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2,000 human brains yield clues to how genes raise risk for mental illnesses

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

It’s one thing to detect sites in the genome associated with mental disorders; it’s quite another to discover the biological mechanisms by which these changes in DNA work in the human brain to boost risk. In their first concerted effort to tackle the problem, 15 collaborating research teams of the National Institutes of Health-funded PsychENCODE Consortium evaluated data of 2000 human brains which might yield clues to how genes raise risk for mental illnesses.
Applying newly uncovered secrets of the brain’s molecular architecture, they established an artificial intelligence model that is six times better than preceding ones at predicting risk for mental disorders. They also identified several hundred previously unknown risk genes for mental illnesses and linked many known risk variants to specific genes. In the brain tissue and single cells, the researchers identified patterns of gene expression, marks in gene regulation as well as genetic variants that can be linked to mental illnesses.
Dr. Nenad Sestan of Yale University explained that “ the consortium’s integrative genomic analyses elucidate the mechanisms by which cellular diversity and patterns of gene expression change throughout development and reveal how neuropsychiatric risk genes are concentrated into distinct co-expression modules and cell types”. The implicated variants are typically small-effect genetic variations that fall within regions of the genome that don’t code for proteins, but instead are thought to regulate gene expression and other aspects of gene function.
In addition to the 2000 postmortem human brains, researchers examined brain tissue from prenatal development as well as people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder,  and typical development compared findings with parallel data from non-human primates.

Their findings indicate that gene variants linked to mental illnesses exert more effects when they jointly form “modules”, communicating genes with related functions and at specific developmental time points that seem to coincide with the course of illness. Variability in risk gene expression and cell types increases during formative stages in early prenatal development and again during the teen years. However, in postmortem brains of people with a mental illness, thousands of RNAs were found to have anomalies.

According to NIMH, Geetha Senthil the multi-omic data resource caused by the PsychENCODE collaboration will pave a path for building molecular models of disease and developmental processes and may offer a platform for target identification for pharmaceutical research.

Source
https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/2000-human-brains-yield-clues-how-genes-raise-risk-mental-illnesses

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BioMEMS The Market aspects of Oligonucleotide-Chips, Products and Applications, Competition, January 21, 2016

Curator: Gérard LOISEAU, ESQ

 

BioMEMS

The Market aspects of Oligonucleotide-Chips, Products, Applications, Competition 

January 21, 2016

2015-2020

The oligonucleotide synthesis market is expected to reach USD 1.918.6Billion at a CAGR of 10.1% by 2020 from USD 1.078.1Billion in 2015.

SOURCE

MARKETSANDMARKETS marketsandmarkets.com/

 

PLAYERS

  • Agilent Technologies Inc.
  • BioAutomation Corp.
  • Biosearch Technologies
  • Gen9 Inc.
  • GenScript Inc.
  • Illumina Inc.
  • Integrated DNA Technologies
  • New England Biolabs Inc.
  • Nitto Denko Avecia Inc.
  • OriGene Technologies Inc.
  • Sigma-Aldrich Corporation
  • Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.
  • TriLink Biotechnologies

 

Agilent Technologies
 CA NYSE :A


http://www.agilent.com/

  • Agilent was created as a spin off from Hewlett-Packard Company in 1999.
  • Agilent Technologies Inc. is engaged in the life sciences, diagnostics and applied chemical markets. The Company provides application focused solutions that include instruments, software, services and consumables for the entire laboratory workflow. The Company has three business segments:

the life sciences and applied markets business,

the diagnostics and genomics business, and

the Agilent Cross Lab business

  • The Company’s life sciences and applied markets business segment brings together the Company’s analytical laboratory instrumentation and informatics.
  • The Company’s diagnostics and genomics business segment consists of three businesses: the Dako business, the genomics business and the nucleic acid solutions business.
  • The Company’s Agilent Cross Lab business segment combines its analytical laboratory services and consumables business

SOURCE

http://reuters.com/

PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

https://www.agilent.com/en-us/default#collapse-0

  • October 09, 2015 03:21 PM Eastern Daylight Time
  • CARPINTERIA, Calif.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Dako, an Agilent Technologies company and a worldwide provider of cancer diagnostics, today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved a new test that can identify PD-L1 expression levels on the surface of non-small cell lung cancer tumor cells and provide information on the survival benefit with OPDIVO® (nivolumab) for patients with non-squamous NSCLC.

SOURCE

BUSINESS WIRE busibesswire.com/

 

BioAutomation Corp.

 TX


 

http://bioautomation.com/

          PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

  • DNA and RNA synthesis reagents for the MerMades

 

Note: The MerMade 192E Oligonucleotide synthesizer is designed to synthesize DNA, RNA & LNA oligonucleotides in a column format

          PARTNERSHIPS

  • HONGENE BIOTECH : BIOAUTOMATION is the exclusive distributor for the Americas
  • EMD MILLIPORE
  • BIOSEARCH TECHNOLOGIES

 

DISTRIBUTORS

  • LINK TECHNOLOGIES : UK
  • AME BIOSCIENCE : UK
  • BOSUNG SCIENCE : KOREA
  • DNA CHEM : CHINA
  • WAKO : JAPAN
  • ACE PROBE : INDIA

SOURCE

bioautomation.com/

 

Biosearch Technologies
 CA


http://biosearchtech.com/

          PRODUCTS

  • qPCR & SNP Genotyping
  • Custom Oligonucleotides
  • – highly sophisticated oligonucleotides
  • – simple PCR primers
  • Oligos in Plates
  • RNA FISH
  • Synthesis Reagents
  • Immunochemicals
  • Primers
  • Probes
  • Large-Scale Synthesis Oligos
  • Intermediate-Scale Synthesis Oligos

          SERVICES

  • GMP & Commercial Services
  • OEM & Kit Manufacturing
  • qPCR Design Collaborations

          DISTRIBUTORS

Argentina | Australia | Austria | Brazil | Canada |Chile | China | Colombia | Czech Republic | Denmark | Ecuador | Finland | Germany |Hong Kong | Israel | Italy | Japan | Korea | Malaysia | Mexico | New Zealand | Norway | Paraguay | Peru| Philippines | Poland | Romania | Singapore | South Africa | Spain | Sweden |Switzerland | Taiwan ROC | Thailand | Turkey | United Kingdom | Uruguay | Vietnam

SOURCE

biosearchtech.com/

 

Gen9 Inc.
 MA 


http://www.gen9bio.com/

          PRODUCTS

Gen9 is building on advances in synthetic biology to power a scalable fabrication capability that will significantly increase the world’s capacity to produce DNA content. The privately held company’s next-generation gene synthesis technology allows for the high-throughput, automated production of DNA constructs at lower cost and higher accuracy than previous methods on the market. Founded by world leaders in synthetic biology, Gen9 aims to ensure the constructive application of synthetic biology in industries ranging from enzyme and chemical production to pharmaceuticals and biofuels.

          SERVICES

  • Synthetic Biology
  • Gene Synthesis Services
  • Variant Libraries
  • Gene Sequence Design Services

         INVESTORS

  • Agilent Technologies : Private Equity
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass. and SANTA CLARA, Calif. — April 24, 2013 —Gen9 Receives $21 Million Strategic Investment from Agilent Technologies

SOURCE

gen9bio.com/

 

GenScript Inc.
 NJ 


http://www.genscript.com/

  • GenScript is the largest gene synthesis provider in the USA
  • GenScript Corporation, a biology contract research organization, provides biological research and drug discovery services to pharmaceutical companies, biotech firms, and research institutions in the United States, Europe, and Japan. It offers bio-reagent, custom molecular biology, custom peptide, protein production, custom antibody production, drug candidates testing, assay development and screening, lead optimization, antibody drug development, gene synthesis, and assay-ready cell line production services.
  • The company also offers molecular biology, peptide, protein, immunoassay, chemicals, and cell biology products. It offers its products through distributors in Tokyo, Japan; and Seoul, Korea. GenScript Corporation has a strategic partnership with Immunologix, Inc. The company was founded in 2002 and is based in Piscataway, New Jersey. It has subsidiaries in France, Japan, and China.

 

Note: As of October 24, 2011, Immunologix, Inc. was acquired by Intrexon Corporation. Immunologix, Inc. develops and produces antibody-based therapeutics for various biological targets. It produces human monoclonal antibodies against viral, bacterial, and tumor antigens, as well as human auto antigens.

Intrexon Corporation, founded in 1998, is a leader in synthetic biology focused on collaborating with companies in Health, Food, Energy, Environment and Consumer sectors to create biologically based products that improve quality of life and the health of the planet.

 

 

             PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

  • Gene synthesis
  • Antibody services
  • Protein Services
  • Peptide services

 

               INVESTORS


Note: The Balloch Group (‘TBG’) was established in 2001 by Howard Balloch (Canada‘s ambassador to China from 1996 to 2001). TBG has since grown from a market-entry consultancy working with North American clients in China to a leading advisory and merchant banking firm serving both domestic Chinese companies and multinational corporations. TBG was ranked as the number one boutique investment bank in China by ChinaVenture in 2008.

Kleiner, Perkins, Caufield and Byers

 

Illumina
Inc. CA


http://illumina.com/

 

Monica Heger : SAN FRANCISCO (GenomeWeb) – Illumina today announced two new next-generation sequencing platforms, a targeted sequencing system called MiniSeq and a semiconductor sequencer that is still under development.

