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Article Title, Author/Curator’s Name and Article Views >1,000, 4/2012 – 1/2019 @pharmaceuticalintelligence.com

 

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

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@LPBI Group

LHB Larry Bernstein, MD, FACP,

 

Member of the Board

Expert, Author, Writer – All Specialties of Medicine & Pathology

Content Consultant to Series B,C,D,E

Editor, Series D, Vol. 1, Series E, Vols 2,3,

Co-Editor – BioMed E-Series 13 of the 16 Vols

JDP Justin D. Pearlman, AB, MD, ME, PhD, MA, FACC,

 

Expert, Author, Writer, All Specialties of Medicine, Cardiology and Cardiac Imaging

Content Consultant for SERIES A, Cardiovascular Diseases Co-Editor: Vols 2,3,4,5,6

ALA Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN,

-Ex – SRI, Int’l

-Ex – MITRE

-Ex – McGraw-Hill

Director and Founder

Editor-in-Chief, @pharmaceuticalintelligence.com

Methodologies Developer:

  • Journal Platform Architect,
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Expert, Author, Writer:

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  • Molecular Cardiology
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TB Tilda Barliya, PhD,

@BIU

Expert, Author, Writer: Nanotechnology for Drug Delivery

Co-Editor, Series C, Vols. 1,2

DN Dror Nir, PhD,

 

Expert, Author, Writer: Cancer & Medical Imaging Algorithms
ZR       
Ziv Raviv, PhD,
@Technion
Expert, Author, Writer: Biological Sciences, Cancer
ZS Zohi Sternberg, PhD, Expert, GUEST Author, Writer

 

Expert, GUEST Author, Writer

Neurological Sciences

SJW Stephen J. Williams, PhD Pharmacology, BSc Toxicology

Ex-Fox Chase

EAW – Cancer Biology

Co-Editor, Series A, Vol.1

Co-Editor, Series B, Genomics: Vols. 1,2

Co-Editor, Series C, Cancer, Vols. 1,2

DS Demet Sag, PhD, CRA, GCP,

 

Expert, Author, Writer: Genome Biology, Immunology, Biological Sciences: Cancer
SS Sudipta Saha, PhD,

 

Expert, Author, Writer: Reproductive Biology, Endocrinology, Bio-Instrumentation

Co-Editor, Series D, Volume 2, Infectious Diseases

AV Aviral Vatsa, PhD, MBBS

 

Expert, Author, Writer: Medical Sciences, Bone Disease, Human Sensation and Cellular Transduction: Physiology and Therapeutics

 

RS Ritu Saxena, PhD,

 

Expert, Author, Writer: Biological Sciences, Bone Disease, Cancer (Lung, Liver)
GST Gail S. Thornton, PhD(c),

Ex-MERCK

Contributing Editor, Author and Medical Writer

Co-Editor, Series E, Vol.1 Voices of Patients

RN Raphael Nir, PhD, MSM, MSc

Ex-ScheringPlough

– Expert, Author, Writer – Member of the Cancer Research Team: Brain Cancer, Liver Cancer, Cytokines

– CSO, SBH Sciences, Inc.

MB Michael R. Briggs, Ph.D.

Ex-Pfizer

– Expert, Author, Writer – Member of the Cancer Research Team: NASH

– CSO, Woodland Biosciences

AK Alan F. Kaul, R.Ph., Pharm.D, M.Sc., M.B.A., FCCP, Expert, Author, Writer

Ex-Director BWH Pharmacy

Expert, Author, Writer: Pharmacology – all aspects of Drug development and dispensation, Policy analyst
AS Anamika Sarkar, PhD,

 

Expert, Author, Writer: Computation Biology & Bioinformatics
MWF Marcus Feldman, PhD,

Stanford University, Biological Sciences, Center for Genomics

751
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Scientific Counsel: Life Sciences,

Content Consultant Series B, Genomics, Vols. 1,2

Co-Editor, Vol. 2, NGS

 

Article Title and Views >1,000,

4/2012 – -1/2018

 

 

 

 

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Is the Warburg Effect the Cause or the Effect of Cancer: A 21st Century View? LHB 16,720
Do Novel Anticoagulants Affect the PT/INR? The Cases of XARELTO (rivaroxaban) and PRADAXA (dabigatran)

JDP

ALA

13,225
Paclitaxel vs Abraxane (albumin-bound paclitaxel) TB 11,872
Recent comprehensive review on the role of ultrasound in breast cancer management DN 11,715
Clinical Indications for Use of Inhaled Nitric Oxide (iNO) in the Adult Patient Market: Clinical Outcomes after Use, Therapy Demand and Cost of Care ALA 7,045
Apixaban (Eliquis): Mechanism of Action, Drug Comparison and Additional Indications ALA 6,435
Mesothelin: An early detection biomarker for cancer (By Jack Andraka) TB 6,309
Our TEAM ALA 6,213
Akt inhibition for cancer treatment, where do we stand today? ZR 4,744
Biochemistry of the Coagulation Cascade and Platelet Aggregation: Nitric Oxide: Platelets, Circulatory Disorders, and Coagulation Effects LHB 4,508
Newer Treatments for Depression: Monoamine, Neurotrophic Factor & Pharmacokinetic Hypotheses ZS 4,188
AstraZeneca’s WEE1 protein inhibitor AZD1775 Shows Success Against Tumors with a SETD2 mutation SJW 4,128
Confined Indolamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO) Controls the Hemeostasis of Immune Responses for Good and Bad DS 3,678
The Centrality of Ca(2+) Signaling and Cytoskeleton Involving Calmodulin Kinases and Ryanodine Receptors in Cardiac Failure, Arterial Smooth Muscle, Post-ischemic Arrhythmia, Similarities and Differences, and Pharmaceutical Targets LHB 3,652
FDA Guidelines For Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology (DART) Studies for Small Molecules SJW 3,625
Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume One: Perspectives on Nitric Oxide in Disease Mechanisms Multiple

Authors

3,575
Interaction of enzymes and hormones SS 3,546
AMPK Is a Negative Regulator of the Warburg Effect and Suppresses Tumor Growth In Vivo SJW 3,403
Causes and imaging features of false positives and false negatives on 18F-PET/CT in oncologic imaging DN 3,399
Introduction to Transdermal Drug Delivery (TDD) system and nanotechnology TB 3,371
Founder ALA 3,363
BioMed e-Series ALA 3,246
Signaling and Signaling Pathways LHB 3,178
Sexed Semen and Embryo Selection in Human Reproduction and Fertility Treatment SS 3,044
Alternative Designs for the Human Artificial Heart: Patients in Heart Failure – Outcomes of Transplant (donor)/Implantation (artificial) and Monitoring Technologies for the Transplant/Implant Patient in the Community

JDP

LHB

ALA

3,034
The mechanism of action of the drug ‘Acthar’ for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Dr. Karra 3,016
VISION ALA 2,988
Targeting the Wnt Pathway [7.11] LHB 2,961
Bone regeneration and nanotechnology AV 2,922
Pacemakers, Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICD) and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) ALA 2,892
The History and Creators of Total Parenteral Nutrition LHB 2,846
Funding, Deals & Partnerships ALA 2,708
Paclitaxel: Pharmacokinetic (PK), Pharmacodynamic (PD) and Pharmacogenpmics (PG) TB 2,700
LIK 066, Novartis, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes LHB 2,693
FDA Adds Cardiac Drugs to Watch List – TOPROL-XL® ALA 2,606
Mitochondria: Origin from oxygen free environment, role in aerobic glycolysis, metabolic adaptation LHB 2,579
Nitric Oxide and Platelet Aggregation Dr. Karra 2,550
Treatment Options for Left Ventricular Failure – Temporary Circulatory Support: Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) – Impella Recover LD/LP 5.0 and 2.5, Pump Catheters (Non-surgical) vs Bridge Therapy: Percutaneous Left Ventricular Assist Devices (pLVADs) and LVADs (Surgical) LHB 2,549
Isoenzymes in cell metabolic pathways LHB 2,535
“The Molecular pathology of Breast Cancer Progression” TB 2,491
In focus: Circulating Tumor Cells RS 2,465
Nitric Oxide Function in Coagulation – Part II LHB 2,444
Monoclonal Antibody Therapy and Market DS 2,443
Update on FDA Policy Regarding 3D Bioprinted Material SJW 2,410
Journal PharmaceuticalIntelligence.com ALA 2,340
A Primer on DNA and DNA Replication LHB 2,323
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) – an unproved supplement LHB 2,294
Integrins, Cadherins, Signaling and the Cytoskeleton LHB 2,265
Evolution of Myoglobin and Hemoglobin LHB 2,251
DNA Structure and Oligonucleotides LHB 2,187
Lipid Metabolism LHB 2,176
Non-small Cell Lung Cancer drugs – where does the Future lie? RS 2,143
Biosimilars: CMC Issues and Regulatory Requirements ALA 2,101
The SCID Pig: How Pigs are becoming a Great Alternate Model for Cancer Research SJW 2,092
About ALA 2,076
Sex Hormones LHB 2,066
CD47: Target Therapy for Cancer TB 2,041
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-gamma) Receptors Activation: PPARγ transrepression for Angiogenesis in Cardiovascular Disease and PPARγ transactivation for Treatment of Diabetes ALA 2,017
Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Nottwil, Switzerland – A World-Class Clinic for Spinal Cord Injuries GST 1,989
Introduction to Tissue Engineering; Nanotechnology applications TB 1,964
Problems of vegetarianism SS 1,940
The History of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology in the late 19th and 20th Century LHB 1,817
The top 15 best-selling cancer drugs in 2022 & Projected Sales in 2020 of World’s Top Ten Oncology Drugs ALA 1,816
Nanotechnology: Detecting and Treating metastatic cancer in the lymph node TB 1,812
Unique Selling Proposition (USP) — Building Pharmaceuticals Brands ALA 1,809
Wnt/β-catenin Signaling [7.10] LHB 1,777
The role of biomarkers in the diagnosis of sepsis and patient management LHB 1,766
Neonatal Pathophysiology LHB 1,718
Nanotechnology and MRI imaging TB 1,672
Cardiovascular Complications: Death from Reoperative Sternotomy after prior CABG, MVR, AVR, or Radiation; Complications of PCI; Sepsis from Cardiovascular Interventions JDP

