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The Rutgers Global Health Institute, part of Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey – A New Venture Designed to Improve Health and Wellness Globally  

Author: Gail S. Thornton, M.A.

Co-Editor: The VOICES of Patients, Hospital CEOs, HealthCare Providers, Caregivers and Families: Personal Experience with Critical Care and Invasive Medical Procedures

 

The newly formed Rutgers Global Health Institute, part of Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences (RBHS) of Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (http://rbhs.rutgers.edu/), represents a new way of thinking by providing positive health outcomes to potential patients around the world affected by disease and/or by a negative environmental impact. The goal of the Institute is three-fold:

  • to improve the health and wellness of individuals and populations around the world,
  • to create a healthier world through innovation, engineering, and technology, and
  • to educate involved citizens and effective leaders in global health.

Richard G. Marlink, M.D., a former Harvard University professor recognized internationally for research and leadership in the fight against AIDS, was recently appointed as the inaugural Henry Rutgers Professor of Global Health and Director of the Rutgers Global Health Institute.

The Rutgers Global Health Institute was formed last year after research by the University into the most significant health issues affecting under-served and under-developed populations. While conducting research for its five-year strategic plan, the RBHS looked for bold and ambitious ways that they could take advantage of the changing health care environment and band together to tackle the world’s leading health and environmental causes, contributing to the betterment of society. One of the results was the formation of the Rutgers Global Health Institute, supporting cross-functionally Rutgers faculty, scientists, and clinicians who represent the best in their respective fields of health innovation, research and patient care related to global health.

More broadly, the RBHS, created in 2013, is one of the nation’s leading – and largest — academic health centers that provides health care education, research and clinical service and care. It is an umbrella organization that encompasses eight schools – Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, New Jersey Medical School, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers School of Dental Medicine, School of Health Professions, School of Nursing and School of Public Health.

In addition, the RBHS encompasses six centers and institutes that provide cancer treatment and research, neuroscience, advanced biotechnology and medicine, environmental and occupational health and health care policy and aging research. Those centers and institutes are the Brain Health Institute, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging Research, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, and Rutgers Institute for Translational Medicine and Research. And lastly, the RBHS includes the University Behavioral Health Care.

 

Rutgers Institute For Health Building

Image SOURCE: Photograph courtesy of the Rutgers Global Health Institute, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.   

 

Below is my interview with the Inaugural Henry Rutgers Professor of Global Health and Director of the Rutgers Global Health Institute Richard G. Marlink, M.D., which occurred in April, 2017.

You were recently appointed as the inaugural Henry Rutgers Professor of Global Health and Director of the new Rutgers Global Health Institute at Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences (RBHS). What are the goals of the new Institute?

Dr. Marlink: The overarching goal of the Rutgers Global Health Institute is to improve the health and wellness of individuals and populations in need both here and around the world, to create a healthier world through innovation, engineering, and technology, and to educate involved citizens and effective leaders in global health. We will do that by building on the aspiration of our originating organization — RBHS, which is to be recognized as one of the best academic health centers in the U.S., known for its education, research, clinical care, and commitment to improving access to health care and reducing health care disparities.

As the newly formed Rutgers Global Health Institute, we are embarking on an ambitious agenda to take advantage of the changing health care environment. Working across schools and disciplines at Rutgers University, we plan to have a significant impact within at least four signature programs identified by RBHS, which are cancer, environmental and occupational health, infection and inflammation, and public health. We also will include all other parts of Rutgers, as desired, beyond RBHS.

My background as a global health researcher, physician, and leader of grassroots health care delivery will help develop programs to undertake global health initiatives that assist populations locally and around the world. I believe that involved citizens, including students, can greatly impact major societal issues.

A key role in the strategic growth of Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences – an umbrella organization for eight schools, four centers and institutes and a behavioral health network — is to broaden the Rutgers University’s presence in the public health community globally to improve health and wellness. How will the new Rutgers Global Health Institute be part of this growth?

Dr. Marlink: Our RBHS Chancellor Brian Strom [M.D., M.P.H.] believes that we are positioned to become one of the finest research universities in the country, working cross-functionally with our three campuses in Newark, Camden and New Brunswick. In developing the strategic plan, Dr. Strom notes that we become much stronger and more capable and productive by leveraging our strengths to collaborate and working together across disciplines to best serve the needs of our community locally and globally.