Illumina disclosed the initiatives during a presentation at the JP Morgan Healthcare conference held here today. During the presentation, Illumina CEO Jay Flatley also announced a new genotyping array called Infinium XT; a partnership with Bio-Rad to develop a single-cell sequencing workflow; preliminary estimates of its fourth-quarter 2015 revenues; and an update on existing products. The presentation followed the company’s announcement on Sunday that it has launched a new company called Grail to develop a next-generation sequencing test for early cancer detection from patient blood samples.

The MiniSeq system, which is based on Illumina’s current sequencing technology, will begin shipping early this quarter and has a list price of $49,500. It can perform a variety of targeted DNA and RNA applications, from single-gene to pathway sequencing, and promises “all-in” prices, including library prep and sequencing, of $200 to $300 per sample, Flatley said during the JP Morgan presentation.

SOURCES

https://www.genomeweb.com/sequencing-technology/illumina-unveils-mini-targeted-sequencer-semiconductor-sequencing-project-jp

http://investor.biospace.com/biospace/quote?Symbol=ILMN

 

              PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

  •               Mid to large scale manufacturing assets
  •               Analytical Labs
  •               Pre-clinical
  •               Clinical
  •               Launched products

 

              COMPETITORS

https://finance.yahoo.com/q/co?s=ILMN+Competitors Tue, Feb 2, 2016, 2:16pm EST – US Markets

ILMN PVT1 AFFX LMNX Industry
Market Cap: 22.75B N/A 1.13B 835.66M 134.14M
Employees: 3,700 10,000 1,200 745 45.00
Qtrly Rev Growth (yoy): 0.14 N/A -0.01 0.07 0.18
Revenue (ttm): 2.14B 3.80B1 357.74M 235.37M 8.47M
Gross Margin (ttm): 0.73 N/A 0.63 0.71 0.58
EBITDA (ttm): 770.84M N/A 46.64M 52.99M -12.31M
Operating Margin (ttm): 0.30 N/A 0.08 0.17 -1.62
Net Income (ttm): 510.36M 430.90M1 11.22M 39.29M N/A
EPS (ttm): 3.42 N/A 0.13 0.93 -0.34
P/E (ttm): 45.43 N/A 104.40 20.91 25.33
PEG (5 yr expected): 2.68 N/A 4.66 0.55 N/A
P/S (ttm): 10.87 N/A 3.13 3.45 13.65

 

Pvt1 = Life Technologies Corporation (privately held)

AFFX = Affymetrix Inc.

LMNX = Luminex Corporation

 

 

Integrated DNA Technologies (IDT)
IOWA + CA

http://www.com/

 

Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc. (IDT), the global leader in nucleic acid synthesis, serving all areas of life sciences research and development, offers products for a broad range of genomics applications. IDT’s primary business is the production of custom, synthetic nucleic acids for molecular biology applications, including qPCR, sequencing, synthetic biology, and functional genomics. The company manufactures and ships an average of 44,000 custom nucleic acids per day to more than 82,000 customers worldwide. For more information, visit idtdna.com.

 

               PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

               https://eu.idtdna.com/site

  • DNA & RNA Synthesis
  • Custom DNA Oligos 96- & 384-Well Plates Ultramer Oligos Custom RNA Oligos SameDay Oligos HotPlates ReadyMade Primers Oligo Modifications Freedom
  • Dyes GMP for Molecular Diagnostics Large Scale Oligo Synthesis

 

Note : Skokie, IL – December 1, 2015. Integrated DNA Technologies Inc. (“IDT”), the global leader in custom nucleic acid synthesis, has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire the oligonucleotide synthesis business of AITbiotech Pte. Ltd. in Singapore (“AITbiotech”). With this acquisition, IDT expands its customer base across Southeast Asia making it possible for these additional customers to now have access to its broad range of products for genomic applications. AITbiotech will continue operations in its other core business areas.

 

New England Biolabs Inc.
 MA 


http://www.neb.com/

 

                PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

  •                 Restriction Endonucleases
  •                 PCR, Polymerases & Amplification Technologies
  •                 DNA Modifying Enzymes
  •                 Library Preparation for Next Generation Sequencing
  •                 Nucleic Acid Purification
  •                 Markers & Ladders
  •                 RNA Reagents
  •                 Gene Expression
  •                 Cellular Analysis

SOURCE

neb.com/

 

Nitto Denko Avecia Inc.
 MA


http://avecia.com/

 

With over 20 years of experience in oligonucleotide development and production, and over 1000 sequences manufactured, Avecia has played an integral role in the advancing oligo therapeutic market. Our mission is to continue to build value for our customers, as they progress through drug development into commercialization. And as a member of the Nitto Denko Corporation (nitto.com), Avecia is committed to the future of the oligonucleotide market. We are driven by innovative ideas and flexible solutions, designed to provide our customers with the best in service, quality, and technology.

 

SOURCE

http://avecia.com/

 

Note : 1918 Nitto Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. forms in Ohsaki, Tokyo, to produce electrical insulating materials in Japan.

2011 Acquires Avecia Biotechnology Inc. in the U.S.A.

 

 

OriGene Technologies Inc.
 CA

http://www.com/

 

OriGene Technologies, Inc. develops, manufactures, and sells genome wide research and diagnostic products for pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and academic research applications. The company offers cDNA clones, including TrueORF cDNA, viral ORF, destination vectors, TrueClones (human), TrueClones (mouse), organelle marker plasmids, MicroRNA tools, mutant and variant clones, plasmid purification kits, transfection reagents, and gene synthesis service; and HuSH shRNA, siRNA, miRNA, qPCR reagents, plasmid purification products, transfection reagents, PolyA+ and total RNA products, first-strand cDNA synthesis, and CRISPR/Cas9 genome products. It also provides proteins and lysates, such as purified human proteins, over-expression cell lysates, mass spectrometry standard proteins, and protein purification reagents; UltraMAB IHC antibodies, TrueMAB primary antibodies, anti-tag and fluorescent proteins, ELISA antibodies, luminex antibodies, secondary antibodies, and controls and others; and anatomic pathology products, including IHC antibodies, detection systems, and IHC accessories

The company offers luminex and ELISA antibody pairs, autoantibody profiling arrays, ELISA kits, cell assay kits, assay reagents, custom development, and fluorogenic cell assays; TissueFocus search tools; tissue sections; tissue microarrays, cancer protein lysate arrays, TissueScan cDNA arrays, tissue blocks, and quality control products, as well as tissue RNA, DNA, and protein lysates; and lab essentials. Its research areas include cancer biomarker research, RNAi, pathology IHC, stem cell research, ion channels, and protein kinase products. The company provides gene synthesis and molecular biology services, genome editing, custom cloning, custom shRNA, purified protein, monoclonal antibody development, and assay development. It sells its products through distributors worldwide, as well as online. OriGene Technologies, Inc. was incorporated in 1995 and is based in Rockville, Maryland.

SOURCE

http://BLOOMBERG.com

               PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

  •                cDNA Clones
Human, mouse, rat
Expression validated
  •                RNAi
shRNA, siRNA
microRNA & 3’UTR clones
  •                Gene Synthesis
Codon optimization
Variant libraries
  •                Real-time PCR
Primer pairs, panels
SYBR green reagents
  •                Lab Essentials
DNA/RNA purification kits
Transfection reagents
  •                Anatomic Pathology
UltraMAB antibodies
Specificity validated
  •                Recombinant Proteins
10,000 human proteins
from mammalian system
  •                Antibodies
TrueMAB primary antibodies
Anti-tag antibodies
  •                Assays and Kits
ELISA & Luminex antibodies
Autoantibody Profiling Array
  •                Cancer & Normal Tissues
Pathologist verified
gDNA, RNA, sections, arrays

SOURCE

origene.com/

 

Sigma-Aldrich Corporation 
MI 


http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/

Louis, MO – November 18, 2015 Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, Completes Sigma-Aldrich Acquisition

Merck KGaA today announced the completion of its $17 billion acquisition of Sigma-Aldrich, creating one of the leaders in the $130 billion global industry to help solve the toughest problems in life science.

Press Release: 18-Nov-2015

Letter to our Life Science Customers from Dr. Udit Batra

The life science business of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany brings together the world-class products and services, innovative capabilities and exceptional talent of EMD Millipore and Sigma-Aldrich to create a global leader in the life science industry.

Everything we do starts with our shared purpose – to solve the toughest problems in life science by collaborating with the global scientific community. 

This combination is built on complementary strengths, which will enable us to serve you even better as one organization than either company could alone.

This means providing a broader portfolio with a catalog of more than 300,000 products, including many of the most respected brands in the industry, greater geographic reach, and an unmatched combination of industry-leading capabilities.

                PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

                http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/configurator/servlet/DesignCenter?btnOpen_0.x=1

                http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/content/dam/sigma-aldrich/common/quality-products.jpg

 

Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.
 MA 
NYSE :TMO


http://thermofisher.com/

Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. is a provider of analytical instruments, equipment, reagents and consumables, software and services for research, manufacturing, analysis, discovery and diagnostics. The company operates through four segments: Life Sciences Solutions, provides reagents, instruments and consumables used in biological and medical research, discovery and production of new drugs and vaccines as well as diagnosis of disease; Analytical Instruments, provides instruments, consumables, software and services that are used in the laboratory; Specialty Diagnostics, offers diagnostic test kits, reagents, culture media, instruments and associated products, and Laboratory Products and Services, offers self-manufactured and sourced products for the laboratory.

