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Appellate Brief Seeking Reversal of U.S. Patent Board Decision on CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

[Boldface added]

  • Appeal seeks reversal of Patent Trial and Appeal Board decision terminating interference without determining priority of inventorship of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing
  • Brief asserts that the Board failed to properly apply controlling U.S. Supreme Court and Federal Circuit precedents, and ignored evidence of multiple groups readily applying CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to eukaryotic cells following teachings of Charpentier-Doudna team

As explained in UC’s brief, application of the correct legal standards to the case is believed to require reversal of the PTAB’s decision. For these reasons, UC requests that the Federal Circuit instruct the PTAB to reinstate the interference proceeding so that it can properly determine priority of inventorship, as previously requested by UC. The PTAB’s failures to consider pertinent evidence and apply appropriate legal standards should at the very least require the matter to be remanded so that the PTAB can properly consider the evidence related to obviousness and Broad’s no-interference-in-fact motion using appropriate legal standards.
In the PTAB’s February decision terminating the interference proceeding prematurely, it had not yet considered the teachings of UC’s own prior-filed patent application with respect to using CRISPR/Cas9 in eukaryotic cells. Instead, the PTAB only addressed the threshold question of whether use in eukaryotic cells can be separately patentable from use in all settings as covered by UC’s claims. However, determinations on the underlying substantive matters have recently been made in parallel prosecution before the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office (“USPTO”). The USPTO has rejected a series of patent applications filed by Broad that are directed to uses of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in eukaryotic cells as being non-novel in view of UC’s prior-filed patent application, which the USPTO examiners considered to have effectively taught use of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in eukaryotic cells. In addition, patent applications filed by Sigma-Aldrich and Toolgen that similarly claim use of CRISPR/Cas9 in eukaryotic cells (both of which filed applications before Broad’s application) have likewise recently been rejected as being either non-novel or obvious in view of the prior-filed UC patent application with specific respect to its teachings regarding application of the invention to use in eukaryotic cells.

SOURCES

On 7/25/2017

CRISPR Therapeutics, Intellia Therapeutics, Caribou Biosciences and ERS Genomics Announce Appellate Brief Seeking Reversal of U.S. Patent Board Decision on CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing

https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2017/07/25/1058142/0/en/CRISPR-Therapeutics-Intellia-Therapeutics-Caribou-Biosciences-and-ERS-Genomics-Announce-Appellate-Brief-Seeking-Reversal-of-U-S-Patent-Board-Decision-on-CRISPR-Cas9-Gene-Editing.html

On 4/13/2017:

Gene Editing Consortium of Biotech Companies: CRISPR Therapeutics $CRSP, Intellia Therapeutics $NTLA, Caribou Biosciences, ERS Genomics, UC, Berkeley (Doudna’s IP) and University of Vienna (Charpentier’s IP), is appealing the decisionruled that there was no interference between the two sides, to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, targeting patents from The Broad Institute.

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/04/13/gene-editing-consortium-of-biotech-companies-crispr-therapeutics-crsp-intellia-therapeutics-ntla-caribou-biosciences-and-ers-genomics-uc-berkeley-doudnas-ip-and-university-of-vienna-charpe/

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Gerald D Aurbach Award for Outstanding Translational Research

 

Reporter and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

Supported by the Gerald D. Aurbach Memorial Fund — Gerald D Aurbach Award for Outstanding Translational Research in the name of Gerald D. Aurbach, MD, the Endocrine Society’s 68th president, was a renowned researcher, mentor, and clinician, and his work revolutionized the understanding of bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis.

 

Past Award Recipients
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Eligibility Criteria for Gerald D Aurbach Award for Outstanding Translational Research

  • This award is not limited to members of the Endocrine Society

Application Process

Updates to existing nominations must be emailed to laureate@endocrine.org.