Specifically, we are formulating plans to focus on these areas: old and new infectious disease epidemics; the expanding burden of noncommunicable diseases in poor populations; the social and environmental threats to health, poverty and humanitarian crises; and inadequate local and developing country health systems. We will support the development of global health research programs university-wide, the recruitment of faculty with interests in global health, and the creation of a web-based global health resource center for faculty and students with interests in these areas.

We are still a very young part of RBHS, and of Rutgers overall, so our plans are a work in progress. As tangible examples of our commitment to improving health and wellness globally, we plan to enhance global public health by establishing links between global public health and environmental and occupational health faculty in studies related to air pollution, climate change, and pesticide health.

Another example the Institute has in the works is expanding links with the School of Engineering. In fact, we are creating a senior-level joint faculty position with the School of Engineering and Rutgers-New Brunswick. Still other plans involve forging collaborative relationships between the Rutgers Cancer Program, under the auspices of Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is New Jersey’s only National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated comprehensive cancer center, and other organizations and partners around the world, especially in poor and less-developed countries.

How is the Rutgers Global Health Institute strategically prepared for changing the health care paradigm?

Dr. Marlink: We intend to be an international global health leader in the health sciences, in public health, and in other related, but non-biomedical professions. This means that we will incorporate our learnings from laboratory sciences and the clinical, behavioral, and public health sciences, as well as from engineering, business, economics, law, and social sciences. This broad approach is critical in this health care environment as accountability for patient care is shifting to large groups of providers. Health care will be more value-driven and our health care teams must work collaboratively to be innovative. Our focus on health care is now also population-based, rather than only individual-based, and we are moving from large regional centers toward community centers, even in small and remote areas of the world. We are encouraged by rapid changes in technology that will provide new opportunities for shared knowledge, patient care and research.

Additionally, we are exploring ways to identify and recruit key faculty who will increase our breadth and depth of key disease areas as well as provide guidance on how to pursue science grants from the National Institute of Health (NIH)-funded program project grants and specialized research programs.

Currently, Rutgers University receives NIH funding for research in public health, population health, health promotion, wellness, health behavior, preventive medicine, and global health.

As a researcher, scholar and leader of grassroots health care delivery, how have your past positions prepared you for this new challenge? Your last position was the Bruce A. Beal, Robert L. Beal, and Alexander S. Beal Professor of the Practice of Public Health at Harvard University’s T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Executive Director of the Harvard AIDS Initiative.

Dr. Marlink: I have been a global health practitioner, researcher, and executive leader for almost three decades. I am trained in medical oncology and HIV medicine and have conducted clinical, epidemiological and implementation research in Africa since 1985. I was first introduced to global health when finishing my Hematology/Oncology fellowship at what is now the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in the mid-1980’s in Boston.

During my Hematology/Oncology fellowship and after the co-organizing the first, hospital-based AIDS care clinic in the New England region, I was trying to learn the ropes in virology and molecular biology in the laboratory group of Max Essex at Harvard University. During that time in the mid-1980s, our laboratory group along with Senegalese and French collaborators discovered the first evidence for the existence of a new human retrovirus, HIV-2, a distinct second type of human AIDS virus, with its apparent origins in West Africa.

As a clinician, I was able to assist in Senegal, helping set up clinical care and create a research cohort in Dakar for hundreds of women sex workers infected with this new human retrovirus and care for them and their families. I discovered that a little can go a long way in poor settings, such as in Senegal. I became hooked on helping create solutions to help people in poor settings in Africa and elsewhere. Long-term partnerships and friendships have subsequently been made in many developing countries. Throughout my career, I have built successful partnerships with many governments, companies, and non-profit organizations, and those relationships have been the foundation to build successful public health partnerships in poor regions of the world.

In the 1990s, I helped create the Botswana-Harvard Partnership for HIV Research and Education (BHP). Through this partnership, the Government of Botswana and BHP have worked together to combat the AIDS epidemic in Botswana. Under my direction, and in partnership with the Botswana Ministry of Health, BHP launched the KITSO AIDS Training Program in 1999. Kitso is the Setswana word for ‘knowledge.”

