al.  Dependency of Colorectal Cancer on a TGF-β-Driven Program in Stromal Cells for Metastasis Initiation.  Cancer Cell 2012;22(5): 571-584. image

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ An analysis of what is possible, but who knows how far into the accelerating future? Tumor response criteria: are they appropriate? The International Consortium is centered at the Billroth Institute, in Munich. Interesting it is that Billroth was the father of abdominal surgery and performed the first esophagectomy and the firat gastrectomy. He also pioneered in keeping a record of treatments and outcomes in the 19th century, which Halsted studied. I need not repeat what has been stated in the post. The pathologist’s role is still important, as the editorial in Future Oncology gets at.  This also requires necessary and sufficient features to extract differentiating classifiers.  I don’t think we shall see pathologists the likes of many who were masters until the 1990′s. The surgical pathologist today cannot have complete command of the large knowledge base, but the tumor registry and the cancer committee has evolved to a better stage than in the 1960′s. Surgical grand rounds have been used for teaching and evaluating the practice since at least the 1960′s. What is asked is that we go beyond that.

See comment written for:

Knowing the tumor’s size and location, could we target treatment to THE ROI by applying…..

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Evidence-based medicine Evidence-based medicine is substantially flawed because of reliance on meta-analysis to arrive at conclusions from underpowered and inconsistent studies, discarding more than half of the studies examined that don’t meet the inclusion criteria.

  1. – There can be no movement forward without the systematic collection of data into a functionally well designed repository.
  2. – The current construct of the EMR probably has to be “remodeled” if not “remade”.
  3. – The studies will have to use real data, not aggregates of studies with “missing information”.
  4. – Bioinformatics is an emerging field that is only supported in the top two tiers of academic medical centers, which would include the well known cancer centers in Boston, Houston, and New York.

I don’t place much hope in “Watson” coming to the rescue, because you have to collect both a lot of information and “sufficient” information.

  1. -”Sufficient” information has been precluded by years of cost-elimination without paying attention to the real impact of “technologies” on costs, and an inherent competition between labor and “capital” investment.
  2. – Despite the progress in genomics, the heterogeneity of these solid tumors is a natural adaptation that occurs in carcinogenesis.
  3. The heterogeneity traced over a time-span should have information about stage in carcinogenesis.
  4. The pathologist can see and interpret histologic grades in the evolution that may have a better relationship to the evolutionary studies of genomics and signaling pathways than to stage of disease, but by combining the best available evidence, you move to a better classification. Without good classification, I don’t see how you can arrive at “science based” personalized medicine.

there is still a Rubicon to cross in going from genomics to translational medicine, which extends to diet and lifestyle.

Search Results for ‘cancer’ on this web site

Cancer Genomics – Leading the Way by Cancer Genomics Program at UC Santa Cruz Closing the gap towards real-time, imaging-guided treatment of cancer patients. Lipid Profile, Saturated Fats, Raman Spectrosopy, Cancer Cytology

mRNA interference with cancer expression

Pancreatic cancer genomes: Axon guidance pathway genes – aberrations revealed Biomarker tool development for Early Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer: Van Andel Institute and Emory University

Is the Warburg Effect the cause or the effect of cancer: A 21st Century View?

Crucial role of Nitric Oxide in Cancer Targeting Glucose Deprived Network Along with Targeted Cancer Therapy Can be a Possible Method of Treatment

Structure of the human mitochondrial genome.

Structure of the human mitochondrial genome. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: ATP production in aerobic respiration

English: ATP production in aerobic respiration (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


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Subtitle:  Nitric Oxide, Peroxinitrite, and NO donors in Renal Function Loss

Curator and Author: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

This is the last of a series of articles on renal function, the nephron, the vasculature of the kidney, the importance of nitric oxide, the multiple and opposing roles of the NOS isoforms in kidney function, and the impairment of renal function in acute and chronic disease.

