Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Archive for the ‘Bone marrow derived cells’ Category


Blood forming precursors in bone marrow

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

Blood stem cells study could pave the way for new cancer therapy

UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH

IMAGE

http://media.eurekalert.org/multimedia_prod/pub/web/110842_web.jpg

This image shows the formation of blood stem cells inside the embryonic vessel called dorsal aorta. In green is shown secreted molecule called NOGGIN, which plays an important role in this process. The University of Edinburgh

People with leukaemia could be helped by new research that sheds light on how the body produces its blood supply.

Scientists are a step closer to creating blood stem cells that could reduce the need for bone marrow transplants in patients with cancer or blood disorders.

Enabling scientists to grow the stem cells artificially from pluripotent stem cells could also lead to the development of personalised blood therapies, researchers say.

Blood stem cells are found in bone marrow and produce all blood cells in the body. These cells – known as haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) – help to restore blood supply in patients who have been treated for leukaemia.

Researchers used a mouse model to pinpoint exactly how HSCs develop in the womb. They showed for the first time how three key molecules interact together to generate the cells, which are later found in adult bone marrow.

The discovery could help scientists to recreate this process in the lab, in the hope that HSCs could one day be developed for clinical use.

Scientists say this fundamental understanding of early development may also have an impact on other diseases that affect blood formation and supply.

###

The research has been published in Nature Communications.

Professor Alexander Medvinsky, of the University of Edinburgh’s MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine said: “There is a pressing need to improve treatments for diseases like leukaemia and this type of research brings us a step closer to that milestone. The more we understand about how embryos develop these blood stem cells, the closer we come to being able to make them in the lab.”

http://www.ed.ac.uk/news/2016/stem-cells-100316

Céline Souilhol, Christèle Gonneau, Javier G. Lendinez, Antoniana Batsivari, Stanislav Rybtsov, Heather Wilson, Lucia Morgado-Palacin, David Hills, Samir Taoudi, Jennifer Antonchuk, Suling Zhao, Alexander Medvinsky. Inductive interactions mediated by interplay of asymmetric signalling underlie development of adult haematopoietic stem cells. Nature Communications, 2016; 7: 10784 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10784

During embryonic development, adult haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge preferentially in the ventral domain of the aorta in the aorta–gonad–mesonephros (AGM) region. Several signalling pathways such as Notch, Wnt, Shh and RA are implicated in this process, yet how these interact to regulate the emergence of HSCs has not previously been described in mammals. Using a combination of ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we report here that stage-specific reciprocal dorso–ventral inductive interactions and lateral input from the urogenital ridges are required to drive HSC development in the aorta. Our study strongly suggests that these inductive interactions in the AGM region are mediated by the interplay between spatially polarized signalling pathways. Specifically, Shh produced in the dorsal region of the AGM, stem cell factor in the ventral and lateral regions, and BMP inhibitory signals in the ventral tissue are integral parts of the regulatory system involved in the development of HSCs.

Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) lie at the foundation of the adult haematopoietic system, and give rise to cells of all blood lineages throughout the lifespan of an organism. An important property of adult (definitive) haematopoietic stem cells (dHSCs) is that they are capable of long-term reconstitution of the haematopoietic system upon transplantation into irradiated recipients. In the mouse, such cells develop by embryonic stages E10–E11 in the aorta–gonad–mesonephros (AGM) region1, 2, 3, 4. An ex vivo approach showed that the AGM region has a robust autonomous capacity to generate dHSCs1. The AGM region comprises the dorsal aorta flanked on both sides by the urogenital ridges (UGRs), which contain embryonic rudiments of kidney and mesonephros. HSCs develop in a polarized manner, predominantly in the ventral floor of the dorsal aorta (AoV), more rarely in the dorsal domain of the dorsal aorta (AoD), and are absent in the UGRs2, 5, 6, 7. Localization of dHSCs to the AoV in mouse and human embryos was shown by long-term reconstitution experiments5, 6.

Abundant evidence indicates that during development, a specialized embryonic endothelial compartment known as haematogenic (or haemogenic) endothelium gives rise to haematopoietic stem and progenitors cells7, 8, 9, 10. The haematopoietic programme in various vertebrate models is executed predominantly in the AoV, and is recognized by the expression of essential haematopoietic transcription factors, for example, Runx1 and cKit, and the appearance of clusters of haematopoietic cells budding from the endothelium of the dorsal aorta6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14.

It is broadly accepted that HSCs develop from the haematogenic endothelium within intra-aortic clusters. This transition involves several consecutive maturation steps of HSC precursors: pro-HSCsright arrowpre-HSC type Iright arrowpre-HSC type IIright arrowdHSC15, 16, 17. All these precursors express endothelial markers, such as vascular-endothelial cadherin (VC) and CD31, and sequentially upregulate haematopoietic surface markers: CD41 (pro-HSCs), CD43 (pre-HSC type I) and finally CD45 (pre-HSC type II). This maturation process occurs in the dorsal aorta between E9 and E11. Specifically, pro-HSCs emerge at E9, pre-HSCs Type I appear at E10 and pre-HSCs type II predominantly at E11. Unlike dHSCs, pre-HSCs cannot reconstitute the adult haematopoietic system by direct transplantation and require prior maturation in an embryonic or neonatal environment15, 16, 17, 18,19.

A number of signalling pathways (Notch, Wnt, retinoic acid, interleukin-3 and inflammatory) have been implicated in HSC development; however, a coherent picture is yet to be elucidated15, 17, 20,21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31. HSC precursors (pro-HSCs, pre-HSCs type I and pre-HSCs type II) express cKit17 from early developmental stages. A recent study has shown that the cKit ligand, known as stem cell factor (SCF), is a key regulator driving maturation of these HSC precursors into dHSCs in the AGM region17, which is in agreement with the marked decline of HSC activity in SCF mutant mice32, 33. In the adult, SCF is critically important for HSC maintenance in the bone marrow niche, mainly in the endothelial compartment32. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) pathways are also important mediators; in zebrafish, these two morphogenes are involved in arterial specification and haematopoietic patterning, respectively34,35. In the mouse, subaortic BMP4 and Shh/Indian Hedgehog derived from gut were also proposed to be responsible for HSC development36, 37.

During development, interactions between spatially segregated compartments are essential for tissue patterning and specification, and are often mediated by gradients of secreted molecules38,39, 40. Molecules secreted by distant tissues, such as somites, can influence HSC development in the AGM region41, 42, 43, 44, 45. Developing HSCs are embedded in the complex AGM microenvironment, suggesting that HSC development may require signals derived from different compartments of the AGM region. We sought to test this hypothesis. However, the analysis of HSC development in vivo is significantly hampered by low accessibility of embryos developing in utero, fast maturation of dHSCs, lack of uniquely specific markers for HSC precursors and their low numbers in the AGM region. Therefore, we employed here a robust ex vivo culture system that models HSC development in the embryo in combination with functional HSC analysis using in vivolong-term reconstitution assay15, 16, 17. Specifically, to study interactions between AGM subregions, we took advantage of the in vitro reaggregation system that enables close juxtaposition of cell types15.

We show that interactions between three compartments of the AGM, the AoV, the AoD and the UGRs, are necessary for efficient generation of dHSCs. First, we show that dHSC activity in the isolated E10.5 AoV is limited but can be significantly enhanced by co-culture with the AoD, and that this is mediated at least partly by Shh, secreted dorsally in vivo. Second, while HSC activity in isolated E11.5 AoD is limited, co-culture with a competent AoV microenvironment activates dHSC generation in the AoD. We found that this effect is mediated by SCF, which is secreted abundantly by the AoV stroma in vivo as shown here. Third, we show that downregulation of BMP4 signalling by BMP antagonist Noggin, which is present at high levels in the AoV and especially in intra-aortic clusters as revealed here by in vivo observations, is required for HSC development. Fourth, UGRs, which express high levels of SCF, also enhance HSC development in the dorsal aorta.

Our results based on in vivo observations and ex vivo modelling strongly suggest that juxtaposed, anatomically distinct domains within the AGM region create a complex landscape of interactive signals that underpins HSC development.

Pre-HSCs localize preferentially to the AoV

As dHSCs mature from pre-HSCs, we investigated whether the emergence of dHSC predominantly in the AoV6 is a result of asymmetric (ventralized) distribution of pre-HSCs. Dorsal aortae were separated from UGRs and bisected into AoV and AoD (including notochord) as described previously6 (Supplementary Fig. 1a). The different domains were then directly transplanted into irradiated mice to detect dHSCs. We first confirmed our previous observation that at E11.5 dHSCs appear almost exclusively in the AoV, although some dHSCs were in the AoD and engrafted few recipients at high level (Supplementary Fig. 1b). Limiting dilution analysis showed that dHSCs are approximately four times more frequent in the AoV compared with AoD. UGRs did not contain HSCs in line with previous reports2, 6.

We then investigated the spatial distribution of pre-HSCs type I and pre-HSCs type II in E10.5–E11.5 embryos using the OP9 co-culture system supplemented with Il3+SCF+Flt3 (termed 3GF), which allows pre-HSCs (which do not engraft by direct transplantation) to mature into dHSC that become detectable by long-term repopulation assay as described previously16. Doses of transplanted cells (expressed in embryo equivalents, e.e.) were chosen based on the requirements of individual experiments (explained in Methods section). In these experiments (Fig. 1), the dose injected was high (1–2e.e.) to detect potentially low dHSC numbers in AoD and UGRs.

Figure 1: Localization of pre-HSCs in the AGM region.

Localization of pre-HSCs in the AGM region.

(a) E10.5 AoV, AoD and UGRs were co-aggregated with OP9 and cultured for 5 days, and the formation of dHSCs was then tested by transplantation into irradiated mice (2e.e. per recipient; AoV: six independent experiments; AoD: four independent experiments; UGRs: two independent experiments). Dashed line indicates the cutoff for high-level engraftment (>70% donor chimaerism). (b) E11.5 aortas and UGRs were transplanted after reaggregate culture (Ao: 0.2e.e. per recipient and UGRs: 1e.e. per recipient; two independent experiments). (c,d) Pre-HSCs type I (VC+CD45) (c) or type II (VC+CD45+) (d) sorted from E11.5 AoV and AoD were co-aggregated with OP9 cells and transplanted after culture (1e.e. per recipient; two independent experiments). (ad) Levels of engraftment are plotted, and number of repopulated versus total number of transplanted mice are shown in brackets. Number of embryo equivalents (ee) injected in each experiment are indicated on the graphs. (*P<0.05; ***P<0.005; Mann–Whitney U-test). In all these experiments, tissues were cultured with three growth factors (Flt3I, Il3 and SCF). AGM, aorta–gonad–mesonephros region; Ao, dorsal Aorta; AoV, ventral domain of the dorsal aorta; AoD, dorsal domain of the dorsal aorta; UGRs, urogenital ridges.

We have shown previously that E10.5 AGM region mainly contains type I pre-HSCs, whereas at E11.5, type I and type II pre-HSCs co-exist16. Dissected E10.5 AGM regions co-cultured with OP9 in 3GF for 5 days were transplanted into adult irradiated recipients. Out of 21 recipients that received cultured AoV, 20 showed high levels (>70%) of donor-derived long-term haematopoietic chimerism (Fig. 1a). In contrast, only 7 out of 16 recipients of cultured AoD were repopulated at high levels (>70%), while the remaining recipients showed lower or no repopulation (7 and 2, respectively). Cultured UGRs did not produce dHSCs (Fig. 1a). Thus, we conclude that the E10.5 AoD does contain pre-HSCs but at significantly lower numbers than the AoV.

We then investigated whether pre-HSCs localization changes in E11.5 embryos and found that pre-HSCs were still exclusively localized to the dorsal aorta; UGRs carefully separated from the lateral mesenchyme adjacent to the dorsal aorta did not give any repopulation after culture (Fig. 1b). To establish the location of pre-HSCs within the E11.5 dorsal aorta, cell populations enriched for pre-HSCs type I (VC+CD45) and pre-HSCs type II (VC+CD45+) were sorted from AoV and AoD, and co-cultured with OP9 stromal cells in the presence of 3GF as described previously16. We again were able to detect pre-HSC activity in AoD although at lower levels than in AoV. After maturation ex vivo, pre-HSCs type I from AoV and AoD repopulated 7 of 11 and 2 of 8 recipients, respectively (Fig. 1c). Similarly, cultured pre-HSCs type II from AoV and AoD repopulated 11 out of 12 and 4 out of 10 recipients, respectively (Fig. 1d). In all cases, multilineage engraftment was confirmed (Supplementary Fig. 2). These data show that pre-HSCs are significantly enriched in AoV.