SOURCE

http://REUTERS.com

 

                PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

  •                 Oligos Value – Standard – Plate
  •                 Primers
  •                 Probes
  •                 Nucleotides

 

                BRANDS

  1.                THERMO SCIENTIFIC
  2.                 APPLIED BIOSYSTEMS
  3.                 INVITROGEN
  4.                 FISHER SCIENTIFIC
  5.                 UNITY LAB SERVICES

 

                 PARTNERSHIPS

AFFYMETRIX : NASDAQ : AFFX : affymetrix.com/

WALTHAM, Mass. & SANTA CLARA, Calif.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Jan. 8, 2016– Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. (NYSE:TMO), the world leader in serving science, and Affymetrix Inc. (NASDAQ:AFFX), a leading provider of cellular and genetic analysis products, today announced that their boards of directors have unanimously approved Thermo Fisher’s acquisition of Affymetrix for $14.00 per share in cash. The transaction represents a purchase price of approximately $1.3 billion.

SOURCE

http://BUSINESSWIRE.com

 

TriLink Biotechnologies
 CA 


http://www.com/

 

              PRODUCTS

              Oligonucleotides

  •               DNA Oligos
  •               RNA Oligos
  •               Modified Oligos
  •               Specialty Oligos

              Nucleotides

  •               NTPs (Nucleoside Triphosphates)
  •               Biphosphates
  •               Monophosphates

 

              SERVICES

  •              Custom Chemistry
  •              Reagents
  •              Aptamers

 

             PARTNERSHIPS

  • LIFE TECHNOLOGIES,
  • TERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC since July 2015 thermofisher.com/
  • GENMARK genmarkdx.com/

SOURCE

http://trilinkbiotech.com/

 

Other related articles published in this Open Access Online Scientific Journal include the following:

Gene Editing: The Role of Oligonucleotide Chips

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/01/07/gene-editing-the-role-of-oligonucleotide-chips/

Gene Editing for Exon 51: Why CRISPR Snipping might be better than Exon Skipping for DMD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/01/23/gene-editing-for-exon-51-why-crispr-snipping-might-be-better-than-exon-skipping-for-dmd/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Exosomes

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

Human Exomes Galore

A new database includes complete sequences of protein-coding DNA from 60,706 individuals.

By Karen Zusi | November 16, 2015

http://www.the-scientist.com//?articles.view/articleNo/44483/title/Human-Exomes-Galore/

The ability to sequence a person’s entire genome has led many researchers to hunt for the genetic causes of certain diseases. But without a larger set of genomes to compare mutations against, putting these variations into context is difficult. An international group of researchers has banked the full exomes of 60,706 individuals in a database called the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). The team’s analaysis, posted last month (October 30) on the preprint server bioRxiv, was presented at the Genome Science 2015 conference in Birmingham, U.K. (September 7).

Led by Daniel MacArthur from the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, the research team collected exomes from labs around the world for its dataset. “The resulting catalogue of human genetic diversity has unprecedented resolution,” the authors wrote in their preprint. Many of the variants observed in the dataset occurred only once.

“This is one of the most useful resources ever created for medical testing for genetic disorders,” Heidi Rehm, a clinical lab director at Harvard Medical School, told Science News.

Among other things, the team found 3,230 genes that are highly conserved across exomes, indicating likely involvement in critical cellular functions. Of these, 2,557 are not associated with diseases. The authors hypothesized that these genes, if mutated, either lead to embryonic death—before a problem can be diagnosed—or cause rare diseases that have not yet been genetically characterized.

“We should soon be able to say, with high precision: If you have a mutation at this site, it will kill you. And we’ll be able to say that without ever seeing a person with that mutation,” MacArthur said during his Genome Science talk, according to The Atlantic.

This is not the complete set of essential genes in the human body, David Goldstein, a geneticist at Columbia University in New York City, pointed out to Nature. Only by studying more exomes will researchers be able to refine that number, he noted.

 

Analysis of protein-coding genetic variation in 60,706 humans

, , , , ,  et al.

http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2015/10/30/030338      doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/030338

Large-scale reference data sets of human genetic variation are critical for the medical and functional interpretation of DNA sequence changes. Here we describe the aggregation and analysis of high-quality exome (protein-coding region) sequence data for 60,706 individuals of diverse ethnicities. The resulting catalogue of human genetic diversity has unprecedented resolution, with an average of one variant every eight bases of coding sequence and the presence of widespread mutational recurrence. The deep catalogue of variation provided by the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) can be used to calculate objective metrics of pathogenicity for sequence variants, and to identify genes subject to strong selection against various classes of mutation; we identify 3,230 genes with near-complete depletion of truncating variants, 79% of which have no currently established human disease phenotype. Finally, we show that these data can be used for the efficient filtering of candidate disease-causing variants, and for the discovery of human knockout variants in protein-coding genes.

Analysis of protein-coding genetic variation in 60,706 humans   https://t.co/z0PtB4c8aY

 

 

Over the last five years, the widespread availability of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies has permitted the sequencing of the whole genomes or exomes (the 18 protein-coding regions of genomes) of over half a million humans. In theory, these data represent a powerful source of information about the global patterns of human genetic variation, but in practice, are difficult to access for practical, logistical, and ethical reasons; in addition, the inconsistent processing complicates variant-calling pipelines used by different groups. Current publicly available datasets of human DNA sequence variation contain only a small fraction of all sequenced samples: the Exome Variant Server, created as part of the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project (ESP)1, contains frequency information spanning 6,503 exomes; and the 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project, which includes individual-level genotype data from whole-genome and exome sequence data for 2,504 individuals2.

Databases of genetic variation are important for our understanding of human population history and biology1–5, but also provide critical resources for the clinical interpretation of variants observed in patients suffering from rare Mendelian diseases6,7. The filtering of candidate variants by frequency in unselected individuals is a key step in any pipeline for the discovery of causal variants in Mendelian disease patients, and the efficacy of such filtering depends on both the size and the ancestral diversity of the available reference data.

Here, we describe the joint variant calling and analysis of high-quality variant calls across 60,706 human exomes, assembled by the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC; exac.broadinstitute.org). This call set exceeds previously available exome-wide variant databases by nearly an order of magnitude, providing unprecedented resolution for the analysis of very low-frequency genetic variants. We demonstrate the application of this data set to the analysis of patterns of genetic variation including the discovery of widespread mutational recurrence, the inference of gene-level constraint against 10 truncating variation, the clinical interpretation of variation in Mendelian disease genes, and the discovery of human “knockout” variants in protein-coding genes.

…..

Deleterious variants are expected to have lower allele frequencies than neutral ones, due to negative selection. This theoretical property has been demonstrated previously in human population sequencing data18,19 and here (Figure 1d, Figure 1e). This allows inference of the degree of natural selection against specific functional classes of variation: however, mutational recurrence as described above indicates that allele frequencies observed in ExAC-scale samples are also skewed by mutation rate, with 10 more mutable sites less likely to be singletons (Figure 2c and Extended Data Figure 4d). Mutation rate is in turn non-uniformly distributed across functional classes – for instance, stop lost mutations can never occur at CpG dinucleotides (Extended Data Figure 4e). We corrected for mutation rates (Supplementary Information) by creating a mutability-adjusted proportion singleton (MAPS) metric. This metric reflects (as expected) strong selection against predicted PTVs, as well as missense variants predicted by conservation-based methods to be deleterious (Figure 2e).

The deep ascertainment of rare variation in ExAC also allows us to infer the extent of 19 selection against variant categories on a per-gene basis by examining the proportion of 20 variation that is missing compared to expectations under random mutation. Conceptually similar approaches have been applied to smaller exome datasets13,20 but have been underpowered, particularly for the analysis of depletion of PTVs. We compared the observed number of rare (MAF <0.1%) variants per gene to an expected number derived from a selection neutral, sequence-context based mutational model13. The model performs extremely well in predicting the number of synonymous variants, which should be under minimal purifying selection, per gene (r = 0.98; Extended Data Figure 5).

……

Critically, we note that LoF-intolerant genes include virtually all known severe haploinsufficient human disease genes (Figure 3b), but that 79% of LoF-intolerant genes have not yet been assigned a human disease phenotype despite the clear evidence for extreme selective constraint (Supplementary Information 4.11). These likely represent either undiscovered severe dominant disease genes, or genes in which loss of a single copy results in embryonic lethality.

The most highly constrained missense (top 25% missense Z scores) and PTV (pLI ≥0.9) genes show higher expression levels and broader tissue expression than the least constrained genes24 (Figure 3c). These most highly constrained genes are also depleted for eQTLs (p < 10-9 for missense and PTV; Figure 3d), yet are enriched within genome-wide significant trait-associated loci (χ2 p < 10-14, Figure 3e). Intuitively, genes intolerant of PTV variation are dosage sensitive: natural selection does not tolerate a 50% deficit in expression due to the loss of single allele. It is therefore unsurprising that these genes are also depleted of common genetic variants that have a large enough effect on expression to be detected as eQTLs with current limited sample sizes. However, smaller changes in the expression of these genes, through weaker eQTLs or functional variants, are more likely to contribute to medically relevant phenotypes. Therefore, highly constrained genes are dosage-sensitive, expressed more broadly across tissues (as expected for core cellular processes), and are enriched for medically relevant variation.

Finally, we investigated how these constraint metrics would stratify mutational classes according to their frequency spectrum, corrected for mutability as in the previous section (Figure 3f). The effect was most dramatic when considering stop-gained variants in the LoF-intolerant set of genes. For missense variants, the missense Z score offers information additional to Polyphen2 and CADD classifications, indicating that gene-level measures of constraint offer additional information to variant-level metrics in assessing potential pathogenicity.