The Nitric Oxide and Renal is presented in FOUR parts:

Part I: The Amazing Structure and Adaptive Functioning of the Kidneys: Nitric Oxide

Part II: Nitric Oxide and iNOS have Key Roles in Kidney Diseases

Part III: The Molecular Biology of Renal Disorders: Nitric Oxide

Part IV: New Insights on Nitric Oxide donors 

Conclusion to this series is presented in

The Essential Role of Nitric Oxide and Therapeutic NO Donor Targets in Renal Pharmacotherapy

The Essential Role of Nitric Oxide and Therapeutic NO Donor Targets in Renal Pharmacotherapy

Loop of Henle (Grey's Anatomy book)

Loop of Henle (Grey’s Anatomy book) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The first section notes the embryonic recapitulation of the evolution of the kidney in the emergence of oxygen dependent species from the deep oceans and swampland to a lung breathing and terrestrial existence.  The excretory kidney that all mammals rely on for elimination of nitrogenous wastes, mainly composed of urea, is a metanephric kidney that develops in the fifth week of human embryonic life.  The kidneys are paired organs capped by the adrenal glands that lie in the lower posterior abdominal wall supplied by the renal arteries that branch from the aorta.

The kidney has grossly and outer cortex that surrounds the medulla.  The cortex is highly vascular containing all of the glomerular structures that receive circulation from an afferent arteriole and return circulation by way of an efferent arteriole.  The efferent arteriole can become thickened by sustained high pressure.   The glomerulus has a globular structure with a double membrane through which no cells pass, but the plasma is filtered, gaining entry into the tubular nephron.  With aging there can be a loss of half of the original nephrons, but the measurement of significant loss is not necessarily measured as decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR)(120 ml/min) until a loss of 1/3 to 1/2 of kidney mass.  The metanephric kidney requires passage of large amounts of  fluid volume.  The cortex is high-energy and high mitochondrial content because of its concentrated circulation and the pressure need to drive filtration (passive).   The next phase of urine formation begins in the cortex, in the proximal convoluted tubule, with the filtrate passing into the descending limb, in which there is active reabsorption of glucose by a transporter, exchange of Na/K by Na/K ATPase, excretion of urea and secretion of uric acid, and regulation of pH by carbonic anhydrase.  This is not in itself sufficient to manage the formation of urine that is concentrated, contains nitrogenous waste, and returns key analytes to the circulation.

The medulla contains interstitium, the tubular nephron that consists of descending limb, the Loop of Henley, ascending limb, and the collecting ducts that empty into the medullary pyramids.
The interstitium develops a high pressure bacause of the concentration of Na that is pumped in proximally, and a volume of water that is removed from the adjacent distal end and the collecting ducts under the influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH).    When the circulation and the interstitial pressures are hypoxemic in the medulla, acute medullary necrosis ensues, largely the hallmark of acute tubular necrosis.  When the kidney cortex becomes ischemic, partly as a result microthrombi in the arterioles and/or the glomerular capillaries, acute cortical necrosis ensues.

The second section is a description of the role of nitric oxide (NO) in renal function.  The earliest concern was focused on the NO and eNOS in the cortex, with the rich vascular bed.  The generation of NO by eNOS is essential for vasodilatation.   Then, far more interest lie in the role of NO in tubular and interstitial function.  The tubules are exposed to large changes in fluid flow pressures and to ionic stresses of the adjacent interstitial tissue.    The interest was catalyzed by the wartime crush injuries that led to acute tubular necrosis with an initial 80%  mortality, tht has been improved by fluid resuscitation, with caveats.

Nitric oxide (NO) and its metabolite, peroxynitrite (ONOO-), are involved in renal tubular cell injury.  However, while eNOS generated NO is beneficial, inducible iNOS generated NO is a large player in ATM.   We learn that both forms have an important counter-balancing effect.  NO/ONOO- has an effect of reducing cell adhesion to the basement membrane. It is not the NO, but the converted ONOO- peroxynitrite that has the most damaging effect.  The damage to tubular epithelium does signal repair, but the damaged cells feed into the tubule and are precursor of Tamm Horsfall protein (TFP), which obstructs flow.  The exposure to NO donor SIN-1  caused a dose-dependent impairment in cell-matrix adhesion, that was obtained in different cell types and matrix proteins.  In a seminal paper, the authors concluded that ONOO- generated in the tubular epithelium during ischemia/reperfusion has the potential to impair the adhesion properties of tubular cells, which then may contribute to the tubular obstruction in ARF.