Reciprocal inductive interactions between AoD and AoV

To explore hypothetical interactions between AoD and AoV, we made use of a dissociation–reaggregation system that recapitulates HSC development ex vivo15. This system allowed us to integrate AGM domains in a three-dimensional tissue-like organoid15 and study their interactions in HSC development. To track the origin of dHSCs, AoV and AoD from wild-type (WT) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) embryos with constitutive expression of GFP46 were co-aggregated (termed AoV//AoD co-aggregates) and cultured for 5 days in the presence of 3GF before transplantation (Fig. 2a). Mice transplanted with AoV//AoD co-aggregates can be reconstituted by dHSCs coming from AoD and AoV. The presence of GFP allowed the individual contributions of AoV and AoD to the total repopulation level within the same mouse to be assessed (Fig. 2b,c). This is presented in two separate columns in the graph. Namely, while columns 1 and 3 represent the same recipient mice, the former shows exclusively the contribution of the AoD and the latter shows exclusively the contribution of the AoV into each recipient. To assess the influence of AoD and AoV interaction on HSC development, the repopulation by co-aggregated AoD (column 1) or AoV (column 3) can then be compared with repopulation by independently cultured AoD (column 2) or AoV (column 4). All experiments included reciprocal use of WT and GFP tissues in AoV//AoD co-aggregates, and we observed no difference in repopulation properties between WT and GFP embryos. Homotypic AoV//AoV and AoD//AoD co-aggregates were always used as controls. Note that in these experiments, only 0.2e.e. were injected per recipient, to ensure that the repopulation levels were not saturated and to allow any inductive effects to be revealed.

Figure 2: Inductive interactions between AoV, AoD and UGRs as revealed by an ex vivomodel system.

Inductive interactions between AoV, AoD and UGRs as revealed by an ex vivo model system.

(a) Experimental design: the ventral domain (AoV) and the dorsal domain (AoD) of the aorta, and the urogenital ridges (UGRs) from wild-type (WT) and GFP+ embryos were subdissected, and chimeric reaggregates from tissues of these two genotypes were generated. Left column: to test interactions between AoV and AoD, chimeric AoV//AoD reaggregates were generated and transplanted into irradiated recipients after 4–5 days of culture (b,c). Right column: to test interactions between Ao and UGRs, chimeric Ao//UGR reaggregates were generated and transplanted into irradiated recipients after 4–5 days culture (d). GFP+ and/or GFP− donor-derived long-term repopulation allowed us to conclude whether dHSCs originated from AoV, AoD or UGRs. Accordingly, the tissue of origin of donor dHSCs is indicated below each graph. (b) E10.5 aortas from WT and GFP embryos were used to generate chimeric reaggregates as depicted schematically above plots. The reciprocal combination of WT and GFP tissues was used to generate AoV//AoD reaggregates. The tissue source of dHSCs is shown separately in the leftmost (AoD) and rightmost (AoV) columns as indicated below the plot (0.2e.e. per recipient; two independent experiments). (c) E11.5 aortas from WT and GFP embryos were used to generate chimeric reaggregates. The tissue source of dHSCs is shown separately in the leftmost (AoD) and rightmost (AoV) columns as indicated below the plot (0.2e.e. per recipient; two independent experiments). (d) E11.5 aortas (Ao) and UGRs from WT and GFP embryos were used to generate Ao//UGR chimeric reaggregates. As depicted schematically above the plot, the reciprocal combination of WT and GFP tissues was used to generate Ao//UGR reaggregates. The tissue source of dHSCs is shown separately in left (Ao) and right (UGRs) columns as indicated below the plot (0.01e.e. per recipient; six independent experiments). (e) Reaggregation of WT Ao with UGRs generate more dHSCs than Ao alone (0.05e.e. per recipient; two independent experiments). (be) In all these experiments, tissues were cultured with three growth factors.

Using this approach, we found that the E10.5 AoV generates more dHSCs when combined with AoD than on its own (Fig. 2b, compare two rightmost columns). One day later, E11.5 AoD had no positive influence on dHSC generation by AoV (Fig. 2c, compare two rightmost columns). Conversely, the E11.5 AoD produced more HSCs when reaggregated with the AoV than on its own (Fig. 2c, compare two leftmost columns). This inductive effect of AoV on AoD was not observed at E10.5 (Fig. 2b, compare two leftmost columns). These ex vivo modelling experiments revealed reciprocal stage-specific effects of AoV and AoD on HSC development, which could be explained by the differential release of factors by the two regions and/or by differences in the competency of the target cells to respond to signals.

UGRs enhance HSC development in the dorsal aorta  

SCF expression is involved in polarized HSC development

Figure 3: Involvement of polarized stem cell factor in HSC development.

Involvement of polarized stem cell factor in HSC development.

(a) qRT–PCR on fresh AoV, AoD and UGRs at E10.5 and E11.5 showed high expression levels of stem cell factor (SCF) in AoV and UGRs, compared with AoD (data are mean±s.e.m; *P<0.05, **P<0.01, t-test; three independent experiments). No significant difference was observed between E10.5 and E11.5 expression level in any of the tissues. (b) Expression of SCF-GFP and CD31 determined by immunostaining on thick section (300μm) of SCF-GFP-positive E10.5 AGM region and on SCF-GFP-negative control. Bars, 50μm. (c) Expression of SCF in sorted populations from fresh E10.5–E11.5 AoV (V) and AoD (D) determined by qRT–PCR. Endo, endothelial population (VC+CD45CD43); type I, pre-HSCs type I (VC+CD45CD43+); type II, pre-HSCs type II (VC+CD45+); stroma, stromal population (VCCD45CD43). (*P<0.05, t-test; five independent experiments). (d) E10.5 AoD were cultured as reaggregates in the presence of Il3 and Flt3L with or without SCF and human SCF antagonist (SCF-Rh). (0.5e.e. per recipient; three independent experiments). (e,f) E11.5 AoD (two independent experiments) (e) and E10.5 AoV (two independent experiments) (f) were cultured as explants with or without SCF (no other cytokines); (0.2e.e. per recipient).

 

Shh signalling enhances dHSC generation

 

Figure 4: Sonic Hedgehog is a positive modulator of pre-HSC type I.

Sonic Hedgehog is a positive modulator of pre-HSC type I.

(a) Expression level of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) in E10.5 and E11.5 AGM region determined by qRT–PCR. (data are mean±s.e.m; *P<0.05, t-test; E10.5: three independent experiments and E11.5: two independent experiments). (b) Patched1 and Gli1 expression in endothelial cells (endo: VC+CD45CD43), pre-HSCs type I (I: VC+CD45CD43+) and type II (II: VC+CD45+) sorted from E11.5 AoV and AoD (two independent experiments). (c) E10.5 AoV and AoD explants were cultured in presence of Shh recombinant protein before transplantation (AoV: 0.1e.e. per recipient; two independent experiments and AoD: 0.2e.e. per recipient; three independent experiments). (d) E10.5 AoV and doxycyline-inducible OP9-Shh were co-aggregated and cultured in presence or absence of doxycycline and/or Hedgehog (Hh) antagonist (200nM) before transplantation (0.2e.e. per recipient; two independent experiments). (e) 10.5 AoV and AoD co-aggregated with OP9 were cultured in presence of three growth factors with Hh antagonist before transplantation; (0.2e.e. per recipient; two independent experiments). (f) E11.5 AoV explants were cultured in presence of Shh recombinant protein before transplantation; (0.2e.e. per recipient; two independent experiments). (g): E11.5 AGM reaggregates were cultured in presence of Hh antagonist before transplantation; (0.1e.e. per recipient; two independent experiments). (c,d,f,g) In all these experiments, tissues were cultured without cytokines. Hh anta, Hh antagonist; Dox, doxycycline.

 

BMP signalling is downregulated in the dHSC lineage

Figure 5: Bone morphogenetic protein signalling is downregulated in dHSC lineage.

Bone morphogenetic protein signalling is downregulated in dHSC lineage.

(a) Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) at E10.5 determined by qRT–PCR; (data are mean±s.e.m.; *P<0.05, t-test; three independent experiments). (b) Expression of BMP4 in the E10.5 AGM region determined by immunostaining on frozen sections. Bars, 50μm. Zoomed image shows the subendothelial localization of BMP4 (arrowheads). Bars, 10μm. (c) Expression of phosphorylated-Smad (P-Smad) in the E10.5 AGM region determined by immunostaining on frozen sections. Bars, 50μm. (d) Id genes expression in endothelial cells, pre-HSCs type I and type II directly isolated from E10.5 and E11.5 AoV determined by qRT–PCR. Endo, endothelial population (VC+CD45CD43); type I, pre-HSCs type I (VC+CD45CD43+); type II, pre-HSCs type II (VC+CD45+); stroma, stromal population (VCCD45CD43). (Data are mean±s.e.m.; *P<0.05, **P<0.01; t-test; five independent experiments). (eg) Expression of P-Smad, CD31 and CD45 in the endothelium and haematopoietic clusters of E10.5 dorsal aorta. White arrowheads indicate cells with pre-HSC type II phenotype (CD31+CD45+); green arrows show (CD31+CD45−/low) cells budding out of the dorsal aorta and expressing P-Smad; asterisks indicate CD31+CD45 cells expressing P-Smad within the endothelium. Bars, 10μm. A positive control showing P-Smad staining in the dorsal part of the neural tube can be found in h.

 

Figure 6: Haematopoietic clusters are exposed to low concentration of BMP4 and high levels of Noggin.

Haematopoietic clusters are exposed to low concentration of BMP4 and high levels of Noggin.

(a) Expression of BMP antagonists at E10.5 determined by qRT–PCR (data are mean±s.e.m.; *P<0.05,***P<0.005; t-test; three independent experiments). (b) Expression of Noggin in the E10.5 AGM region determined by immunostaining on frozen sections. Note the expression of Noggin in the notochord (Nt) as expected. Bar, 50μm. (c) Expression of Noggin and BMP4 in intra-aortic clusters characterized by cKit and CD31 expression. Note that BMP4 is mainly expressed underneath the dorsal aorta (arrowheads), while Noggin is expressed in the cluster (arrows). Bars, 10μm. (d) Expression of Noggin in isolated populations from E10.5 and E11.5 AoV (V) and AoD (D) determined by qRT–PCR. (*P<0.05, t-test; five independent experiments). (e) Model showing downregulation of BMP activity in dHSC lineage. BMP4 is mainly expressed in the ventral mesenchyme, while Noggin is found in haematopoeitic clusters. Accordingly, BMP activity, assessed by the phosphorylation of Smad1,5 and 8 (P-Smad), is high in mesenchymal cells underneath the aortic endothelium and in some endothelial cells (CD31+CD45) of the aortic endothelium and decreases in the haematopoeitic clusters. While some pre-HSC type I cells (CD31+CD45−/low) exhibit BMP signalling at a low level, acquisition of CD45 (shown in red) is accompanied by a complete loss of BMP activity. EC, endothelial cells; MC, mesenchymal cells; I, pre-HSC type I; II, pre-HSC type II.

 

BMP signalling inhibits HSC development

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160308/ncomms10784/images_article/ncomms10784-f7.jpg

 

Interactions between SCF, Shh and BMP signalling pathways

Interplay between SCF, Shh and BMP pathways underpins inductive interactions in the AGM.

 

We have shown previously that during murine embryo development definitive HSCs emerge predominantly in the ventral domain of the dorsal aorta (AoV)6. This spatially polarized production of HSCs might be explained by different origins of dorsal and ventral endothelium and/or by asymmetric production of key factors involved in HSC development37, 52, 53 and we reasoned that directional inductive interactions between AGM compartments could be involved. Great insight into inductive interactions in various organs has previously been obtained through in vitro modelling39. Here we modelled interactions between AGM domains in a co-culture system, which supports HSC development15. Using this ex vivo system, we demonstrate that at early stages (E10.5) HSC maturation in the AoV region is enhanced by the presence of the AoD. One day later (E11.5), the AoV microenvironment is able to induce HSC development in the AoD, previously thought to be mostly devoid of HSC activity6. We also found that UGRs can enhance HSC production from the dorsal aorta, but cannot generate dHSCs themselves, even under influence of the dorsal aorta. Thus, our data strongly suggest that reciprocal stage-specific inductive AoD//AoV interactions and involvement of UGRs are required for execution of the robust development of HSCs in vivo.

Our data indicate that previously established dorso–ventrally polarized HSC development6 is defined by two main factors. First, our current data show that although the AoD contains pre-HSCs (both type I and type II), their numbers are lower than in AoV, in line with lower intra-aortic cluster formation previously described in mouse AoD6, 13. Second, as shown here, dHSCs can be induced in the AoD by the AoV, and therefore the dHSCs deficiency in AoD cannot be explained solely by asymmetric pre-HSC distribution, but may also be influenced by differences in the microenvironment.

To study this, we focused on SCF, Shh and BMP4, whose expressions are dorso–ventrally polarized in the AGM region36, 47, 49 (and current data). We found that SCF is an inductive signal that is expressed at high levels in the AoV and UGRs, and can stimulate HSC development in isolated AoD, a region which had previously been considered to be mostly devoid of HSC activity. This is in agreement with a key role of SCF in HSC maturation17. We found that the aortic endothelial compartment expresses high levels of SCF, suggesting its important role in HSC development comparable to the bone marrow microenvironment of adult HSCs32. Importantly, we found that the pre-HSC type I population expresses SCF suggesting a positive-autocrine loop, which could promote HSC development.

