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Posts Tagged ‘Obesity’


Reporter: Gail S. Thornton, M.A.

Studies have shown that regular physical activity can contribute to longer life and less risk for serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and some cancers.  The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) continues to partner with national groups, states and communities to provide quality education around the physical activity.

An analysis, Adult Physical Inactivity Prevalence Maps by Race/Ethnicity, published on the CDC web site in January 2020 demonstrated that “all states and territories had more than 15 percent of adults who were physically inactive.” The analysis included state maps that used combined data from 2015 through 2018 with “noticeable differences in the prevalence of physical inactivity by race/ethnicity.” Physical inactivity is reported as “no leisure-time physical activity.”

Here are findings from their analysis:

  • The South (28.0%) had the highest prevalence of physical inactivity, followed by the Northeast (25.6%), Midwest (25.0%), and the West (20.5%).
  • In 7 states (Tennessee, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Alabama, Kentucky, Arkansas, and Mississippi), and 2 US territories (Puerto Rico, and Guam), 30% or more of adults were physically inactive.
  • In 4 states (Colorado, Washington, Utah, and Oregon) and the District of Columbia, 15% to less than 20% of adults were physically inactive.
  • In 24 states, 20% to less than 25% of adults were physically inactive.
  • In 15 states, 25% to less than 30% of adults were physically inactive.

More analysis showed:

  • Hispanics (31.7%) had the highest prevalence of physical inactivity, followed by non-Hispanic blacks (30.3%) and non-Hispanic whites (23.4%).
  • In the majority of states, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics had a significantly higher prevalence of inactivity than non-Hispanic whites.
  • 5 states and Puerto Rico had a physical inactivity prevalence of 30% or higher among non-Hispanic white adults.

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Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

 

Obesity is a global concern that is associated with many chronic complications such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance (IR), cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Growing evidence has implicated the digestive system, including its microbiota, gut-derived incretin hormones, and gut-associated lymphoid tissue in obesity and IR. During high fat diet (HFD) feeding and obesity, a significant shift occurs in the microbial populations within the gut, known as dysbiosis, which interacts with the intestinal immune system. Similar to other metabolic organs, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver, altered immune homeostasis has also been observed in the small and large intestines during obesity.

 

A link between the gut microbiota and the intestinal immune system is the immune-derived molecule immunoglobulin A (IgA). IgA is a B cell antibody primarily produced in dimeric form by plasma cells residing in the gut lamina propria (LP). Given the importance of IgA on intestinal–gut microbe immunoregulation, which is directly influenced by dietary changes, scientists hypothesized that IgA may be a key player in the pathogenesis of obesity and IR. Here, in this study it was demonstrate that IgA levels are reduced during obesity and the loss of IgA in mice worsens IR and increases intestinal permeability, microbiota encroachment, and downstream inflammation in metabolic tissues, including inside the VAT.

 

IgA deficiency alters the obese gut microbiota and its metabolic phenotype can be recapitulated into microbiota-depleted mice upon fecal matter transplantation. In addition, the researchers also demonstrated that commonly used therapies for diabetes such as metformin and bariatric surgery can alter cellular and stool IgA levels, respectively. These findings suggested a critical function for IgA in regulating metabolic disease and support the emerging role for intestinal immunity as an important modulator of systemic glucose metabolism.

 

Overall, the researchers demonstrated a critical role for IgA in regulating intestinal homeostasis, metabolic inflammation, and obesity-related IR. These findings identify intestinal IgA+ immune cells as mucosal mediators of whole-body glucose regulation in diet-induced metabolic disease. This research further emphasized the importance of the intestinal adaptive immune system and its interactions with the gut microbiota and innate immune system within the larger network of organs involved in the manifestation of metabolic disease.

 

Future investigation is required to determine the impact of IgA deficiency during obesity in humans and the role of metabolic disease in human populations with selective IgA deficiency, especially since human IgA deficiency is associated with an altered gut microbiota that cannot be fully compensated with IgM. However, the research identified IgA as a critical immunological molecule in the intestine that impacts systemic glucose homeostasis, and treatments targeting IgA-producing immune populations and SIgA may have therapeutic potential for metabolic disease.

 

References:

 

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-11370-y?elqTrackId=dc86e0c60f574542b033227afd0fdc8e

 

https://www.jci.org/articles/view/88879

 

https://www.nature.com/articles/nm.2353

 

https://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/57/6/1470

 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1550413115001047?via%3Dihub

 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1550413115002326?via%3Dihub

 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1931312814004636?via%3Dihub

 

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature15766

 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1550413116000371?via%3Dihub

 

https://www.nature.com/articles/nm.2001

 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1550413118305047?via%3Dihub

 

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Benefits of Fiber in Diet

Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

 

UPDATED on 1/15/2019

This is How Much Daily Fiber to Eat for Better Health – More appears better in meta-analysis — as in more than 30 g/day

by Ashley Lyles, Staff Writer, MedPage Today

In the systematic review, observational data showed a 15% to 30% decline in cardiovascular-related death, all-cause mortality, and incidence of stroke, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and colorectal cancer among people who consumed the most dietary fiber compared to those consuming the lowest amounts.

Whole grain intake yielded similar findings.

Risk reduction associated with a range of critical outcomes was greatest when daily intake of dietary fibre was between 25 g and 29 g. Dose-response curves suggested that higher intakes of dietary fibre could confer even greater benefit to protect against cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and colorectal and breast cancer.

https://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140-6736(18)31809-9.pdf

Eating more dietary fiber was linked with lower risk of disease and death, a meta-analysis showed.

According to observational studies, risk was reduced most for a range of critical outcomes from all-cause mortality to stroke when daily fiber consumption was between 25 grams and 29 grams, reported Jim Mann, PhD, of University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand, and colleagues in The Lancet.

By upping daily intake to 30 grams or more, people had even greater prevention of certain conditions: colorectal and breast cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, according to dose-response curves the authors created.

Quantitative guidelines relating to dietary fiber have not been available, the researchers said. With the GRADE method, they determined that there was moderate and low-to-moderate certainty of evidence for the benefits of dietary fiber consumption and whole grain consumption, respectively.