ALA

1,659
Ultrasound-based Screening for Ovarian Cancer DN 1,655
Justin D. Pearlman, AB, MD, ME, PhD, MA, FACC, Expert, Author, Writer, Editor & Content Consultant for e-SERIES A: Cardiovascular Diseases JDP 1,653
Scientific and Medical Affairs Chronological CV ALA 1,619
Competition in the Ecosystem of Medical Devices in Cardiac and Vascular Repair: Heart Valves, Stents, Catheterization Tools and Kits for Open Heart and Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) ALA 1,609
Stenting for Proximal LAD Lesions ALA 1,603
Mitral Valve Repair: Who is a Patient Candidate for a Non-Ablative Fully Non-Invasive Procedure? JDP

ALA

1,602
Nitric Oxide, Platelets, Endothelium and Hemostasis (Coagulation Part II) LHB 1,597
Outcomes in High Cardiovascular Risk Patients: Prasugrel (Effient) vs. Clopidogrel (Plavix); Aliskiren (Tekturna) added to ACE or added to ARB LHB 1,588
Diet and Diabetes LHB 1,572
Clinical Trials Results for Endothelin System: Pathophysiological role in Chronic Heart Failure, Acute Coronary Syndromes and MI – Marker of Disease Severity or Genetic Determination? ALA 1,546
Dealing with the Use of the High Sensitivity Troponin (hs cTn) Assays LHB 1,540
Biosimilars: Intellectual Property Creation and Protection by Pioneer and by Biosimilar Manufacturers ALA 1,534
Altitude Adaptation LHB 1,527
Baby’s microbiome changing due to caesarean birth and formula feeding SS 1,498
Interview with the co-discoverer of the structure of DNA: Watson on The Double Helix and his changing view of Rosalind Franklin ALA 1,488
Triple Antihypertensive Combination Therapy Significantly Lowers Blood Pressure in Hard-to-Treat Patients with Hypertension and Diabetes ALA 1,476
IDO for Commitment of a Life Time: The Origins and Mechanisms of IDO, indolamine 2, 3-dioxygenase DS 1,469
CRISPR/Cas9: Contributions on Endoribonuclease Structure and Function, Role in Immunity and Applications in Genome Engineering LHB 1,468
Cancer Signaling Pathways and Tumor Progression: Images of Biological Processes in the Voice of a Pathologist Cancer Expert LHB 1,452
Signaling transduction tutorial LHB 1,443
Diagnostic Evaluation of SIRS by Immature Granulocytes LHB 1,440
UPDATED: PLATO Trial on ACS: BRILINTA (ticagrelor) better than Plavix® (clopidogrel bisulfate): Lowering chances of having another heart attack ALA 1,426
Cardio-oncology and Onco-Cardiology Programs: Treatments for Cancer Patients with a History of Cardiovascular Disease ALA 1,424
Nanotechnology and Heart Disease TB 1,419
Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, Director and Founder ALA 1,416
Cardiotoxicity and Cardiomyopathy Related to Drugs Adverse Effects LHB 1,415
Nitric Oxide and it’s impact on Cardiothoracic Surgery TB 1,405
A New Standard in Health Care – Farrer Park Hospital, Singapore’s First Fully Integrated Healthcare/Hospitality Complex GST 1,402
Mitochondrial Damage and Repair under Oxidative Stress LHB 1,398
Ovarian Cancer and fluorescence-guided surgery: A report TB 1,395
Sex determination vs. Sex differentiation SS 1,393
LPBI Group ALA 1,372
Closing the Mammography gap DN 1,368
Cytoskeleton and Cell Membrane Physiology LHB 1,367
Crucial role of Nitric Oxide in Cancer RS 1,364
Medical 3D Printing ALA 1,332
Survivals Comparison of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) / Coronary Angioplasty LHB 1,325
The Final Considerations of the Role of Platelets and Platelet Endothelial Reactions in Atherosclerosis and Novel Treatments LHB 1,310
Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis: Cardiomyocytes and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: The Cardiac and Cardiovascular Calcium Signaling Mechanism

LHB

JDP

ALA

1,301
Mitochondrial Dynamics and Cardiovascular Diseases RS 1,284
Nitric Oxide and Immune Responses: Part 2 AV 1,282
Liver Toxicity halts Clinical Trial of IAP Antagonist for Advanced Solid Tumors SJW 1,269
Inactivation of the human papillomavirus E6 or E7 gene in cervical carcinoma cells using a bacterial CRISPR/Cas ALA 1,261
Autophagy LHB 1,255
Mitochondrial fission and fusion: potential therapeutic targets? RS 1,246
Summary of Lipid Metabolism LHB 1,239
Nitric Oxide has a Ubiquitous Role in the Regulation of Glycolysis – with a Concomitant Influence on Mitochondrial Function LHB 1,233
Future of Calcitonin…? Dr. Karra 1,211
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI): FDA approves expanded indication for two transcatheter heart valves for patients at intermediate risk for death or complications associated with open-heart surgery ALA 1,197
Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) as a Therapeutic tool in the Management of Glioblastoma

RN

MB

1,193
Nanotechnology and HIV/AIDS Treatment TB 1,181
Patiromer – New drug for Hyperkalemia ALA 1,179
‘Gamifying’ Drug R&D: Boehringer Ingelheim, Sanofi, Eli Lilly ALA 1,177
A Patient’s Perspective: On Open Heart Surgery from Diagnosis and Intervention to Recovery Guest Author: Ferez S. Nallaseth, Ph.D. 1,173
Assessing Cardiovascular Disease with Biomarkers LHB 1,167
Development Of Super-Resolved Fluorescence Microscopy LHB 1,166
Ubiquitin-Proteosome pathway, Autophagy, the Mitochondrion, Proteolysis and Cell Apoptosis: Part III LHB 1,162
Atrial Fibrillation contributing factor to Death, Autopsy suggests CEO Dave Goldberg had heart arrhythmia before death ALA 1,159
Linus Pauling: On Lipoprotein(a) Patents and On Vitamin C ALA 1,156
Bystolic’s generic Nebivolol – Positive Effect on circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells Endogenous Augmentation ALA 1,154
The History of Hematology and Related Sciences LHB 1,151
Heroes in Medical Research: Barnett Rosenberg and the Discovery of Cisplatin SJW 1,146
Overview of New Strategy for Treatment of T2DM: SGLT2 Inhibiting Oral Antidiabetic Agents AV 1,143
Imatinib (Gleevec) May Help Treat Aggressive Lymphoma: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) ALA 1,140
Issues in Personalized Medicine in Cancer: Intratumor Heterogeneity and Branched Evolution Revealed by Multiregion Sequencing SJW 1,137
New England Compounding Center: A Family Business AK 1,120
EpCAM [7.4] LHB 1,113
Amyloidosis with Cardiomyopathy LHB 1,110
Can Mobile Health Apps Improve Oral-Chemotherapy Adherence? The Benefit of Gamification. SJW 1,095
Acoustic Neuroma, Neurinoma or Vestibular Schwannoma: Treatment Options ALA 1,089
Treatment of Refractory Hypertension via Percutaneous Renal Denervation ALA 1,088
Proteomics – The Pathway to Understanding and Decision-making in Medicine LHB 1,085
Low Bioavailability of Nitric Oxide due to Misbalance in Cell Free Hemoglobin in Sickle Cell Disease – A Computational Model AS 1,085
Pancreatic Cancer: Genetics, Genomics and Immunotherapy TB 1,083
A NEW ERA OF GENETIC MANIPULATION   DS 1,075
Targeting Mitochondrial-bound Hexokinase for Cancer Therapy ZR 1,074
Normal and Anomalous Coronary Arteries: Dual Source CT in Cardiothoracic Imaging JDP

ALA

1,062
Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) system and nanotechnology: Part II TB 1,057
Lung Cancer (NSCLC), drug administration and nanotechnology TB 1,046
Pharma World: The Pharmaceutical Industry in Southeast Asia – Pharma CPhI 20-22 March, 2013, Jakarta International Expo, Jakarta, Indonesia ALA 1,045
Nitric Oxide and Sepsis, Hemodynamic Collapse, and the Search for Therapeutic Options LHB 1,044
Targeted delivery of therapeutics to bone and connective tissues: current status and challenges- Part I AV 1,044
Press Coverage ALA 1,036
Carbohydrate Metabolism LHB 1,036
Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) repair (OAR) vs. Endovascular AAA Repair (EVAR) in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients – Comparison of Surgery Outcomes LHB