KITSO is the national training program for physicians, nurses, and pharmacists, which has trained more than 14,000 health professionals in HIV/AIDS care and antiretroviral treatment. KITSO training modules address issues, such as antiretroviral therapy, HIV/AIDS-related disease management, gender-specific HIV issues, task-sharing, supportive and palliative care, and various psychosocial and counseling themes.

In addition, I was the Botswana County Director for Harvard Chan School’s 3-country President’s Emergency Plan AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) grant, The Botswana PEPFAR effort includes a Clinical and Laboratory Master Training Program and the creation of the Botswana Ministry of Health’s Monitoring and Evaluation Unit. Concurrently, I was the Principal Investigator of Project HEART in five African countries with the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation.

Also in Botswana, in 2000, I was a co-founder of a distinct partnership involving a large commitment to the Government of Botswana from the Bill and Melinda Gates and Merck Foundations.  This commitment continues as an independent non-governmental organization (NGO) to provide support for various AIDS prevention and care efforts in Botswana and the region.

All these global health experiences, it seems, have led me to my new role at the Rutgers Global Health Institute.

What is your advice for ways that the business community or university students can positively impact major societal issues?

Dr. Marlink: My advice is to be optimistic and follow that desire to want to make a difference. Margaret Mead, the American cultural anthropologist, said years ago, “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it’s the only thing that ever has.” I believe that to be our guiding principle as we embark on this new initiative.

I also believe that students should become specialized in specific areas prior to going fully into “global health,” as they develop in their careers, since they will then add more value later. For example, students should be grounded in the theory of global health in their undergraduate studies and then develop a specialization, such as becoming a statistician, economist, or medical doctor, to make a longer and greater impact in improving global health. As for the business community, we are looking for committed individuals who are specialized in specific areas to bring their knowledge to our organization, as partners in the fight against disease, improving the environment, or helping with humanitarian issues. We are committed to improving health and wellness, increasing access to the best health care, and reducing health disparities.

What is it about your current role that you enjoy the most?

Dr. Marlink: I enjoy building research, learning, and clinical programs, as I have in the HIV arena since the early 1980s. At that time, there were limited resources and funding, but a willingness among universities, non-governmental organizations, hospitals and the pharmaceutical industry to make a difference. Today in my new role, I’d like all of us to have an impact on health and wellness for those in need – to build programs from the ground up while partnering with organizations with the same goal in mind. I know it can be done.

Over my career, when I have a patient here or in a developed country who has been diagnosed with cancer, but is cured or in remission, that puts a huge smile on my face and in my heart. It also impacts you for the rest of your life. Or when I see an infant born without HIV because of the local country programs that are put in place, that also makes me feel so fulfilled, so happy.

I have worked with many talented individuals who have become great friends and partners over my career who have helped create a positive life for under-served populations around the world. We need to remember that progress happens with one person at a time or one program at a time. That’s how you truly improve health around the world.

 

Headshot - 2016

Image SOURCE: Photograph of Inaugural Henry Rutgers Professor of Global Health and Director of the Rutgers Global Health Institute at Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, courtesy of Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Richard G. Marlink, M.D.
Inaugural Henry Rutgers Professor of Global Health

Director of the Rutgers Global Health Institute

Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences

Richard G. Marlink, M.D., a Harvard University professor recognized internationally for research and leadership in the fight against AIDS, was recently appointed as the inaugural Henry Rutgers Professor of Global Health and Director of a new Rutgers Global Health Institute at Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences (RBHS). His role is to develop the strategic growth of RBHS by broadening the Rutgers University’s presence in the public health community to improve health and wellness.

Previously, Dr. Marlink was the Bruce A. Beal, Robert L. Beal, and Alexander S. Beal Professor of the Practice of Public Health at Harvard’s T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Executive Director of the Harvard AIDS Initiative.

At the start of the AIDS epidemic, Dr. Marlink was instrumental in setting up the first, hospital-based HIV/AIDS clinic in Boston, Massachusetts, and studied the impact of the HIV virus in west and central Africa. After helping to start the Botswana-Harvard Partnership in 1996, he founded the Kitso AIDS Training Program, which would become Botswana’s national AIDS training program. Kitso means knowledge in the local Setswana language.