Included in the systematic review were 58 clinical trials and 185 prospective studies for a total of 4,635 adult participants with 135 million person-years of information (one trial in children was included, but analyzed separately from adults). Trials and prospective studies assessing weight loss, supplement use, and participants with a chronic disease were excluded.

 

Food is digested by bathing in enzymes that break down its molecules. Those molecular fragments then pass through the gut wall and are absorbed in our intestines. But our bodies make a limited range of enzymes, so that we cannot break down many of the tough compounds in plants. The term “dietary fiber” refers to those indigestible molecules. These dietary fibers are indigestible only to us. The gut is coated with a layer of mucus, on which sits a carpet of hundreds of species of bacteria, part of the human microbiome. Some of these microbes carry the enzymes needed to break down various kinds of dietary fibers.

 

Scientists at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden are running experiments that are yielding some important new clues about fiber’s role in human health. Their research indicates that fiber doesn’t deliver many of its benefits directly to our bodies. Instead, the fiber we eat feeds billions of bacteria in our guts. Keeping them happy means our intestines and immune systems remain in good working order. The scientists have recently reported that the microbes are involved in the benefits obtained from the fruits-and-vegetables diet. Research proved that low fiber diet decreases the gut bacteria population by tenfold.

 

Along with changes to the microbiome there were also rapid changes observed in the experimental mice. Their intestines got smaller, and its mucus layer thinner. As a result, bacteria wound up much closer to the intestinal wall, and that encroachment triggered an immune reaction. After a few days on the low-fiber diet, mouse intestines developed chronic inflammation. After a few weeks, they started putting on fat and developing higher blood sugar levels. Inflammation can help fight infections, but if it becomes chronic, it can harm our bodies. Among other things, chronic inflammation may interfere with how the body uses the calories in food, storing more of it as fat rather than burning it for energy.

 

In a way fiber benefits human health is by giving, indirectly, another source of food. When bacteria finished harvesting the energy in the dietary fiber, they cast off the fragments as waste. That waste — in the form of short-chain fatty acids — is absorbed by intestinal cells, which use it as fuel. But the gut’s microbes do more than just make energy. They also send messages. Intestinal cells rely on chemical signals from the bacteria to work properly. The cells respond to the signals by multiplying and making a healthy supply of mucus. They also release bacteria-killing molecules. By generating these responses, gut bacteria help to maintain a peaceful coexistence with the immune system. They rest on the gut’s mucus layer at a safe distance from the intestinal wall. Any bacteria that wind up too close get wiped out by antimicrobial poisons.

 

A diet of fiber-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables, reduces the risk of developing diabetes, heart disease and arthritis. Eating more fiber seems to lower people’s mortality rate, whatever be the cause. Researchers hope that they will learn more about how fiber influences the microbiome to use it as a way to treat disorders. Lowering inflammation with fiber may also help in the treatment of immune disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. Fiber may also help reverse obesity. They found that fiber supplements helped obese people to lose weight. It’s possible that each type of fiber feeds a particular set of bacteria, which send their own important signals to our bodies.

 

References:

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/01/science/food-fiber-microbiome-inflammation.html

 

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29276171

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29276170

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29486139

 

https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/fiber/art-20043983

 

https://nutritiouslife.com/eat-empowered/high-fiber-diet/

 

http://www.eatingwell.com/article/287742/10-amazing-health-benefits-of-eating-more-fiber/

 

http://www.cookinglight.com/eating-smart/nutrition-101/what-is-a-high-fiber-diet

 

https://www.helpguide.org/articles/healthy-eating/high-fiber-foods.htm

 

https://www.gicare.com/diets/high-fiber-diet/

 

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Consuming Risk Free Food & Beverages

Author: Debashree Chakrabarti, MSc., Biological Sciences, UMass Lowell (Expected May 2016)

Leading researchers and medical health professionals have raised their concern about the over all declining status of health and well being world wide. A rising trend in childhood obesity, cardiovascular diseases, clinical depression syndrome in young adults is reason enough to try and broaden the scope of plausible agents which result in people making bad health decisions.  As a witness to the emerging dietary trends adopted by children and young adults, it is natural to question the ethics of processed food and beverages industry. Does it seem reasonable the 2L bottles of soda cost $2 USD? There are more people claiming to not like water since it is flavorless. 100% fresh juices are subject to scrutiny for their lack of adequate fiber content and excess presence of sugars. Products with high fructose corn syrups, added preservatives in processed meat, ‘read to eat’ meals are agreeably cost effective and saves a lot of time, however the over riding damage is in the long run with deficient immune system and gain of unnatural toxins which the body finds hard to eliminate. Another marketing frenzy is visible in the neutraceuticals range of instant energy drinks, protein shakes and over the counter pills. The focus is towards having the visibly attractive, muscular body regardless of the compromised health. The companies do their bit of limiting the usage by adding a precaution statement and dosage remarks on the product labels. This is however not translated as useful information to the young consumers who do not foresee the detrimental outcomes in advance.

As the prices of insurance packages and medical aid is negotiated, the same effort needs invested in the regulation of consumer dietary products. We do not want a ban on Colas however, we do not also need them to be sold at prices cheaper than water. Fresh fruits and vegetables need not be price tagged astronomically driving population to adopt a risk driven lifestyle. Taking initiatives to promote urban farming and local gardens, reaching out to the people about their choices and how it impacts the global financial predicament is a need of the hour. We are ok with the attitude of “Don’t tell me how to live my life” in a world relying heavily on subsidized medicines. This has to change. Subsidized medicine is a privilege and should be benefited to those responsible. Researchers and big pharma companies are not the only stake holders in this fight against an exponentially growing illness of misinformed decisions. People need to be brought in and educated. This includes strong arming anyone who feels they have a right to abuse their health or the health of the world.

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Another paradigm to this discussion is the need for more extensive research hubs world wide and making the accessibility of advanced medicines available to the dense population regions in Asia, Africa and Middle East Arab countries which host the majority of the population and have the least of the resources. We need 100 Massachusetts world wide with cutting edge researchers deep diving and venture capitalists backing them up. A vision for 2050 must encompass every individual being aware of what it takes to damage a human body which is a very robust machine. Eating right and being able to afford health must not be difficult. Choices available in the stores must be rational to the level where the most ignorant of the lot is still consuming risk free substances. Given the fantastic evolutionary armaments we have, it takes a lot to be unwell and yet we seem to making it fairly easy to catch cold. Healthy people translate to healthy economy.