ALA

1,032
In focus: Melanoma Genetics RS 1,018
Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) Inhibitor: Potential of Anacetrapib to treat Atherosclerosis and CAD ALA 1,015
Medical Devices Start Ups in Israel: Venture Capital Sourced Locally – Rainbow Medical (GlenRock) & AccelMed (Arkin Holdings) ALA 1,007
The Development of siRNA-Based Therapies for Cancer ZR 1,003

Other related articles published in this Open Access Online Scientific Journal include the following:

FIVE years of e-Scientific Publishing @pharmaceuticalintellicence.com, Top Articles by Author and by e-Views >1,000, 4/27/2012 to 1/29/2018

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/04/28/five-years-of-e-scientific-publishing-pharmaceuticalintellicence-com-top-articles-by-author-and-by-e-views-1000-4272012-to-4272017/

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Glycobiology advances

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

The Evolution of the Glycobiology Space

The Nascent Stage of another Omics Field with Biomarker and Therapeutic Potential

Enal Razvi, Ph.D. , Gary Oosta, Ph.D

http://www.genengnews.com/insight-and-intelligence/the-evolution-of-the-glycobiology-space/77900638/

 

The Evolution of the Glycobiology Space

 

Glycobiology is an important field of study with medical applications because it is known that tumor cells alter their glycosylation pattern, which may contribute to their metastatic potential as well as potential immune evasion. [iStock/© vjanez]    http://www.genengnews.com/media/images/AnalysisAndInsight/Apr12_2016_iStock_41612310_PlasmaMembraneOfACell1211657142.jpg

There is growing interest in the field of glycobiology given the fact that epitopes with physiological and pathological relevance have glyco moieties.  We believe that another “omics” revolution is on the horizon—the study of the glyco modifications on the surface of cells and their potential as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in many disease classes. Not much industry tracking of this field has taken place. Thus, we sought to map this landscape by examining the entire ensemble of academic publications in this space and teasing apart the trends operative in this field from a qualitative and quantitative perspective. We believe that this methodology of en masse capture and publication and annotation provides an effective approach to evaluate this early-stage field.

Identifiation and Growth of Glycobiology Publications

http://www.genengnews.com/Media/images/AnalysisAndInsight/thumb_April12_2016_SelectBiosciences_Figure11935315421.jpg

For this article, we identified 7000 publications in the broader glycobiology space and analyzed them in detail.  It is important to frame glycobiology in the context of genomics and proteomics as a means to assess the scale of the field. Figure 1 presents the relative sizes of these fields as assessed by publications in from 1975 to 2015.

Note that the relative scale of genomics versus proteomics and glycobiology/glycomics in this graph strongly suggests that glycobiology is a nascent space, and thus a driver for us to map its landscape today and as it evolves over the coming years.

Figure 2. (A) Segmentation of the glycobiology landscape. (B) Glycobiology versus glycomics publication growth.

 

http://www.genengnews.com/Media/images/AnalysisAndInsight/thumb_April12_2016_SelectBiosciences_Figure2ab1917013624.jpg

To examine closely the various components of the glycobiology space, we segmented the publications database, presented in Figure 2A. Note the relative sizes and growth rates (slopes) of the various segments.

Clearly, glycoconjugates currently are the majority of this space and account for the bulk of the publications.  Glycobiology and glycomics are small but expanding and therefore can be characterized as “nascent market segments.”  These two spaces are characterized in more detail in Figure 2B, which presents their publication growth rates.

Note the very recent increased attention directed at these spaces and hence our drive to initiate industry coverage of these spaces. Figure 2B presents the overall growth and timeline of expansion of these fields—especially glycobiology—but it provides no information about the qualitative nature of these fields.

Focus of Glycobiology Publications

http://www.genengnews.com/Media/images/AnalysisAndInsight/April12_2016_SelectBiosciences_Figure2c1827601892.jpg

Figure 2C. Word cloud based on titles of publications in the glycobiology and glycomics spaces.

To understand the focus of publications in this field, and indeed the nature of this field, we constructed a word cloud based on titles of the publications that comprise this space presented in Figure 2C.

There is a marked emphasis on terms such as oligosaccharides and an emphasis on cells (this is after all glycosylation on the surface of cells). Overall, a pictorial representation of the types and classes of modifications that comprise this field emerge in this word cloud, demonstrating the expansion of the glycobiology and to a lesser extent the glycomics spaces as well as the character of these nascent but expanding spaces.

Characterization of the Glycobiology Space in Journals

Figure 3A. Breakout of publications in the glycobiology/glycomics fields.   http://www.genengnews.com/Media/images/AnalysisAndInsight/April12_2016_SelectBiosciences_Figure3a_5002432117316.jpg
Having framed the overall growth of the glycobiology field, we wanted to understand its structure and the classes of researchers as well as publications that comprise this field. To do this, we segmented the publications that constitute this field into the various journals in which glycobiology research is published. Figure 3A presents the breakout of publications by journal to illustrate the “scope” of this field.

The distribution of glycobiology publications across the various journals suggests a very concentrated marketplace that is very technically focused. The majority of the publications segregate into specialized journals on this topic, a pattern very indicative of a field in the very early stages of development—a truly nascent marketplace.

http://www.genengnews.com/Media/images/AnalysisAndInsight/thumb_April12_2016_SelectBiosciences_Figure3b1012091061.jpg

Figure 3B. Origin of publications in the glycobiology/glycomics fields.
We also sought to understand the “origin” of these publications—the breakout between academic- versus industry-derived journals. Figure 3B presents this breakout and shows that these publications are overwhelmingly (92.3%) derived from the academic sector. This is again a testimonial to the early nascent nature of this marketplace without significant engagement by the commercial sector and therefore is an important field to characterize and track from the ground up.

Select Biosciences, Inc. further analyzed the growth trajectory of the glycobiology papers in Figure 3C as a means to examine closely the publications trajectory. Although there appears to be some wobble along the way, overall the trajectory is upward, and of late it is expanding significantly.

In Summary

Figure 3C. Trajectory of the glycobiology space.   http://www.genengnews.com/Media/images/AnalysisAndInsight/April12_2016_SelectBiosciences_Figure3c1236921793.jpg
Glycobiology is the study of what coats living cells—glycans, or carbohydrates, and glycoconjugates. This is an important field of study with medical applications because it is known that tumor cells alter their glycosylation pattern, which may contribute to their metastatic potential as well as potential immune evasion.

At this point, glycobiology is largely basic research and thus it pales in comparison with the field of genomics. But in 10 years, we predict the study of glycobiology and glycomics will be ubiquitous and in the mainstream.

We started our analysis of this space because we’ve been focusing on many other classes of analytes, such as microRNAs, long-coding RNAs, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, etc., whose potential as biomarkers is becoming established. Glycobiology, on the other hand, represents an entire new space—a whole new category of modifications that could be analyzed for diagnostic potential and perhaps also for therapeutic targeting.

Today, glycobiology and glycomics are where genomics was at the start of the Human Genome Project. They respresent a nascent space and with full headroom for growth. Select Biosciences will continue to track this exciting field for research developments as well as development of biomarkers based on glyco-epitopes.

Enal Razvi, Ph.D., conducted his doctoral work on viral immunology and subsequent to receiving his Ph.D. went on to the Rockefeller University in New York to serve as Aaron Diamond Post-doctoral fellow under Professor Ralph Steinman [Nobel Prize Winner in 2011 for his discovery of dendritic cells in the early-70s with Zanvil Cohn]. Subsequently, Dr. Razvi completed his research fellowship at Harvard Medical School. For the last two decades Dr. Razvi has worked with small and large companies and consulted for more than 100 clients worldwide. He currently serves as Biotechnology Analyst and Managing Director of SelectBio U.S. He can be reached at enal@selectbio.us. Gary M. Oosta holds a Ph.D. in Biophysics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a B.A. in Chemistry from E. Mich. Univ. He has 25 years of industrial research experience in various technology areas including medical diagnostics, thin-layer coating, bio-effects of electromagnetic radiation, and blood coagulation. Dr. Oosta has authored 20 technical publications and is an inventor on 77 patents worldwide. In addition, he has managed research groups that were responsible for many other patented innovations. Dr. Oosta has a long-standing interest in using patents and publications as strategic technology indicators for future technology selection and new product development. To enjoy more articles like this from GEN, click here to subscribe now!

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Problem of Science Doctorate Programs

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

 

The Problem in Biomedical Education

Henry Bourne (UCSF)

Dr. Henry Bourne has trained graduate students and postdocs at UCSF for over 40 years. In his iBiology talk, he discusses the imminent need for change in graduate education. With time to degrees getting longer, the biomedical community needs to create experimental graduate programs to find more effective and low cost ways to train future scientists and run successful laboratories. If we don’t start looking for solutions, the future of the biomedical enterprise will grow increasingly unstable.

Watch Henry Bourne’s iBioMagazine: The Problem in Biomedical Education

https://youtu.be/V9peRqNr-L0

Henry Bourne is Professor Emeritus and former chair of the Department of Pharmacology at the University of California – San Francisco. His research focused on trimeric G-proteins, G-protein coupled receptors, and the cellular signals responsible for polarity and direction-finding of human leukocytes. He is the author of several books including a memoir, Ambition and Delight, and has written extensively about graduate training and biomedical workforce issues. Now Dr. Bourne’s research focuses on the organization and founding of US biomedical research in the early 20th century.

Related Talks

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How+Do+Beta+Blockers+Work | How Beta Blockers Work Medical Illustration Medivisuals | See more about Beta Blockers, Medical Illustration and Medical.