We assessed the value of ExAC as a reference dataset for clinical sequencing approaches, which typically prioritize or filter potentially deleterious variants based on functional consequence and allele frequency6. To simulate a Mendelian variant analysis, we filtered variants in 100 ExAC exomes per continental population against ESP (the previous default reference data set for clinical analysis) or the remainder of ExAC, removing variants present at ≥0.1% allele frequency, a filter recommended for dominant 16 disease variant discovery6. Filtering on ExAC reduced the number of candidate protein-altering variants by 7-fold compared to ESP, and was most powerful when the highest 18 allele frequency in any one population (“popmax”) was used rather than average (“global”) allele frequency (Figure 4a). ESP is not well-powered to filter at 0.1% AF without removing many genuinely rare variants, as AF estimates based on low allele counts are both upward-biased and imprecise (Figure 4b). We thus expect that ExAC will provide a very substantial boost in the power and accuracy of variant filtering in Mendelian disease projects.

…….

The above curation efforts confirm the importance of allele frequency filtering in analysis of candidate disease variants. However, literature and database errors are prevalent even at lower allele frequencies: the average ExAC exome contains 0.89 reportedly Mendelian variants in well-characterized dominant disease genes at <1% popmax AF and 0.20 at <0.1% popmax AF. This inflation likely results from a combination of false reports of pathogenicity and incomplete penetrance, as we show for PRNP in the accompanying work [Minikel et al, submitted]. The abundance of rare functional variation in many disease genes in ExAC is a reminder that such variants should not be assumed to be causal or highly penetrant without careful segregation or case-control analysis28,7.

We investigated the distribution of PTVs, variants predicted to disrupt protein-coding genes through the introduction of a stop codon or frameshift or the disruption of an essential splice site; such variants are expected to be enriched for complete loss-of-function of the impacted genes. Naturally-occurring PTVs in humans provide a model for the functional impact of gene inactivation, and have been used to identify many genes in 6 which LoF causes severe disease31, as well as rare cases where LoF is protective against disease32.

Among the 7,404,909 HQ variants in ExAC, we found 179,774 high-confidence PTVs (as 10 defined in Supplementary Information Section 6), 121,309 of which are singletons. This 11 corresponds to an average of 85 heterozygous and 35 homozygous PTVs per individual (Figure 5a). The diverse nature of the cohort enables the discovery of substantial numbers of novel PTVs: out of 58,435 PTVs with an allele count greater than one, 33,625 occur in only one population. However, while PTVs as a category are extremely rare, the majority of the PTVs found in any one person are common, and each individual 16 has only ~2 singleton PTVs, of which 0.14 are found in PTV-constrained genes (pLI 17 >0.9). The site frequency spectrum of these variants across the populations represented in ExAC recapitulates known aspects of demographic models, including an increase in intermediate-frequency (1%-5%) PTVs in Finland33 and relatively common (>0.1%) PTVs in Africans (Figure 5b).

……

 

Discussion  Here we describe the generation and analysis of the most comprehensive catalogue of 29 human protein-coding genetic variation to date, incorporating high-quality exome sequencing data from 60,706 individuals of diverse geographic ancestry. The resulting call set provides unprecedented resolution for the analysis of very low-frequency protein-coding variants in human populations, as well as a powerful resource for the clinical interpretation of genetic variants observed in disease patients. The complete frequency CC-BY-ND 4.0 International license for this preprint is the author/funder. It is made available under a bioRxiv preprint first posted online October 30, 2015;
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/030338 ; The copyright holder and annotation data from this call-set has been made freely available through a public website [exac.broadinstitute.org]

The ExAC resource provides the largest database to date for the estimation of allele frequency for protein-coding genetic variants, providing a powerful filter for analysis of candidate pathogenic variants in severe Mendelian diseases. Frequency data from ESP1 have been widely used for this purpose, but those data are limited by population diversity and by resolution at allele frequencies ≤0.1%. ExAC therefore provides 21 substantially improved power for Mendelian analyses, although it is still limited in power at lower allele frequencies, emphasizing the need for more sophisticated pathogenic variant filtering strategies alongside on-going data aggregation efforts. ExAC also highlights an unexpected tolerance of many disease genes to functional variation, and reveals that the literature and public databases contain an inflated number of reportedly pathogenic variants across the frequency spectrum, indicating a need for stringent criteria for assertions of pathogenicity.

Finally, we show that different populations confer different advantages in the discovery of gene-disrupting PTVs, providing guidance for projects seeking to identify human “knockouts” to understand gene function. Individuals of African ancestry have more PTVs (140 on average), with this enrichment most pronounced at allele frequencies above 1% (Figure 5b). Finnish individuals, as a result of a population bottleneck, are depleted at the lowest (<0.1%) allele frequencies but have a peak in frequency at 1-5% (Figure 5b). However, these differences are diminished when considering only LoF-constrained (pLI > 0.9) genes (Extended Data Figure 10). Sampling multiple populations would likely be a fruitful strategy for a researcher investigating common PTV variation. However, discovery of homozygous PTVs is markedly enhanced in the South Asia samples, which come primarily from a Pakistani cohort with 38.3% of individuals self- reporting as having closely related parents, emphasizing the extreme value of consanguineous cohorts for “human knockout” discovery (Figure 5d) [Saleheen et al., to 8 be co-submitted].

…..

While the ExAC dataset dramatically exceeds the scale of previously available frequency reference datasets, much remains to be gained by further increases in sample size. Indeed, the fact that even the rarest transversions have mutational rates13 on the order of 1 x 10-9 implies that almost all possible non-lethal SNVs likely exist in some person on Earth. ExAC already includes >70% of all possible protein-coding CpG transitions at well-covered sites; order of magnitude increases in sample size will eventually lead to saturation of other classes of variation.

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Why Does Cytotoxic Chemotherapy Still Remain a Mainstay in Many Chemotherapeutic Regimens? [6.1.1]

 

Reporter: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

At the 2015 AACR National Meeting, Drs. Anthony Letai, Dr. Michael Hermann, Dr. Rene Bernards, and Dr. Guido Kroemer gave The 2015 Stanley J. Korsmeyer Memorial Symposium: Cell Death and Cancer Therapy: Why Has Conventional Chemotherapy Been So Successful?

Cytotoxic chemotherapy, for which the mechanism of action is centered on the ability of the drug to kill a cell by either necrosis, genotoxic, apoptosis, or autophagy mechanisms rather than just halting cell growth, is still, in this era of personalized and cytostatic therapies, is still a mainstay in many treatment regimens for a majority of cancers. Treatment regimens such as MOPP (mechlorethamine, Oncovin, procarbazine, prednisone), CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) , carboplatin with taxol, and even with personalized therapies, which usually are given in combination with a cytotoxic agent. However treatment regimens containing these cytotoxic chemotherapeutics show some of the best survival rates. The abstract for the Symposium is given below:

In this current era of precisely targeted therapies and –omics technologies, it is often forgotten that no medical therapy has cured, and continues to cure, more people of cancer than conventional chemotherapy. Notwithstanding its superior performance across many cancer types, the mechanism of the therapeutic index of conventional agents, largely targeting ubiquitous elements like DNA and microtubules, is poorly understood. The textbook explanation of conventional chemotherapy’s working by killing supposedly rapidly dividing cancer cells lacks clinical evidence and flies in the face of many obvious clinical counter-examples. In the session,m the speakers will describe how conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy preferentially kills cancer cells. Moreover, they will describe how clinical response to chemotherapy might be better predicted.

This post is presented as the speakers titles and a brief curation of their papers related to the subject matter.

Anthony G. Letai, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA. Conventional chemotherapy cures people by exploiting apoptotic priming.

Conventional chemotherapy has an amazing track record that is often under-appreciated in today’s world of genomics and targeted pathway inhibitors. Conventional chemotherapy is responsible for curing millions of cancer patients over the past 5 decades. That is, millions of patients have presented to their doctors with an otherwise fatal malignancy, were given a finite course of chemotherapy (largely DNA and microtubule perturbing agents) and had their cancer eradicated, never to return. Perhaps as remarkable as the magnitude of the achievement of conventional chemotherapy is the magnitude of our ignorance of why it should ever work, and why it works far better in some tumors than in others. Textbook explanations rely on concepts of differential proliferation rates in cancers that are incompletely supported in the clinical literature. Successful chemotherapy treatments usually kill via the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. We have found that simple functional measurements of the pre-treatment state of the tumor cell can be rapidly made with BH3 profiling. These measurements demonstrate that a major, if not the major, reason for a therapeutic index for cancer chemotherapy is that chemo-sensitive cancer cells are simply more primed for apoptosis than normal cells. Moreover, apoptotic priming can be measured to make clinical predictions regarding quality of response on an individualized basis. Enhancing pretreatment priming of cancer cells with selectively acting targeted agents is a promising strategy to extend the demonstrated curative power of conventional chemotherapy.

Maturation Stage of T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Determines BCL-2 versus BCL-XL Dependence and Sensitivity to ABT-199

Triona Ni Chonghaile, Justine E. Roderick, Cian Glenfield, Jeremy Ryan, Stephen E. Sallan, Lewis B. Silverman, Mignon L. Loh, Stephen P. Hunger, Brent Wood, Daniel J. DeAngelo, Richard Stone, Marian Harris, Alejandro Gutierrez, Michelle A. Kelliher, Anthony Letai

Cancer Discov. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 March 1.