Dr. Marlink was the principal investigator for the Tshepo Study, the first large-scale antiretroviral treatment study in Botswana, in addition to conducting other clinical and epidemiological studies in the region. Also in Botswana, he was the country director for Harvard’s contribution to the joint Botswana and United States governments’ HIV/AIDS and TB training, monitoring and evaluation PEPFAR effort.

In the mid-1980s in Senegal, Dr. Marlink was part of the team of Senegalese, French and American researchers who discovered and then studied the second type of human AIDS virus, HIV-2. Since then, he has been involved in multiple HIV/AIDS care, treatment and prevention programs in many African countries, including in Botswana, Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. He has also organized initiatives to enhance HIV/AIDS care in Brazil, Puerto Rico and Thailand.

Dr. Marlink has served as the scientific director, the vice president for implementation and the senior adviser for medical and scientific affairs at the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation, where he was principal investigator of Project HEART, a five-country CDC/PEPFAR effort in Africa. That project began in 2004 and by 2011 had placed more than 1 million people living with HIV into care clinics. More than 565,000 of these people were placed on life-saving antiretroviral treatment.

Since 2000, Dr. Marlink has been the founding member of the board of directors of the African Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnerships, a public-partnership among the government of Botswana and the Bill and Melinda Gates and Merck Foundations to provide ongoing support for numerous HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment efforts in that country.

He has authored or co-authored more than 130 scientific articles; written a textbook, Global AIDS Crisis: A Reference Handbook; and co-edited the book, AIDS in Africa, 2nd Edition. Additionally, he served as chief editor for two special supplements to the journal AIDS and as executive editor of the seminal 320-author, three-volume textbook, From the Ground Up: A Guide to Building Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Care Programs in Resource Limited Settings.

A trained fellow in hematology/oncology at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center at Harvard Medical School, Dr. Marlink received his medical degree from the University of New Mexico and his bachelor’s degree from Brown University.

 

Editor’s note:

We would like to thank Marilyn DiGiaccobe, head of Partnerships and Strategic Initiatives, at the Rutgers Global Health Institute, for the help and support she provided during this interview.

 

REFERENCE/SOURCE

Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences (http://rbhs.rutgers.edu/)

Other related articles

Retrieved from https://aids.harvard.edu/ 

Retrieved from http://b.3cdn.net/glaser/515eaa8068b5e71d44_mlbrof7xw.pdf 

Other related articles were published in this Open Access Online Scientific Journal include the following: 

2016

CRISPR/Cas9 and HIV1 

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/04/16/crisprcas9-and-hiv1/

Concerns About Viruses

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/01/29/concerns-about-viruses/

CD-4 Therapy for Solid Tumors

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/05/02/cd-4-therapy-for-solid-tumors/

Novel Discoveries in Molecular Biology and Biomedical Science

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/05/30/novel-discoveries-in-molecular-biology-and-biomedical-science/

Scientists eliminate HIV1 DNA from the genome and prevent reinfection

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/03/23/scientists-eliminate-hiv1-dna-from-the-genome-and-prevent-reinfection/

Double Downside of HIV CRISPR therapy

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/04/09/double-downside-of-hiv-crispr-therapy/

2015

Where Infection meets with Cancer: Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is the most common cancer in HIV-1-infected persons and is caused by one of only 7 human cancer viruses, i.e., human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/10/20/where-infection-meets-with-cancer-kaposis-sarcoma-ks-is-the-most-common-cancer-in-hiv-1-infected-persons-and-is-caused-by-one-of-only-7-human-cancer-viruses-i-e-human-herpesvirus-8-hhv/

Antibody shows promise as treatment for HIV

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/04/09/antibody-shows-promise-as-treatment-for-hiv/

2014

AIDS: Origin of HIV pandemic ‘was 1920s Kinshasa’

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/10/10/aids-origin-of-hiv-pandemic-was-1920s-kinshasa/

2013

Scientists discover how AIDS virus enters key immune cells

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/31/scientists-discover-how-aids-virus-enters-key-immune-cells/

Heroes in Medical Research: Dr. Robert Ting, Ph.D. and Retrovirus in AIDS and Cancer