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BET Proteins Connect Diabetes and Cancer

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

New Proteins Discovered That Link Obesity-Driven Diabetes to Cancer

http://www.dddmag.com/news/2016/03/new-proteins-discovered-link-obesity-driven-diabetes-cancer

 Killer T cells surround a cancer cell. Credit: NIH

Killer T cells surround a cancer cell. Credit: NIH

 

For the first time, researchers have determined how bromodomain (BRD) proteins work in type 2 diabetes, which may lead to a better understanding of the link between adult-onset diabetes and certain cancers.

The findings, which appear in PLOS ONE, show that reducing levels in pancreatic beta cells of individual BRDs, called BET proteins, previously shown to play a role in cancer, may also help patients who are obese and diabetic.

The research was led by Gerald V. Denis, PhD, associate professor of pharmacology and medicine at Boston University School of Medicine, who was the first to show that BET protein functions are important in cancer development.

Adult-onset diabetes has been known for decades to increase the risk for specific cancers. The three main members of the BET protein family, BRD2, BRD3 and BRD4, are closely related to each other and often cooperate. However at times, they work independently and sometimes against each other.

According to the researchers new small molecule BET inhibitors have been developed that block all three BET proteins in cancer cells, but they interfere with too many functions.

“The BET proteins provide a new pathway to connect adult-onset diabetes with cancer, so properly targeting BET proteins may be helpful for both,” explained Denis, who is the corresponding author of the study.

He believes this discovery shows the need for deeper analysis of individual BET proteins in all human cell types, starting with boosting insulin and improving metabolism in the pancreas of adults who are obese.

“Without better targeted drugs, some ongoing cancer clinical trials for BET inhibitors are premature. These new results offer useful insight into drug treatments that have failed so far to appreciate the complexities in the BET family.”

 

Epigenetic modulation of type-1 diabetes via a dual effect on pancreatic macrophages and β cells

eLife. 2014; 3: e04631.     doi:  10.7554/eLife.04631

Epigenetic modifiers are an emerging class of anti-tumor drugs, potent in multiple cancer contexts. Their effect on spontaneously developing autoimmune diseases has been little explored. We report that a short treatment with I-BET151, a small-molecule inhibitor of a family of bromodomain-containing transcriptional regulators, irreversibly suppressed development of type-1 diabetes in NOD mice. The inhibitor could prevent or clear insulitis, but had minimal influence on the transcriptomes of infiltrating and circulating T cells. Rather, it induced pancreatic macrophages to adopt an anti-inflammatory phenotype, impacting the NF-κB pathway in particular. I-BET151 also elicited regeneration of islet β-cells, inducing proliferation and expression of genes encoding transcription factors key to β-cell differentiation/function. The effect on β cells did not require T cell infiltration of the islets. Thus, treatment with I-BET151 achieves a ‘combination therapy’ currently advocated by many diabetes investigators, operating by a novel mechanism that coincidentally dampens islet inflammation and enhances β-cell regeneration.

DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04631.001

eLife digest

The DNA inside a cell is often tightly wrapped around proteins to form a compact structure called chromatin. Chemical groups added to the chromatin can encourage nearby genes to either be switched on or off; and several enzymes and other proteins help to read, add, or remove these marks from the chromatin. If these chromatin modifications (or the related enzymes and proteins) are disturbed it can lead to diseases like cancer. It has also been suggested that similar changes may influence autoimmune diseases, in which the immune system attacks the body’s own tissues.

Drugs that target the proteins that read, add, or remove these chromatin modifications are currently being developed to treat cancer. For example, drugs that inhibit one family of these proteins called BET have helped to treat tumors in mice that have cancers of the blood or lymph nodes. However, because these drugs target pathways involved in the immune system they may also be useful for treating autoimmune diseases.

Now Fu et al. have tested whether a BET inhibitor might be a useful treatment for type-1 diabetes. In patients with type-1 diabetes, the cells in the pancreas that produce the insulin hormone are killed off by the immune system. Without adequate levels of insulin, individuals with type-1 diabetes may experience dangerous highs and lows in their blood sugar levels and must take insulin and sometimes other medications.

Using mice that spontaneously develop type-1 diabetes when still relatively young, Fu et al. tested what would happen if the mice received a BET inhibitor for just 2 weeks early on in life. Treated mice were protected from developing type-1 diabetes for the rest of their lives. Specifically, the treatment protected the insulin-producing cells and allowed them to continue producing insulin. The drug reduced inflammation in the pancreas and increased the expression of genes that promote the regeneration of insulin-producing cells.

Diabetes researchers have been searching for drug combinations that protect the insulin-producing cells and boost their regeneration. As such, Fu et al. suggest that these findings justify further studies to see if BET inhibitors may help to treat or prevent type-1 diabetes in humans.

Introduction

Acetylation of lysine residues on histones and non-histone proteins is an important epigenetic modification of chromatin (Kouzarides, 2000). Multiple ‘writers’, ‘erasers’, and ‘readers’ of this modification have been identified: histone acetyltransferases (HATs) that introduce acetyl groups, histone deacetylases (HDACs) that remove them, and bromodomain (BRD)-containing proteins that specifically recognize them. Chromatin acetylation impacts multiple fundamental cellular processes, and its dysregulation has been linked to a variety of disease states, notably various cancers (Dawson and Kouzarides, 2012). Not surprisingly, then, drugs that modulate the activities of HATs or HDACs or, most recently, that block acetyl-lysine:BRD interactions are under active development in the oncology field.

BRDs, conserved from yeast to humans, are domains of approximately 110 amino-acids that recognize acetylation marks on histones (primarily H3 and H4) and certain non-histone proteins (e.g., the transcription factor, NF-κB), and serve as scaffolds for the assembly of multi-protein complexes that regulate transcription (Dawson et al., 2011; Prinjha et al., 2012). The BET subfamily of BRD-containing proteins (BRDs 2, 3, 4 and T) is distinguished as having tandem bromodomains followed by an ‘extra-terminal’ domain. One of its members, Brd4, is critical for both ‘bookmarking’ transcribed loci post-mitotically (Zhao et al., 2011) and surmounting RNA polymerase pausing downstream of transcription initiation (Jang et al., 2005; Hargreaves et al., 2009; Anand et al., 2013; Patel et al., 2013).