Published in final edited form as: Cancer Discov. 2014 September; 4(9): 1074–1087. Published online 2014 July 3. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-14-0353

 

High Mitochondrial Priming Sensitizes hESCs to DNA-Damage-Induced Apoptosis

Julia C. Liu, Xiao Guan, Jeremy A. Ryan, Ana G. Rivera, Caroline Mock, Vishesh Agrawal, Anthony Letai, Paul H. Lerou, Galit Lahav

Cell Stem Cell. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2014 October 3.

Published in final edited form as: Cell Stem Cell. 2013 October 3; 13(4): 483–491. Published online 2013 August 15. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2013.07.018

Correction in: volume 13 on page 634

 

Prolonged mitotic arrest triggers partial activation of apoptosis, resulting in DNA damage and p53 induction

James D. Orth, Alexander Loewer, Galit Lahav, Timothy J. Mitchison

Mol Biol Cell. 2012 February 15; 23(4): 567–576. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E11-09-0781

 

Stem cells: Balancing resistance and sensitivity to DNA damage

Julia C. Liu, Paul H. Lerou, Galit Lahav

Trends Cell Biol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 May 1.

Published in final edited form as: Trends Cell Biol. 2014 May; 24(5): 268–274. Published online 2014 April 7. doi: 10.1016/j.tcb.2014.03.002

 

Michael T. Hermann, MIT Koch Institute for Integrated Cancer Research, Cambridge MA. Using convential chemotherapy as targeted agents.

Exploiting the Synergy between Carboplatin and ABT-737 in the Treatment of Ovarian Carcinomas

Harsh Vardhan Jain, Alan Richardson, Michael Meyer-Hermann, Helen M. Byrne

PLoS One. 2014; 9(1): e81582. Published online 2014 January 6.

 

Rene Bernards, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Identifying responders to chemotherapies through functional genomics

MED12 Controls the Response to Multiple Cancer Drugs through Regulation of TGF-β Receptor Signaling

Sidong Huang, Michael Hölzel, Theo Knijnenburg, Andreas Schlicker, Paul Roepman, Ultan McDermott, Mathew Garnett, Wipawadee Grernrum, Chong Sun, Anirudh Prahallad, Floris H. Groenendijk, Lorenza Mittempergher, Wouter Nijkamp, Jacques Neefjes, Ramon Salazar, Peter ten Dijke, Hidetaka Uramoto, Fumihiro Tanaka, Roderick L. Beijersbergen, Lodewyk F.A. Wessels, René Bernards

Cell. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2013 June 5.

Published in final edited form as: Cell. 2012 November 21; 151(5): 937–950.

 

Sorafenib synergizes with metformin in NSCLC through AMPK pathway activation

Floris H Groenendijk, Wouter W Mellema, Eline van der Burg, Eva Schut, Michael Hauptmann, Hugo M Horlings, Stefan M Willems, Michel M van den Heuvel, Jos Jonkers, Egbert F Smit, René Bernards

Int J Cancer. 2015 March 15; 136(6): 1434–1444. Published online 2014 August 1.

 

The Corepressor CTBP2 Is a Coactivator of Retinoic Acid Receptor/Retinoid X Receptor in Retinoic Acid Signaling

Prashanth Kumar Bajpe, Guus J. J. E. Heynen, Lorenza Mittempergher, Wipawadee Grernrum, Iris A. de Rink, Wouter Nijkamp, Roderick L. Beijersbergen, Rene Bernards, Sidong Huang

Mol Cell Biol. 2013 August; 33(16): 3343–3353. doi: 10.1128/MCB.01213-12

 

Using Functional Genetics to Understand Breast Cancer Biology

Alan Ashworth, Rene Bernards

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2010 July; 2(7): a003327. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a003327

 

 

SMARCE1 suppresses EGFR expression and controls responses to MET and ALK inhibitors in lung cancer

Andreas I Papadakis, Chong Sun, Theo A Knijnenburg, Yibo Xue, Wipawadee Grernrum, Michael Hölzel, Wouter Nijkamp, Lodewyk FA Wessels, Roderick L Beijersbergen, Rene Bernards, Sidong Huang

Cell Res. 2015 April; 25(4): 445–458. Published online 2015 February 6.

 

The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: in search of gold standards for assessing functional genetic screen quality

Bastiaan Evers, Rene Bernards, Roderick L Beijersbergen

Mol Syst Biol. 2014 July; 10(7): 738. Published online 2014 July 1.

 

An Integrative Genomic and Proteomic Analysis of PIK3CA, PTEN, and AKT Mutations in Breast Cancer

Katherine Stemke-Hale, Ana Maria Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Lluch, Richard M. Neve, Wen-Lin Kuo, Michael Davies, Mark Carey, Zhi Hu, Yinghui Guan, Aysegul Sahin, W. Fraser Symmans, Lajos Pusztai, Laura K. Nolden, Hugo Horlings, Katrien Berns, Mien-Chie Hung, Marc J. van de Vijver, Vicente Valero, Joe W. Gray, René Bernards, Gordon B. Mills, Bryan T. Hennessy

Cancer Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2009 August 1.

Published in final edited form as: Cancer Res. 2008 August 1; 68(15): 6084–6091.

 

CTF Meeting 2012: Translation of the Basic Understanding of the Biology and Genetics of NF1, NF2, and Schwannomatosis Toward the Development of Effective Therapies

Brigitte C. Widemann, Maria T. Acosta, Sylvia Ammoun, Allan J. Belzberg, Andre Bernards, Jaishri Blakeley, Antony Bretscher, Karen Cichowski, D. Wade Clapp, Eva Dombi, Gareth D. Evans, Rosalie Ferner, Cristina Fernandez-Valle, Michael J. Fisher, Marco Giovannini, David H. Gutmann, C. Oliver Hanemann, Robert Hennigan, Susan Huson, David Ingram, Joe Kissil, Bruce R. Korf, Eric Legius, Roger J. Packer, Andrea I McClatchey, Frank McCormick, Kathryn North, Minja Pehrsson, Scott R. Plotkin, Vijaya Ramesh, Nancy Ratner, Susann Schirmer, Larry Sherman, Elizabeth Schorry, David Stevenson, Douglas R. Stewart, Nicole Ullrich, Annette C. Bakker, Helen Morrison

Am J Med Genet A. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2014 September 1.

Published in final edited form as: Am J Med Genet A. 2014 March; 0(3): 563–578. Published

 

Analysis of the MammaPrint Breast Cancer Assay in a Predominantly Postmenopausal Cohort

Ben S. Wittner, Dennis C. Sgroi, Paula D. Ryan, Tako J. Bruinsma, Annuska M. Glas, Anitha Male, Sonika Dahiya, Karleen Habin, Rene Bernards, Daniel A. Haber, Laura J. Van’t Veer, Sridhar Ramaswamy Clin Cancer Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 7.

 

Guido Kroemer, INSERM U848- Institute Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif, France. A hallmark of successful cancer therapies: Reinstatement of immunosurvelliance.

Immune infiltrate in cancer Gautier Stoll, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer

Aging (Albany NY) 2015 June; 7(6): 358–359. Published online 2015 June 25.

 

Corrigendum: “Combinatorial Strategies for the Induction of Immunogenic Cell Death”

Lucillia Bezu, Ligia C. Gomes-da-Silva, Heleen Dewitte, Karine Breckpot, Jitka Fucikova, Radek Spisek, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Oliver Kepp, Guido Kroemer

Front Immunol. 2015; 6: 275. Published online 2015 June 1. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00275

Corrects: Front Immunol. 2015; 6: 187.

 

Meta-analysis of organ-specific differences in the structure of the immune infiltrate in major malignancies

Gautier Stoll, Gabriela Bindea, Bernhard Mlecnik, Jérôme Galon, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer

Oncotarget. 2015 May 20; 6(14): 11894–11909. Published online 2015 May 19

 

Other posts on this site on Cytotoxicity and Cancer include

Novel Approaches to Cancer Therapy [11.1]

Misfolded Proteins – from Little Villains to Little Helpers… Against Cancer

Multiple Lung Cancer Genomic Projects Suggest New Targets, Research Directions for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

A Synthesis of the Beauty and Complexity of How We View Cancer

Good and Bad News Reported for Ovarian Cancer Therapy

 

 

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CRISPR/Cas9 Finds Its Way As an Important Tool For Drug Discovery & Development

 

Curator: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

The RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease from the microbial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) adaptive immune system can be used to facilitate efficient genome engineering in eukaryotic cells by simply specifying a 20-nt targeting sequence within its guide RNA.

CRISPR/Cas systems are part of the adaptive immune system of bacteria and archaea, protecting them against invading nucleic acids such as viruses by cleaving the foreign DNA in a sequence-dependent manner. Although CRISPR arrays were first identified in the Escherichia coli genome in 1987 (Ishino et al., 1987), their biological function was not understood until 2005, when it was shown that the spacers were homologous to viral and plasmid sequences suggesting a role in adaptive immunity (Bolotin et al., 2005; Mojica et al., 2005; Pourcel et al., 2005). Two years later, CRISPR arrays were confirmed to provide protection against invading viruses when combined with Cas genes (Barrangou et al., 2007). The mechanism of this immune system based on RNA-mediated DNA targeting was demonstrated shortly thereafter (Brouns et al., 2008; Deltcheva et al., 2011; Garneau et al., 2010; Marraffini and Sontheimer, 2008).