Shh signalling in zebrafish is required for aortic angioblast migration and subsequent arterial specification of the dorsal aorta34, 54. We found that in mouse Shh stimulates and a Hh antagonist inhibits the development of HSCs at E10.5 but not at E11.5, in keeping with a previous study37. The induction of dHSCs in AoV by AoD is also limited to the E10.5 stage. Since Shh is secreted by the notochord (which is included in AoD-dissected tissue), this stage specificity is likely defined by the predominant presence of pre-HSCs type I at E10.5, which express higher levels of Shh signalling components (Ptch1 and Gli1) compared with pre-HSCs type II. By E11.5, the pre-HSC population is mainly represented by type II cells15. Stage-specific loss of sensitivity to Hh signalling was also described in the developing neural tube55. Notably, the poor ability of AoD to develop HSCs despite abundant presence of Shh can also be explained by lower levels of Ptch1 and Gli1 detected in AoD- compared with AoV-derived pre-HSC type I. Our ex vivo modelling data indicate that AoD-derived Shh is an active inducer of HSC development in the AGM region. This conclusion does not exclude the possibility that Shh secreted by the gut could also reach the dorsal aorta37, although by E10.5 these sites are separated by an extended mesentery.

BMP4 signalling is a key factor involved during differentiation of ventral mesoderm and its further specification into haematopoietic cells. In zebrafish, BMP signalling is clearly required during the patterning of the dorsal aorta and for the emergence of dHSCs in the ventral wall34. Its role in mouse is less clear due to the early lethality of BMP mutants56. Several lines of evidence point to BMP4 as a good candidate regulating HSC development. Indeed, BMP4 is highly expressed in the ventral mesenchyme underneath the dorsal aorta34, 36, 49; some reports suggested its role in controlling dHSC emergence36, 57, 58. However, the in vitro systems used likely assayed the maintenance of dHSCs, rather than their maturation. It was also reported that BMP4 signalling can define their differentiation potential59. BMP4 is also involved in the regulation of essential haematopoietic transcription factors such as Scl/Gata2/Fli1 and Runx1 (refs 60, 61). Here we analysed BMP signalling activity in the dHSC lineage in the AGM region. We show that in vivo the pre-HSC type I to type II transition is accompanied by a downregulation of BMP targets (Id genes). This correlates with our data demonstrating that BMP activity is downregulated in intra-aortic clusters and the observations of others that Runx1 expression is attenuating in the developing HSC lineage60, 62, 63. How is this decrease of BMP activity achieved in vivo, despite the presence of BMP4 in AoV? It has previously been noted that in amphibian embryos several BMP inhibitors are also expressed in AoV34. Similarly, our analysis of the embryo showed high expression of a number of BMP antagonists as well as inhibitory Smad6 and Smad7 in mouse AoV that may counteract BMP4 action in HSC lineage. Furthermore, we found that in the AGM region BMP4 and Noggin are spatially segregated: Noggin being present in haematopoietic clusters and BMP4 being mainly expressed underneath the aortic endothelium. Therefore, maturing HSCs in clusters are exposed to low BMP4 concentration and high concentration of the BMP antagonist Noggin. Furthermore, our qRT–PCR analysis shows that the pre-HSC type I population expresses Noggin, which possibly creates a very effective shield that protects them from BMP4. Accordingly, our ex vivo analysis strongly suggests that downregulation of BMP signalling is functionally important for HSC development in the embryo. Indeed, forced BMP signalling activation by the addition of BMP4, strongly inhibits HSC development, and conversely the addition of Noggin stimulates HSC development in E10.5–E11.5 AGM cultures. These results are in line with recent observation that deletion of Smad4, a common transducer for BMP4/TGFβ signalling, markedly augments the formation of intra-aortic clusters64. Our data do not exclude the possibility that BMP4 is essential for specification of mouse dHSCs at earlier stages, as described in the zebrafish model, where BMP signalling is required for HSC development at stages closer to mouse E8.5 (ref. 34).

Our analysis indicates that all three signalling pathways studied can cooperate for HSC development (Fig. 8c). Notably, the interplay of Shh and BMP pathways is broadly involved in development. For example, counter gradients of polarized Shh and BMP signalling in the developing spinal cord specify neuronal subsets along the dorso–ventral axis65, and the dorsal aorta resembles the neural tube with inverse orientation of Shh- and BMP-secreting centres34. However, we detected an antagonistic relationship between Shh and BMP pathways. At the molecular level, Shh can induce Noggin and Smad6 expression, thus inhibiting BMP4 signalling. In turn, BMP4 suppresses and, accordingly, Noggin enhances Shh signalling. Cooperation between Shh and Noggin has been previously described as critically important for developmental specification of somitic, neural and hair follicle cells66, 67, 68. Our in vitro data suggest that the feed-forward loop Shhright arrowNoggin/Nogginright arrowShh is also involved in HSC development in vivo.

We propose a model where the polarized secreted factors form complex fields of gradients in vivo, which define an effector zone for optimal HSC development in the dorsal aorta and lead to the ventrally shifted appearance of dHSCs (Fig. 8c). Of interest, intra-aortic clusters are abundant in ventro–lateral positions69, which may reflect the position of this zone. The dissection close to such a zone could lead to accidental inclusion of powerful dHSCs in AoD samples observed here. Furthermore, it is possible that spatial segregation of co-operating and spatial overlap of antagonizing factors may also be important for adjustment of HSC development in vivo. Indeed, although the pool of pre-HSCs in the AGM region markedly expands during E9.5–11.5 (Rybtsov et al., submitted), complete maturation of the HSC pool is limited: while the majority of cells reach the pre-HSC type II stage, only one or two dHSCs are generated by the end of E11. Such controlled dynamics of HSC development may be needed to prevent a burst of active haematopoiesis in the AGM region. How exactly HSC maturation dynamics depend on overlapping concentrations of factors requires further analysis. Although ex vivo modelling is a powerful tool to dissect mechanisms of HSC development in vivo, there will likely be some variation in details. For example, spatial polarization in the developing HSC niche may define kinetics of HSC development in vivo.While we have demonstrated spatial polarization in vivo of the factors driving HSC development in our model system, it is currently unclear whether any factors become expressed in a polarized manner within the reaggregates and as such, whether polarization is also a pre-requisite for HSC maturation. Alternatively, if polarization is not required, the entire reaggregate may replicate the optimal zone for HSC development, resulting in massive generation of dHSCs. The distinction between these two scenarios will require further investigation.

In summary, our ex vivo modelling experiments suggest that HSC development in the embryo involves stage-dependent interactions between dorsal, ventral and lateral domains of the AGM region, mediated at least partly by the interplay of SCF, Shh, BMP4 and Noggin. Further detailed analysis will be required to better understand the complexity of the AGM signalling landscape in which HSC development takes place. Such knowledge may lead to development of novel protocols for the generation of definitive HSCs in vitro for clinical applications.

Integrated genomic DNA/RNA profiling of hematologic malignancies in the clinical setting

Jie He1Omar Abdel-Wahab2Michelle K. Nahas1Kai Wang1Raajit K. Rampal3Andrew M. Intlekofer4, et al.
http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/early/2016/03/10/blood-2015-08-664649March 10, 2016

Key Points

  • Novel clinically-available comprehensive genomic profiling of both DNA and RNA in hematologic malignancies.

  • Profiling of 3696 clinical hematologic tumors identified somatic alterations that impact diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic selection

The spectrum of somatic alterations in hematologic malignancies includes substitutions, insertions/deletions (indels), copy number alterations (CNAs) and a wide range of gene fusions; no current clinically available single assay captures the different types of alterations. We developed a novel next-generation sequencing-based assay to identify all classes of genomic alterations using archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE), blood and bone marrow samples with high accuracy in a clinically relevant timeframe, which is performed in our CLIA-certified CAP-accredited laboratory. Targeted capture of DNA/RNA and next-generation sequencing reliably identifies substitutions, indels, CNAs and gene fusions, with similar accuracy to lower-throughput assays which focus on specific genes and types of genomic alterations. Profiling of 3696 samples identified recurrent somatic alterations that impact diagnosis, prognosis and therapy selection. This comprehensive genomic profiling approach has proved effective in detecting all types of genomic alterations, including fusion transcripts, which increases the ability to identify clinically-relevant genomic alterations with therapeutic relevance.

Cohesin Ring Rules Blood Stem Cells, Binds Them to Renewal or Expansion

GEN News    http://www.genengnews.com/gen-news-highlights/cohesin-ring-rules-blood-stem-cells-binds-them-to-renewal-or-expansion/81252512/

A genome-wide RNAi screen was used to assess the effects of 15,000 genes on the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The screen identified candidate genes whose knockdown maintained the HSC phenotype during culture. Such findings could lead to better protocols to grow these cells outside the body, potentially making bone marrow transplants more available to patients suffering blood cancers, or even identifying novel genes to target during the treatment of leukemia (left and right panels). Four genes in particular implicated cohesin, a ring-like protein complex that binds to the DNA in all of our cells, in the control of self-renewal versus differentiation in HSCs. Deficiency of cohesin causes an increase in self-renewal and a decrease in differentiation of HSCs. [Cell Reports]

Best known for its ability to regulate the separation of sister chromatids during cell division, the cohesin protein complex, a ring-shaped structure, has shown that it has other powers, such as the facilitation of DNA repair and the modification of transcription. And now, according to scientists based at Lund University, there is evidence that the cohesin complex controls the growth of blood stem cells. More to the point, the cohesin complex determines whether blood stem cells self-renew or differentiate.

The new finding is significant because it can help scientists improve the expansion of blood stem cells outside the body, thus increasing the supply of blood stem cells to patients suffering leukemia or hereditary blood disorders. Besides making bone marrow transplant material more available, the new finding could point scientists to new points of attack for the treatment of blood cancer, which is a disruption between blood stem cell multiplication and maturation.

The Lund University scientists, led by Jonas Larsson, presented their results March 17 in the journal Cell Reports, in an article entitled “Genome-wide RNAi Screen Identifies Cohesin Genes as Modifiers of Renewal and Differentiation in Human HSCs.” The article describes how a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen was performed in primary human CD34+ cells. This screen enabled the scientists to identify candidate genes whose knockdown maintained the HSC phenotype during culture.

“A striking finding was the identification of members of the cohesin complex (STAG2, RAD21, STAG1, and SMC3) among the top 20 genes from the screen,” wrote the authors. “Upon individual validation of these cohesin genes, we found that their knockdown led to an immediate expansion of cells with an HSC phenotype in vitro.”

A similar expansion, the authors added, was observed in vivo following transplantation to immunodeficient mice.

“Transcriptome analysis of cohesin-deficient CD34+ cells showed an upregulation of HSC-specific genes,” the authors continued. This finding, the authors asserted, demonstrates that when cohesin is deficient, transcription shifts to a more stem cell–like pattern.

“The research is unique as the study of so many genes alongside one another is unprecedented,” said Dr. Larsson. “In addition, we have used human blood stem cells, which is difficult in itself as it is requires the gathering of a large amount of material.”

Of the 15,000 genes that were tested, the Lund team found around 20 candidates with a strong capacity to affect the balance of growth in the blood stem cells. What was striking was that four of these 20 genes were physically connected through cooperation in a protein complex.

“The discovery showed that this protein complex is crucial and has an overarching function in the growth of the blood stem cells,” emphasized Dr. Larsson.

The cohesin complex acts as a sort of brace that holds different parts of the DNA strand together in the cell. The researchers believe that this allows the cohesin complex to control access to the “on/off switches” in DNA and to change the impulses the blood stem cells receive from various genes, thereby affecting cell division. The blood stem cell either multiplies or matures to become a specialized cell with other tasks.

Independently of the Lund researchers’ discovery, other research in the field of blood cancer has recently identified mutations in exactly the same four genes in patients with various forms of blood cancer.

“This is incredibly exciting! Together with the results from our study, this indicates that the cohesin genes are directly and crucially significant in the development of blood cancer,” exclaimed the study’s lead author, Ph.D. candidate Roman Galeev. “Our findings entail a new understanding of how the expansion of blood stem cells is controlled. Eventually, this can lead to new ways of affecting the process, either to prevent the development of cancer or to expand the stem cells for transplant.”

UNPRECEDENTED PRECISION STUDY IDENTIFIES THE FOUR GENES RESPONSIBLE FOR BLOOD STEM CELL DEVELOPMENT.