Recently, small-molecule inhibitors of BET proteins, for example, JQ1 and I-BET, were found to be effective inhibitors of multiple types of mouse tumors, including a NUT midline carcinoma, leukemias, lymphomas and multiple myeloma (Filippakopoulos et al., 2010; Dawson et al., 2011; Delmore et al., 2011; Zuber et al., 2011). A major, but not the unique, focus of inhibition was the Myc pathway (Delmore et al., 2011; Mertz et al., 2011; Zuber et al., 2011; Lockwood et al., 2012). In addition, BET-protein inhibitors could prevent or reverse endotoxic shock induced by systemic injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Nicodeme et al., 2010; Seal et al., 2012; Belkina et al., 2013). The primary cellular focus of action was macrophages, and genes induced by the transcription factor NF-κB were key molecular targets (Nicodeme et al., 2010; Belkina et al., 2013).

Given several recent successes at transposing drugs developed for cancer therapy to the context of autoimmunity, it was logical to explore the effect of BET-protein inhibitors on autoimmune disease. We wondered how they might impact type-1 diabetes (T1D), hallmarked by specific destruction of the insulin-producing β cells of the pancreatic islets (Bluestone et al., 2010). NOD mice, the ‘gold standard’ T1D model (Anderson and Bluestone, 2005), spontaneously and universally develop insulitis at 4–6 weeks of age, while overt diabetes manifests in a subset of individuals beginning from 12–15 weeks, depending on the particular colony. NOD diabetes is primarily a T-cell-mediated disease, but other immune cells—such as B cells, natural killer cells, macrophages (MFs) and dendritic cells (DCs)—also play significant roles. We demonstrate that a punctual, 2-week, treatment of early- or late-stage prediabetic NOD mice with I-BET151 affords long-term protection from diabetes. Mechanistic dissection of this effect revealed important drug influences on both MFs and β cells, in particular on the NF-κB pathway. On the basis of these findings, we argue that epigenetic modifiers are an exciting, emerging option for therapeutic intervention in autoimmune diabetes.

I-BET151 protects NOD mice from development of diabetes

T1D progresses through identifiable phases, which are differentially sensitive to therapeutic intervention (Bluestone et al., 2010). Therefore, we treated NOD mice with the BET-protein inhibitor, I-BET151 (GSK1210151A [Dawson et al., 2011;Seal et al., 2012]) according to three different protocols: from 3–5 weeks of age (incipient insulitis), from 12–14 weeks of age (established insulitis), or for 2 weeks beginning within a day after diagnosis of hyperglycemia (diabetes). Blood-glucose levels of insulitic mice were monitored until 30 weeks of age, after which animals in our colony generally do not progress to diabetes.

I-BET151 prevented diabetes development, no matter whether the treated cohort had incipient (Figure 1A) or established (Figure 1B) insulitis. However, the long-term protection afforded by a 2-week treatment of pre-diabetic mice was only rarely observed with recent-onset diabetic animals. Just after diagnosis, individuals were given a subcutaneous insulin implant, which lowers blood-glucose levels to the normal range within 2 days, where they remain for only about 7 days in the absence of further insulin supplementation (Figure 1C, upper and right panels). Normoglycemia was significantly prolonged in mice treated for 2 weeks with I-BET151; but, upon drug removal, hyperglycemia rapidly ensued in most animals (Figure 1C, lower and right panels). The lack of disease reversal under these conditions suggests that β-cell destruction had proceeded to the point that dampening the autoinflammatory attack was not enough to stem hyperglycemia. However, there was prolonged protection from diabetes in a few cases, suggesting that it might prove worthwhile to explore additional treatment designs in future studies.

I-BET151 inhibits diabetes and insulitis in NOD mice.

…..

BET protein inhibition has a minimal effect on T cells in NOD mice

Given that NOD diabetes is heavily dependent on CD4+ T cells (Anderson and Bluestone, 2005), and that a few recent reports have highlighted an influence of BET-protein inhibitors on the differentiation of T helper (Th) subsets in induced models of autoimmunity (Bandukwala et al., 2012; Mele et al., 2013), we explored the effect of I-BET151 treatment on the transcriptome of CD4+ T cells isolated from relevant sites; that is, the infiltrated pancreas, draining pancreatic lymph nodes (PLNs), and control inguinal lymph nodes (ILNs). Microarray analysis of gene expression revealed surprisingly little impact of the 2-week treatment protocol on any of these populations, similar to what was observed when comparing randomly shuffled datasets (Figure 2A). It is possible that the above protocol missed important effects on T cells because those remaining after prolonged drug treatment were skewed for ‘survivors’. Therefore, we also examined the transcriptomes of pancreas-infiltrating CD4+ T cells at just 12, 24 or 48 hr after a single administration of I-BET151. Again, minimal, background-level, differences were observed in the gene-expression profiles of drug- and vehicle-treated mice (Figure 2B).

Little impact of BET-protein inhibition on CD4+T cells in NOD mice.

I-BET151 induces a regulatory phenotype in the pancreatic macrophage population

I-BET151 treatment promotes an MF-like, anti-inflammatory transcriptional program in pancreatic CD45+ cells.
The NF-κB signaling pathway is a major focus of I-BET151’s influence on NOD leukocytes.

BET-protein inhibition promotes regeneration of NOD β cells

BET-protein inhibition promotes regeneration of islet β cells

The studies presented here showed that treatment of NOD mice with the epigenetic modifier, I-BET151, for a mere 2 weeks prevented the development of NOD diabetes life-long. I-BET151 was able to inhibit impending insulitis as well as clear existing islet infiltration. The drug had a dual mechanism of action: it induced the pancreatic MF population to adopt an anti-inflammatory phenotype, primarily via the NF-κB pathway, and promoted β-cell proliferation (and perhaps differentiation). These findings raise a number of intriguing questions, three of which we address here.