Jennifer Doudna, PhD Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology and Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute has recently received numerous awards and accolades for the discovery of CRISPR/Cas9 as a tool for mammalian genetic manipulation as well as her primary intended research target to understand bacterial resistance to viral infection.

A good post on the matter and Dr. Doudna can be seen below:

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/06/13/215-245-6132014-jennifer-doudna-the-biology-of-crisprs-from-genome-defense-to-genetic-engineering/

In Delineating a Role for CRISPR-Cas9 in Pharmaceutical Targeting inheritable metabolic disorders in which may benefit from a CRISPR-Cas9 mediated therapy is discussed. However this curation is meant to focus on CRISPR/CAS9 AS A TOOL IN PRECLINICAL DRUG DEVELOPMENT.

Three Areas of Importance of CRISPR/Cas9 as a TOOL in Preclinical Drug Discovery Include:

 

  1. Gene-Function Studies: CRISPR/CAS9 ability to DEFINE GENETIC LESION and INSERTION SITE
  2. CRISPR/CAS9 Use in Developing Models of Disease
  • Using CRISPR/Cas9 in PRECLINICAL TOXICOLOGY STUDIES

 

 

I.     Gene-Function Studies: CRISPR/CAS9 ability to DEFINE GENETIC LESION and INSERTION SITE

 

The advent of the first tools for manipulating genetic material (cloning, PCR, transgenic technology, and before microarray and other’omic methods) allowed scientists to probe novel, individual gene functions as well as their variants and mutants in a “one-gene-at-a time” process. In essence, a gene (or mutant gene) was sequenced, cloned into expression vectors and transfected into recipient cells where function was evaluated.

However, some of the experimental issues with this methodology involved

 

  • Most transfections experiments result in NON ISOGENIC cell lines – by definition the insertion of a transgene alters the genetic makeup of a cell line. Simple transfection experiments with one transgene compared to a “null” transfectant compares non-isogenic lines, possibly confusing the interpretation of gene-function studies. Therefore a common technique is to develop cell lines with inducible gene expression, thereby allowing the investigator to compare a gene’s effect in ISOGENIC cell lines.
  1. Use of CRSPR in Highthrough-put Screening of Genetic Function

A very nice presentation and summary of CRSPR’s use in determining gene function in a high-throughput manner can be found below

www.rna.uzh.ch/events/journalclub/20140429JCCaihong.pdf

  1. Determining Off-target Effects of Gene Therapy Simplified with CRSPR

In GUIDE-seq: First genome-wide method of detecting off-target DNA breaks induced by CRISPR-Cas nucleases (from This Journal’s series on Live Meeting Coverage) at a 2014 Koch lecture

Shengdar Q Tsai and J Keith Joung describe

an approach for global detection of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) introduced by RGNs and potentially other nucleases. This method, called genome-wide, unbiased identification of DSBs enabled by sequencing (GUIDE-seq), relies on capture of double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides into DSBs. Application of GUIDE-seq to 13 RGNs in two human cell lines revealed wide variability in RGN off-target activities and unappreciated characteristics of off-target sequences. The majority of identified sites were not detected by existing computational methods or chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq). GUIDE-seq also identified RGN-independent genomic breakpoint ‘hotspots’.

SOURCE http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nbt.3117.html

II. CRISPR/Cas9 Use in Developing Models of Disease

 

  1. Developing Animal Tumor Models

In a post this year I discussed a talk at the recent 2015 AACR National Meeting on a laboratories ability to use CRISPR gene editing in-vivo to produce a hepatocarcinoma using viral delivery. The post can be seen here: Notes from Opening Plenary Session – The Genome and Beyond from the 2015 AACR Meeting in Philadelphia PA; Sunday April 19, 2015

 

1) In this talk Dr. Tyler Jacks discussed his use of CRSPR to generate a mouse model of liver tumor in an immunocompetent mouse. Some notes from this talk are given below

  1. B) Engineering Cancer Genomes: Tyler Jacks, Ph.D.; Director, Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research
  • Cancer GEM’s (genetically engineered mouse models of cancer) had moved from transgenics to defined oncogenes
  • Observation that p53 -/- mice develop spontaneous tumors (lymphomas)
  • then GEMs moved to Cre/Lox systems to generate mice with deletions however these tumor models require lots of animals, much time to create, expensive to keep;
  • figured can use CRSPR/Cas9 as rapid, inexpensive way to generate engineered mice and tumor models
  • he used CRSPR/Cas9 vectors targeting PTEN to introduce PTEN mutations in-vivo to hepatocytes; when they also introduced p53 mutations produced hemangiosarcomas; took ONLY THREE months to produce detectable tumors
  • also produced liver tumors by using CRSPR/Cas9 to introduce gain of function mutation in β-catenin

 

See an article describing this study by MIT News “A New Way To Model Cancer: New gene-editing technique allows scientists to more rapidly study the role of mutations in tumor development.”

The original research article can be found in the August 6, 2014 issue of Nature[1]

And see also on the Jacks Lab site under Research

2)     In the Upcoming Meeting New Frontiers in Gene Editing multiple uses of CRISPR technology is discussed in relation to gene knockout/function studies, tumor model development and

 

 

New Frontiers in Gene Editing

Session Spotlight:
BUILDING IN VIVO MODELS FOR DRUG DISCOVERY

Genome Editing Animal Models in Drug Discovery
Myung Shin, Ph.D., Senior Principal Scientist, Biology-Discovery, Genetics and Pharmacogenomics, Merck Research Laboratories

Recent advances in genome editing have greatly accelerated and expanded the ability to generate animal models. These tools allow generating mouse models in condensed timeline compared to that of conventional gene-targeting knock-out/knock-in strategies. Moreover, the genome editing methods have expanded the ability to generate animal models beyond mice. In this talk, we will discuss the application of ZFN and CRISPR to generate various animal models for drug discovery programs.

In vivo Cancer Modeling and Genetic Screening Using CRISPR/Cas9
Sidi Chen, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow, Laboratories of Dr. Phillip A. Sharp and Dr. Feng Zhang, Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT and Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT

Here we describe a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9-mediated loss-of-function screen in tumor growth and metastasis. We mutagenized a non-metastatic mouse cancer cell line using a genome-scale library. The mutant cell pool rapidly generates metastases when transplanted into immunocompromised mice. Enriched sgRNAs in lung metastases and late stage primary tumors were found to target a small set of genes, suggesting specific loss-of-function mutations drive tumor growth and metastasis.

FEATURED PRESENTATION: In vivo Chromosome Engineering Using CRISPR-Cas9
Andrea Ventura, M.D., Ph.D., Assistant Member, Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

We will discuss our experience using somatic genome editing to engineer oncogenic chromosomal rearrangements in vivo. More specifically, we will present the results of our ongoing efforts aimed at modeling cancers driven by chromosomal rearrangements using viral mediated delivery of Crispr-Cas9 to adult animals.

RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9-Based in vivo Models for Drug Discovery
Christof Fellmann, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow, Laboratory of Dr. Jennifer Doudna, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, The University of California, Berkeley

Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) are a powerful tool to study disease initiation, treatment response and relapse. By combining CRISPR/Cas9 and “Sensor” validated, tetracycline-regulated “miR-E” shRNA technology, we have developed a fast and scalable platform to generate RNAi GEMMs with reversible gene silencing capability. The synergy of CRISPR/Cas9 and RNAi enabled us to not only model disease pathogenesis, but also mimic drug therapy in mice, providing us capability to perform preclinical studies in vivo.

In vivo Genome Editing Using Staphylococcus aureus Cas9
Fei Ann Ran, Ph.D., Post-doctoral Fellow, Laboratory of Dr. Feng Zhang, Broad Institute and Junior Fellow, Harvard Society of Fellows

The RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease from the bacterial CRISPR/Cas system has been adapted as a powerful tool for facilitating targeted genome editing in eukaryotes. Recently, we have identified an additional small Cas9 nuclease from Staphylococcus aureus that can be packaged with its guide RNA into a single adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector for in vivo applications. We demonstrate the use of this system for effective gene modification in adult animals and further expand the Cas9 toolbox for in vivo genome editing.

OriGene, Making the Right Tools for CRISPR Research
Xuan Liu, Ph.D., Senior Director, Marketing, OriGene

CRISPR technology has quickly revolutionized the scientific community. Its simplicity has democratized the genome editing technology and enabled every lab to consider its utility in gene function research. As the largest tool box for gene functional research, OriGene created a large collection of CRISPR-related tools, including various all-in-one vectors for gRNA cloning, donor vector backbones, genome-wide knockout kits, AAVS1 insertion vectors, etc. OriGene’s high quality products will accelerate CRISPR research.

 

  1. Transgenic Animals : Custom Mouse and Rat Model Generation Service Using CRISPR/Cas9 by AppliedStem Cell Inc. (http://www.appliedstemcell.com/)

A critical component of producing transgenic animals is the ability of each successive generations to pass on the transgene. In her post on this site, A NEW ERA OF GENETIC MANIPULATION  Dr. Demet Sag discusses the molecular biology of Cas9 systems and their efficiency to cause point mutations which can be passed on to subsequent generations

This group developed a new technology for editing genes that can be transferable change to the next generation by combining microbial immune defense mechanism, CRISPR/Cas9 that is the latest ground breaking technology for translational genomics with gene therapy-like approach.