  • A genome-wide RNAi screen was performed in primary human CD34+ cells
  • Several cohesin genes were identified as modifiers of renewal and differentiation
  • Cohesin-deficient HSCs show enhanced reconstitution capacity in vivo
  • Cohesin deficiency induces immediate HSC-specific transcriptional programs

Summary

To gain insights into the regulatory mechanisms of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we employed a genome-wide RNAi screen in human cord-blood derived cells and identified candidate genes whose knockdown maintained the HSC phenotype during culture. A striking finding was the identification of members of the cohesin complex (STAG2, RAD21, STAG1, andSMC3) among the top 20 genes from the screen. Upon individual validation of these cohesin genes, we found that their knockdown led to an immediate expansion of cells with an HSC phenotype in vitro. A similar expansion was observed in vivo following transplantation to immunodeficient mice. Transcriptome analysis of cohesin-deficient CD34+ cells showed an upregulation of HSC-specific genes, demonstrating an immediate shift toward a more stem-cell-like gene expression signature upon cohesin deficiency. Our findings implicate cohesin as a major regulator of HSCs and illustrate the power of global RNAi screens to identify modifiers of cell fate.

Figure thumbnail fx1

Human hematopoiesis is maintained by a small number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are capable of generating all blood cell lineages at an extremely rapid pace for the entire lifespan of a human being (Orkin and Zon, 2008). HSCs have been studied extensively during the last four decades and are probably the best functionally characterized adult stem cells. However, despite this, the regulatory mechanisms that govern different cellular fate options in HSCs have remained incompletely defined. In particular, it has been challenging to understand the molecular basis of the inherent ability of HSCs to self-renew and preserve their undifferentiated state, which has hampered efforts to expand HSCs ex vivo for therapeutic benefit (Dahlberg et al., 2011). Ex vivo expansion of HSCs would allow for critical improvements of bone marrow transplantation procedures in treatment of malignant and inherited hematological diseases (Chou et al., 2010). Defining the genetic and molecular basis of self-renewal of HSCs is thus important to enhance current cell-therapy strategies, but it is also essential in order to better understand mechanisms behind dysregulated hematopoiesis that may cause leukemia. Genes and pathways balancing cell-fate options between renewal and differentiation in stem cells are often key players in cancer development (Orkin and Zon, 2008).

Thumbnail image of Figure 1. Opens large image

Figure 1

Genome-wide RNAi Screen in Primitive Human Hematopoietic Cells Defines Genes and Pathways Associated with Cancer Progression and Cell Proliferation

(A) Overview of the experimental outline for the primary screen. 60 million cord blood-derived CD34+ cells were transduced with a pooled lentiviral library containing 75,000 shRNAs across six transduction replicates in total. A fraction of the cells were isolated after 72 hr, and proviral inserts were deep sequenced to determine the initial library distribution. Following 20 days of culture, CD34+ cells were magnetically isolated and proviral inserts were sequenced again to determine the changes in distribution for all shRNAs.

(B) Relative distribution of shRNAs following 20 days of in vitro culture, ranked from the most enriched to the most depleted. The y axis shows the average enrichment value across six replicate screens.

(C) Gene ontology analysis for all genes represented by multiple shRNAs in the most enriched (10%) fraction.

(D) KEGG pathway analysis showing strong enrichment for cancer-associated pathways among the top-scoring genes.

See also Figure S1 and Table S1.

We report here on the successful development of a genome-wide RNAi screening approach targeted to primary human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to define genes and pathways associated with self-renewal and differentiation. Based on findings from the screen, we implicate the cohesin complex as a crucial regulator of cell-fate decisions influencing self- renewal and differentiation in HSCs both in vitro and in vivo.

These efforts represent a genome-wide RNAi screen targeted to primary human HSPCs. The main limiting factor when performing functional screens in primary human cells is cell number. This obviously becomes even more challenging when rare cell subsets, such as stem and progenitor cells, are studied. Through unique access to cord blood with daily deliveries from several local hospitals, we were able to gather the necessary quantities to perform a screen in enriched primary HSPCs with reasonable coverage (300X).

 

Read Full Post »


Targeting hematopoietic stem cells

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

New technology uncovered the stem cell niche in the bone marrow

HSCs, Stem cells, hematopoiesis

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are so rare that it’s difficult to comprehensively localize dividing and non-dividing HSCs. Thus, there has controversy about their specific location in the bone marrow. A recent Nature publication reported that the HSCs resides mainly in perisinusoidal niches through out the bone marrow and there are no spatially distinct niches for dividing and non-dividing blood-forming stem cells. This group of researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center started the generation of a GFP knock-in for the gene Ctnnal1, a generic marker for HSCs in mice (α-catulinGFP mice) and confirmed that α-catulin-GFP+c-kit+ cells represent blood-forming HSCs by showing that α-catulin-GFP+c-kit+ cells gave long term multi-lineage reconstitution of irradiated mice. Using a tissue-clearing technique and deep confocal imaging, they were able to image thousands of α-catulin-GFP+c-kit+ cells and see their relation to other cells. This publication improved the understanding of the microenvironment of HSCs in the bone marrow, which would significantly improve the safety and effectiveness of bone marrow transplantation.

Melih Acar, etc. (October 2015) Deep imaging of bone marrow shows non-dividing stem cells are mainly perisinusoidal. Nature

 

Deep imaging of bone marrow shows non-dividing stem cells are mainly perisinusoidal

AcarKS. KocherlakotaMM. MurphyJG. PeyerH OguroCN. InraC JaiyeolaZ ZhaoK Luby-Phelps & Sean J. Morrison
Nature526,126–130(01 October 2015)
   
       doi:10.1038/nature15250

 

Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in a perivascular niche but the specific location of this niche remains controversial1. HSCs are rare and few can be found in thin tissue sections2, 3 or upon live imaging4, making it difficult to comprehensively localize dividing and non-dividing HSCs. Here, using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in for the gene Ctnnal1 in mice (hereafter denoted as αcatulinGFP), we discover that αcatulinGFP is expressed by only 0.02% of bone marrow haematopoietic cells, including almost all HSCs. We find that approximately 30% of αcatulin−GFP+c-kit+ cells give long-term multilineage reconstitution of irradiated mice, indicating thatαcatulin−GFP+c-kit+ cells are comparable in HSC purity to cells obtained using the best markers currently available. We optically cleared the bone marrow to perform deep confocal imaging, allowing us to image thousands of αcatulin–GFP+c-kit+ cells and to digitally reconstruct large segments of bone marrow. The distribution of αcatulin–GFP+c-kit+ cells indicated that HSCs were more common in central marrow than near bone surfaces, and in the diaphysis relative to the metaphysis. Nearly all HSCs contacted leptin receptor positive (Lepr+) and Cxcl12high niche cells, and approximately 85% of HSCs were within 10 μm of a sinusoidal blood vessel. Most HSCs, both dividing (Ki-67+) and non-dividing (Ki-67), were distant from arterioles, transition zone vessels, and bone surfaces. Dividing and non-dividing HSCs thus reside mainly in perisinusoidal niches with Lepr+Cxcl12high cells throughout the bone marrow.

 

Figure 1: Deep imaging of αcatulin−GFP+ HSCs in digitally reconstructed bone marrow.close

 

Deep imaging of [agr]-catulin-GFP+ HSCs in digitally reconstructed bone marrow.

a, Only 0.021 ± 0.006% of αcatulinGFP/+ bone marrow cells were GFP+ (n = 14 mice in 11 independent experiments). b, Nearly allαcatulin−GFP+c-kit+ bone marrow cells were CD150+CD48 (n = 9 mice in 3 independent experiments;

 

Extended Data Figure 3: αcatulin−GFP expression among haematopoietic cells is highly restricted to HSCs.

 

[agr]-catulin-GFP expression among haematopoietic cells is highly restricted to HSCs.

 

a, The frequency of αcatulin−GFP+ bone marrow cells in negative control αcatulin+/+ (WT) mice and α-catulinGFP/+ mice (n = 14 mice per genotype in 11 independent experiments). In all cases in this figure, percentages refer to the frequency of each population as a percentage of WBM cells. b, αcatulin−GFP+c-kit+ cells from Fig. 1b are shown (blue dots) along with all other bone marrow cells in the same sample (red dots). c, CD150+CD48LSK HSCs express αcatulin−GFP but CD150CD48LSK MPPs do not (n = 17 mice in 12 independent experiments). A minority of the αcatulin−GFP+c-kit+ cells had high forward scatter, lacked reconstituting potential, and were gated out when isolating HSCs by flow cytometry and when identifying HSCs during imaging (see Extended Data Fig. 5for further explanation). d, Linc-kitlowSca-1lowCD127+CD135+ common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), Linc-kit+Sca-1CD34+CD16/32 common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), Linc-kit+Sca-1CD34+CD16/32+ granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), and Linc-kit+Sca-1CD34CD16/32 megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors (MEPs) did not express αcatulin−GFP. αcatulinGFP/+ and control cell populations had similar levels of background GFP signals that accounted for fewer than 1% of the cells in each population (n = 9 mice per genotype in 2 independent experiments).

 

Extended Data Figure 7: HSC density is higher in the diaphysis as compared to the metaphysis.

HSC density is higher in the diaphysis as compared to the metaphysis.

a, Schematic of a femur showing the separation of epiphysis/metaphysis from diaphysis. We divided metaphysis from diaphysis at the point where the central sinus branched (see red line in panels a, f,and i). This is also the point at wh…

 

 

Extended Data Figure 9: Bone marrow blood vessel types can be distinguished based on vessel diameter, continuity of basal lamina, morphology, and position; and no difference in the distribution of HSCs in the bone marrow of male and female mice was detected.close

Bone marrow blood vessel types can be distinguished based on vessel diameter, continuity of basal lamina, morphology, and position; and no difference in the distribution of HSCs in the bone marrow of male and female mice was detected.

a, b, Schematic (a) and properties (b) of blood vessels in the bone marrow. Blood enters the marrow through arterioles that branch as they become smaller in diameter and approach the endosteum, where they connect to smaller diameter tra…

Read Full Post »


Blocking Differentiation to Produce Stem Cells

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

Blocking Differentiation is Enough to Turn Mature Cells into Stem Cells

 

 

ID3 inhibitor of DNA binding 3, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 3399, updated on 15-Nov-2015

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene?Db=gene

 

Official Symbol ID3 provided by HGNC 

Official Full Name inhibitor of DNA binding 3, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein provided by HGNC

Primary source HGNC:HGNC:5362 See related Ensembl:ENSG00000117318; HPRD:02608; MIM:600277; Vega:OTTHUMG00000003229

Gene type protein coding

RefSeq status REVIEWED

OrganismHomo sapiens

LineageEukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo

Also known as HEIR-1; bHLHb25

Summary The protein encoded by this gene is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that can form heterodimers with other HLH proteins. However, the encoded protein lacks a basic DNA-binding domain and therefore inhibits the DNA binding of any HLH protein with which it interacts. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

Orthologs mouse all

 

Location:
1p36.13-p36.12
Exon count:
3
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 1 NC_000001.11 (23557930..23559794, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (23884421..23886285, complement)

Chromosome 1 – NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes

Related articles in PubMed

 

Induced Developmental Arrest of Early Hematopoietic Progenitors Leads to the Generation of Leukocyte Stem Cells

Tomokatsu Ikawa, Kyoko Masuda, Mirelle J.A.J. Huijskens, Rumi Satoh, Kiyokazu Kakugawa, Yasutoshi Agata, Tomohiro Miyai, Wilfred T.V. Germeraad, Yoshimoto Katsura, Hiroshi Kawamoto
Stem Cell Reports Nov 10, 2015; Volume 5, Issue 5, 716–727.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2015.09.012
Highlights
  • Overexpression of ID3 endows hematopoietic progenitors with self-renewal activity
  • A simple block of cell differentiation is sufficient to induce stem cells
  • Induced leukocyte stem (iLS) cells exhibit robust multi-lineage reconstitution
  • Equivalent progenitors were produced from human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells

Self-renewal potential and multipotency are hallmarks of a stem cell. It is generally accepted that acquisition of such stemness requires rejuvenation of somatic cells through reprogramming of their genetic and epigenetic status. We show here that a simple block of cell differentiation is sufficient to induce and maintain stem cells. By overexpression of the transcriptional inhibitor ID3 in murine hematopoietic progenitor cells and cultivation under B cell induction conditions, the cells undergo developmental arrest and enter a self-renewal cycle. These cells can be maintained in vitro almost indefinitely, and the long-term cultured cells exhibit robust multi-lineage reconstitution when transferred into irradiated mice. These cells can be cloned and re-expanded with 50% plating efficiency, indicating that virtually all cells are self-renewing. Equivalent progenitors were produced from human cord blood stem cells, and these will ultimately be useful as a source of cells for immune cell therapy.

Figure thumbnail fx1

http://www.cell.com/cms/attachment/2040173852/2053709392/fx1.jpg

 

Somatic tissues with high turnover rates, such as skin, intestinal epithelium, and hematopoietic cells, are maintained by the activity of self-renewing stem cells, which are present in only limited numbers in each organ (Barker et al., 2012,Copley et al., 2012, Fuchs and Chen, 2013). For example, the frequency of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the mouse is about 1 in 105 of total bone marrow (BM) cells (Spangrude et al., 1988). Once HSCs begin the differentiation process, their progeny cells have hardly any self-renewal capacity, indicating that self-renewal is a special feature endowed only to stem cells.