First, why do the mechanisms uncovered in our study appear to be so different from those proposed in the only two previous reports on the effect of BET-protein inhibitors on autoimmune disease? Bandukwala et al. found that I-BET762 (a small-molecule inhibitor similar to I-BET151) altered the differentiation of Th subsets in vitro, perturbing the typical profiles of cytokine production, and reducing the neuropathology provoked by transfer of in-vitro-differentiated Th1, but not Th17, cells reactive to a peptide of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (Bandukwala et al., 2012). Unfortunately, with such transfer models, it is difficult to know how well the in vitro processes reflect in vivo events, and to distinguish subsidiary effects on cell survival and homing. Mele et al. reported that JQ1 primarily inhibited the differentiation of and cytokine production by Th17 cells, and strongly repressed collagen-induced arthritis and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (Mele et al., 2013). However, with adjuvant-induced disease models such as these, it is difficult to discriminate influences of the drug on the unfolding of autoimmune pathology vs on whatever the adjuvant is doing. Thus, the very different dual mechanism we propose for I-BET151’s impact on spontaneously developing T1D in NOD mice may reflect several factors, including (but not limited to): pathogenetic differences in induced vs spontaneous autoimmune disease models; our broader analyses of immune target cell populations; and true mechanistic differences between T1D and the other diseases. As concerns the latter, it has been argued that T1D is primarily a Th1-driven disease, with little, or even a negative regulatory, influence by Th17 cells (discussed in [Kriegel et al., 2011]).

Second, how does I-BET151’s effect, focused on MFs and β cells, lead to life-long protection from T1D? MFs seem to play a schizophrenic role in the NOD disease. They were shown long ago to be an early participant in islet infiltration (Jansen et al., 1994), and to play a critical effector role in diabetes pathogenesis, attributed primarily to the production of inflammatory cytokines and other mediators, such as iNOS (Hutchings et al., 1990; Jun et al., 1999a, 1999b; Calderon et al., 2006). More recently, there has been a growing appreciation of their regulatory role in keeping diabetes in check. For example, the frequency of a small subset of pancreatic MFs expressing the complement receptor for immunoglobulin (a.k.a. CRIg) at 6–10 weeks of age determined whether or not NOD diabetes would develop months later (Fu et al., 2012b), and transfer of in-vitro-differentiated M2, but not M1, MFs protected NOD mice from disease development (Parsa et al., 2012).

One normally thinks of immunological tolerance as being the purview of T and B cells, but MFs seem to be playing the driving role in I-BET151’s long-term immunologic impact on T1D. Chronic inflammation (as is the insulitis associated with T1D) typically entails three classes of participant: myeloid cells, in particular, tissue-resident MFs; lymphoid cells, including effector and regulatory T and B cells; and tissue-target cells, that is, islet β cells in the T1D context. The ‘flavor’ and severity of inflammation is determined by three-way interactions amongst these cellular players. One implication of this cross-talk is that a perturbation that targets primarily one of the three compartments has the potential to rebalance the dynamic process of inflammation, resetting homeostasis to a new level either beneficial or detrimental to the individual. BET-protein inhibition skewed the phenotype of pancreatic MFs towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype, whether this be at the population level through differential influx, efflux or death, or at the level of individual cells owing to changes in transcriptional programs. The ‘re-educated’ macrophages appeared to be more potent at inhibiting T cell proliferation. In addition, it is possible that MFs play some role in the I-BET151 influences on β-cell regeneration. The findings on Rag1-deficient mice ruled out the need for adaptive immune cells in the islet infiltrate for I-BET151’s induction of β-cell proliferation, but MFs are not thought to be compromised in this strain. Relatedly, the lack of a consistent I-BET151 effect on cultured mouse and human islets might result from a dearth of MFs under our isolation and incubation conditions (e.g., [Li et al., 2009]). Several recent publications have highlighted a role for MFs, particularly M2 cells, in promoting regeneration of β cells in diverse experimental settings (Brissova et al., 2014; Xiao et al., 2014), a function foretold by the reduced β-cell mass in MF-deficient Csf1op/op mice reported a decade ago (Banaei-Bouchareb et al., 2004).

Whether reflecting a cell-intrinsic or -extrinsic impact of the drug, several pro-regenerative pathways appear to be enhanced in β-cells from I-BET151-treated mice. Increased β-cell proliferation could result from up-regulation of the genes encoding Neurod1 (Kojima et al., 2003), GLP-1R (De Leon et al., 2003), or various of the Reg family members (Unno et al., 2002; Liu et al., 2008), the latter perhaps a consequence of higher IL-22R expression (Hill et al., 2013) (see Figure 6B and Supplementary file 4). Protection of β-cells from apoptosis is likely to be an important outcome of inhibiting the NF-κB pathway (Takahashi et al., 2010), but could also issue from enhanced expression of other known pro-survival factors, such as Cntfr (Rezende et al., 2007) and Tox3 (Dittmer et al., 2011) (see Figures 4 and 6B). Lastly, β-cell differentiation and function should be fostered by up-regulation of genes encoding transcription factors such as Neurod1, Pdx1, Pax6, Nkx6-1 and Nkx2-2. The significant delay in re-onset of diabetes in I-BET151-treated diabetic mice suggests functionally relevant improvement in β-cell function. In brief, the striking effect of I-BET151 on T1D development in NOD mice seems to reflect the fortunate concurrence of a complex, though inter-related, set of diabetes-protective processes.