Sourced through Scoop.it from: www.pinterest.com

See on Scoop.itCardiovascular Disease: PHARMACO-THERAPY

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Behavior

Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

 

Behavior Brief

The Scientist

http://www.the-scientist.com//?articles.view/articleNo/43904/title/Behavior-Brief/

Wasp-directed webs make better cocoons?

Scientists have uncovered more detail about the unique relationship between the parasitic ichneumon wasp (Reclinervellus nielseni) and its arachnid host, the orb-weaving spider (Cyclosa argenteoalba). While the spider carries the wasp’s egg—and later, hatched larva—within its abdomen, the arachnid spins an atypical web, according to a study published last month (August 5) in The Journal of Experimental Biology. When the larva emerges, killing the spider host, the wasp uses the modified webbing to build a cocoon.

“This discovery—of enhanced behavior as opposed to merely switched behavior—is completely new, impressively demonstrated, and rather unexpected I think,” Mark Shaw an entomologist at the National Museum of Scotland, who was not involved in the study, told Newsweek.

According to The Vergescientists from Kobe University in Japan along with their collaborators determined that the modified web is similar to the orb-weaving spider’s resting web that it uses when it molts—only it is 40 times stronger. This may help the wasp larva build a more durable cocoon. Ecologist Sophie Labaude of the University of Burgundy in France, who was not involved in the work told The Verge that the altered web composition may be a coincidental side effect of chemicals thought to be introduced into the spider during the course of the parasitic infection.

Catharus ustulatus with a tracker on its back J. CRAVES

Some songbirds don’t set cruising altitude

A study published last month (August 12) in The Auk: Ornithological Advances reported the first complete flight-altitude data for a songbird, revealing that one species, the Swainson’s thrush (Catharus ustulatus), changes its altitude intermittently throughout its migration.

“I really thought that the birds would mostly behave like commercial aircraft, ascending to a particular altitude, leveling off and cruising near that altitude, and then coming down just before they landed,” study coauthor Melissa Bowlin of the University of Michigan-Dearborn said in a statement. “I was shocked when I made the first graph for the first bird, and thought it was an anomaly. The more data we obtained, however, the more often we saw the up-and-down pattern to the birds’ flight.”

Bowlin and her colleagues attached radio transmitters to nine Swainson’s thrushes captured from a forest in Illinois during the birds’ spring migration seasons between 2011 and 2013. Once the birds took off, the researchers followed them in a car, keeping track of the birds’ altitudes as they flew through different landscapes. The researchers found that the birds often altered their altitudes by more than 100 meters during their migration. While the authors noted that the precise locations at which the birds ascended and descended cannot be determined until more data are analyzed, they speculated that the birds’ decisions to change altitude may be related to atmospheric changes.

“Dr. Bowlin and her colleagues’ unique yet perplexing records of migrant altitudes raise a number of thought-provoking questions that have implications for species conservation,” Robert Diehl of the US Geological Survey’s Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center said in a statement.

FLICKR, LAGGEDONUSER

Bonobos reuse “peeps”

Humans may not be the only species that can disassociate their communication from their environment. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) also seem to produce the same high-pitched “peep” noises to express psychological states regardless of their context or circumstances, according to study published last month (August 4) in PeerJ. This ability, called functional flexibility, is analogous to the cries or laughter of a human infant, the study’s authors wrote.

“When I studied the bonobos in their native setting in the Congo, I was struck by how frequent their peeps were, and how many different contexts they produce them in,” study coauthor Zanna Clay, a psychologist at the University of Birmingham, told The Guardian. “It became apparent we couldn’t always differentiate between peeps. We needed to understand the context to get to the root of their communication.”

Clay and her colleagues recorded bonobo peeps made during a range of situations, including feeding, sleeping, and traveling. The researchers found that peeps produced during positive situations, such as feeding were indistinguishable from those made within neutral contexts such as resting. However, in negative circumstances such as a state of alarm, the bonobos’ peeps were acoustically different.

“We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signaling towards functional flexibility,” Clay told The Guardian.

An ant (Pristomyrmex punctatus) stands guard over a Japanese oakblue caterpillar (Narathura japonica).WIKIMEDIA, L. SHYAMAL

Manipulation or mutalism?

A new study suggests that a species of Japanese ant (Pristomyrmex punctatus) that imbibes the sweet nectar secreted by Japanese oakblue butterfly (Narathura japonica) caterpillars must pay a price. According to a study published this summer (July 28) in Current Biology, chemicals in the nectar can effectively brainwash the ants, turning them into loyal bodyguards for the caterpillars.

An international group of researchers led by investigators at Kobe University found that ants who fed upon N. japonica’s sweet secretion displayed more aggressive behavior and had lower levels of dopamine in their brains than ants found near caterpillars that didn’t consume the nectar, according toScience.

The results suggest that the relationship between the ants and caterpillar may not be mutualistic, as previously thought, but may have an aspect of parasitism.

“It’s possible that these common food-for-defense interactions, which are typically assumed to be mutualistic, may in fact be maintained primarily through parasitic manipulation of ant behavior,” the authors wrote in their report.

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, J. COSTELLO ET AL.

Young siphonophores take the lead

For physonect siphonophores (Nanomia bijuga), jellyfish-like marine creatures that travel together as a single unit, the youngest colony members alwaysride shotgun, according to a study published yesterday (September 1) in Nature Communications.

To cover distances of up to 200 meters a day to find food, N. bijuga colony members have to work together. “The younger swimming bells at the tip of the colony are responsible for turning. They generate a lot of torque,” study coauthor Kelly Sutherland, an oceanographer at the University of Oregon, said in a statement. “The older swimming bells toward the base of the colony are responsible for thrust.”

Sutherland and her colleagues recorded swimming colonies from Friday Harbor, Washington, and tracked how the organism displaced particles around it to discern the contribution each unit makes to the movement. They found that even small amounts of water displacement exerted by the youngest members at the tip of the colony had big impacts on which direction the unit travelled.

“They are like the handle of a door,” study coauthor John Costello, a biologist at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, said in a statement. “If you push on a door near its hinges—its axis of rotation—the door is hard to open. But if you push on the door handle, which is far from the axis of rotation, the door opens easily. A little force placed with a big lever arm has a big effect on turning.”

The authors suggested that the siphonophore’s strategy involving multiple propulsion “engines” and efficient directional control could inspire improved designs for underwater vehicles.

Tags

songbirdplanktonparasitismparasitic wasporb web spidernon-human primatesmigration

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Cancer Biology and Genomics for Disease Diagnosis (Vol. I) Now Available for Amazon Kindle


Cancer Biology and Genomics for Disease Diagnosis (Vol. I) Now Available for Amazon Kindle

Reporter: Stephen J Williams, PhD

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence would like to announce the First volume of their BioMedical E-Book Series C: e-Books on Cancer & Oncology

Volume One: Cancer Biology and Genomics for Disease Diagnosis

CancerandOncologyseriesCcoverwhich is now available on Amazon Kindle at                          http://www.amazon.com/dp/B013RVYR2K.

This e-Book is a comprehensive review of recent Original Research on Cancer & Genomics including related opportunities for Targeted Therapy written by Experts, Authors, Writers. This ebook highlights some of the recent trends and discoveries in cancer research and cancer treatment, with particular attention how new technological and informatics advancements have ushered in paradigm shifts in how we think about, diagnose, and treat cancer. The results of Original Research are gaining value added for the e-Reader by the Methodology of Curation. The e-Book’s articles have been published on the Open Access Online Scientific Journal, since April 2012.  All new articles on this subject, will continue to be incorporated, as published with periodical updates.

We invite e-Readers to write an Article Reviews on Amazon for this e-Book on Amazon. All forthcoming BioMed e-Book Titles can be viewed at:

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/biomed-e-books/

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence, launched in April 2012 an Open Access Online Scientific Journal is a scientific, medical and business multi expert authoring environment in several domains of  life sciences, pharmaceutical, healthcare & medicine industries. The venture operates as an online scientific intellectual exchange at their website http://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com and for curation and reporting on frontiers in biomedical, biological sciences, healthcare economics, pharmacology, pharmaceuticals & medicine. In addition the venture publishes a Medical E-book Series available on Amazon’s Kindle platform.

Analyzing and sharing the vast and rapidly expanding volume of scientific knowledge has never been so crucial to innovation in the medical field. WE are addressing need of overcoming this scientific information overload by:

  • delivering curation and summary interpretations of latest findings and innovations
  • on an open-access, Web 2.0 platform with future goals of providing primarily concept-driven search in the near future
  • providing a social platform for scientists and clinicians to enter into discussion using social media
  • compiling recent discoveries and issues in yearly-updated Medical E-book Series on Amazon’s mobile Kindle platform

This curation offers better organization and visibility to the critical information useful for the next innovations in academic, clinical, and industrial research by providing these hybrid networks.

Table of Contents for Cancer Biology and Genomics for Disease Diagnosis

Preface

Introduction  The evolution of cancer therapy and cancer research: How we got here?