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/17/heroes-in-medical-research-dr-robert-ting-ph-d-and-retrovirus-in-aids-and-cancer/

2012

Nanotechnology and HIV/AIDS treatment

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/25/nanotechnology-and-hivaids-treatment/

HIV vaccine: Caltech puts us One step further

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/31/hiv-vaccine-caltech-puts-us-one-step-further/

Bone Marrow Transplant Eliminates Signs of HIV Infection

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/29/bone-marrow-transplant-eliminates-signs-of-hiv-infection/

Getting Better: Documentary Videos on Medical Progress — in Surgery, Leukemia, and HIV/AIDS

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/23/getting-better-documentary-videos-on-medical-progress-in-surgery-leukemia-and-hivaids/

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Author: Dror Nir, PhD

The management of men with prostate cancer is becoming one of the most challenging public health issues in the Western world. It is characterized by: over-diagnosis; over-treatment; low treatment efficacy; treatment related toxicity; escalating cost; and unsustainability [Bangma et al, 2007; Esserman et al, 2009]. How come? Well, everyone accepts that most prostate cancers are clinically insignificant. It is well known that all men above 65 harbor some sort of prostate cancer. Due to the current aggressive PSA-based screening, one in six men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Yet, the lifetime risk of dying of prostate cancer is only 3%. The problem is that, once diagnosed with prostate cancer, there is no accurate tool to identify those men that will die of the disease (in my previous post I mentioned 1:37). Currently, screening practices for prostate cancer are relying on the very unspecific prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) bio-marker test to determine which men are at higher risk of harboring prostate cancer and therefore need a biopsy. The existing diagnostic test is a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy aimed at extracting representative tissue from areas where cancer usually resides. This procedure suffers from several obvious faults:

1. Since the imaging tool used (B-mode ultrasound) is poor at detecting malignancies in the prostate, the probability of hitting a clinically significant cancer or missing a clinically insignificant cancer is subject to random error.

2. TRUS biopsy is also subjected to systematic error as it misses large parts of the prostate which might harbor cancer (e.g. apex and anterior zones).
3. TRUS guided biopsies are often unrepresentative of the true burden of cancer as either the volume or grade of cancer can be underestimated.

In the last ten years I was leading the development of an innovative ultrasound-based technology, HistoScanningTM, aimed at improving the aforementioned faults;

Among the other most popular imaging modalities aimed at better prostate cancer detection in routine use are: MRIElastography, Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound etc…

In my future posts I will go into more detail on how these imaging modalities fit into routine workflow, how much they stay within budget constraints and what level of promise they bear for promoting personalized medicine. Stay tuned… Footnote: According to the final report by an advisory panel to the USA government: Doctors should no longer offer the PSA prostate cancer screening test to healthy men because they’re more likely to be harmed by the blood draw, and the chain of medical interventions that often follows than be helped; (http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/story/2012-05-21/prostate-cancer-screening-test-harmful/55118036/1) But then; what should be offered instead?

Other posts on this Scientific Website addressing Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancers Plunged After USPSTF Guidance, Will It Happen Again?

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/31/prostate-cancers-plunged-after-uspstf-guidance-will-it-happen-again/

New Prostate Cancer Screening Guidelines Face a Tough Sell, Study Suggests

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/05/27/new-prostate-cancer-screening-guidelines-face-a-tough-sell-study-suggests/

ROLE OF VIRAL INFECTION IN PROSTATE CANCER

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/01/role-of-viral-infection-in-prostate-cancer/

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Reported By: Dr. Venkat S. Karra

English: Emblem of the United Nations. Color i...

The United Nations is setting up an international scientific advisory board to guide the secretary-general on science matters, reports SciDevNet.

The plan for this council was announced at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development, or Rio+20 — the UN Environmental, Scientific and Cultural Organization will be taking the lead in setting the board up.

“The board will bring together eminent specialists from the natural sciences, the social and human sciences, and engineering, and representing diverse backgrounds and regions,” SciDevNet adds

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Writer: Venkat Karra, Ph.D.

This study was reported today in the Optical Society’s (OSA) open-access journal Optics Express (Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 11, pp. 11582-11597 (2012)), and provide proof-of-concept support that the technology can distinguish malignant tissue by providing high-contrast images of tumors.