In addition, inflammatory cytokines, released early in sepsis, cause Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells (PTEC) cytoskeletal damage and alter integrin-dependent cell-matrix adhesion.   After exposure of human PTEC to tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1α, and interferon-γ, the actin cytoskeleton was disrupted , and the cytokines induced shedding of viable, apoptotic, and necrotic PTEC. The shedding was dependent on NO synthesized by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) produced as a result of cytokine actions on PTEC. The major ligand involved in cell anchorage was laminin, probably through interactions with the integrin α3β1, which was downregulated by the cytokines, but this was independent of NO, so hypotension and ischemia is not involved.  Furthermore, the apoptotic effects of proinflammatory stimuli mainly are largely due to the expression of inducible NO synthase.  Other expereiments indicated:

  • Exposure to SIN-1, which generated peroxynitrite (ONOO)  produced a concentration- and time-dependent delayed cell death
  • a critical threshold concentration (>440 nM/min) was required for . NO to produce significant cell injury

N acetyl cysteine (NAC) given within the first 3 h posttreatment further delayed cell death and increased the intracellular thiol level in SIN-1 but not . NO-exposed cells but cell injury from . NO was independent of cGMP, caspases, and superoxide or peroxynitrite formation.  Exposure of non-. NO-producing cells to . NO or peroxynitrite results in delayed cell death, which, although occurring by different mechanisms, is mediated by the loss of intracellular redox balance.

The third section attends to renal diseases.  The best studied type is ARF.  The mechanisms of ARF involve both vascular and tubular factors. An ischemic insult to the kidney will in general be the cause of the ARF. While a decrease in renal blood flow with diminished oxygen and substrate delivery to the tubule cells is an important ischemic factor, it must be remembered that a relative increase in oxygen demand by the tubule is also a factor in renal ischemia.  In vitro studies using chemical anoxia have revealed abnormalities in the proximal tubule cytoskeleton that are associated with translocation of Na+/K+-ATPase from the basolateral to the apical membrane. A comparison of cadaveric transplanted kidneys with delayed versus prompt graft function has also provided important results regarding the role of Na+/K+-ATPase in ischemic renal injury.   A translocation of Na+/K+-ATPase from the basolateral membrane to the cytoplasm may explain the decrease in tubular sodium reabsorption that occurs with ARF.  Calpain-mediated breakdown products of the actin-binding protein spectrin have been shown to occur with renal ischemia. Calpain activity was also demonstrated to be increased during hypoxia in isolated proximal tubules.  The existence of proteolytic pathways involving cysteine proteases, namely calpain and caspases, may explain the decrease in proximal tubule sodium reabsorption and increased FENa secondary to proteolytic uncoupling of Na+/K+-ATPase from its basolateral membrane anchoring proteins, but not the fall in GFR.   An antisense oligonucleotide was shown to block the upregulation of iNOS and afford functional protection against acute renal ischemia. Thus, when isolated proximal tubules from iNOS, eNOS, and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) knockout mice were exposed to hypoxia, only the tubules from the iNOS knockout mice were protected against hypoxia. This suggests that  the protective role of vascular eNOS may be more important than the deleterious effect of iNOS at the tubule level during renal ischemia

The last section is the NO donors as therapeutic targets.  IFNa produced dose-dependent and time-dependent decrease in transepithelial resistance (TER) ameliorated by tyrphostin, an inhibitor of phosphotyrosine kinase with increased expression of occludin and E-cadherin. Therefore, IFNa can directly affect barrier function in renal epithelial cells via overexpression or missorting of the junctional proteins occludin and E-cadherin.