Part I. Historical Perspective of Cancer Demographics, Etiology, and Progress in Research

Chapter 1:  The Occurrence of Cancer in World Populations

Chapter 2.  Rapid Scientific Advances Changes Our View on How Cancer Forms

Chapter 3:  A Genetic Basis and Genetic Complexity of Cancer Emerge

Chapter 4: How Epigenetic and Metabolic Factors Affect Tumor Growth

Chapter 5: Advances in Breast and Gastrointestinal Cancer Research Supports Hope for Cure

Part II. Advent of Translational Medicine, “omics”, and Personalized Medicine Ushers in New Paradigms in Cancer Treatment and Advances in Drug Development

Chapter 6:  Treatment Strategies

Chapter 7:  Personalized Medicine and Targeted Therapy

Part III.Translational Medicine, Genomics, and New Technologies Converge to Improve Early Detection

Chapter 8:  Diagnosis                                     

Chapter 9:  Detection

Chapter 10:  Biomarkers

Chapter 11:  Imaging In Cancer

Chapter 12: Nanotechnology Imparts New Advances in Cancer Treatment, Detection, &  Imaging                                 

Epilogue by Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FACP: Envisioning New Insights in Cancer Translational Biology

 

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Treatment of Lymphomas [2.4.4C]

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Author, Curator, Editor

http://pharmaceuticalinnovation.com/2015/8/11/larryhbern/Treatment-of-Lymphomas-[2.4.4C]

 

Lymphoma treatment

Overview

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/lymphoma/page8_em.htm#lymphoma_treatment

The most widely used therapies are combinations of chemotherapyand radiation therapy.

  • Biological therapy, which targets key features of the lymphoma cells, is used in many cases nowadays.

The goal of medical therapy in lymphoma is complete remission. This means that all signs of the disease have disappeared after treatment. Remission is not the same as cure. In remission, one may still have lymphoma cells in the body, but they are undetectable and cause no symptoms.

  • When in remission, the lymphoma may come back. This is called recurrence.
  • The duration of remission depends on the type, stage, and grade of the lymphoma. A remission may last a few months, a few years, or may continue throughout one’s life.
  • Remission that lasts a long time is called durable remission, and this is the goal of therapy.
  • The duration of remission is a good indicator of the aggressiveness of the lymphoma and of the prognosis. A longer remission generally indicates a better prognosis.

Remission can also be partial. This means that the tumor shrinks after treatment to less than half its size before treatment.

The following terms are used to describe the lymphoma’s response to treatment:

  • Improvement: The lymphoma shrinks but is still greater than half its original size.
  • Stable disease: The lymphoma stays the same.
  • Progression: The lymphoma worsens during treatment.
  • Refractory disease: The lymphoma is resistant to treatment.

The following terms to refer to therapy:

  • Induction therapy is designed to induce a remission.
  • If this treatment does not induce a complete remission, new or different therapy will be initiated. This is usually referred to as salvage therapy.
  • Once in remission, one may be given yet another treatment to prevent recurrence. This is called maintenance therapy.

Chemotherapy

Many different types of chemotherapy may be used for Hodgkin lymphoma. The most commonly used combination of drugs in the United States is called ABVD. Another combination of drugs, known as BEACOPP, is now widely used in Europe and is being used more often in the United States. There are other combinations that are less commonly used and not listed here. The drugs that make up these two more common combinations of chemotherapy are listed below.

ABVD: Doxorubicin (Adriamycin), bleomycin (Blenoxane), vinblastine (Velban, Velsar), and dacarbazine (DTIC-Dome). ABVD chemotherapy is usually given every two weeks for two to eight months.

BEACOPP: Bleomycin, etoposide (Toposar, VePesid), doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan, Neosar), vincristine (Vincasar PFS, Oncovin), procarbazine (Matulane), and prednisone (multiple brand names). There are several different treatment schedules, but different drugs are usually given every two weeks.

The type of chemotherapy, number of cycles of chemotherapy, and the additional use of radiation therapy are based on the stage of the Hodgkin lymphoma and the type and number of prognostic factors.

Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)

http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/adult-non-hodgkins/Patient/page1

Key Points for This Section

Adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system.

Because lymph tissue is found throughout the body, adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma can begin in almost any part of the body. Cancer can spread to the liver and many other organs and tissues.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in pregnant women is the same as the disease in nonpregnant women of childbearing age. However, treatment is different for pregnant women. This summary includes information on the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma during pregnancy

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma can occur in both adults and children. Treatment for children, however, is different than treatment for adults. (See the PDQ summary on Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment for more information.)

There are many different types of lymphoma.

Lymphomas are divided into two general types: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This summary is about the treatment of adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma. For information about other types of lymphoma, see the following PDQ summaries:

Age, gender, and a weakened immune system can affect the risk of adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

If cancer is found, the following tests may be done to study the cancer cells:

  • Immunohistochemistry : A test that uses antibodies to check for certain antigens in a sample of tissue. The antibody is usually linked to a radioactive substance or a dye that causes the tissue to light up under a microscope. This type of test may be used to tell the difference between different types of cancer.
  • Cytogenetic analysis : A laboratory test in which cells in a sample of tissue are viewed under a microscope to look for certain changes in the chromosomes.
  • Immunophenotyping : A process used to identify cells, based on the types of antigens ormarkers on the surface of the cell. This process is used to diagnose specific types of leukemia and lymphoma by comparing the cancer cells to normal cells of the immune system.

Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.

The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:

  • The stage of the cancer.
  • The type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • The amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the blood.
  • The amount of beta-2-microglobulin in the blood (for Waldenström macroglobulinemia).
  • The patient’s age and general health.
  • Whether the lymphoma has just been diagnosed or has recurred (come back).

Stages of adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include E and S.

Adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma may be described as follows:

E: “E” stands for extranodal and means the cancer is found in an area or organ other than the lymph nodes or has spread to tissues beyond, but near, the major lymphatic areas.

S: “S” stands for spleen and means the cancer is found in the spleen.

Stage I adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma is divided into stage I and stage IE.

  • Stage I: Cancer is found in one lymphatic area (lymph node group, tonsils and nearby tissue, thymus, or spleen).
  • Stage IE: Cancer is found in one organ or area outside the lymph nodes.

Stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma is divided into stage II and stage IIE.

  • Stage II: Cancer is found in two or more lymph node groups either above or below the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen).
  • Stage IIE: Cancer is found in one or more lymph node groups either above or below the diaphragm. Cancer is also found outside the lymph nodes in one organ or area on the same side of the diaphragm as the affected lymph nodes.

Stage III adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma is divided into stage III, stage IIIE, stage IIIS, and stage IIIE+S.

  • Stage III: Cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen).
  • Stage IIIE: Cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm and outside the lymph nodes in a nearby organ or area.
  • Stage IIIS: Cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm, and in the spleen.
  • Stage IIIE+S: Cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm, outside the lymph nodes in a nearby organ or area, and in the spleen.

In stage IV adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the cancer:

  • is found throughout one or more organs that are not part of a lymphatic area (lymph node group, tonsils and nearby tissue, thymus, or spleen), and may be in lymph nodes near those organs; or
  • is found in one organ that is not part of a lymphatic area and has spread to organs or lymph nodes far away from that organ; or
  • is found in the liver, bone marrow, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or lungs (other than cancer that has spread to the lungs from nearby areas).

Adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas are also described based on how fast they grow and where the affected lymph nodes are in the body.  Indolent & aggressive.

The treatment plan depends mainly on the following:

  • The type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
  • Its stage (where the lymphoma is found)
  • How quickly the cancer is growing
  • The patient’s age
  • Whether the patient has other health problems
  • If there are symptoms present such as fever and night sweats (see above)

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Hematologic Malignancies , Table of Contents

Writer and Curator:  Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

Hematologic Malignancies 

Not excluding lymphomas [solid tumors]

The following series of articles are discussions of current identifications, classification, and treatments of leukemias, myelodysplastic syndromes and myelomas.

2.4 Hematological Malignancies

2.4.1 Ontogenesis of blood elements

Erythropoiesis

White blood cell series: myelopoiesis

Thrombocytogenesis

2.4.2 Classification of hematopoietic cancers

Primary Classification

Acute leukemias

Myelodysplastic syndromes

Acute myeloid leukemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Myeloproliferative Disorders

Chronic myeloproliferative disorders

Chronic myelogenous leukemia and related disorders

Myelofibrosis, including chronic idiopathic

Polycythemia, including polycythemia rubra vera

Thrombocytosis, including essential thrombocythemia

Chronic lymphoid leukemia and other lymphoid leukemias

Lymphomas

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma

Lymphoproliferative disorders associated with immunodeficiency

Plasma Cell dyscrasias

Mast cell disease and Histiocytic neoplasms

Secondary Classification

Nuance – PathologyOutlines

2.4.3 Diagnostics

Computer-aided diagnostics

Back-to-Front Design

Realtime Clinical Expert Support

Regression: A richly textured method for comparison and classification of predictor variables

Converting Hematology Based Data into an Inferential Interpretation

A model for Thalassemia Screening using Hematology Measurements

Measurement of granulocyte maturation may improve the early diagnosis of the septic state.

The automated malnutrition assessment.

Molecular Diagnostics

Genomic Analysis of Hematological Malignancies

Next-generation sequencing in hematologic malignancies: what will be the dividends?

Leveraging cancer genome information in hematologic malignancies.

p53 mutations are associated with resistance to chemotherapy and short survival in hematologic malignancies

Genomic approaches to hematologic malignancies

2.4.4 Treatment of hematopoietic cancers

2.4.4.1 Treatments for leukemia by type

2.4.4..2 Acute lymphocytic leukemias

2.4..4.3 Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Gene-Expression Patterns in Drug-Resistant Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells and Response to Treatment

Leukemias Treatment & Management

Treatments and drugs

2.4.5 Acute Myeloid Leukemia

New treatment approaches in acute myeloid leukemia: review of recent clinical studies

Novel approaches to the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

Current treatment of acute myeloid leukemia

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)

2.4.6 Treatment for CML

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)

What`s new in chronic myeloid leukemia research and treatment?