New nominations must be submitted by the primary nominator who is responsible for collecting and merging supporting documents in a single document (PDF or Word) in the order listed below:

  1. 300-word citation (will be published as-is in Endocrine News if the nominee is selected)
  2. Letter of Support (1 page each, no more than 2)
  3. List of 10 Most Significant Publications
  4. CV (abbreviated versions will not be accepted)

SOURCE

https://www.endocrine.org/awards/laureate-awards/gerald-d-aurbach-award-for-outstanding-translational-research


Recognitions for Contributions in Genomics by Dan David Prize Awards

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

The Source for this List is a Search for “Genomics” on the Dan David Prize website

http://www.dandavidprize.org/component/finder/search?q=Genomics&Itemid=101

This is a compilation of all Dan David Prizes awarded in the Field of Genomics

When Will Genomics Cure Cancer?
A conversation with the biogeneticist ERIC S. LANDER [2012 laureate] about how genetic advances are transforming medical treatment “Eric S. Lander, one of the leaders of the Human Genome Project, a map of the 3 billion letters of DNA that make up a…

J. Craig Venter
Founder, Chairman, and President of the J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD and La Jolla, CA, USA and CEO of Synthetic Genomics Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA.

David Botstein
Anthony B. Evnin Professor of Genomics; Director, Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics; Director, Certificate Program in Quantitative and Computational Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Laureates Announced 2012
Dan David Prize 2012 Laureates Announced Robert Conquest, Martin Gilbert – for Biography/History William Kentridge – for Plastic Arts David Botstein, Craig Venter, Eric Lander – for Genome Research Tel Aviv (February 27, 2012) —The international Dan…

Cutting Edge Genomic Research in the World’s First Carbon-Neutral Laboratory Facility
J. CRAIG VENTER, 2012 laureate, is Founder, Chairman, and President of the J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD and La Jolla, CA, USA and CEO of Synthetic Genomics Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA. “One of our quests is to help solve two troubling issues —…

Prof. David Haussler
Prof. David Haussler is a Distinguished Professor of Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and Scientific Director of the UC Santa Cruz Genomics Institute.

Eric Lander
Founding Director, Broad Institute Harvard and MIT and director of its Genome Biology Program, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Future – Bioinformatics
Bioinformatics is a field in which mathematics, statistics, and computer algorithms are harnessed towards novel biological discoveries. Bioinformatics methodologies have revolutionized biology, by making it more quantitative and less descriptive….

J. CRAIG VENTER – Life at the Speed of Light
The Dawn of an Era In his NEW BOOK ‘Life at the Speed of Light: From the Double Helix to the Dawn of Digital Life’ J. CRAIG VENTER, 2012 laureate, explains the coming era of discovery (see Wired interview below). What is the significance of Venter’s…

From the Press : Hebrew
The Marker, June 14, 2012 – Dan David Prize: The Next Generation Calcalist, June 14, 2012 – Dan David Prize Awarded: Thoughts of Creating Life, Boycotting Scientists, Protests, Entrepreneurs and Ceremonies Ma’ariv, June 12, 2012 – Who Attended the Dan…

Gary Ruvkun
Professor of Genetics, Department of Molecular BiologyMassachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University Gary Ruvkun has made a major contribution to the future of human health with the discovery of conserved hormonal signaling pathways with…

Selected Fields 2012
Past – HISTORY / BIOGRAPHY Biography is an important sub-discipline of history. Every progressive society makes room for achievement and excellence. Since ancient times, this has been done by immortalizing the names of heroes, role models and…

Prof. Michael S. Waterman
Prof. Michael S. Waterman is Professor of Biological Sciences, of Mathematics, of Computer Science, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California.

 SOURCE
Other related articles published in this Open Access Online Scientific Journal include the following:

2013 Genomics: The Era Beyond the Sequencing of the Human Genome: Francis Collins, Craig Venter, Eric Lander, et al.

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/02/11/2013-genomics-the-era-beyond-the-sequencing-human-genome-francis-collins-craig-venter-eric-lander-et-al/


What's The Big Data?

Self-driving cars continued to make headlines recently. Google (Waymo) opened its early rider program in Phoenix, Arizona, to “hundreds” of residents “with diverse backgrounds and transportation needs.” Baidu open sourced its self-driving technology and said it’s on track to deliver self-driving cars by the end of 2020. And documents obtained by Business Insider and the Wall Street Journal revealed Apple has hired former NASA employees, robotics experts and ex-Tesla staffers to form part of its driverless car teams.