Cells such as embryonic stem (ES) cells that retain self-renewal potential and multipotency only in vitro can also be included in the category of stem cells. Such stemness of ES cells is thought to be maintained by formation of a core transcriptional network and an epigenetic status unique to ES cells (Lund et al., 2012, Meissner, 2010, Ng and Surani, 2011). A stem cell equivalent to ES cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, can be produced from somatic cells by overexpression of only a few specific transcription factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and C-MYC), which are thought to be the essential components in forming the core network of transcriptional factors that define the status of ES cells (Takahashi et al., 2007, Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006, Yamanaka, 2012). It is thus generally conceived that acquisition of such a network for a somatic cell depends on the reprogramming of the epigenetic status of that cell.

On the other hand, it could be envisioned that the self-renewing status of cells represents a state in which their further differentiation is inhibited. It is known, for example, that to maintain ES/iPS cells, factors such as leukemia inhibitory factor and basic fibroblast growth factor, for mouse and human cultures, respectively (Williams et al., 1988, Xu et al., 2005), are required, and these factors are thought to block further differentiation of the cells. In this context, it has previously been shown that systemic disruption of transcription factors essential for the B cell lineage, such as PAX5, E2A, and EBF1, leads to the emergence of self-renewing multipotent hematopoietic progenitors, which can be maintained under specific culture conditions (Ikawa et al., 2004a, Nutt et al., 1999, Pongubala et al., 2008). It has recently been shown that the suppression of lymphoid lineage priming promotes the expansion of both mouse and human hematopoietic progenitors (Mercer et al., 2011, van Galen et al., 2014). Therefore, it would seem theoretically possible to make a stem cell by inducing inactivation of these factors at particular developmental stages. Conditional depletion of PAX5 in B cell lineage committed progenitors, as well as mature B cells, resulted in the generation of T cells from the B lineage cells (Cobaleda et al., 2007, Nutt et al., 1999, Rolink et al., 1999). These studies, however, were mainly focused on the occurrence of cell-fate conversion by de-differentiation of target cells. Therefore, the minimal requirement for the acquisition of self-renewal potential remains undetermined.

Our ultimate goal is to obtain sufficient number of stem cells by expansion to overcome the limitation of cell numbers for immune therapies. We hypothesize that stem cells can be produced by simply blocking differentiation. As mentioned earlier, self-renewing multipotent progenitors (MPPs) can be produced by culturing E2A-deficient hematopoietic progenitors in B cell-inducing conditions (Ikawa et al., 2004a). Because it remains unclear at which developmental stage the acquisition of self-renewing potential has occurred in the case of such a systemic deletion, we thought to develop a method in which E2A function could be inactivated and reactivated in an inducible manner. We decided to use the ID3 protein for this purpose, because it is known that ID proteins serve as dominant-negative inhibitors of E proteins (Norton et al., 1998, Sayegh et al., 2003). Here we show that the overexpression of ID3 into HSCs or hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) in both mouse and human induces the stemness of the progenitors and that the cells acquire the self-renewal activity. The ID3-expressing cells can be maintained in vitro as MPPs with T, B, and myeloid lineage potentials.

 

Results

Jump to Section
Introduction
Results
  Generation of ID3-Transduced Hematopoietic Progenitors
  IdHP Cells Are Multipotent, Maintaining T, B, and Myeloid Lineage Potentials
  IdHP Cells Are Multipotent at a Clonal Level
  Generation of IdHP Cells from Mouse BM
  Generation of Inducible IdHP Cells Using ID3-ER Retrovirus
  Generation of IdHP Cells from Human Cord Blood Hematopoietic Progenitors
Discussion
Experimental Procedures
  Mice
  Antibodies
  Growth Factors
  Isolation of Hematopoietic Progenitors
  Retroviral Constructs, Viral Supernatants, and Transduction
  In Vitro Differentiation Culture System
  Cloning of mIdHP Cells
  Colony-Forming Unit in Culture Assay
  Cell Cycle Assay
  Adoptive Transfer of mIdHP and hIdHP Cells
  PCR Analysis of Igh Gene Rearrangement
  RNA Extraction and qRT-PCR
  Microarray Analysis
Author Contributions
Supplemental Information
References

Generation of ID3-Transduced Hematopoietic Progenitors

IdHP Cells Are Multipotent, Maintaining T, B, and Myeloid Lineage Potentials

IdHP Cells Are Multipotent at a Clonal Level

Generation of IdHP Cells from Mouse BM

Generation of Inducible IdHP Cells Using ID3-ER Retrovirus

Generation of IdHP Cells from Human Cord Blood Hematopoietic Progenitors

Thumbnail image of Figure 1. Opens large image

http://www.cell.com/cms/attachment/2040173852/2053709390/gr1.jpg

 

Identification of cellular and molecular events regulating self-renewal or differentiation of the cells is a fundamental issue in the stem cell biology or developmental biology field. In the present study, we revealed that the simple inhibition of differentiation in HSCs or HPCs by overexpressing ID proteins and culturing them in suitable conditions induced the self-renewal of hematopoietic progenitors and allowed the extensive expansion of the multipotent cells. The reduction of ID proteins in MPPs resulted in the differentiation of the cells into lymphoid and myeloid lineage cells. Thus, it is possible to manipulate the cell fate by regulating E-protein or ID-protein activities. This inducible system will be a useful tool to figure out the genetic and epigenetic program controlling the self-renewal activity of multipotent stem cells.

Previous studies have shown that hematopoietic progenitors deficient for E2A, EBF1, and PAX5 maintain multilineage differentiation potential without losing their self-renewing capacity (Ikawa et al., 2004a, Nutt et al., 1999, Pongubala et al., 2008), indicating that the inhibition of the differentiation pathway at certain developmental stages leads to the expansion of multipotent stem cells. However, the MPPs were not able to differentiate into B cells because they lacked the activities of transcription factors essential for the initiation of the B lineage program. In addition, a restriction point regulating the lineage-specific patterns of gene expression during B cell specification remained to be determined because of the lack of an inducible system that regulates B cell differentiation. Here we have established the multipotent iLS cells using ID3-ER retrovirus, which can be maintained and differentiated into B cells in an inducible manner by simply adding or withdrawing 4-OHT. The data indicated the essential role of E2A for initiation of the B cell program that restricts other lineage potentials, because the depletion of 4-OHT from the culture immediately leads to the activation of E proteins, such as E2A, HEB, and E2-2, that promote B cell differentiation. This strategy is useful in understanding the cues regulating the self-renewal or differentiation of uncommitted progenitors to the B cell pathway. Analysis of genome-wide gene expression patterns and histone modifications will determine the exact mechanisms that underlie the B cell commitment process.

The iLS cells can also be generated from human CB hematopoietic progenitors. Human iLS cells exhibited differentiation potential and self-renewal activity similar to those of murine iLS cells, suggesting a similar developmental program during human B cell fate specification. Our data are consistent with a study demonstrating the critical role of the activity of ID and E proteins for controlling the status of human HSCs and progenitors (van Galen et al., 2014). This study reported that the overexpression of ID2 in human CB HSCs enhanced the myeloid and stem cell program at the expense of lymphoid commitment. Specifically, ID2 overexpression resulted in a 10-fold expansion of HSCs, suggesting that the inhibition of E-protein activities promotes the self-renewal of HSCs by antagonizing the differentiation. This raises a question about the functional differences between ID2 and ID3. Id3 seems to suppress the B cell program and promote the myeloid program more efficiently than does ID2, because the ID2-expressing HPCs appear to retain more B cell potential than ID3-expressing iLS cells (Mercer et al., 2011, van Galen et al., 2014). The self-renewal activity and differentiation potential of ID2-HPCs derived from murine HSCs in the BM seemed to be limited both in vivo and in vitro analysis (Mercer et al., 2011). In our study, the iLS cells retained more myeloid potential and self-renewal capacity during the culture. Strikingly, the multipotent iLS cells enormously proliferated (>103-fold in 1 month) as long as the cells were cultured in undifferentiated conditions. This could be due to the functional differences among Id family genes. Alternatively, combination with additional environmental signals, such as cytokines or chemokines, may affect the functional differences of ID proteins, although any ID proteins can repress the activation of the E2A targets, such as Ebf1 and Foxo1, that are essential for B cell differentiation. ID1 and ID3, but not ID2, are demonstrated to be negative regulators of the generation of hematopoietic progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells (Hong et al., 2011). Further analysis is required to determine the physiological role of ID proteins in regulating hematopoietic cell fate. It also remains to be determined whether the ID3-ER system can be applied to human progenitors. It would be informative to compare the regulatory networks that control B cell differentiation in mouse and human.

Immune cell therapy has become a major field of interest in the last two decades. However, the required high cell numbers restrain the application and success of immune reconstitution or anti-cancer treatment. For example, DCs are already being used in cell therapy against tumors. One of the major limitations of DC vaccine therapy is the difficulty in obtaining sufficient cell numbers, because DCs do not proliferate in the currently used systems. The method of making iLS cells could be applied to such cell therapies. Taken together, the simplicity of this method and the high expansion rate and retention of multilineage potential of the cells make this cell source appealing for regenerative medicine or immune cell therapy.

In summary, we showed that an artificially induced block of differentiation in uncommitted progenitors is sufficient to produce multipotent stem cells that retain self-renewal activity. Once the differentiation block is released, the cells start differentiating into mature cells both in vivo and in vitro. Thus, this method could be applicable for establishing somatic stem cells from other organs in a similar manner, which would be quite useful for regenerative medicine. The relative ease of making stem cells leads us to conceive that a block in differentiation is essential not only in other types of artificially engineered stem cells, such as ES cells and iPS cells, but also in any type of physiological somatic stem cell. In this context, it is tempting to speculate that it could have been easy for a multicellular organism to establish somatic stem cells by this mechanism during evolution.

Read Full Post »


Treatment of Acute Leukemias

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

2.4.4 Treatment of Acute Leukemias

Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Ching-Hon Pu, and William E. Evans
N Engl J Med Jan 12, 2006; 354:166-178
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1056/NEJMra052603

Although the overall cure rate of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children is about 80 percent, affected adults fare less well. This review considers recent advances in the treatment of ALL, emphasizing issues that need to be addressed if treatment outcome is to improve further.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Ching-Hon Pui, Mary V. Relling, and James R. Downing
N Engl J Med Apr 8, 2004; 350:1535-1548
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1056/NEJMra023001

This comprehensive survey emphasizes how recent advances in the knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved in acute lymphoblastic leukemia have influenced diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.

Gene-Expression Patterns in Drug-Resistant Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells and Response to Treatment

Amy Holleman, Meyling H. Cheok, Monique L. den Boer, et al.
N Engl J Med 2004; 351:533-42

Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is curable with chemotherapy in approximately 80 percent of patients. However, the cause of treatment failure in the remaining 20 percent of patients is largely unknown.

Methods We tested leukemia cells from 173 children for sensitivity in vitro to prednisolone, vincristine, asparaginase, and daunorubicin. The cells were then subjected to an assessment of gene expression with the use of 14,500 probe sets to identify differentially expressed genes in drug-sensitive and drug-resistant ALL. Gene-expression patterns that differed according to sensitivity or resistance to the four drugs were compared with treatment outcome in the original 173 patients and an independent cohort of 98 children treated with the same drugs at another institution.

Results We identified sets of differentially expressed genes in B-lineage ALL that were sensitive or resistant to prednisolone (33 genes), vincristine (40 genes), asparaginase (35 genes), or daunorubicin (20 genes). A combined gene-expression score of resistance to the four drugs, as compared with sensitivity to the four, was significantly and independently related to treatment outcome in a multivariate analysis (hazard ratio for relapse, 3.0; P=0.027). Results were confirmed in an independent population of patients treated with the same medications (hazard ratio for relapse, 11.85; P=0.019). Of the 124 genes identified, 121 have not previously been associated with resistance to the four drugs we tested.

Conclusions  Differential expression of a relatively small number of genes is associated with drug resistance and treatment outcome in childhood ALL.

Leukemias Treatment & Management

Author: Lihteh Wu, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy Sr
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1201870-treatment

The treatment of leukemia is in constant flux, evolving and changing rapidly over the past few years. Most treatment protocols use systemic chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. The basic strategy is to eliminate all detectable disease by using cytotoxic agents. To attain this goal, 3 phases are typically used, as follows: remission induction phase, consolidation phase, and maintenance therapy phase.

Chemotherapeutic agents are chosen that interfere with cell division. Tumor cells usually divide more rapidly than host cells, making them more vulnerable to the effects of chemotherapy. Primary treatment will be under the direction of a medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, and primary care physician. Although a general treatment plan will be outlined, the ophthalmologist does not prescribe or manage such treatment.