4.2.7 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)

Results from the Phase 3 Resonate™ Trial

Typical treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

4.2.8 Lymphoma treatment

4.2.8.1 Overview

4.2.8.2 Chemotherapy

………………………………..

Chapter 6

Total body irradiation (TBI)

Bone marrow (BM) transplantation

Autologous stem cell transplantation

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Supportive Therapies

Blood transfusions

Erythropoietin

G-CSF (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor)

Plasma exchange (plasmapheresis)

Platelet transfusions

Steroids

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Hematological Cancer Classification

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

 

 

Introduction to leukemias and lymphomas

 

2.4.1 Ontogenesis of the blood elements: hematopoiesis

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/69747/blood-cell-formation

Blood cells are divided into three groups: the red blood cells (erythrocytes), the white blood cells (leukocytes), and the blood platelets (thrombocytes). The white blood cells are subdivided into three broad groups: granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes.

Blood cells do not originate in the bloodstream itself but in specific blood-forming organs, notably the marrow of certain bones. In the human adult, the bone marrow produces all of the red blood cells, 60–70 percent of the white cells (i.e., the granulocytes), and all of the platelets. The lymphatic tissues, particularly the thymus, the spleen, and the lymph nodes, produce the lymphocytes (comprising 20–30 percent of the white cells). The reticuloendothelial tissues of the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and other organs produce the monocytes (4–8 percent of the white cells). The platelets, which are small cellular fragments rather than complete cells, are formed from bits of the cytoplasm of the giant cells (megakaryocytes) of the bone marrow.

In the human embryo, the first site of blood formation is the yolk sac. Later in embryonic life, the liver becomes the most important red blood cell-forming organ, but it is soon succeeded by the bone marrow, which in adult life is the only source of both red blood cells and the granulocytes. Both the red and white blood cells arise through a series of complex, gradual, and successive transformations from primitive stem cells, which have the ability to form any of the precursors of a blood cell. Precursor cells are stem cells that have developed to the stage where they are committed to forming a particular kind of new blood cell.

In a normal adult the red cells of about half a liter (almost one pint) of blood are produced by the bone marrow every week. Almost 1 percent of the body’s red cells are generated each day, and the balance between red cell production and the removal of aging red cells from the circulation is precisely maintained.

Cells-in-the-Bone-Marrow-1024x747

http://interactive-biology.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Cells-in-the-Bone-Marrow-1024×747.png

Erythropoiesis

http://www.interactive-biology.com/3969/erythropoiesis-formation-of-red-blood-cells/

Erythropoiesis – Formation of Red Blood Cells

Because of the inability of erythrocytes (red blood cells) to divide to replenish their own numbers, the old ruptured cells must be replaced by totally new cells. They meet their demise because they don’t have the usual specialized intracellular machinery, which controls cell growth and repair, leading to a short life span of 120 days.

This short life span necessitates the process erythropoiesis, which is the formation of red blood cells. All blood cells are formed in the bone marrow. This is the erythrocyte factory, which is soft, highly cellar tissue that fills the internal cavities of bones.

Erythrocyte differentiation takes place in 8 stages. It is the pathway through which an erythrocyte matures from a hemocytoblast into a full-blown erythrocyte. The first seven all take place within the bone marrow. After stage 7 the cell is then released into the bloodstream as a reticulocyte, where it then matures 1-2 days later into an erythrocyte. The stages are as follows:

  1. Hemocytoblast, which is a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell
  2. Common myeloid progenitor, a multipotent stem cell
  3. Unipotent stem cell
  4. Pronormoblast
  5. Basophilic normoblast also called an erythroblast.
  6. Polychromatophilic normoblast
  7. Orthochromatic normoblast
  8. Reticulocyte

These characteristics can be seen during the course of erythrocyte maturation:

  • The size of the cell decreases
  • The cytoplasm volume increases
  • Initially there is a nucleus and as the cell matures the size of the nucleus decreases until it vanishes with the condensation of the chromatin material.

Low oxygen tension stimulates the kidneys to secrete the hormone erythropoietin into the blood, and this hormone stimulates the bone marrow to produce erythrocytes.

Rarely, a malignancy or cancer of erythropoiesis occurs. It is referred to as erythroleukemia. This most likely arises from a common myeloid precursor, and it may occur associated with a myelodysplastic syndrome.

Summary of erythrocyte maturation

White blood cell series: myelopoiesis

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/presentations/100151_3.htm

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/15220.jpg

There are various types of white blood cells (WBCs) that normally appear in the blood: neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes; PMNs), band cells (slightly immature neutrophils), T-type lymphocytes (T cells), B-type lymphocytes (B cells), monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. T and B-type lymphocytes are indistinguishable from each other in a normal slide preparation. Any infection or acute stress will result in an increased production of WBCs. This usually entails increased numbers of cells and an increase in the percentage of immature cells (mainly band cells) in the blood. This change is referred to as a “shift to the left” People who have had a splenectomy have a persistent mild elevation of WBCs. Drugs that may increase WBC counts include epinephrine, allopurinol, aspirin, chloroform, heparin, quinine, corticosteroids, and triamterene. Drugs that may decrease WBC counts include antibiotics, anticonvulsants, antihistamine, antithyroid drugs, arsenicals, barbiturates, chemotherapeutic agents, diuretics and sulfonamides.   (Updated by: David C. Dugdale, III, MD)

https://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/path/innes/nh/wcbmaturation.cfm

Note that the mature forms of the myeloid series (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils), all have lobed (segmented) nuclei. The degree of lobation increases as the cells mature.

The earliest recognizable myeloid cell is the myeloblast (10-20m dia) with a large round to oval nucleus. There is fine diffuse immature chromatin (without clumping) and a prominant nucleolus.

The cytoplasm is basophilic without granules. Although one may see a small golgi area adjacent to the nucleus, granules are not usually visible by light microscopy. One should not see blast cells in the peripheral blood.

myeloblast x100b

https://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/path/innes/images/nhjpeg/nh%20myeloblast%20x100b.jpeg

The promyelocyte (10-20m) is slightly larger than a blast. Its nucleus, although similar to a myeloblast shows slight chromatin condensation and less prominent nucleoli. The cytoplasm contains striking azurophilic granules or primary granules. These granules contain myeloperoxidase, acid phosphatase, and esterase enzymes. Normally no promyelocytes are seen in the peripheral blood.

At the point in development when secondary granules can be recognized, the cell becomes a myelocyte.

promyelocyte x100

https://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/path/innes/images/nhjpeg/nh%20promyelocyte%20×100%20a.jpeg

Myelocytes (10-18m) are not normally found in the peripheral blood. Nucleoli may not be seen in the late myelocyte. Primary azurophilic granules are still present, but secondary granules predominate. Secondary granules (neut, eos, or baso) first appear adjacent to the nucleus. In neutrophils this is the “dawn” of neutrophilia.

Metamyelocytes (10-18m) have kidney shaped indented nuclei and dense chromatin along the nuclear membrane. The cytoplasm is faintly pink, and they have secondary granules (neutro, eos, or baso). Zero to one percent of the peripheral blood white cells may be metamyelocytes (juveniles).

metamyelocyte x100

https://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/path/innes/images/nhjpeg/nh%20metamyelocyte%20×100.jpeg

Bands, slightly smaller than juveniles, are marked by a U-shaped or deeply indented nucleus.

band neutrophilx100a

https://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/path/innes/images/nhjpeg/nh%20band%20x100a.jpeg

Segmented (segs) or polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes (average 14 m dia) are distinguished by definite lobation with thin thread-like filaments of chromatin joining the 2-5 lobes. 45-75% of the peripheral blood white cells are segmented neutrophils.

https://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/path/innes/images/nhjpeg/nh%20neutrophil%20×100%20d.jpeg

Thrombocytogenesis

The incredible journey: From megakaryocyte development to platelet formation

Kellie R. Machlus1,2 and Joseph E. Italiano Jr
JCB 2013; 201(6): 785-796
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1083/jcb.201304054

Large progenitor cells in the bone marrow called megakaryocytes (MKs) are the source of platelets. MKs release platelets through a series of fascinating cell biological events. During maturation, they become polyploid and accumulate massive amounts of protein and membrane. Then, in a cytoskeletal-driven process, they extend long branching processes, designated proplatelets, into sinusoidal blood vessels where they undergo fission to release platelets.

megakaryocyte production of platelets

http://dm5migu4zj3pb.cloudfront.net/manuscripts/26000/26891/medium/JCI0526891.f4.jpg

platelets and the immune continuum nri2956-f3

http://www.nature.com/nri/journal/v11/n4/images/nri2956-f3.jpg

2.4.2 Classification of hematological malignancies
Practical Diagnosis of Hematologic Disoreders. 4th edition. Vol 2.
Kjeldsberg CR, Ed.  ASCP Press.  2006. Chicago, IL.