In breast cancer screening, x-ray mammography and ultrasonography are primarily used to understand any morphological changes of breast tissue. However, these conventional techniques have their own drawbacks because of for example ionizing radiation that could cause leukemia after prolonged/ repeated exposure where as ultrasonography is strongly operator dependent.

Tumor vascularization is a crucial feature in breast imaging. One commonly used method that focuses on tumor vascularization is Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). The high sensitivity of this technique for detecting breast cancer proves that vascularity can indeed provide additional information about the nature of tissue. However, DCE-MRI suffers from a limited specificity, requires the injection of contrast agents and is relatively expensive.

Far-red and near-infrared (NIR): It is gaining attention in (non-invasively) visualizing cancer and its associated vasculature due to its ability to provide functional and molecular information without the use of ionizing radiation. In recent studies, it has been shown that optical imaging in the form of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) can indeed visualize breast malignancies, primarily because of the high absorption of hemoglobin in the NIR regime. However, DOT suffers from low spatial resolution.

Several groups have studied the feasibility of photoacoustic image (PAI) in breast imaging due to their superior resolution capabilities to that of pure optical techniques. Photoacoustic imaging exploits the high NIR light absorption contrast between benign and malignant tissue, but provides superior resolution arising from ultrasound detection.

Scientists from Center for Breast Care, Medisch Spectrum Twente hospital,  University of Twente and University of Amsterdam have developed the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope (PAM), to image the breast in transmission mode. The authors say that, in a first pilot study with this system in 2007, it was possible to get technically acceptable measurements on five patients with radiographically proven breast malignancies. Of those, four cases revealed a high photoacoustic contrast with respect to the background associated with tumor related vasculature. Now the authors have recently started an extended clinical study using PAM, as a continuation of the study performed in 2007.

In this new study, they have investigated the clinical feasibility of photoacoustic mammography in a larger group of patients with different types of breast lesions to obtain more information about the clinical feasibility and limitations of photoacoustic mammography and the results were compared with conventional imaging and histopathology.

Ten technically acceptable measurements on patients with malignancies (BI-RADS 5) and two measurements on patients with cysts (BI-RADS 2) were performed. In the reconstructed volumes of all ten malignant lesions, a confined region with high contrast with respect to the background was seen. In all malignant cases, the PA contrast of the abnormality was higher than the contrast on x-ray mammography. The PA contrast appeared to be independent of the mammographically estimated breast density and was absent in the case of cysts.

Authors say that technological improvements to the instrument and further studies on less suspicious lesions are planned to further investigate the potential of PAM. The authors from University of Twente hope that these early results will one day lead to the development of a safe, comfortable, and accurate alternative or adjunct to conventional techniques for detecting breast tumors.

Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope (PAM):

This techniques combines the light-based system’s to distinguish between benign and malignant tissue with ultrasound to achieve superior targeting ability. The device is built into a hospital bed, where the patient lies prone and positions her breast for imaging. Laser light at a wavelength of 1,064 nm scans the breast. Because there is increased absorption of the light in malignant tissue the temperature slightly increases. With the rise in temperature, thermal expansion creates a pressure wave, which is detected by an ultrasound detector placed on one side of the breast. The resulting photoacoustic signals are then processed by the PAM system and reconstructed into images. These images reveal abnormal areas of high intensity (tumor tissue) as compared to areas of low intensity (benign tissue). This is one of the first times that the technique has been tested on breast cancer patients.

Note: Breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer among females and each year more than 450,000 women are diagnosed worldwide with the disease.

Source:

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-11-11582

Reporter: Venkat Karra

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Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

To: Radial Assist, LLC

Re: Radiation Scatter Survey of Radial Assist RAD BOARD by Alliance Medical Physics LLC

Enclosed please find the results of the radiation scatter survey conducted on the RAD BOARD on April 20, 2012. The RAD BOARD is an arm board utilized in cardiac catheterization and interventional labs for radial access. It has the added feature of being partially lined with a 15″ by 9″ layer of Xenolite TB for additional radiation scatter protection. Xenolite TB, which is a lead-free, super-lightweight 2-element composite equivalent to 0.35mm Pb protection, is embedded in the board under the company logo label. The survey was performed to quantify the ability of the RAD BOARD to reduce radiation scatter to the physician performing the vascular procedure.