  • The initial treatment of ALL uses various combinations of vincristine, prednisone, and L-asparaginase until a complete remission is obtained.
  • Maintenance therapy with mercaptopurine is continued for 2-3 years following remission.
  • Use of intrathecal methotrexate with or without cranial irradiation to cover the CNS varies from facility to facility.
  • Daunorubicin, cytarabine, and thioguanine currently are used to obtain induction and remission of AML.
  • Maintenance therapy for 8 months may lengthen remission. Once relapse has occurred, AML generally is curable only by bone marrow transplantation.
  • Presently, treatment of CLL is palliative.
  • CML is characterized by a leukocytosis greater than 100,000 cells. Emergent treatment with leukopheresis sometimes is necessary when leukostastic complications are present. Otherwise, busulfan or hydroxyurea may control WBC counts. During the chronic phase, treatment is palliative.
  • When CML converts to the blastic phase, approximately one third of cases behave as ALL and respond to treatment with vincristine and prednisone. The remaining two thirds resemble AML but respond poorly to AML therapy.
  • Allogeneic bone marrow transplant is the only curative therapy for CML. However, it carries a high early mortality rate.
  • Leukemic retinopathy usually is not treated directly. As the hematological parameters normalize with systemic treatment, many of the ophthalmic signs resolve. There are reports that leukopheresis for hyperviscosity also may alleviate intraocular manifestations.
  • When definite intraocular leukemic infiltrates fail to respond to systemic chemotherapy, direct radiation therapy is recommended.
  • Relapse, manifested by anterior segment involvement, should be treated by radiation. In certain cases, subconjunctival chemotherapeutic agents have been injected.
  • Optic nerve head infiltration in patients with ALL is an emergency and requires prompt radiation therapy to try to salvage some vision.

Treatments and drugs

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/leukemia/basics/
treatment/con-20024914

Common treatments used to fight leukemia include:

  • Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is the major form of treatment for leukemia. This drug treatment uses chemicals to kill leukemia cells.

Depending on the type of leukemia you have, you may receive a single drug or a combination of drugs. These drugs may come in a pill form, or they may be injected directly into a vein.

  • Biological therapy. Biological therapy works by using treatments that help your immune system recognize and attack leukemia cells.
  • Targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses drugs that attack specific vulnerabilities within your cancer cells.

For example, the drug imatinib (Gleevec) stops the action of a protein within the leukemia cells of people with chronic myelogenous leukemia. This can help control the disease.

  • Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy uses X-rays or other high-energy beams to damage leukemia cells and stop their growth. During radiation therapy, you lie on a table while a large machine moves around you, directing the radiation to precise points on your body.

You may receive radiation in one specific area of your body where there is a collection of leukemia cells, or you may receive radiation over your whole body. Radiation therapy may be used to prepare for a stem cell transplant.

  • Stem cell transplant. A stem cell transplant is a procedure to replace your diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow.

Before a stem cell transplant, you receive high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy your diseased bone marrow. Then you receive an infusion of blood-forming stem cells that help to rebuild your bone marrow.

You may receive stem cells from a donor, or in some cases you may be able to use your own stem cells. A stem cell transplant is very similar to a bone marrow transplant.

2.4.4.2 Acute Myeloid Leukemia

New treatment approaches in acute myeloid leukemia: review of recent clinical studies.

Norsworthy K1Luznik LGojo I.
Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2012 Aug; 7(3):224-37.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22540908

Standard chemotherapy can cure only a fraction (30-40%) of younger and very few older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). While conventional allografting can extend the cure rates, its application remains limited mostly to younger patients and those in remission. Limited efficacy of current therapies and improved understanding of the disease biology provided a spur for clinical trials examining novel agents and therapeutic strategies in AML. Clinical studies with novel chemotherapeutics, antibodies, different signal transduction inhibitors, and epigenetic modulators demonstrated their clinical activity; however, it remains unclear how to successfully integrate novel agents either alone or in combination with chemotherapy into the overall therapeutic schema for AML. Further studies are needed to examine their role in relation to standard chemotherapy and their applicability to select patient populations based on recognition of unique disease and patient characteristics, including the development of predictive biomarkers of response. With increasing use of nonmyeloablative or reduced intensity conditioning and alternative graft sources such as haploidentical donors and cord blood transplants, the benefits of allografting may extend to a broader patient population, including older AML patients and those lacking a HLA-matched donor. We will review here recent clinical studies that examined novel pharmacologic and immunologic approaches to AML therapy.

Novel approaches to the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

Roboz GJ1
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2011:43-50.
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1182/asheducation-2011.1.43.

Approximately 12 000 adults are diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the United States annually, the majority of whom die from their disease. The mainstay of initial treatment, cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) combined with an anthracycline, was developed nearly 40 years ago and remains the worldwide standard of care. Advances in genomics technologies have identified AML as a genetically heterogeneous disease, and many patients can now be categorized into clinicopathologic subgroups on the basis of their underlying molecular genetic defects. It is hoped that enhanced specificity of diagnostic classification will result in more effective application of targeted agents and the ability to create individualized treatment strategies. This review describes the current treatment standards for induction, consolidation, and stem cell transplantation; special considerations in the management of older AML patients; novel agents; emerging data on the detection and management of minimal residual disease (MRD); and strategies to improve the design and implementation of AML clinical trials.

Age ≥ 60 years has consistently been identified as an independent adverse prognostic factor in AML, and there are very few long-term survivors in this age group.5 Poor outcomes in elderly AML patients have been attributed to both host- and disease-related factors, including medical comorbidities, physical frailty, increased incidence of antecedent myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloproliferative disorders, and higher frequency of adverse cytogenetics.28 Older patients with multiple poor-risk factors have a high probability of early death and little chance of long-term disease-free survival with standard chemotherapy. In a retrospective analysis of 998 older patients treated with intensive induction at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, multivariate analysis identified age ≥ 75 years, unfavorable karyotype, poor performance status, creatinine > 1.3 mg/dL, duration of antecedent hematologic disorder > 6 months, and treatment outside a laminar airflow room as adverse prognostic indicators.29 Patients with 3 or more of these factors had expected complete remission rates of < 20%, 8-week mortality > 50%, and 1-year survival < 10%. The Medical Research Council (MRC) identified cytogenetics, WBC count at diagnosis, age, and de novo versus secondary disease as critical factors influencing survival in > 2000 older patients with AML, but cautioned in their conclusions that less objective factors, such as clinical assessment of “fitness” for chemotherapy, may be equally important in making treatment decisions in this patient population.30 It is hoped that data from comprehensive geriatric assessments of functional status, cognition, mood, quality of life, and other measures obtained during ongoing cooperative group trials will improve our ability to predict how older patients will tolerate treatment.

Current treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

Roboz GJ1.
Curr Opin Oncol. 2012 Nov; 24(6):711-9.
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1097/CCO.0b013e328358f62d.

The objectives of this review are to discuss standard and investigational nontransplant treatment strategies for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia.

RECENT FINDINGS: Most adults with AML die from their disease. The standard treatment paradigm for AML is remission induction chemotherapy with an anthracycline/cytarabine combination, followed by either consolidation chemotherapy or allogeneic stem cell transplantation, depending on the patient’s ability to tolerate intensive treatment and the likelihood of cure with chemotherapy alone. Although this approach has changed little in the last three decades, increased understanding of the pathogenesis of AML and improvements in molecular genomic technologies are leading to novel drug targets and the development of personalized, risk-adapted treatment strategies. Recent findings related to prognostically relevant and potentially ‘druggable’ molecular targets are reviewed.

SUMMARY: At the present time, AML remains a devastating and mostly incurable disease, but the combination of optimized chemotherapeutics and molecularly targeted agents holds significant promise for the future.

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/adultAML/healthprofessional/page9

About This PDQ Summary

This summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:

  • be discussed at a meeting,
  • be cited with text, or
  • replace or update an existing article that is already cited.

Treatment Option Overview for AML

Successful treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) requires the control of bone marrow and systemic disease and specific treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disease, if present. The cornerstone of this strategy includes systemically administered combination chemotherapy. Because only 5% of patients with AML develop CNS disease, prophylactic treatment is not indicated.[13]

Treatment is divided into two phases: remission induction (to attain remission) and postremission (to maintain remission). Maintenance therapy for AML was previously administered for several years but is not included in most current treatment clinical trials in the United States, other than for acute promyelocytic leukemia. (Refer to the Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission section of this summary for more information.) Other studies have used more intensive postremission therapy administered for a shorter duration of time after which treatment is discontinued.[4] Postremission therapy appears to be effective when given immediately after remission is achieved.[4]

Since myelosuppression is an anticipated consequence of both the leukemia and its treatment with chemotherapy, patients must be closely monitored during therapy. Facilities must be available for hematologic support with multiple blood fractions including platelet transfusions and for the treatment of related infectious complications.[5] Randomized trials have shown similar outcomes for patients who received prophylactic platelet transfusions at a level of 10,000/mm3 rather than 20,000/mm3.[6] The incidence of platelet alloimmunization was similar among groups randomly assigned to receive pooled platelet concentrates from random donors; filtered, pooled platelet concentrates from random donors; ultraviolet B-irradiated, pooled platelet concentrates from random donors; or filtered platelets obtained by apheresis from single random donors.[7] Colony-stimulating factors, for example, granulocyte colony–stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor (GM-CSF), have been studied in an effort to shorten the period of granulocytopenia associated with leukemia treatment.[8] If used, these agents are administered after completion of induction therapy. GM-CSF was shown to improve survival in a randomized trial of AML in patients aged 55 to 70 years (median survival was 10.6 months vs. 4.8 months). In this Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) (EST-1490) trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive GM-CSF or placebo following demonstration of leukemic clearance of the bone marrow;[9] however, GM-CSF did not show benefit in a separate similar randomized trial in patients older than 60 years.[10] In the latter study, clearance of the marrow was not required before initiating cytokine therapy. In a Southwest Oncology Group (NCT00023777) randomized trial of G-CSF given following induction therapy to patients older than 65 years, complete response was higher in patients who received G-CSF because of a decreased incidence of primary leukemic resistance. Growth factor administration did not impact on mortality or on survival.[11,12] Because the majority of randomized clinical trials have not shown an impact of growth factors on survival, their use is not routinely recommended in the remission induction setting.

The administration of GM-CSF or other myeloid growth factors before and during induction therapy, to augment the effects of cytotoxic therapy through the recruitment of leukemic blasts into cell cycle (growth factor priming), has been an area of active clinical research. Evidence from randomized studies of GM-CSF priming have come to opposite conclusions. A randomized study of GM-CSF priming during conventional induction and postremission therapy showed no difference in outcomes between patients who received GM-CSF and those who did not receive growth factor priming.[13,14][Level of evidence: 1iiA] In contrast, a similar randomized placebo-controlled study of GM-CSF priming in patients with AML aged 55 to 75 years showed improved disease-free survival (DFS) in the group receiving GM-CSF (median DFS for patients who achieved complete remission was 23 months vs. 11 months; 2-year DFS was 48% vs. 21%), with a trend towards improvement in overall survival (2-year survival was 39% vs. 27%, = .082) for patients aged 55 to 64 years.[15][Level of evidence: 1iiDii]

References

  1. Kebriaei P, Champlin R, deLima M, et al.: Management of acute leukemias. In: DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011, pp 1928-54.
  2. Wiernik PH: Diagnosis and treatment of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. In: Wiernik PH, Canellos GP, Dutcher JP, et al., eds.: Neoplastic Diseases of the Blood. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone, 1996, pp 283-302.
  3. Morrison FS, Kopecky KJ, Head DR, et al.: Late intensification with POMP chemotherapy prolongs survival in acute myelogenous leukemia–results of a Southwest Oncology Group study of rubidazone versus adriamycin for remission induction, prophylactic intrathecal therapy, late intensification, and levamisole maintenance. Leukemia 6 (7): 708-14, 1992. [PUBMED Abstract]
  4. Cassileth PA, Lynch E, Hines JD, et al.: Varying intensity of postremission therapy in acute myeloid leukemia. Blood 79 (8): 1924-30, 1992. [PUBMED Abstract]
  5. Supportive Care. In: Wiernik PH, Canellos GP, Dutcher JP, et al., eds.: Neoplastic Diseases of the Blood. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone, 1996, pp 779-967.
  6. Rebulla P, Finazzi G, Marangoni F, et al.: The threshold for prophylactic platelet transfusions in adults with acute myeloid leukemia. Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche Maligne dell’Adulto. N Engl J Med 337 (26): 1870-5, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  7. Leukocyte reduction and ultraviolet B irradiation of platelets to prevent alloimmunization and refractoriness to platelet transfusions. The Trial to Reduce Alloimmunization to Platelets Study Group. N Engl J Med 337 (26): 1861-9, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  8. Geller RB: Use of cytokines in the treatment of acute myelocytic leukemia: a critical review. J Clin Oncol 14 (4): 1371-82, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
  9. Rowe JM, Andersen JW, Mazza JJ, et al.: A randomized placebo-controlled phase III study of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in adult patients (> 55 to 70 years of age) with acute myelogenous leukemia: a study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (E1490). Blood 86 (2): 457-62, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
  10. Stone RM, Berg DT, George SL, et al.: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor after initial chemotherapy for elderly patients with primary acute myelogenous leukemia. Cancer and Leukemia Group B. N Engl J Med 332 (25): 1671-7, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
  11. Dombret H, Chastang C, Fenaux P, et al.: A controlled study of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in elderly patients after treatment for acute myelogenous leukemia. AML Cooperative Study Group. N Engl J Med 332 (25): 1678-83, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
  12. Godwin JE, Kopecky KJ, Head DR, et al.: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in elderly patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia: a Southwest oncology group study (9031). Blood 91 (10): 3607-15, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  13. Buchner T, Hiddemann W, Wormann B, et al.: GM-CSF multiple course priming and long-term administration in newly diagnosed AML: hematologic and therapeutic effects. [Abstract] Blood 84 (10 Suppl 1): A-95, 27a, 1994.
  14. Löwenberg B, Boogaerts MA, Daenen SM, et al.: Value of different modalities of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor applied during or after induction therapy of acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol 15 (12): 3496-506, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  15. Witz F, Sadoun A, Perrin MC, et al.: A placebo-controlled study of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor administered during and after induction treatment for de novo acute myelogenous leukemia in elderly patients. Groupe Ouest Est Leucémies Aiguës Myéloblastiques (GOELAM). Blood 91 (8): 2722-30, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]

Read Full Post »


Treatments other than Chemotherapy for Leukemias and Lymphomas

Author, Curator, Editor: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

2.5.1 Radiation Therapy 

http://www.lls.org/treatment/types-of-treatment/radiation-therapy

Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy or irradiation, can be used to treat leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma and myelodysplastic syndromes. The type of radiation used for radiotherapy (ionizing radiation) is the same that’s used for diagnostic x-rays. Radiotherapy, however, is given in higher doses.