2.4.2.1 Primary Classification

Acute leukemias

Myelodysplastic syndromes

Acute myeloid leukemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Myeloproliferative Disorders

Chronic myeloproliferative disorders

Chronic myelogenous leukemia and related disorders

Myelofibrosis, including chronic idiopathic

Polycythemia, including polycythemia rubra vera

Thrombocytosis, including essential thrombocythemia

Chronic lymphoid leukemia and other lymphoid leukemias

Lymphomas

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma

Lymphoproliferative disorders associated with immunodeficiency

Plasma Cell dyscrasias

Mast cell disease and Histiocytic neoplasms

2.4.2.2 Secondary Classification

2.4.2.3 Nuance – PathologyOutlines
Nat Pernick, Ed.

Leukemia – Acute

Primary referencesacute leukemia-generalAML generalAML classificationtransient abnormal myelopoiesis

Recurrent genetic abnormalities: AML with t(6;9)AML with t(8;21)AML with 11q23 abnormalitiesAML with inv(16) or t(16;16)AML with Down syndromeAML with FLT3 mutationsAML with myelodysplastic related changesAML therapy relatedAPL microgranular variantAPL with t(15;17)APL with t(V;17)APL therapy related

AML not otherwise categorized: minimally differentiated (M0)without maturation (M1)with maturation (M2)M3myelomonocyticmonoblastic and monocyticerythroidmegakaryoblasticCD13/CD33 negativebasophilicmyeloid sarcomaacute panmyelosis with myelofibrosiswith Philadelphia chromosomewith pseudo Chediak-Higashi anomalyhypocellular

ALL: generalWHO classificationwith eosinophilia

PreB ALL: generalt(9;22)t(v;11q23)t(1;19)t(5;14)t(12;21)hyperdiploidyhypodiploidymature B ALL/Burkitt

Other ALL: T ALLambiguous lineagemixed phenotype

AML and related malignancies

Acute myeloid leukemias with recurrent genetic abnormalities:

  • AML with t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1
  • AML with inv(16)(p13.1;q22) or t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBF&beta-MYH11
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia with t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML/RAR&alpha and variants
  • AML with t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL
  • AML with t(6;9)(p23;q34); DEK-NUP214
  • AML with inv(3)(q21q26.2) or t(3;3)(q21;q26.2); RPN1-EVI1
  • AML (megakaryoblastic) with t(1;22)(p13;q13); RBM15-MKL1
  • AML with mutated NPM1*
  • AML with mutated CEBPA*

* provisional

Acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia related changes

Therapy related acute myeloid leukemia

  • Alkylating agent related
  • Topoisomerase II inhibitor related (some maybe lymphoid)

Acute myeloid leukemia not otherwise categorized:

  • AML minimally differentiated (M0)
  • AML without maturation (M1)
  • AML with maturation (M2)
  • Acute myelomonocytic leukemia (M4)
  • Acute monoblastic and monocytic leukemia (M5a, M5b)
  • Acute erythroid leukemia (M6)
  • Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (M7)
  • Acute basophilic leukemia
  • Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis

Myeloid Sarcoma

Myeloid proliferations related to Down syndrome:

  • Transient abnormal myelopoeisis
  • Myeloid leukemia associated with Down syndrome

Blastic plasmacytoid dentritic cell neoplasm:

Acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage:

  • Acute undifferentiated leukemia
  • Mixed phenotype acute leukemia with t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1
  • Mixed phenotype acute leukemia with t(v;11q23); MLL rearranged
  • Mixed phenotype acute leukemia, B/myeloid, NOS
  • Mixed phenotype acute leukemia, T/myeloid, NOS
  • Mixed phenotype acute leukemia, NOS, rare types
  • Other acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage
  • References: WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue (IARC, 2008), Discovery Medicine 2010, eMedicine

Acute lymphocytic leukemia

General
=================================================================

  • WHO classification system includes former FAB classifications ALL-L1 and L2
    ● FAB L3 is now considered Burkitt lymphoma

WHO classification of acute lymphoblastic leukemia
=================================================================

Precursor B lymphoblastic leukemia / lymphoblastic lymphoma:
● ALL with t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL (Philadelphia chromosome)
● ALL with t(v;11q23) (MLL rearranged)
● ALL with t(1;19)(q23;p13.3); TCF3-PBX1 (E2A-PBX1)
● ALL with t(12;21)(p13;q22); ETV6-RUNX1 (TEL-AML1)
● Hyperdiploid > 50
● Hypodiploid
● t(5;14)(q31;q32); IL3-IGH

Precursor T lymphoblastic leukemia / lymphoma

Additional references
=================================================================

Mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL)

General
=================================================================

  • De novo acute leukemia containing separate populations of blasts of more than one lineage (bilineal or bilineage), or a single population of blasts co-expressing antigens of more than one lineage (biphenotypic)Excludes:
    ● Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with recurrent translocations t(8;21), t(15;17) or inv(16)
    ● Leukemias with FGFR1 mutations
    ● Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in blast crisis
    ● Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-related AML and therapy-related AML, even if they have MPAL immunophenotypeCriteria for biphenotypic leukemia:
    ● Score of 2 or more for each of two separate lineages:The European Group for the Immunological Classification of Leukemias (EGIL) scoring system2008 WHO classification of acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage 

Prognosis
=================================================================

  • Poor, overall survival of 18 months
    ● Young age, normal karyotype and ALL induction therapy are associated with favorable survival
    ● Ph+ is a predictor for poor prognosis
    ● Bone marrow transplantation should be considered in first remission

Major Categories

MPAL with t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1
=================================================================

  • 20% of all MPAL
    ● Blasts with t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) translocation or BCR-ABL1 rearrangement (Ph+) without history of CML
    ● Majority in adults
    ● High WBC counts● Most of the cases B/myeloid phenotype
    ● Rare T/myeloid, B and T lineage, or trilineage leukemiasMorphology:
    ● Many cases show a dimorphic blast population, one resembling myeloblasts and the other lymphoblastsCytogenetic abnormalities:
    ● Conventional karyotyping for t(9;22), FISH or PCR for BCR-ABL1 translocation
    ● Additional complex karyotypes
    ● Ph+ is a poor prognostic factor for MPAL, with a reported median survival of 8 months
    ● Worse than patients of all other types of MPAL

MPAL with t(v;11q23); MLL rearranged
=================================================================

  • Meeting the diagnostic criteria for MPAL with blasts bearing a translocation involving the 11q23 breakpoint (MLL gene)
    ● MPAL with MLL rearranged rare
    ● More often seen in children and relatively common in infancy
    ● High WBC counts
    ● Poor prognosis
    ● Dimorphic blast population, with one resembling monoblasts and the other resembling lymphoblasts
    ● Lymphoblast population often shows a CD19+, CD10- B precursor immunophenotype, frequently CD15+
    ● Expression of other B markers usually weak
    ● Translocations involving MLL gene include t(4;11)(q21;q23), t(11;19)(q23;p13), and t(9;11)(p22;q23)
    ● Cases with chromosome 11q23 deletion should not be classified in this category

B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) / lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL)

General

=================================================================

  • Current 2008 WHO classification: B lymphoblastic leukemia / lymphoma, NOS or B lymphoblastic leukemia / lymphoma with recurrent genetic abnormalities
  • See also lymphomas: B cell chapter
  • Also called B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia / lymphoblastic lymphoma, pre B ALL / LBL
  • Usually children
  • B acute lymphoblastic leukemia presents with pancytopenia due to extensive marrow involvement, stormy onset of symptoms, bone pain due to marrow expansion, hepatosplenomegaly due to neoplastic infiltration, CNS symptoms due to meningeal spread and testicular involvement
  • B acute lymphoblastic lymphoma often presents with cutaneous nodules, bone or nodal involvement, < 25% lymphoblasts in bone marrow and peripheral blood; aleukemic cases are usually asymptomatic
  • Depending on specific leukemia, arises in either hematopoietic stem cell or B-cell progenitor
  • Tumors are derived from pre-germinal center naive B cells with unmutated VH region genes
  • Have multiple immunophenotyping aberrancies relative to normal B cell precursors (hematogones); at relapse, 73% show loss of 1+ aberrance and 60% show new aberrancies (Am J Clin Pathol 2007;127:39)

Prognostic features

=================================================================

  • Favorable prognosis: age 1-10 years, female, white; preB phenotype, hyperdiploidy>50, t(12,21), WBC count at presentation <50×108/L, non-traumatic tap with no blasts in CNS, rapid response to chemotherapy < 5% blasts on morphology on day 15, remission status after induction <5% blasts on morphology and <0.01% blast on flow or PCR, CD10+
  • Intermediate prognosis: hyperdiploidy 47-50, diploid, 6q- and rearrangements of 8q24
  • Unfavorable prognosis: under age 1 (usually have 11q23 translocations) or over age 10; t(9;22) (but not if age 59+ years, Am J Clin Pathol 2002;117:716); male, > 50×108/L WBC at presentation, hypodiploidy, near tetraploidy, 17p- and MLL rearrangements t(v;11q23); CD10-; non-traumatic tap with > 5% blasts or traumatic tap (7%); also increased microvessel staining using CD105 in children (Leuk Res 2007;31:1741), MDR1 expression in children (Oncol Rep 2004;12:1201) and adults (Blood 2002;100:974), 25%+ blasts on morphology on day 15, remission status after induction ≥ 5% blasts on morphology and ≥ 0.1% blasts on flow or PCR

Case reports

=================================================================

  • 12 month old girl and 13 month old boy with mature phenotype but no translocations (Arch Pathol Lab Med 2003;127:1340)
  • 56 year old man with ALL arising from follicular lymphoma (Arch Pathol Lab Med 2002;126:997)
  • 76 year old man with basal cell carcinoma (Diagn Pathol 2007;2:32)
  • With hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;50:381)

Treatment

================================================================

  • Chemotherapy cures more children than adults; adolescents benefit from intensive regimens (Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2005:123)