The news came during the National Safety Council’s Distracted Driving Awareness month. U.S. motor vehicle deaths in 2016 were estimated to be the highest in 9 years, with drivers saying they are comfortable speeding (64%), texting either manually or through voice controls (47%), driving while impaired by marijuana (13%) or driving after they feel they’ve had too much alcohol (10%).  A 3-month analysis of 3-million anonymous drivers, who made 570 million trips and…

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Trends in Sperm Count, Epigenetics, Well-being and the Significance for Population Evolution and Demography

Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

 

There has been a genuine decline in semen quality over the past 50 years. There is lot of controversy about this as there are limitations in studies that have attempted to address it. Sperm count is of considerable public health importance for several reasons. First, sperm count is closely linked to male fecundity and is a crucial component of semen analysis, the first step to identify male factor infertility.

Reduced sperm count is associated with cryptorchidism, hypospadias and testicular cancer. It may be associated with multiple environmental influences, including endocrine disrupting chemicals, pesticides, heat and lifestyle factors, including diet, stress, smoking and BMI. Therefore, sperm count may sensitively reflect the impacts of the modern environment on male health throughout the life span.

This study provided a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of recent trends in sperm counts as measured by sperm concentration (SC) and total sperm count (TSC), and their modification by fertility and geographic group. Analyzing trends by birth cohorts instead of year of sample collection may aid in assessing the causes of the decline (prenatal or in adult life) but was not feasible owing to lack of information.

This rigorous and comprehensive analysis found that SC declined 52.4% between 1973 and 2011 among unselected men from western countries, with no evidence of a ‘leveling off’ in recent years. Declining mean SC implies that an increasing proportion of men have sperm counts below any given threshold for sub-fertility or infertility. The high proportion of men from western countries with concentration below 40 million/ml is particularly concerning given the evidence that SC below this threshold is associated with a decreased monthly probability of conception.

Declines in sperm count have implications beyond fertility and reproduction. The decline reported in this study is consistent with reported trends in other male reproductive health indicators, such as testicular germ cell tumors, cryptorchidism, onset of male puberty and total testosterone levels. The public health implications are even wider. Recent studies have shown that poor sperm count is associated with overall morbidity and mortality. While the current study is not designed to provide direct information on the causes of the observed declines, sperm count has been plausibly associated with multiple environmental and lifestyle influences, both prenatally and in adult life. In particular, endocrine disruption from chemical exposures or maternal smoking during critical windows of male reproductive development may play a role in prenatal life, while lifestyle changes and exposure to pesticides may play a role in adult life.

These findings strongly suggest a significant decline in male reproductive health, which has serious implications beyond fertility concerns. Research on causes and implications of this decline is urgently needed.

 

REFERENCES

Temporal trends in sperm count: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis 

Hagai Levine, Niels Jørgensen, Anderson Martino‐Andrade, Jaime Mendiola, Dan Weksler-Derri, Irina Mindlis, Rachel Pinotti, Shanna H Swan. Human Reproduction Update, July 25, 2017, doi:10.1093/humupd/dmx022.

Link: https://academic.oup.com/humupd/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/humupd/dmx022.

 

Sperm Counts Are Declining Among Western Men – Interview with Dr. Hagai Levine

https://news.afhu.org/news/sperm-counts-are-declining-among-western-men?utm_source=Master+List&utm_campaign=dca529d919-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_07_27&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_343e19a421-dca529d919-92801633

J Urol. 1983 Sep;130(3):467-75.

A critical method of evaluating tests for male infertility.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6688444

Hum Reprod. 1993 Jan;8(1):65-70.

Estimating fertility potential via semen analysis data.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8458929

Lancet. 1998 Oct 10;352(9135):1172-7.

Relation between semen quality and fertility: a population-based study of 430 first-pregnancy planners.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9777833

Hum Reprod Update. 2010 May-Jun;16(3):231-45. doi: 10.1093/humupd/dmp048. Epub 2009 Nov 24.

World Health Organization reference values for human semen characteristics.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19934213

 

J Nutr. 2016 May;146(5):1084-92. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.226563. Epub 2016 Apr 13.

Intake of Fruits and Vegetables with Low-to-Moderate Pesticide Residues Is Positively Associated with Semen-Quality Parameters among Young Healthy Men.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075904

Reprod Toxicol. 2003 Jul-Aug;17(4):451-6.

Semen quality of Indian welders occupationally exposed to nickel and chromium.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12849857

Fertil Steril. 1996 May;65(5):1009-14.