Radiotherapy works by damaging the genetic material (DNA) within cells, which prevents them from growing and reproducing. Although the radiotherapy is directed at cancer cells, it can also damage nearby healthy cells. However, current methods of radiotherapy have been improved upon, minimizing “scatter” to nearby tissues. Therefore its benefit (destroying the cancer cells) outweighs its risk (harming healthy cells).

When radiotherapy is used for blood cancer treatment, it’s usually part of a treatment plan that includes drug therapy. Radiotherapy can also be used to relieve pain or discomfort caused by an enlarged liver, lymph node(s) or spleen.

Radiotherapy, either alone or with chemotherapy, is sometimes given as conditioning treatment to prepare a patient for a blood or marrow stem cell transplant. The most common types used to treat blood cancer are external beam radiation (see below) and radioimmunotherapy.
External Beam Radiation

External beam radiation is the type of radiotherapy used most often for people with blood cancers. A focused radiation beam is delivered outside the body by a machine called a linear accelerator, or linac for short. The linear accelerator moves around the body to deliver radiation from various angles. Linear accelerators make it possible to decrease or avoid skin reactions and deliver targeted radiation to lessen “scatter” of radiation to nearby tissues.

The dose (total amount) of radiation used during treatment depends on various factors regarding the patient, disease and reason for treatment, and is established by a radiation oncologist. You may receive radiotherapy during a series of visits, spread over several weeks (from two to 10 weeks, on average). This approach, called dose fractionation, lessens side effects. External beam radiation does not make you radioactive.

2.5.2  Bone marrow (BM) transplantation

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003009.htm

There are three kinds of bone marrow transplants:

Autologous bone marrow transplant: The term auto means self. Stem cells are removed from you before you receive high-dose chemotherapy or radiation treatment. The stem cells are stored in a freezer (cryopreservation). After high-dose chemotherapy or radiation treatments, your stems cells are put back in your body to make (regenerate) normal blood cells. This is called a rescue transplant.

Allogeneic bone marrow transplant: The term allo means other. Stem cells are removed from another person, called a donor. Most times, the donor’s genes must at least partly match your genes. Special blood tests are done to see if a donor is a good match for you. A brother or sister is most likely to be a good match. Sometimes parents, children, and other relatives are good matches. Donors who are not related to you may be found through national bone marrow registries.

Umbilical cord blood transplant: This is a type of allogeneic transplant. Stem cells are removed from a newborn baby’s umbilical cord right after birth. The stem cells are frozen and stored until they are needed for a transplant. Umbilical cord blood cells are very immature so there is less of a need for matching. But blood counts take much longer to recover.

Before the transplant, chemotherapy, radiation, or both may be given. This may be done in two ways:

Ablative (myeloablative) treatment: High-dose chemotherapy, radiation, or both are given to kill any cancer cells. This also kills all healthy bone marrow that remains, and allows new stem cells to grow in the bone marrow.

Reduced intensity treatment, also called a mini transplant: Patients receive lower doses of chemotherapy and radiation before a transplant. This allows older patients, and those with other health problems to have a transplant.

A stem cell transplant is usually done after chemotherapy and radiation is complete. The stem cells are delivered into your bloodstream usually through a tube called a central venous catheter. The process is similar to getting a blood transfusion. The stem cells travel through the blood into the bone marrow. Most times, no surgery is needed.

Donor stem cells can be collected in two ways:

  • Bone marrow harvest. This minor surgery is done under general anesthesia. This means the donor will be asleep and pain-free during the procedure. The bone marrow is removed from the back of both hip bones. The amount of marrow removed depends on the weight of the person who is receiving it.
  • Leukapheresis. First, the donor is given 5 days of shots to help stem cells move from the bone marrow into the blood. During leukapheresis, blood is removed from the donor through an IV line in a vein. The part of white blood cells that contains stem cells is then separated in a machine and removed to be later given to the recipient. The red blood cells are returned to the donor.

Why the Procedure is Performed

A bone marrow transplant replaces bone marrow that either is not working properly or has been destroyed (ablated) by chemotherapy or radiation. Doctors believe that for many cancers, the donor’s white blood cells can attach to any remaining cancer cells, similar to when white cells attach to bacteria or viruses when fighting an infection.

Your doctor may recommend a bone marrow transplant if you have:

Certain cancers, such as leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma

A disease that affects the production of bone marrow cells, such as aplastic anemia, congenital neutropenia, severe immunodeficiency syndromes, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia

Had chemotherapy that destroyed your bone

2.5.3 Autologous stem cell transplantation

Phase II trial of 131I-B1 (anti-CD20) antibody therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed B cell lymphomas

O.W Press,  F Appelbaum,  P.J Martin, et al.
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(95)92225-3/abstract

25 patients with relapsed B-cell lymphomas were evaluated with trace-labelled doses (2·5 mg/kg, 185-370 MBq [5-10 mCi]) of 131I-labelled anti-CD20 (B1) antibody in a phase II trial. 22 patients achieved 131I-B1 biodistributions delivering higher doses of radiation to tumor sites than to normal organs and 21 of these were treated with therapeutic infusions of 131I-B1 (12·765-29·045 GBq) followed by autologous hemopoietic stem cell reinfusion. 18 of the 21 treated patients had objective responses, including 16 complete remissions. One patient died of progressive lymphoma and one died of sepsis. Analysis of our phase I and II trials with 131I-labelled B1 reveal a progression-free survival of 62% and an overall survival of 93% with a median follow-up of 2 years. 131I-anti-CD20 (B1) antibody therapy produces complete responses of long duration in most patients with relapsed B-cell lymphomas when given at maximally tolerated doses with autologous stem cell rescue.

Autologous (Self) Transplants

http://www.leukaemia.org.au/treatments/stem-cell-transplants/autologous-self-transplants

An autologous transplant (or rescue) is a type of transplant that uses the person’s own stem cells. These cells are collected in advance and returned at a later stage. They are used to replace stem cells that have been damaged by high doses of chemotherapy, used to treat the person’s underlying disease.

In most cases, stem cells are collected directly from the bloodstream. While stem cells normally live in your marrow, a combination of chemotherapy and a growth factor (a drug that stimulates stem cells) called Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is used to expand the number of stem cells in the marrow and cause them to spill out into the circulating blood. From here they can be collected from a vein by passing the blood through a special machine called a cell separator, in a process similar to dialysis.

Most of the side effects of an autologous transplant are caused by the conditioning therapy used. Although they can be very unpleasant at times it is important to remember that most of them are temporary and reversible.

Procedure of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood. It may be autologous (the patient’s own stem cells are used) or allogeneic (the stem cells come from a donor).

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Author: Ajay Perumbeti, MD, FAAP; Chief Editor: Emmanuel C Besa, MD
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/208954-overview

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) involves the intravenous (IV) infusion of autologous or allogeneic stem cells to reestablish hematopoietic function in patients whose bone marrow or immune system is damaged or defective.

The image below illustrates an algorithm for typically preferred hematopoietic stem cell transplantation cell source for treatment of malignancy.

An algorithm for typically preferred hematopoietic stem cell transplantation cell source for treatment of malignancy: If a matched sibling donor is not available, then a MUD is selected; if a MUD is not available, then choices include a mismatched unrelated donor, umbilical cord donor(s), and a haploidentical donor.

Supportive Therapies

2.5.4  Blood transfusions – risks and complications of a blood transfusion

  • Allogeneic transfusion reaction (acute or delayed hemolytic reaction)
  • Allergic reaction
  • Viruses Infectious Diseases

The risk of catching a virus from a blood transfusion is very low.

HIV. Your risk of getting HIV from a blood transfusion is lower than your risk of getting killed by lightning. Only about 1 in 2 million donations might carry HIV and transmit HIV if given to a patient.

Hepatitis B and C. The risk of having a donation that carries hepatitis B is about 1 in 205,000. The risk for hepatitis C is 1 in 2 million. If you receive blood during a transfusion that contains hepatitis, you’ll likely develop the virus.

Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). This disease is the human version of Mad Cow Disease. It’s a very rare, yet fatal brain disorder. There is a possible risk of getting vCJD from a blood transfusion, although the risk is very low. Because of this, people who may have been exposed to vCJD aren’t eligible blood donors.

  • Fever
  • Iron Overload
  • Lung Injury
  • Graft-Versus-Host Disease

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a condition in which white blood cells in the new blood attack your tissues.

2.5.5 Erythropoietin

Erythropoietin, (/ɨˌrɪθrɵˈpɔɪ.ɨtɨn/UK /ɛˌrɪθr.pˈtɪn/) also known as EPO, is a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production. It is a cytokine (protein signaling molecule) for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. Human EPO has a molecular weight of 34 kDa.

Also called hematopoietin or hemopoietin, it is produced by interstitial fibroblasts in the kidney in close association with peritubular capillary and proximal convoluted tubule. It is also produced in perisinusoidal cells in the liver. While liver production predominates in the fetal and perinatal period, renal production is predominant during adulthood. In addition to erythropoiesis, erythropoietin also has other known biological functions. For example, it plays an important role in the brain’s response to neuronal injury.[1] EPO is also involved in the wound healing process.[2]

Exogenous erythropoietin is produced by recombinant DNA technology in cell culture. Several different pharmaceutical agents are available with a variety ofglycosylation patterns, and are collectively called erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA). The specific details for labelled use vary between the package inserts, but ESAs have been used in the treatment of anemia in chronic kidney disease, anemia in myelodysplasia, and in anemia from cancer chemotherapy. Boxed warnings include a risk of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, venous thromboembolism, and tumor recurrence.[3]

2.5.6  G-CSF (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor)

Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF 3), is a glycoprotein that stimulates the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells and release them into the bloodstream.

There are different types, including

  • Lenograstim (Granocyte)
  • Filgrastim (Neupogen, Zarzio, Nivestim, Ratiograstim)
  • Long acting (pegylated) filgrastim (pegfilgrastim, Neulasta) and lipegfilgrastim (Longquex)

Pegylated G-CSF stays in the body for longer so you have treatment less often than with the other types of G-CSF.

2.5.7  Plasma Exchange (plasmapheresis)

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1895577-overview

Plasmapheresis is a term used to refer to a broad range of procedures in which extracorporeal separation of blood components results in a filtered plasma product.[1, 2] The filtering of plasma from whole blood can be accomplished via centrifugation or semipermeable membranes.[3] Centrifugation takes advantage of the different specific gravities inherent to various blood products such as red cells, white cells, platelets, and plasma.[4] Membrane plasma separation uses differences in particle size to filter plasma from the cellular components of blood.[3]

Traditionally, in the United States, most plasmapheresis takes place using automated centrifuge-based technology.[5] In certain instances, in particular in patients already undergoing hemodialysis, plasmapheresis can be carried out using semipermeable membranes to filter plasma.[4]

In therapeutic plasma exchange, using an automated centrifuge, filtered plasma is discarded and red blood cells along with replacement colloid such as donor plasma or albumin is returned to the patient. In membrane plasma filtration, secondary membrane plasma fractionation can selectively remove undesired macromolecules, which then allows for return of the processed plasma to the patient instead of donor plasma or albumin. Examples of secondary membrane plasma fractionation include cascade filtration,[6] thermofiltration, cryofiltration,[7] and low-density lipoprotein pheresis.