Micro description

=================================================================

  • Bone marrow smears: small to intermediate blast-like cells with scant, variably basophilic cytoplasm, round / oval or convoluted nuclei, fine chromatin and indistinct nucleoli; frequent mitotic figures; may have “starry sky” appearance similar to Burkitt lymphoma; may have large lymphoblasts with 1-4 prominent nucleoli resembling myeloblasts; usually no sclerosis
  • Bone marrow biopsy: usually markedly hypercellular with reduction of trilinear maturation; cells have minimal cytoplasm, medium sized nuclei that are often convoluted, moderately dense chromatin and indistinct nucleoli, brisk mitotic activity
  • Other tissues: may have “starry sky” appearance similar to Burkitt lymphoma; collagen dissection, periadipocyte growth pattern and single cell linear filing

Chronic Leukemia

Chronic Myeloid Neoplasms

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): general, WHO classification, childhood, refractory anemia, refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts, refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, refractory anemia with excess blasts, 5q-syndrome, therapy related, unclassified, arsenic toxicity

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN): general, WHO classification, chronic eosinophilic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic neutrophilic leukemia, essential thrombocythemia, hypereosinophilic syndrome, mast cell disease, polycythemia vera, primary myelofibrosis, unclassifiable

MDS/MPN: general, WHO classification, atypical CML, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, unclassifiable

Myeloid neoplasms associated with eosinophilia and abnormalities of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1: PDGFRA, PDGFRB, FGFR1

Miscellaneous: transient myeloproliferative disorder of Downís syndrome

Lymphoma and plasma cell neoplasms

Lymph nodes: normal development-generalB cellsT cellsNK cellsnormal histologygrossing lymph nodesfeatures to report

Molecular testing: theoryFISHnorthern blotPCRsouthern blot

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: generalcytogeneticsstagingstaging-pediatricmorphologic clueshemophagocytic syndromechemotherapeutic atypia

B cell disorders: generalpost-rituximabbone marrow biopsyclassification-historicalWHO classification

B cell lymphoma subtypes: age-related EBV-associatedALK positive large cellBurkittunclassifiable-intermediate between Burkitt and diffuse large B cell lymphomaCLL
diffuse large B cell: 
diffuse-NOSCD5+T cell / histiocyte richprimary cutaneous-generalprimary cutaneous-legprimary sites-other
follicular: 
generalchildhoodcutaneousGI
hairy cell leukemiaHCL variantintravascular large B celllymphomatoid granulomatosislymphoplasmacyticmantle cell-classicmantle cell-blastoidmarginal zone-generalmarginal zone-MALTMALT-primary sitesmarginal zone-nodalmediastinal (thymic)plasmablasticpre B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphomaprimary effusionprolymphocytic leukemiapyothorax associatedSLLsplenic marginal zonesplenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes

Plasma cell neoplasms: generalmyelomaplasmacytomaheavy chain diseaseprimary amyloidosisMGUSOsteosclerotic myeloma (POEMS)cryoglobulinemia

T/NK cell disorders: generalWHO classificationadult T cellaggressive NK cell leukemiaanaplastic large cell ALK+ALK-angioimmunoblastic T cellblastic plasmacytoidchronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cellscutaneous CD4+ small/medium sized T cell lymphomacutaneous CD30 positive T cell lymphoproliferative disorderscutaneous gamma delta T cell lymphomaenteropathyepidermotropic CD8+ T cell lymphomahepatosplenicindolent T cell proliferationsmycosis fungoidesNK/T cell lymphoma-nasal typenodal CD8+ cytotoxic T cellnonB nonT lymphoblasticperipheral T cell lymphoma, NOSprimary effusion lymphomaSezary syndromestagingsubcutaneous panniculitis-likeT cell large granular lymphocytic leukemiaT cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphomaT cell prolymphocytic leukemia

Hodgkin lymphoma: general/stagingclassiclymphocyte depletedlymphocyte rich classicalmixed cellularitynodular lymphocyte predominantnodular sclerosis

Post-transplantation: generalWHO classificationplasmacytic hyperplasia/IM-like lesionspolymorphic B cell lymphoproliferative disordersmonomorphic B cell lymphoproliferative disordersothergraft versus host disease

Other: AIDS associated-generalAIDS associated-examplesEBV+ T cell lymphoproliferative disorders of childhoodprimary immune disorders related

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN)

WHO 2008 – Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) 

General
=================================================================

  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia
    ● Polycythemia vera
    ● Essential thrombocythemia
    ● Primary myelofibrosis
    ● Chronic neutrophilic leukemia
    ● Chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise categorized
    ● Mast cell disease
    ● MPNs, unclassifiable

WHO 2001 – Chronic myeloproliferative diseases 

Definition
=================================================================

  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (Philadelphia chromosome, t(9;22)(q34;q11), BCR-ABL positive)
    ● Chronic neutrophilic leukemia
    ● Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (and the hypereosinophilic syndrome)
    ● Polycythemia vera
    ● Chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (with extramedullary hematopoiesis)
    ● Essential thrombocythemia
    ● Chronic myeloproliferative disease, unclassifiable

Additional references
=================================================================

The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of the myeloid neoplasms  James W. Vardiman, Nancy Lee Harris, and Richard D. Brunning
Blood 2002; 100(7)  http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-04-1199

Lymphoma – Non B cell neoplasms

T/NK cell disorders/WHO classification (2008)

Principles of classification
=================================================================

  • Based on all available information (morphology, immunophenotype, genetics, clinical)
    ● No one antigenic marker is specific for any neoplasm (except ALK1)
    ● Immune profiling less helpful in subclassification of T cell lymphomas then B cell lymphomas
    ● Certain antigens commonly associated with specific disease entities but not entirely disease specific
    ● CD30: common in anaplastic large cell lymphoma but also classic Hodgkin lymphoma and other B and T cell lymphomas
    ● CD56: characteristic for nasal NK/T cell lymphoma, but also other T cell neoplasms and plasma cell disorders
    ● Variation of immunophenotype within a given disease (hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma: usually γδ but some are αβ)
    ● Recurrent genetic alterations have been identified for many B cell lymphomas but not for most T cell lymphomas
    ● No attempt to stratify lymphoid malignancies by grade
    ● Recognize the existence of grey zone lymphomas
    ● This multiparameter approach has been validated in international studies as highly reproducible

WHO 2008 classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues (T/NK)
=================================================================

Precursor T-lymphoid neoplasms
● T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, 9837/3

Mature T cell and NK cell neoplasms
● T cell prolymphocytic leukemia, 9834/3
● T cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, 9831/3
● Chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of NK cells, 9831/3
● Aggressive NK cell leukemia, 9948/3
● Systemic EBV-positive T cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood, 9724/3
● Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma, 9725/3
● Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma, 9827/3
● Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, 9719/3
● Enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma, 9717/3
● Hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma, 9716/3
● Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma, 9708/3
● Mycosis fungoides, 9700/3
● Sézary syndrome, 9701/3
● Primary cutaneous CD30-positive T cell lymphoproliferative disorders
● Lymphomatoid papulosis, 9718/1
● Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, 9718/3
● Primary cutaneous gamma-delta T cell lymphoma, 9726/3
● Primary cutaneous CD8-positive aggressive epidermotropic cytotoxic T cell lymphoma, 9709/3
● Primary cutaneous CD4-positive small/medium T cell lymphoma, 9709/3
● Peripheral T cell lymphoma, NOS, 9702/3
● Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma, 9705/3
● Anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive, 9714/3
● Anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-negative, 9702/3

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Staging
Author: Sandy D Kotiah, MD; Chief Editor: Jules E Harris, MD
Medscape Sep 6, 2013
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2006578-overview

General considerations in the staging of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and the revised Rai (United States) and Binet (Europe) staging systems for CLL are provided below.[1, 2, 3]

See Chronic Leukemias: 4 Cancers to Differentiate, a Critical Images slideshow, to help detect chronic leukemias and determine the specific type present.

General considerations

  • CLL and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are different manifestations of the same disease; SLL is diagnosed when the disease is mainly nodal, and CLL is diagnosed when the disease is seen in the blood and bone marrow
  • CLL is diagnosed by > 5000 monoclonal lymphocytes/mm3 for longer than 3mo; the bone marrow usually has more than 30% monoclonal lymphocytes and is either normocellular or hypercellular
  • Monoclonal B lymphocytosis is a precursor form of CLL that is defined by a monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis < 5000 monoclonal lymphocytes/mm3; all lymph nodes smaller than 1.5 cm; no anemia; and no thrombocytopenia

Revised Rai staging system (United States)

Low risk (formerly stage 0)[1] :

  • Lymphocytosis, lymphocytes in blood > 15000/mcL, and > 40% lymphocytes in the bone marrow

Intermediate risk (formerly stages I and II):

  • Lymphocytosis as in low risk with enlarged node(s) in any site, or splenomegaly or hepatomegaly or both

High risk (formerly stages III and IV):

  • Lymphocytosis as in low risk and intermediate risk with disease-related anemia (hemoglobin level < 11.0 g/dL or hematocrit < 33%) or platelets < 100,000/mcL

Binet staging system (Europe)

Stage A:

  • Hemoglobin ≥ 10 g/dL, platelets ≥ 100,000/mm3, and < 3 enlarged areas

Stage B:

  • Hemoglobin ≥ 10 g/dL, platelets ≥ 100,000/mm3, and ≥ 3 enlarged areas

Stage C:

  • Hemoglobin < 10 g/dL, platelets < 100,000/mm3, and any number of enlarged areas

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