RADIATION SCATTER SURVEY RESULTS

 

The resultsof the survey indicate that when utilizing the RAD BOARD, radiation scatter exposure levels were reduced by 33% – 40% at waist height, and 21% – 30% at neck height (See Figures 1 & 2).

Sincerely yours, ALLIANCE MEDICAL PHYSICS LLC Michael S. Glaser, M.S. Certified Medical Physicist Diplomat-American Board of Radiology

Alliance Medical Physics LLC 2500 Abbey Court · Alpharetta GA 30004 ·770.751.9707 · (fax) 770.753.4305

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Curator: Venkat Karra, Ph.D.

Cancer is a broad group of various diseases involving unregulated cell growth. It is medically known as a malignant neoplasm. In cancer, cells divide and grow uncontrollably and invade nearby parts of the body. The cancer may also spread to more distant parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream, it is called metastasis. However, not all tumors are cancerous. Some tumors do not grow uncontrollably, do not invade neighboring tissues, and do not spread throughout the body which are called Benign tumors.

There are more than 100 types of Cancers. Follow the link to know more:

http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/alphalist

Classification of Cancers:

There are five broad groups that are used to classify cancer.

  1. Carcinomas: These are characterized by cells that cover internal and external parts of the body such as lung, breast, and colon cancer.
  2. Sarcomas:These are characterized by cells that are located in bone, cartilage, fat, connective tissue, muscle, and other supportive tissues.
  3. Lymphomas:These are cancers that begin in the lymph nodes and immune system tissues.
  4. Leukemias:These are cancers that begin in the bone marrow and often accumulate in the bloodstream.
  5. Adenomas:These are cancers that arise in the thyroid, the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland, and other glandular tissues.

Causes

  • Hereditary (about 5-10%)
  • Environmental (90-95% of cases) factors e.g.,
  • Tobacco (25-30%) – about 70% of the lung cancers are due to tobacco habit
  • Infections (15-20%)
  • Radiation (both ionizing and non-ionizing, up to 10%)
  • Obesity (30-35%) and
  • Pollutants,Sedentary life, poor diet etc. are likely to cause cancer.

These can directly damage genes or combine with existing genetic faults within cells to cause the disease.

Detection

Presence of certain signs and symptoms, screening tests including medical imaging etc. can be used.

Diagnosis

Cancer can be diagnosed by microscopic examination of a tissue sample called biopsy.

Visit Link for details: http://cancer.stanford.edu/information/cancerDiagnosis/

Treatment

Cancer is usually treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery.

Survival

Survival depends greatly by the type and location of the cancer and the extent of disease at the start of treatment. The risk of developing cancer generally increases with age.

Young People with Cancer, visit the following link for details:

http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/coping/youngpeople/page6

For Types of Childhood Cancer, visit the following link:

http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/coping/youngpeople/page13

For common medical procedures, visit the following link:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/coping/youngpeople/page6

Signs and Symptoms

Initially there will be no signs and symptoms but only appearing as the mass that continues to grow or ulcerates. The findings that result depends on the type and location of the cancer. For example,

Mass effects from Lung Cancer – can cause blockage of the bronchus resulting in cough (coughing up blood if there is ulceration) or pneumonia.

Oesophageal Cancer – can cause narrowing of the esophagus making it difficult or painful to swallow.

Colorectal Cancer – may lead to changes in bowel habits and bleeding leading to anemia.

General symptoms may include:

  • Unintentional weight loss,
  • Fever,
  • Being excessively tired,
  • Changes to the skin,
  • Hodgkin disease,
  • Leukemias, and
  • Persistent fever due to Cancers of the liver or kidney.

Symptoms of metastasis include:

  • Enlarged lynph nodes which can be felt or sometimes seen under the skin and are typically hard),
  • Enlarged liver or spleen which can be felt in the abdomen,
  • Pain or fracture of affected bones, and
  • Neurological symptoms.

It is nearly impossible to prove what caused a cancer in any individual, because most cancers have multiple possible causes. For example, lung cancer could be due to tobacco habbit or could be a result of air pollution or radiation.

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