  • In short, this so-called “mutagenic chain reaction” (MCR) introduces a recessive mutation defined by CRISPR/Cas9 that lead into a high rate of transferable information to the next generation. They reported that when they crossed the female MCR offspring to wild type flies, the yellow phenotype observed more than 95 percent efficiency.

 

 

 

The advantage of CRISPR/Cas9 over ZFNs or TALENs is its scalability and multiplexibility in that multiple sites within the mammalian genome can be simultaneously modified, providing a robust, high-throughput approach for gene editing in mammalian cells.

Applied StemCell, Inc. offers various services related to animal models including conventional transgenic rats, and phenotype analysis using knock-in, knock-out strategies.

Further explanation of their use of CRSPR can be found at the site below:

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/10/29/gene-editing-at-crispr-speed-services-and-tools/

In addition, ReproCELL Inc., a Tokyo based stem cell company, uses CRSPR to develop

· Tailored disease model cells (hiPSC-Disease Model Cells)

  • 2 types of services
  • ReproUNUS™-g:human iPS cell derived functional cells involving gene editing by CRISPR/Cas9 system
  • eproUNUS™-p:patient derived iPS cell derived functional cells

III. Using CRISPR/Cas9 in PRECLINICAL TOXICOLOGY STUDIES

 

As of now it is unclear as to the strategy of pharma in how to use this technology for toxicology testing however a few companies have licensed the technology to use across their R&D platforms including

A recent paper used a sister technique TALEN to generate knock-in pigs which suggest that it would be possible to generate pigs with human transgenes, especially in human liver isozymes in orer to study hepatotoxicity of drugs.

 

Efficient bi-allelic gene knockout and site-specific knock-in mediated by TALENs in pigs

Jing Yao, Jiaojiao Huang, Tang Hai, Xianlong Wang, Guosong Qin, Hongyong Zhang, Rong Wu, Chunwei Cao, Jianzhong Jeff Xi, Zengqiang Yuan, Jianguo Zhao

Sci Rep. 2014; 4: 6926. Published online 2014 November 5. doi: 10.1038/srep06926

 

Other related articles on CRISPR/Cas9 were published in this Open Access Online Scientific Journal, include the following:

Search Results for ‘CRISPR’

Where is the most promising avenue to success in Pharmaceuticals with CRISPR-Cas9?

CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tool for Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 complex (SaCas9) @ MIT’s Broad Institute

Delineating a Role for CRISPR-Cas9 in Pharmaceutical Targeting

Using CRISPR to investigate pancreatic cancer

Simple technology makes CRISPR gene editing cheaper

RNAi, CRISPR, and Gene Editing: Discussions on How To’s and Best Practices @14th Annual World Preclinical Congress June 10-12, 2015 | Westin Boston Waterfront | Boston, MA

CRISPR/Cas9: Contributions on Endoribonuclease Structure and Function, Role in Immunity and Applications in Genome Engineering

CRISPR-CAS editing brings cloning of woolly mammoth one step closer to reality

GUIDE-seq: First genome-wide method of detecting off-target DNA breaks induced by CRISPR-Cas nucleases

The Patents for CRISPR, the DNA editing technology as the Biggest Biotech Discovery of the Century

CRISPR: Applications for Autoimmune Diseases @UCSF

 

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Cancer Biology and Genomics for Disease Diagnosis (Vol. I) Now Available for Amazon Kindle


Cancer Biology and Genomics for Disease Diagnosis (Vol. I) Now Available for Amazon Kindle

Reporter: Stephen J Williams, PhD

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence would like to announce the First volume of their BioMedical E-Book Series C: e-Books on Cancer & Oncology

Volume One: Cancer Biology and Genomics for Disease Diagnosis

CancerandOncologyseriesCcoverwhich is now available on Amazon Kindle at                          http://www.amazon.com/dp/B013RVYR2K.

This e-Book is a comprehensive review of recent Original Research on Cancer & Genomics including related opportunities for Targeted Therapy written by Experts, Authors, Writers. This ebook highlights some of the recent trends and discoveries in cancer research and cancer treatment, with particular attention how new technological and informatics advancements have ushered in paradigm shifts in how we think about, diagnose, and treat cancer. The results of Original Research are gaining value added for the e-Reader by the Methodology of Curation. The e-Book’s articles have been published on the Open Access Online Scientific Journal, since April 2012.  All new articles on this subject, will continue to be incorporated, as published with periodical updates.

We invite e-Readers to write an Article Reviews on Amazon for this e-Book on Amazon. All forthcoming BioMed e-Book Titles can be viewed at:

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/biomed-e-books/

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence, launched in April 2012 an Open Access Online Scientific Journal is a scientific, medical and business multi expert authoring environment in several domains of  life sciences, pharmaceutical, healthcare & medicine industries. The venture operates as an online scientific intellectual exchange at their website http://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com and for curation and reporting on frontiers in biomedical, biological sciences, healthcare economics, pharmacology, pharmaceuticals & medicine. In addition the venture publishes a Medical E-book Series available on Amazon’s Kindle platform.

Analyzing and sharing the vast and rapidly expanding volume of scientific knowledge has never been so crucial to innovation in the medical field. WE are addressing need of overcoming this scientific information overload by:

  • delivering curation and summary interpretations of latest findings and innovations
  • on an open-access, Web 2.0 platform with future goals of providing primarily concept-driven search in the near future
  • providing a social platform for scientists and clinicians to enter into discussion using social media
  • compiling recent discoveries and issues in yearly-updated Medical E-book Series on Amazon’s mobile Kindle platform

This curation offers better organization and visibility to the critical information useful for the next innovations in academic, clinical, and industrial research by providing these hybrid networks.

Table of Contents for Cancer Biology and Genomics for Disease Diagnosis

Preface

Introduction  The evolution of cancer therapy and cancer research: How we got here?

Part I. Historical Perspective of Cancer Demographics, Etiology, and Progress in Research

Chapter 1:  The Occurrence of Cancer in World Populations

Chapter 2.  Rapid Scientific Advances Changes Our View on How Cancer Forms

Chapter 3:  A Genetic Basis and Genetic Complexity of Cancer Emerge

Chapter 4: How Epigenetic and Metabolic Factors Affect Tumor Growth

Chapter 5: Advances in Breast and Gastrointestinal Cancer Research Supports Hope for Cure

Part II. Advent of Translational Medicine, “omics”, and Personalized Medicine Ushers in New Paradigms in Cancer Treatment and Advances in Drug Development

Chapter 6:  Treatment Strategies

Chapter 7:  Personalized Medicine and Targeted Therapy

Part III.Translational Medicine, Genomics, and New Technologies Converge to Improve Early Detection

Chapter 8:  Diagnosis                                     

Chapter 9:  Detection

Chapter 10:  Biomarkers

Chapter 11:  Imaging In Cancer

Chapter 12: Nanotechnology Imparts New Advances in Cancer Treatment, Detection, &  Imaging                                 

Epilogue by Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FACP: Envisioning New Insights in Cancer Translational Biology

 

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Icelandic Population Genomic Study Results by deCODE Genetics come to Fruition: Curation of Current genomic studies

Reporter/Curator: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

 

UPDATED on 9/6/2017

On 9/6/2017, Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN had attend a talk by Paul Nioi, PhD, Amgen, at HMS, Harvard BioTechnology Club (GSAS).

Nioi discussed his 2016 paper in NEJM, 2016, 374:2131-2141

Variant ASGR1 Associated with a Reduced Risk of Coronary Artery Disease

Paul Nioi, Ph.D., Asgeir Sigurdsson, B.Sc., Gudmar Thorleifsson, Ph.D., Hannes Helgason, Ph.D., Arna B. Agustsdottir, B.Sc., Gudmundur L. Norddahl, Ph.D., Anna Helgadottir, M.D., Audur Magnusdottir, Ph.D., Aslaug Jonasdottir, M.Sc., Solveig Gretarsdottir, Ph.D., Ingileif Jonsdottir, Ph.D., Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Ph.D., Thorunn Rafnar, Ph.D., Dorine W. Swinkels, M.D., Ph.D., Tessel E. Galesloot, Ph.D., Niels Grarup, Ph.D., Torben Jørgensen, D.M.Sc., Henrik Vestergaard, D.M.Sc., Torben Hansen, Ph.D., Torsten Lauritzen, D.M.Sc., Allan Linneberg, Ph.D., Nele Friedrich, Ph.D., Nikolaj T. Krarup, Ph.D., Mogens Fenger, Ph.D., Ulrik Abildgaard, D.M.Sc., Peter R. Hansen, D.M.Sc., Anders M. Galløe, Ph.D., Peter S. Braund, Ph.D., Christopher P. Nelson, Ph.D., Alistair S. Hall, F.R.C.P., Michael J.A. Williams, M.D., Andre M. van Rij, M.D., Gregory T. Jones, Ph.D., Riyaz S. Patel, M.D., Allan I. Levey, M.D., Ph.D., Salim Hayek, M.D., Svati H. Shah, M.D., Muredach Reilly, M.B., B.Ch., Gudmundur I. Eyjolfsson, M.D., Olof Sigurdardottir, M.D., Ph.D., Isleifur Olafsson, M.D., Ph.D., Lambertus A. Kiemeney, Ph.D., Arshed A. Quyyumi, F.R.C.P., Daniel J. Rader, M.D., William E. Kraus, M.D., Nilesh J. Samani, F.R.C.P., Oluf Pedersen, D.M.Sc., Gudmundur Thorgeirsson, M.D., Ph.D., Gisli Masson, Ph.D., Hilma Holm, M.D., Daniel Gudbjartsson, Ph.D., Patrick Sulem, M.D., Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Ph.D., and Kari Stefansson, M.D., Ph.D.