Semen analyses in 1,283 men from the United States over a 25-year period: no decline in quality.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8612826

 

Other Related Perspectives on this Topic

  1. The IMPACT of Well-being, Stress induced by Worry, Pain, Perception of Hope related to Employment and Lack of employment on deterioration of Physiological Conditions as evidence by Decrease Longevity

  2. Epigenetics and Environmental Factors

The geography of desperation in America

Carol GrahamSergio Pinto, and John Juneau II Monday, July 24, 2017, Report from the Brookings Institute

In recent work based on our well-being metrics in the Gallup polls and on the mortality data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we find a robust association between lack of hope (and high levels of worry) among poor whites and the premature mortality rates, both at the individual and metropolitan statistical area (MSA) levels. Yet we also find important differences across places. Places come with different economic structures and identities, community traits, physical environments and much more. In the maps below, we provide a visual picture of the differences in in hope for the future, worry, and pain across race-income cohorts across U.S. states. We attempted to isolate the specific role of place, controlling for economic, socio-demographic, and other variables.

One surprise is the low level of optimism and high level of worry in the minority dense and generally “blue” state of California, and high levels of pain and worry in the equally minority dense and “blue” states of New York and Massachusetts. High levels of income inequality in these states may explain these patterns, as may the nature of jobs that poor minorities hold.

We cannot answer many questions at this point. What is it about the state of Washington, for example, that is so bad for minorities across the board? Why is Florida so much better for poor whites than it is for poor minorities? Why is Nevada “good” for poor white optimism but terrible for worry for the same group? One potential issue—which will enter into our future analysis—is racial segregation across places. We hope that the differences that we have found will provoke future exploration. Readers of this piece may have some contributions of their own as they click through the various maps, and we welcome their input. Better understanding the role of place in the “crisis” of despair facing our country is essential to finding viable solutions, as economic explanations, while important, alone are not enough.

https://www.brookings.edu/research/the-geography-of-desperation-in-america/?utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook&utm_campaign=global

 


3-D Printed Ovaries Produce Healthy Offspring

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

 

Each year about 120,000 organs are transplanted from one human being to another and most of the time is a living volunteer. But lack of suitable donors, predominantly means the supply of such organs is inadequate. Countless people consequently die waiting for a transplant which has led researchers to study the question of how to build organs from scratch.

One promising approach is to print them, but “bioprinting” remains largely experimental. Nevertheless, bioprinted tissue is before now being sold for drug testing, and the first transplantable tissues are anticipated to be ready for use in a few years’ time. The first 3D printed organ includes bioprosthetic ovaries which are constructed of 3D printed scaffolds that have immature eggs and have been successful in boosting hormone production and restoring fertility was developed by Teresa K. Woodruff, a reproductive scientist and director of the Women’s Health Research Institute at Feinberg School of Medicine, at Northwestern University, in Illinois.

What sets apart these bioprosthetic ovaries is the architecture of the scaffold. The material is made of gelatin made from broken-down collagen that is safe to humans which is self-supporting and can lead to building multiple layers.

The 3-D printed “scaffold” or “skeleton” is implanted into a female and its pores can be used to optimize how follicles, or immature eggs, get wedged within the scaffold. The scaffold supports the survival of the mouse’s immature egg cells and the cells that produce hormones to boost production. The open construction permits room for the egg cells to mature and ovulate, blood vessels to form within the implant enabling the hormones to circulate and trigger lactation after giving birth. The purpose of this scaffold is to recapitulate how an ovary would function.
The scientists’ only objective for developing the bioprosthetic ovaries was to help reestablish fertility and hormone production in women who have suffered adult cancer treatments and now have bigger risks of infertility and hormone-based developmental issues.

 

SOURCES

Printed human body parts could soon be available for transplant
https://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21715638-how-build-organs-scratch

 

3D printed ovaries produce healthy offspring giving hope to infertile women

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2017/05/16/3d-printed-ovaries-produce-healthy-offspring-giving-hope-infertile/

 

Brave new world: 3D-printed ovaries produce healthy offspring

http://www.naturalnews.com/2017-05-27-brave-new-world-3-d-printed-ovaries-produce-healthy-offspring.html

 

3-D-printed scaffolds restore ovary function in infertile mice

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/317485.php

 

Our Grandkids May Be Born From 3D-Printed Ovaries

http://gizmodo.com/these-mice-gave-birth-using-3d-printed-ovaries-1795237820