Lastly, why does a drug that inhibits BET proteins, which include general transcription factors such as Brd4, have such circumscribed effects? A 2-week I-BET151 treatment might be expected to provoke numerous side-effects, but this regimen seemed in general to be well tolerated in our studies. This conundrum has been raised in several contexts of BET-inhibitor treatment, and was recently discussed at length (Shi and Vakoc, 2014). The explanation probably relates to two features of BET-protein, in particular Brd4, biology. First: Brd4 is an important element of so-called ‘super-enhancers’, defined as unusually long transcriptional enhancers that host an exceptionally high density of TFs—both cell-type-specific and general factors, including RNA polymerase-II, Mediator, p300 and Brd4 (Hnisz et al., 2013). They are thought to serve as chromatin depots, collecting TFs and coordinating their delivery to transcriptional start-sites via intra-chromosome looping or inter-chromosome interactions. Super-enhancers are preferentially associated with loci that define and control the biology of particular cell-types, notably developmentally regulated and inducible genes; intriguingly, disease-associated, including T1D-associated, nucleotide polymorphisms are especially enriched in the super-enhancers of disease-relevant cell-types (Hnisz et al., 2013;Parker et al., 2013). Genes associated with super-enhancers show unusually high sensitivity to BET-protein inhibitors (Chapuy et al., 2013; Loven et al., 2013;Whyte et al., 2013). Second: although the bromodomain of Brd4 binds to acetyl-lysine residues on histone-4, and I-BET151 was modeled to inhibit this interaction, it is now known to bind to a few non-histone chromosomal proteins as well, notably NF-κB, a liaison also blocked by BET-protein inhibitors (Huang et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2012; Zou et al., 2014). Abrogating specific interactions such as these, differing according to the cellular context, might be the dominant impact of BET inhibitors, a scenario that would be consistent with the similar effects we observed with I-BET151 and BAY 11–7082 treatment. Either or both of these explanations could account for the circumscribed effect of I-BET151 on NOD diabetes. Additionally, specificity might be imparted by different BET-family members or isoforms—notably both Brd2 and Brd4 are players in MF inflammatory responses (Belkina et al., 2013). According to either of these explanations, higher doses might unleash a broader array of effects.

 

Islet inflammation: A unifying target for diabetes treatment?

In the last decade, islet inflammation has emerged as a contributor to the loss of functional β cell mass in both type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Evidence supports that over-nutrition and insulin resistance result in the production of proinflammatory mediators by β cells. In addition to compromising β cell function and survival, cytokines may recruit macrophages into islets, thus augmenting inflammation. Limited, but intriguing, data implies a role of adaptive immune response in islet dysfunction in T2D. Clinical trials validated anti-inflammatory therapies in T2D, while immune therapy for T1D remains challenging. Further research is required to improve our understanding of islet inflammatory pathways, and to identify more effective therapeutic targets for T1D and T2D.
Islet inflammation: an emerging and unifying target for diabetes treatment

The current epidemic of T2D is closely associated with increases in obesity [1]. Excessive energy balance results in insulin resistance that is compensated for by increasing insulin secretion. However, insufficient compensation results in T2D, which is characterized by the reduction in islet mass and function. In recent years, overwhelming evidence defines insulin resistance as a state of chronic inflammation involving both innate and adaptive immune responses [1]. Although the presence of islet inflammation is acknowledged for autoimmune destruction of β cells in T1D, new data implicates overlapping pathogenesis between T1D and T2D. Epidemiologic studies suggest that obesity modifies the risk of T1D development [2, 3]. Importantly, small but seminal human studies have also provided evidences that anti-inflammatory therapy can improve glycemia and β cell function in T2D [4, 5]. Here, we focus on recent discoveries (past five years) to discuss the contribution of inflammatory pathways to islet dysfunction in T2D, and to provide updates on the pathogenesis of T1D.

What triggers inflammation in islets under insulin resistance?

Ample evidence from rodent and human studies indicates that in obesity, adipose tissue (AT) inflammation is a major source of pro-inflammatory mediators, and a primary response to excessive caloric intake. AT contributes to inflammation in obesity by means of increased mass, modified adipocyte phenotype, and increased infiltration of immune cells, which affects islet function through humoral and neuronal pathways [1, 6, 7]. In addition, it is noteworthy that pancreatic islets are under similar stress as adipocytes in T2D. The chronic inflammatory state of T2D is reflected in the elevation of circulatory cytokines that potentially affect islets as well as adipocytes [6, 8]. Both islets and adipocytes are exposed to excess glucose and lipids, especially free fatty acids (FFA). Over-nutrition forces adipose tissue to remodel and accommodate enlarged adipocytes, which results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, hypoxia, and mechanical stresses [911]. Under insulin resistance, insulin production increases to meet the high demand, resulting in the expansion of islet mass [12]. Recent findings revealed that obesity is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathway in the hypothalamus, which may alter functions of AT and islets through neuronal regulation [13]. Considering the multiple stressors potentially shared by AT and islets, it is plausible that islets exist also in a chronic inflammatory state, in T2D.

Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity: a contributor to β cell inflammation in T2D?

The relationship between the pancreatic islet and AT was thought to be unidirectional, by placing insulin secretion as the major determinant of adipocyte glucose uptake and triglyceride storage. However, several recent studies suggest that insulin resistance in AT significantly contributes to β cell failure, through altered secretion of humoral factors from adipocytes and signals from the adipocyte sensory nerve (Figure. 1) [6, 7]. Of particular interest are adipocytokines that are uniquely produced by adipocytes, such as leptin, adiponectin, omentin, resistin, and visfatin, which may contribute to β cell dysfunction during insulin resistance (Box 1). Circulating cytokines may also connect AT inflammation to β cell dysfunction. Overnight exposure of mouse islets to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), Interleukin beta (IL-1β), plus Interferon-gamma (IFNγ), at levels comparable to those seen in human obesity, disrupts the regulation of intracellular calcium [8]. Although glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was maintained in this study, circulating cytokines might contribute to islet dysfunction after a prolonged period of exposure and when combined with other stresses [8]. TNFα, a cytokine implicated in insulin resistance, reportedly increased islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, amylin) expression in β cells with no concurrent expression of proinsulin. This may lead to amyloid production and β cell death [14]. Recent findings showed that the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPPIV) is secreted by human adipocytes, and therefore may reduce the half-life of DPPIV substrate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) with important implications on the insulinotropic effects of this gut peptide on the β cells [15]. Although it is not clear if obesity is associated with increased levels of DPPIV, inhibition of the latter by sitagliptin in a rodent model of obesity and insulin resistance reduced inflammatory cytokine production both in islets and in AT, and improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in islets in vitro [16]. Collectively, dysfunctional AT in obesity produces cytokines and peptides that affect islet health and potentially contribute to islet inflammation in T2D.

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Obesity Pharmaceutics

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

Battling the Bulge

Weight-loss drugs that target newly characterized obesity-related receptors and pathways could finally offer truly effective fat control.