N Engl J Med 2016; 374:2131-2141June 2, 2016DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1508419

Abstract
Article
References
Citing Articles (22)
Metrics

BACKGROUND

Several sequence variants are known to have effects on serum levels of non–high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol that alter the risk of coronary artery disease.

METHODS

We sequenced the genomes of 2636 Icelanders and found variants that we then imputed into the genomes of approximately 398,000 Icelanders. We tested for association between these imputed variants and non-HDL cholesterol levels in 119,146 samples. We then performed replication testing in two populations of European descent. We assessed the effects of an implicated loss-of-function variant on the risk of coronary artery disease in 42,524 case patients and 249,414 controls from five European ancestry populations. An augmented set of genomes was screened for additional loss-of-function variants in a target gene. We evaluated the effect of an implicated variant on protein stability.

RESULTS

We found a rare noncoding 12-base-pair (bp) deletion (del12) in intron 4 of ASGR1, which encodes a subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor, a lectin that plays a role in the homeostasis of circulating glycoproteins. The del12 mutation activates a cryptic splice site, leading to a frameshift mutation and a premature stop codon that renders a truncated protein prone to degradation. Heterozygous carriers of the mutation (1 in 120 persons in our study population) had a lower level of non-HDL cholesterol than noncarriers, a difference of 15.3 mg per deciliter (0.40 mmol per liter) (P=1.0×10−16), and a lower risk of coronary artery disease (by 34%; 95% confidence interval, 21 to 45; P=4.0×10−6). In a larger set of sequenced samples from Icelanders, we found another loss-of-function ASGR1 variant (p.W158X, carried by 1 in 1850 persons) that was also associated with lower levels of non-HDL cholesterol (P=1.8×10−3).

CONCLUSIONS

ASGR1 haploinsufficiency was associated with reduced levels of non-HDL cholesterol and a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.)

 

Amgen’s deCODE Genetics Publishes Largest Human Genome Population Study to Date

Mark Terry, BioSpace.com Breaking News Staff reported on results of one of the largest genome sequencing efforts to date, sequencing of the genomes of 2,636 people from Iceland by deCODE genetics, Inc., a division of Thousand Oaks, Calif.-based Amgen (AMGN).

Amgen had bought deCODE genetics Inc. in 2012, saving the company from bankruptcy.

There were a total of four studies, published on March 25, 2015 on the online version of Nature Genetics; titled “Large-scale whole-genome sequencing of the Icelandic population[1],” “Identification of a large set of rare complete human knockouts[2],” “The Y-chromosome point mutation rate in humans[3]” and “Loss-of-function variants in ABCA7 confer risk of Alzheimer’s disease[4].”

The project identified some new genetic variants which increase risk of Alzheimer’s disease and confirmed some variants known to increase risk of diabetes and atrial fibrillation. A more in-depth post will curate these findings but there was an interesting discrete geographic distribution of certain rare variants located around Iceland. The dataset offers a treasure trove of meaningful genetic information not only about the Icelandic population but offers numerous new targets for breast, ovarian cancer as well as Alzheimer’s disease.

View Mark Terry’s article here on Biospace.com.

“This work is a demonstration of the unique power sequencing gives us for learning more about the history of our species,” said Kari Stefansson, founder and chief executive officer of deCode and one of the lead authors in a statement, “and for contributing to new means of diagnosing, treating and preventing disease.”

The scale and ambition of the study is impressive, but perhaps more important, the research identified a new genetic variant that increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and already had identified an APP variant that is associated with decreased risk of Alzheimer’s Disease. It also confirmed variants that increase the risk of diabetes and a variant that results in atrial fibrillation.
The database of human genetic variation (dbSNP) contained over 50 million unique sequence variants yet this database only represents a small proportion of single nucleotide variants which is thought to exist. These “private” or rare variants undoubtedly contribute to important phenotypes, such as disease susceptibility. Non-SNV variants, like indels and structural variants, are also under-represented in public databases. The only way to fully elucidate the genetic basis of a trait is to consider all of these types of variants, and the only way to find them is by large-scale sequencing.

Curation of Population Genomic Sequencing Programs/Corporate Partnerships

Click on “Curation of genomic studies” below for full Table

Curation of genomic studies
Study Partners Population Enrolled Disease areas Analysis
Icelandic Genome

Project

deCODE/Amgen Icelandic 2,636 Variants related to: Alzheimer’s, cardiovascular, diabetes WES + EMR; blood samples
Genome Sequencing Study Geisinger Health System/Regeneron Northeast PA, USA 100,000 Variants related to hypercholestemia, autism, obesity, other diseases WES +EMR +MyCode;

– Blood samples

The 100,000 Genomes Project National Health Service/NHS Genome Centers/ 10 companies forming Gene Consortium including Abbvie, Alexion, AstraZeneca, Biogen, Dimension, GSK, Helomics, Roche,   Takeda, UCB Rare disorders population UK Starting to recruit 100,000 Initially rare diseases, cancer, infectious diseases WES of blood, saliva and tissue samples

Ref paper

Saudi Human Genome Program 7 centers across Saudi Arabia in conjunction with King Abdulaziz City Science & Tech., King Faisal Hospital & Research Centre/Life Technologies General population Saudi Arabia 20,000 genomes over three years First focus on rare severe early onset diseases: diabetes, deafness, cardiovascular, skeletal deformation Whole genome sequence blood samples + EMR
Genome of the Netherlands (GoNL) Consortium consortium of the UMCG,LUMCErasmus MCVU university and UMCU. Samples where contributed by LifeLinesThe Leiden Longevity StudyThe Netherlands Twin Registry (NTR), The Rotterdam studies, and The Genetic Research in Isolated Populations program. All the sequencing work is done by BGI Hong Kong. Families in Netherlands 769 Variants, SNV, indels, deletions from apparently healthy individuals, family trios Whole genome NGS of whole blood no EMR

Ref paper in Nat. Genetics

Ref paper describing project

Faroese FarGen project Privately funded Faroe Islands Faroese population 50,000 Small population allows for family analysis Combine NGS with EMR and genealogy reports
Personal Genome Project Canada $4000.00 fee from participants; collaboration with University of Toronto and SickKids Organization; technical assistance with Harvard Canadian Health System Goal: 100,000 ? just started no defined analysis goals yet Whole exome and medical records
Singapore Sequencing Malay Project (SSMP) Singapore Genome Variation Project

Singapore Pharmacogenomics Project

Malaysian 100 healthy Malays from Singapore Pop. Health Study Variant analysis Deep whole genome sequencing
GenomeDenmark four Danish universities (KU, AU, DTU and AAU), two hospitals (Herlev and Vendsyssel) and two private firms (Bavarian Nordic and BGI-Europe). 150 complete genomes; first 30 published in Nature Comm. ? See link
Neuromics Consortium University of Tübingen and 18 academic and industrial partners (see link for description) European and Australian 1,100 patients with neuro-

degenerative and neuro-

muscular disease

Moved from SNP to whole exome analysis Whole Exome, RNASeq

References

  1. Gudbjartsson DF, Helgason H, Gudjonsson SA, Zink F, Oddson A, Gylfason A, Besenbacher S, Magnusson G, Halldorsson BV, Hjartarson E et al: Large-scale whole-genome sequencing of the Icelandic population. Nature genetics 2015, advance online publication.
  2. Sulem P, Helgason H, Oddson A, Stefansson H, Gudjonsson SA, Zink F, Hjartarson E, Sigurdsson GT, Jonasdottir A, Jonasdottir A et al: Identification of a large set of rare complete human knockouts. Nature genetics 2015, advance online publication.
  3. Helgason A, Einarsson AW, Gumundsdottir VB, Sigursson A, Gunnarsdottir ED, Jagadeesan A, Ebenesersdottir SS, Kong A, Stefansson K: The Y-chromosome point mutation rate in humans. Nature genetics 2015, advance online publication.
  4. Steinberg S, Stefansson H, Jonsson T, Johannsdottir H, Ingason A, Helgason H, Sulem P, Magnusson OT, Gudjonsson SA, Unnsteinsdottir U et al: Loss-of-function variants in ABCA7 confer risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Nature genetics 2015, advance online publication.

Other post related to DECODE, population genomics, and NGS on this site include:

Illumina Says 228,000 Human Genomes Will Be Sequenced in 2014

CRACKING THE CODE OF HUMAN LIFE: The Birth of BioInformatics & Computational Genomics

CRACKING THE CODE OF HUMAN LIFE: The Birth of BioInformatics and Computational Genomics – Part IIB

Human genome: UK to become world number 1 in DNA testing

Synthetic Biology: On Advanced Genome Interpretation for Gene Variants and Pathways: What is the Genetic Base of Atherosclerosis and Loss of Arterial Elasticity with Aging

Genomic Promise for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Dementias, Autism Spectrum, Schizophrenia, and Serious Depression

Sequencing the exomes of 1,100 patients with neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases: A consortium of 18 European and Australian institutions

University of California Santa Cruz’s Genomics Institute will create a Map of Human Genetic Variations

Three Ancestral Populations Contributed to Modern-day Europeans: Ancient Genome Analysis

Impact of evolutionary selection on functional regions: The imprint of evolutionary selection on ENCODE regulatory elements is manifested between species and within human populations

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