There is agreement that oxygen-derived reactive species are important in renal ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. Treatment with oxygen radical scavengers, antioxidants, and iron chelators such as superoxide dismutase, dimethylthiourea, allopurinol, and deferoxamine are protective. They all directly scavenge or inhibit the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO−), a highly toxic species derived from nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide. Thus, the protective effects seen with these inhibitors may be due in part to their ability to inhibit ONOO− formation. However, induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and production of high levels of nitric oxide (NO) also contribute to this injury. NO can combine with superoxide to form the potent oxidant peroxynitrite (ONOO−).  L-NIL administered  to animals subjected to I-R significantly decreased plasma creatinine levels to 1.2 ± 0.10 mg/dl and reduced tubular damage.  3-nitrotyrosine-protein adducts were detected in renal tubules after I-R injury. Selective inhibition of iNOS by L-NIL decreased injury, improved renal function, and decreased apparent ONOO− formation. Therefore, reactive nitrogen species should be considered potential therapeutic targets in the prevention and treatment of renal I-R injury.

NO functions to promote natriuresis and diuresis, contributing to adaptation to variations of dietary salt intake and maintenance of normal blood pressure. A pretreatment with nitric oxide donors or L-arginine may prevent the ischemic acute renal injury. In chronic kidney diseases, the systolic blood pressure is correlated with the plasma level of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. A reduced production and biological action of nitric oxide is associated with an elevation of arterial pressure, and conversely, an exaggerated activity may represent a compensatory mechanism to mitigate the hypertension.

Adequate medullary tissue oxygenation, in terms of balanced oxygen supply and demand, is dependent on the maintenance of medullary perfusion by adequate cortical perfusion and also on the high rate of O2 consumption required for active electrolyte transport.  The sensitivity of the medulla to hypoxic conditions results from high O2 consumption. Renal sodium transport is the main O2-consuming function of the kidney and is closely linked to renal blood flow for sodium transport, particularly in the thick ascending limbs of the loop of Henle and the S3 segments of the proximal tubules. The medulla has been found to be the main site of production of NO in the kidney. In addition to the actions described above, NO appears to be a key regulator of renal tubule cell metabolism by inhibiting the activity of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter and reducing Na+/H+ exchange.

NO reversibly binds to the O2 binding site of cytochrome oxidase, and acts as a potent, rapid, and reversible inhibitor of cytochrome oxidase in competition with molecular O2.  This inhibition could be dependent on the O2 level, since the IC50 (the concentration of NO that reduces the specified response by half) decreases with reduction in O2 concentration. The inhibition of electron flux at the cytochrome oxidase level switches the electron transport chain to a reduced state, and consequently leads to depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential.  While the NO/O2 ratio can act as a regulator of cellular O2 consumption by matching decreases in O2 delivery to decreases in cellular O2 cellular, the inhibitory effect of NO on mitochondrial respiration under hypoxic conditions further impairs cellular aerobic metabolism.

HIFs are O2-sensitive transcription factors involved in O2-dependent gene regulation that mediate cellular adaptation to O2 deprivation and tissue protection under hypoxic conditions in the kidney.  The induction of HO-1 can protect the kidney from ischemic damage by decreasing oxidative damage and NO generation. Finally, in addition to its anti-apoptotic properties, EPO may protect the kidney from ischemic damage by restoring the renal microcirculation by stimulating the mobilization and differentiation of progenitor cells toward an endothelial phenotype and by inducing NO release from eNOS.

The kidney is not only a major source of arginine and nitric oxide but NO plays an important role in the

  • water and electrolyte balance and
  • acid-base physiology and
  • many other homeostatic functions in the kidney.

We know that there is an unquestionable role of NO, and a competing balance to be achieved between eNOS, iNOS, an effect on tubular water and ion-cation reabsorption, a role of TNFa, and consequently an important role in essential/malignant hypertension, with the size of the effect related to the stage of disorder, the amount of interstitial fibrosis, the remaining nephron population, the hypertonicity of the medulla, the vasodilation of the medullary circulation, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

Histologie et physiologie glomérulaire, vue ps...

(Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Nephron, Diagram of the urine formati...