By Bob Grant | November 1, 2015

http://www.the-scientist.com//?articles.view/articleNo/44322/title/Battling-the-Bulge/

http://www.the-scientist.com/November2015/NovBioBiz2_640px.jpg

Several years ago, antiobesity drug development was not looking so hot. In 2007, Sanofi-Aventis failed to win US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for rimonabant—a pill that successfully helped people shed pounds—because the drug carried risks of depression and suicidal thoughts. Then, in 2008, Merck pulled the plug on its Phase 3 trials of taranabant because it also engendered suicidal thoughts and neurological effects in some participants. And a decade before those late-stage disappointments, a couple of FDA-approved weight-loss drugs were making headlines for carrying dangerous side effects. In 1997, the FDA pulled the obesity medications fenfluramine (of the wildly popular fen-phen drug combination) and dexfenfluramine (Redux) off the market after research turned up evidence of heart valve damage in people taking the drugs.

By 2009, Big Pharma was backing out of the weight-loss market, with Merck and Pfizer abandoning their programs to develop drugs similar to rimonabant and taranabant, which block cannabinoid receptors in the brain. Although the antiobesity drug market was big—according to CDC estimates, about 35 percent of adults in the U.S. are obese—a blockbuster weight-loss pill that didn’t have serious side effects was proving elusive.

But a few firms, including several small biotechs, decided to stick with it. “Some of the prior experience with drugs on the market, like fen-phen and Redux, have likely led large pharma to view the therapeutic space with some conservatism,” says Preston Klassen, executive vice president and head of global development at Orexigen Therapeutics, a small, California-based firm. “And generally, when you have that situation, smaller companies will step into that void when the science makes sense.” And their perseverance is starting to pay off. After a years-long drought in approvals for antiobesity medications, in the past few years the FDA has approved four new drugs specifically for general obesity: Belviq and Qsymia in 2012, and Contrave and Saxenda in late 2014. Three of these four were developed by small companies whose success hinges on one or a few compounds aimed directly at treating general obesity.

The recent burst of antiobesity drug approvals reflects an evolving appreciation for the molecular intricacies of this multifaceted, chronic disease. Today’s antiobesity drugs—including the four recent approvals and several more in development—have traded the blunt cudgel of appetite suppression for more precise targeting of pathways known to play roles in obesity. “With our understanding of the complex biology of obesity and all of the different molecules and receptors involved in the process, we’re much better able to target those molecules and receptors,” says Arya Sharma, chair in obesity research and management at the University of Alberta in Canada. “These are very specific agents that are designed for very specific actions. There is renewed enthusiasm in this field.”

Looking to combos

In the mid-20th century, the FDA approved several weight-loss drugs, starting with the appetite suppressant desoxyephedrine (methamphetamine hydrochloride) in 1947. Like the other appetite-suppressing drugs the FDA later approved through the 1950s and ’60s, desoxyephedrine accomplished short-term weight loss, but the transient benefit did not justify the side effects of long-term use, such as addiction, psychosis, and violent behavior. In 1973, as the nation voiced concern about the overuse of amphetamines, the FDA decreed that all obesity drugs were approved only for short-term use. The most recently approved obesity drugs, on the other hand, all have the FDA’s okay for long-term weight management.

Three of the newly approved drugs, Contrave, Belviq, and Qsymia, also aim to suppress appetite, and like many previous weight-loss therapies, all do so by targeting the hypothalamus, the brain region thought to be the seat of appetite control. Although the precise mechanism of Belviq, which is manufactured by San Diego–based Arena Pharmaceuticals, is unknown, researchers think that the key is its activation of serotonin-binding 5-HT2C receptors in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus. When activated, these neurons reduce appetite and increase energy expenditure, according to Orexigen’s Klassen. His company’s Contrave also activates POMC neurons in the hypothalamus, while at the same time inhibiting opioid receptors, which would otherwise work to shut down POMC neuron firing, in the brain’s mesolimbic reward pathway. Contrave achieves this one-two punch because it is a combination therapy, incorporating two different compounds into a single weight-loss pill.

“The concept of a silver or magic bullet whereby one drug meets all of the needs within the obesity space has thus far proven to be inadequate,” says Klassen. “Right now I think the predominant opinion is that combination therapy is an appropriate way to go.”

Vivus’s Qsymia is also a combination drug, composed of phentermine—the other half of fen-phen and an activator of a G protein–coupled receptor called TAAR1—and an extended-release form of topiramate, an anticonvulsant with weight-loss side effects. Novo Nordisk—one of the few Big Pharma firms that stayed in the obesity game as others fled—is also turning its attention to combo therapies, testing its pipeline of investigational weight-loss compounds with Saxenda, its recently approved medicine that mimics glucagon peptide-1 (GLP-1), an appetite and calorie-intake regulator in the brain. “You need to combine at least two molecules to get the optimum effect,” says Novo Nordisk executive vice president and chief scientific officer Mads Krogsgaard Thomsen. The company has five other weight-loss compounds in development, and “we’re actually combining Saxenda with all of these new molecules,” he adds.

The University of Alberta’s Sharma agrees that combination therapies are a smart approach for attacking the multilayered mechanisms at play in obesity. “You’re dealing with a system that is very complex and very redundant. When you block one, other molecules or other parallel systems kick in,” he says. “My prediction for the future is that in order to get good results, one will have to move toward combinations . . . of more-specific and more-novel agents.”

On the horizon

On the heels of the recent FDA approvals, several new compounds with novel mechanisms of action are making their way through the drug-development pipeline. While most antiobesity drugs to date have aimed to suppress appetite by targeting brain regions involved in feelings of hunger and satiety, Boston-based Zafgen (for which Sharma serves as a paid advisor) is going after methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) receptors in the liver and adipose tissue. “We’ve been one of the first ones to show that there is a significant and major weight-regulation center that the body has that exists outside the hypothalamus,” says Zafgen chief medical officer Dennis Kim. “Our drug [beloranib] is tapping into that mechanism.”