English: Nephron, Diagram of the urine formation. The number inside tubular urin concentration in mOsm/l – when ADH acts Polski: Nefron, Schemat tworzenia moczu. Cyfry wewnątrz kanalików oznaczają lokalne stężenie w mOsm/l – gdy działa ADH (dochodzi do zagęszczania moczu). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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Author and Reporter: Anamika Sarkar, Ph.D.

Nitric Oxide (NO) is highly regulated in the blood such that it can be released as vasodilator when needed. The importance and pathway of Nitric Oxide has been nicely reviewed by. “Discovery of NO and its effects of vascular biology”. Other articles which are good readings for the importance of NO are  – a) regulation of glycolysis b) NO in cardiovascular disease c) NO and Immune responses Part I and Part II d) NO signaling pathways. The  effects of NO in diseased states have been reviewed by the articles – “Crucial role of Nitric Oxide in Cancer”, “Nitric Oxide and Sepsis, Hemodynamic Collapse, and the Search for Therapeutic Options”.. (Also, please see Source for more articles on NO and its significance).

Computational models are very efficient tools to understand complex reactions like NO towards physiological conditions. Among them wall shear stress is one of the major factors which is reviewed in the article – “Differential Distribution of Nitric Oxide – A 3-D Mathematical Model”.

Moreover, decrease in availability of NO can lead to many complications like pulmonary hypertension. Some of the causes of decrease in NO have been identified as clinical hypertension, right ventricular overload which can lead to cardiac heart failure, low levels of zinc and high levels of cardiac necrosis.

Sickle Cell disease patients, a hereditary disease, are also known to have decreased levels of NO which can become physiologically challenging. In USA alone, there are 90,000 people who are affected by Sickle cell disease.

Sickle cell disease is breakage of red blood cells (RBC) membrane and resulting release of the hemoglobin (Hb) into blood plasma. This process is also known as Hemolysis. Sickle cell disease is caused by single mutation of Hb which changes RBC from round shape to sickle or crescent shapes (Figure 1).


Figure 1 (A) shows normal red blood cells flowing freely through veins. The inset shows a cross section of a normal red blood cell with normal hemoglobin. Figure 1 (B) shows abnormal, sickled red blood cells The inset image shows a cross-section of a sickle cell with long polymerized HbS strands stretching and distorting the cell shape. Image Source:

Sickle Cell RBCs has much shorter life span of 10-20 days when compared with normal RBCs 100-120 days lifespan. Shorter life span of Sickle cell disease RBC’s are compensated by bone marrow generation of new RBCs. However, many times new blood generation cannot cope with the small life span of Sickle cell RBCs and causes pathological condition of Anemia.

RBCs generally breakdown and release Hbs in blood plasma after they reach their end of life span. Thus, in case of Sickle cell disease, there is more cell free Hb than normal. Furthermore, it is known that NO has a very high affinity towards Hbs, which is one of the ways free NO is regulated in blood. As a result presence of larger amounts of cell free Hb in Sickle cell disease lead to less availability of NO.

However, the question remained “what is the quantitative relationship between cell free Hb and depletion of NO. Deonikar and Kavdia (J. Appl. Physiol., 2012) addressed this question by developing a 2 dimensional Mathematical Model of a single idealized arteriole, with different layers of blood vessels diffusing nutrients to tissue layers (Figure 2:  Deonikar and Kavdia Figure 1).


cell free Hb in 2 dimensional representations of blood vessels.

The authors used steady state partial differential equation of circular geometry to represent diffusion of NO in blood and in tissues. They used first and second order biochemical reactions to represent the reactions between NO and RBC and NO autooxidation processes. Some of their reaction model parameters were obtained from literature, rest of them were fitted to experimental results from literature. The model and its parameters are explained in the previously published paper by same authors Deonikar and Kavdia, Annals of Biomed., 2010. The authors found that the reaction rate between NO and RBC is 0.2 x 105, M-1 s-1 than 1.4 x 105, M-1 s-1 as reported before by Butler, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1998.

Their results show that even small increase in cell free Hb, 0.5uM, can decrease NO concentrations by 3-7 folds approximately (comparing Fig1(b) and 1(d) of Deonikar and Kavdia, 2012, as shown in Figure 2 of this article). Moreover, their mathematical analysis shows that the increase in diffusion resistance of NO from vascular lumen to cell free zone has no effect on NO distribution and concentration with available levels of cell free Hb.