 

Zafgen researchers are investigating beloranib’s mechanism of action in patients that became very obese after their hypothalamus was damaged or removed as a result of craniopharyngioma, a type of brain cancer. “In about half of these cases, patients wake up hungry after surgery and it’s unrelenting, and they become morbidly obese very rapidly,” Kim says. Because the hypothalamus is damaged or missing, antiobesity drugs that target this brain region are ineffective. But beloranib “works just as well in these patients compared to patients with intact hypothalamus,” Kim says. As a result, beloranib may work in isolation without the need to combine different compounds, he adds. “If you can target a nodal point that’s much more upstream of simple circuitry-controlled hunger in the hypothalamus, you have the potential to reset the entire system.”

Meanwhile, another Boston-based firm, Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, is conducting clinical trials on obese patients with rare genetic disorders that compromise the melanocortin-4 (MC4) pathway, known to be involved in body weight regulation. Rhythm’s setmelanotide (RM-493) is a first-in-class drug that activates the MC4 pathway. And several companies, including the Japanese pharma firm Shionogi, are developing compounds that block the receptor of a neurotransmitter called neuropeptide Y, which plays a role in appetite stimulation and meal initiation.

Other new antiobesity targets include cyclic nucleotides, second messengers in signaling cascades such as the 3′-5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway, which conveys feelings of satiety and ramps up thermogenesis; amylin, a peptide hormone that slows gastric emptying and promotes satiety; ghrelin, a gut hormone that stimulates food intake; and a handful of pathways that affect nutrient absorption and metabolism. As more of obesity’s molecular complexities are sorted out, even more new drug targets will present themselves.

“I think we are on the verge of understanding obesity and the mechanisms underlying obesity,” says Novo Nordisk’s Thomsen. “That means that there is going to be a lot of good news for obesity going forward.”

 

WEIGHT-LOSS DRUG APPROVAL

© ISTOCK.COM/QUISP65Getting a weight-loss treatment approved by the FDA is a little different than the regulatory path taken by other drugs. To earn approval, companies must demonstrate that their drugs afford at least a 5 percent reduction in body weight over a year. And after a therapy reaches the market, companies have to conduct more research, specifically, into the drugs’ safety. Contrave, for example, which was approved in September 2014, is currently subject to rigorous post-marketing surveillance concerning evidence that the drug may lead to suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Other recently approved antiobesity drugs are under similar surveillance regimens.

The FDA also requires companies to test some approved weight-loss drugs specifically for their cardiovascular side effects. “Serious safety concerns have arisen with several obesity drugs in the past, which have informed our approach to drug development,” FDA spokesperson Eric Pahon wrote in an email to The Scientist. “All drugs approved for chronic weight management since 2012 have either had a cardiovascular outcome trial (CVOT) underway at the time of approval or have been required to initiate a CVOT as a post-marketing requirement.”

This additional testing, however, may scare off some drug developers from entering the antiobesity arena, Vivus spokesperson Dana Shinbaum wrote in an email to The Scientist. “The hurdles remain high . . . [and] may discourage innovation in this area.”

But even with the significant regulatory hurdles, it’s tough to deny the potential that exists in the antiobesity drug market. “We view obesity as one of the few remaining untapped therapeutic areas within primary care,” says Preston Klassen of Orexigen Therapeutics. “We think it’s tremendously important from a medical perspective, and we think it’s been well documented that even small reductions in body weight have meaningful and sustained impact on improved health.”

 

 

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reducing obesity-related inflammation

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

NIH researchers find potential target for reducing obesity-related inflammation

Study sheds light on preventing or reversing certain obesity-associated diseases.

http://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nih-researchers-find-potential-target-reducing-obesity-related-inflammation

Scientists at the National Institutes of Health have identified a potential molecular target for reducing obesity-related inflammation. Researchers have known that overeating (that is, excess calorie consumption) by individuals with obesity often triggers inflammation, which has been linked to such diseases as asthma and Type 2 diabetes. In their study, published recently in The Journal of Clinical Investigation (Nov. 3, 2015, online version(link is external)), the investigators found that a protein called SIRT3 provides resistance to this inflammatory response and could potentially prevent or reverse obesity-associated diseases of inflammation.

Lead researcher Michael N. Sack, M.D., Ph.D., a senior investigator at NIH’s National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, explained that he and his team identified the role of SIRT3 through an investigation involving 19 healthy volunteers who fasted for a 24-hour period.

“Previous research has shown that intermittent fasting or intermittent calorie restriction — by way of eating fewer calories for a few days a month — reduces inflammation,” said Dr. Sack. “We found through our study that this effect is mediated, in part, on a molecular level when SIRT3 blocks the activity of another molecule known as the NLRP3 inflammasome.” He explained that NLRP3 inflammasomes are components of an intracelluar immune response triggered when mitochondria undergo stress, such as from excess calorie intake.

By using cultured cells from a group of eight volunteers who did not fast, Dr. Sack and his team found evidence suggesting that SIRT3 can be activated not only through fasting, but also through the use of nicotinamide riboside, a vitamin B derivative. “Taken together, these early results point to a potential mechanism for addressing obesity-related inflammation, and thus diseases linked to this type of inflammation, such as asthma, Type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis — conditions associated with a reduced quality of life and/or premature death,” Dr. Sack said.

Obesity remains a substantial health problem for the nation, affecting more than a third of adults and 17 percent of children, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Efforts to manage weight, however, can be hindered by the effects of obesity-related diseases. “It is a vicious cycle,” said Dr. Sack. “Take asthma for example. An increase in obesity incidence has been associated with an increase in asthma incidence, but asthma makes it difficult for some to be physically active enough to lose weight.”

Dr. Sack and colleagues — who include researchers from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and Weill Cornell Medical College — are conducting a follow-up study at the NIH Clinical Center to determine whether the vitamin B derivative nicotinamide riboside can specifically reduce bronchial inflammation in individuals with asthma. If the results of the study are promising, Dr. Sack and colleagues will aim to conduct larger clinical trials to validate the findings and potentially inform treatment of obesity-related inflammation in asthma.

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) plans, conducts, and supports research related to the causes, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of heart, blood vessel, lung, and blood diseases; and sleep disorders. The Institute also administers national health education campaigns on women and heart disease, healthy weight for children, and other topics. NHLBI press releases and other materials are available online at www.nhlbi.nih.gov.

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