Deonikar and Kavdia’s mathematical model is a simple representation of actual physiological scenario. However, their model results show that for Sickle cell disease patients, decrease in levels of bioavailable NO is an attribute to cell free Hb, which is in abundant for these patients. Their results show that small increase by 0.5 uM in cell free Hb can cause large decrease in NO concentrations.

These interesting insights from the model can help in further understanding in the context of physiological conditions, by replicating experiments in-vivo and then relating them to other known diseases of Sickle cell disease patients like Anemia, Pulmonary Hypertension. Further, drugs can be targeted towards decreasing free cell Hbs to keep balance in availability of NO, which in turn may help in other related disease like Pulmonary Hypertension of Sickle Cell disease patients.


Deonikar and Kavdia (2012) :

Previous model explaining mathematical representation and parameters used in the model :Deonikar and Kavdia, Annals of Biomed., 2010.

Previous paper stating reaction rate of Hb and NO: Butler, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1998.

Causes of decrease in NO

Clinical Hypertension :

Right ventricular overload :

Low levels of zinc and high levels of cardiac necrosis :

Sickle Cell Source:

NO Source:

Differential Distribution of Nitric Oxide – A 3-D Mathematical Model:

Discovery of NO and its effects of vascular biology

Nitric Oxide has a ubiquitous role in the regulation of glycolysis -with a concomitant influence on mitochondrial function

Nitric oxide: role in Cardiovascular health and disease

NO signaling pathways

Nitric Oxide and Immune Responses: Part 1

Nitric Oxide and Immune Responses: Part 2

Statins’ Nonlipid Effects on Vascular Endothelium through eNOS Activation

Inhibition of ET-1, ETA and ETA-ETB, Induction of NO production, stimulation of eNOS and Treatment Regime with PPAR-gamma agonists (TZD): cEPCs Endogenous Augmentation for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction – A Bibliography

Nitric Oxide, Platelets, Endothelium and Hemostasis

Crucial role of Nitric Oxide in Cancer

The rationale and use of inhaled NO in Pulmonary Artery Hypertension and Right Sided Heart Failure

Nitric Oxide and Sepsis, Hemodynamic Collapse, and the Search for Therapeutic Options

NO Nutritional remedies for hypertension and atherosclerosis. It’s 12 am: do you know where your electrons are?

Clinical Trials Results for Endothelin System: Pathophysiological role in Chronic Heart Failure, Acute Coronary Syndromes and MI – Marker of Disease Severity or Genetic Determination?

Endothelial Function and Cardiovascular Disease

Interaction of Nitric Oxide and Prostacyclin in Vascular Endothelium

Endothelial Dysfunction, Diminished Availability of cEPCs,  Increasing  CVD Risk – Macrovascular Disease – Therapeutic Potential of cEPCs

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and the Role of agent alternatives in endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) Activation and Nitric Oxide Production


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Author and Reporter: Anamika Sarkar, Ph.D.

Among many important roles of Nitric oxide (NO), one of the key actions is to act as a vasodilator and maintain cardiovascular health. Induction of NO is regulated by signals in tissue as well as endothelium.

Importance of NO has been nicely reviewed in the article  “Discovery of NO and its effects of vascular biology”. Other articles which are good readings for the importance of NO are  – a) regulation of glycolysis b) NO in cardiovascular disease c) NO and Immune responses Part I and Part II d) NO signaling pathways (Also, please see Source for more articles on NO and its significance).

The rate of production of NO has been established to be dependent on Wall Shear Stress (WSS) (Mashour and Broock, Brain Res., 1999) . Many mathematical models have been developed as 2D diffusion models to predict distribution of NO transport in single vessels, eg. arterioles (Please see Sources for references ).

Chen et. al. (Med. Biol. Eng. Comp., 2011) developed a 3-D model consisting of two branched arterioles and nine capillaries surrounding the vessels. Their model not only takes into account of the 3-D volume, but also branching effects on blood flow (Please see Fig 1 and Fig 2 from Chen et. al. 2011 ).


Fig. 1 Blood phase separation with vascular branching. RBC
fractional flow in daughter branch alpha is not necessarily equal
to that in branch beta


The mathematical model considers dynamic characteristics related to blood flow, blood vessel structures and transport mechanism in the wall. The authors have considered effects of branching and ratio of diameters between blood vessels of parent and children to determine the fractional blood flow which gets distributed in the network. These branching effects of the vessels will also affect the blood volume or RBC (Red Blood Cell), hence NO consumption in the blood. Parameters in the model are either obtained or fitted with experimental results from literature. Their model assumes a linear relationship of NO production with wall shear stress which in turn will be regulated by blood flow determined by branching characteristics of blood vessels. Moreover, the mathematical model includes transport of NO through the blood vessels in the tissue (in the defined volume of the model) as diffusion model,. The model was solved using Finite Elements method using the software COMSOL.

Their model results show that wall shear stress changes depending upon the distribution of RBC in the microcirculations of blood vessels, which leads to differential production of NO along the vascular network. Levels of NO at vascular walls can be less in branches which receive more blood flow, due to the balance between higher consumption of NO by RBC and production of NO due to high wall stress.  Their 3-D simulations showed the importance of capillaries such that NO can be concentrated in tissues far away in distance from arterioles facilitating much controlled NO regulation.

Though, the 3-D model developed by Chen et. al., (2011) is an idealized mathematical model of blood flow with production and consumption of NO, depending upon WSS, yet it shows importance of structure of blood vessels in distributions of NO in vessels and tissues. Such a model with proper extension to larger network can give more insights into differential distributions of NO as a function of blood flow and wall shear stress. As nano-medicine become sophisticated in years to come, information of distribution of NO in tissues and blood vessels can help the medicine to be more targeted.


Chen (2011) :

Mashour and Broock, Brain Res., 1999:

Mathematical Modes of NO Distribution in 2-D

Other research on Nitric Oxide and Vascular Biology on this Scientific Web Site include the following:

Nitric Oxide and Immune Responses: Part 1

Curator and Reporter: Aviral Vatsa, 10/18/2012

Clinical Trials Results for Endothelin System: Pathophysiological role in Chronic Heart Failure, Acute Coronary Syndromes and MI – Marker of Disease Severity or Genetic Determination?

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, 10/19/2012

Nitric Oxide and Sepsis, Hemodynamic Collapse, and the Search for Therapeutic Options

Curator and Reporter: Larry Bernstein, MD, 10/20/2012

Mitochondrial Damage and Repair under Oxidative Stress

Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, 10/28/2012

Nitric Oxide and Immune Responses: Part 2

Curator: Aviral Vatsa, PhD, MBBS, 10/28/2012

Differential Distribution of Nitric Oxide – A 3-D Mathematical Model

Author: Anamika Sarkar, PhD, 10/28/2012

Statins’ Nonlipid Effects on Vascular Endothelium through eNOS Activation

Curator, EAW: Larry Bernstein, 10/8/2012

Nitric Oxide Nutritional remedies for hypertension and atherosclerosis. It’s 12 am: do you know where your electrons are?

Author and Reporter: Meg Baker, 10/7/2012.

Inhibition of ET-1, ETA and ETA-ETB, Induction of NO production, stimulation of eNOS and Treatment Regime with PPAR-gamma agonists (TZD): cEPCs Endogenous Augmentation for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction – A Bibliography

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, 10/4/2012.

Coronary Artery Disease – Medical Devices Solutions: From First-In-Man Stent Implantation, via Medical Ethical Dilemmas to Drug Eluting Stents August 13, 2012

Author: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, 8/13/2012

Vascular Medicine and Biology: CLASSIFICATION OF FAST ACTING THERAPY FOR PATIENTS AT HIGH RISK FOR MACROVASCULAR EVENTS Macrovascular Disease – Therapeutic Potential of cEPCs

Curator; Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, 8/24/2012


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