The Apheresis Applications Committee of the American Society for Apheresis periodically evaluates potential indications for apheresis and categorizes them from I to IV based on the available medical literature. The following are some of the indications, and their categorization, from the society’s 2010 guidelines.[2]

  • The only Category I indication for hemopoietic malignancy is Hyperviscosity in monoclonal gammopathies

2.5.8  Platelet Transfusions

Indications for platelet transfusion in children with acute leukemia

Scott Murphy, Samuel Litwin, Leonard M. Herring, Penelope Koch, et al.
Am J Hematol Jun 1982; 12(4): 347–356
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajh.2830120406/abstract;jsessionid=A6001D9D865EA1EBC667EF98382EF20C.f03t01
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1002/ajh.2830120406

In an attempt to determine the indications for platelet transfusion in thrombocytopenic patients, we randomized 56 children with acute leukemia to one of two regimens of platelet transfusion. The prophylactic group received platelets when the platelet count fell below 20,000 per mm3 irrespective of clinical events. The therapeutic group was transfused only when significant bleeding occurred and not for thrombocytopenia alone. The time to first bleeding episode was significantly longer and the number of bleeding episodes were significantly reduced in the prophylactic group. The survival curves of the two groups could not be distinguished from each other. Prior to the last month of life, the total number of days on which bleeding was present was significantly reduced by prophylactic therapy. However, in the terminal phase (last month of life), the duration of bleeding episodes was significantly longer in the prophylactic group. This may have been due to a higher incidence of immunologic refractoriness to platelet transfusion. Because of this terminal bleeding, comparison of the two groups for total number of days on which bleeding was present did not show a significant difference over the entire study period.

Clinical and Laboratory Aspects of Platelet Transfusion Therapy
Yuan S, Goldfinger D
http://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-and-laboratory-aspects-of-platelet-transfusion-therapy

INTRODUCTION — Hemostasis depends on an adequate number of functional platelets, together with an intact coagulation (clotting factor) system. This topic covers the logistics of platelet use and the indications for platelet transfusion in adults. The approach to the bleeding patient, refractoriness to platelet transfusion, and platelet transfusion in neonates are discussed elsewhere.

Pooled Platelets – A single unit of platelets can be isolated from every unit of donated blood, by centrifuging the blood within the closed collection system to separate the platelets from the red blood cells (RBC). The number of platelets per unit varies according to the platelet count of the donor; a yield of 7 x 1010 platelets is typical [1]. Since this number is inadequate to raise the platelet count in an adult recipient, four to six units are pooled to allow transfusion of 3 to 4 x 1011 platelets per transfusion [2]. These are called whole blood-derived or random donor pooled platelets.

Advantages of pooled platelets include lower cost and ease of collection and processing (a separate donation procedure and pheresis equipment are not required). The major disadvantage is recipient exposure to multiple donors in a single transfusion and logistic issues related to bacterial testing.

Apheresis (single donor) Platelets – Platelets can also be collected from volunteer donors in the blood bank, in a one- to two-hour pheresis procedure. Platelets and some white blood cells are removed, and red blood cells and plasma are returned to the donor. A typical apheresis platelet unit provides the equivalent of six or more units of platelets from whole blood (ie, 3 to 6 x 1011 platelets) [2]. In larger donors with high platelet counts, up to three units can be collected in one session. These are called apheresis or single donor platelets.

Advantages of single donor platelets are exposure of the recipient to a single donor rather than multiple donors, and the ability to match donor and recipient characteristics such as HLA type, cytomegalovirus (CMV) status, and blood type for certain recipients.

Both pooled and apheresis platelets contain some white blood cells (WBC) that were collected along with the platelets. These WBC can cause febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTR), alloimmunization, and transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (ta-GVHD) in some patients.

Platelet products also contain plasma, which can be implicated in adverse reactions including transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and anaphylaxis. (See ‘Complications of platelet transfusion’ .)

Read Full Post »


Hematological Cancer Classification

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

 

 

Introduction to leukemias and lymphomas

 

2.4.1 Ontogenesis of the blood elements: hematopoiesis

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/69747/blood-cell-formation

Blood cells are divided into three groups: the red blood cells (erythrocytes), the white blood cells (leukocytes), and the blood platelets (thrombocytes). The white blood cells are subdivided into three broad groups: granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes.

Blood cells do not originate in the bloodstream itself but in specific blood-forming organs, notably the marrow of certain bones. In the human adult, the bone marrow produces all of the red blood cells, 60–70 percent of the white cells (i.e., the granulocytes), and all of the platelets. The lymphatic tissues, particularly the thymus, the spleen, and the lymph nodes, produce the lymphocytes (comprising 20–30 percent of the white cells). The reticuloendothelial tissues of the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and other organs produce the monocytes (4–8 percent of the white cells). The platelets, which are small cellular fragments rather than complete cells, are formed from bits of the cytoplasm of the giant cells (megakaryocytes) of the bone marrow.

In the human embryo, the first site of blood formation is the yolk sac. Later in embryonic life, the liver becomes the most important red blood cell-forming organ, but it is soon succeeded by the bone marrow, which in adult life is the only source of both red blood cells and the granulocytes. Both the red and white blood cells arise through a series of complex, gradual, and successive transformations from primitive stem cells, which have the ability to form any of the precursors of a blood cell. Precursor cells are stem cells that have developed to the stage where they are committed to forming a particular kind of new blood cell.

In a normal adult the red cells of about half a liter (almost one pint) of blood are produced by the bone marrow every week. Almost 1 percent of the body’s red cells are generated each day, and the balance between red cell production and the removal of aging red cells from the circulation is precisely maintained.

Cells-in-the-Bone-Marrow-1024x747

http://interactive-biology.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Cells-in-the-Bone-Marrow-1024×747.png

Erythropoiesis

http://www.interactive-biology.com/3969/erythropoiesis-formation-of-red-blood-cells/

Erythropoiesis – Formation of Red Blood Cells

Because of the inability of erythrocytes (red blood cells) to divide to replenish their own numbers, the old ruptured cells must be replaced by totally new cells. They meet their demise because they don’t have the usual specialized intracellular machinery, which controls cell growth and repair, leading to a short life span of 120 days.

This short life span necessitates the process erythropoiesis, which is the formation of red blood cells. All blood cells are formed in the bone marrow. This is the erythrocyte factory, which is soft, highly cellar tissue that fills the internal cavities of bones.

Erythrocyte differentiation takes place in 8 stages. It is the pathway through which an erythrocyte matures from a hemocytoblast into a full-blown erythrocyte. The first seven all take place within the bone marrow. After stage 7 the cell is then released into the bloodstream as a reticulocyte, where it then matures 1-2 days later into an erythrocyte. The stages are as follows:

  1. Hemocytoblast, which is a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell
  2. Common myeloid progenitor, a multipotent stem cell
  3. Unipotent stem cell
  4. Pronormoblast
  5. Basophilic normoblast also called an erythroblast.
  6. Polychromatophilic normoblast
  7. Orthochromatic normoblast
  8. Reticulocyte

These characteristics can be seen during the course of erythrocyte maturation:

  • The size of the cell decreases
  • The cytoplasm volume increases
  • Initially there is a nucleus and as the cell matures the size of the nucleus decreases until it vanishes with the condensation of the chromatin material.

Low oxygen tension stimulates the kidneys to secrete the hormone erythropoietin into the blood, and this hormone stimulates the bone marrow to produce erythrocytes.

Rarely, a malignancy or cancer of erythropoiesis occurs. It is referred to as erythroleukemia. This most likely arises from a common myeloid precursor, and it may occur associated with a myelodysplastic syndrome.

Summary of erythrocyte maturation

White blood cell series: myelopoiesis

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/presentations/100151_3.htm

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/15220.jpg

There are various types of white blood cells (WBCs) that normally appear in the blood: neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes; PMNs), band cells (slightly immature neutrophils), T-type lymphocytes (T cells), B-type lymphocytes (B cells), monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. T and B-type lymphocytes are indistinguishable from each other in a normal slide preparation. Any infection or acute stress will result in an increased production of WBCs. This usually entails increased numbers of cells and an increase in the percentage of immature cells (mainly band cells) in the blood. This change is referred to as a “shift to the left” People who have had a splenectomy have a persistent mild elevation of WBCs. Drugs that may increase WBC counts include epinephrine, allopurinol, aspirin, chloroform, heparin, quinine, corticosteroids, and triamterene. Drugs that may decrease WBC counts include antibiotics, anticonvulsants, antihistamine, antithyroid drugs, arsenicals, barbiturates, chemotherapeutic agents, diuretics and sulfonamides.   (Updated by: David C. Dugdale, III, MD)

https://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/path/innes/nh/wcbmaturation.cfm

Note that the mature forms of the myeloid series (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils), all have lobed (segmented) nuclei. The degree of lobation increases as the cells mature.

The earliest recognizable myeloid cell is the myeloblast (10-20m dia) with a large round to oval nucleus. There is fine diffuse immature chromatin (without clumping) and a prominant nucleolus.

The cytoplasm is basophilic without granules. Although one may see a small golgi area adjacent to the nucleus, granules are not usually visible by light microscopy. One should not see blast cells in the peripheral blood.

myeloblast x100b

https://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/path/innes/images/nhjpeg/nh%20myeloblast%20x100b.jpeg

The promyelocyte (10-20m) is slightly larger than a blast. Its nucleus, although similar to a myeloblast shows slight chromatin condensation and less prominent nucleoli. The cytoplasm contains striking azurophilic granules or primary granules. These granules contain myeloperoxidase, acid phosphatase, and esterase enzymes. Normally no promyelocytes are seen in the peripheral blood.

At the point in development when secondary granules can be recognized, the cell becomes a myelocyte.

promyelocyte x100

https://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/path/innes/images/nhjpeg/nh%20promyelocyte%20×100%20a.jpeg

Myelocytes (10-18m) are not normally found in the peripheral blood. Nucleoli may not be seen in the late myelocyte. Primary azurophilic granules are still present, but secondary granules predominate. Secondary granules (neut, eos, or baso) first appear adjacent to the nucleus. In neutrophils this is the “dawn” of neutrophilia.

Metamyelocytes (10-18m) have kidney shaped indented nuclei and dense chromatin along the nuclear membrane. The cytoplasm is faintly pink, and they have secondary granules (neutro, eos, or baso). Zero to one percent of the peripheral blood white cells may be metamyelocytes (juveniles).

metamyelocyte x100

https://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/path/innes/images/nhjpeg/nh%20metamyelocyte%20×100.jpeg

Bands, slightly smaller than juveniles, are marked by a U-shaped or deeply indented nucleus.

band neutrophilx100a

https://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/path/innes/images/nhjpeg/nh%20band%20x100a.jpeg

Segmented (segs) or polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes (average 14 m dia) are distinguished by definite lobation with thin thread-like filaments of chromatin joining the 2-5 lobes. 45-75% of the peripheral blood white cells are segmented neutrophils.

https://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/path/innes/images/nhjpeg/nh%20neutrophil%20×100%20d.jpeg

Thrombocytogenesis

The incredible journey: From megakaryocyte development to platelet formation

Kellie R. Machlus1,2 and Joseph E. Italiano Jr
JCB 2013; 201(6): 785-796
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1083/jcb.201304054

Large progenitor cells in the bone marrow called megakaryocytes (MKs) are the source of platelets. MKs release platelets through a series of fascinating cell biological events. During maturation, they become polyploid and accumulate massive amounts of protein and membrane. Then, in a cytoskeletal-driven process, they extend long branching processes, designated proplatelets, into sinusoidal blood vessels where they undergo fission to release platelets.

megakaryocyte production of platelets

http://dm5migu4zj3pb.cloudfront.net/manuscripts/26000/26891/medium/JCI0526891.f4.jpg

platelets and the immune continuum nri2956-f3

http://www.nature.com/nri/journal/v11/n4/images/nri2956-f3.jpg

2.4.2 Classification of hematological malignancies
Practical Diagnosis of Hematologic Disoreders. 4th edition. Vol 2.
Kjeldsberg CR, Ed.  ASCP Press.  2006. Chicago, IL.

2.4.2.1 Primary Classification

Acute leukemias

Myelodysplastic syndromes

Acute myeloid leukemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Myeloproliferative Disorders

Chronic myeloproliferative disorders

Chronic myelogenous leukemia and related disorders

Myelofibrosis, including chronic idiopathic

Polycythemia, including polycythemia rubra vera

Thrombocytosis, including essential thrombocythemia

Chronic lymphoid leukemia and other lymphoid leukemias

Lymphomas

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma

Lymphoproliferative disorders associated with immunodeficiency

Plasma Cell dyscrasias

Mast cell disease and Histiocytic neoplasms

2.4.2.2 Secondary Classification

2.4.2.3 Nuance – PathologyOutlines
Nat Pernick, Ed.

Leukemia – Acute

Primary referencesacute leukemia-generalAML generalAML classificationtransient abnormal myelopoiesis

Recurrent genetic abnormalities: AML with t(6;9)AML with t(8;21)AML with 11q23 abnormalitiesAML with inv(16) or t(16;16)AML with Down syndromeAML with FLT3 mutationsAML with myelodysplastic related changesAML therapy relatedAPL microgranular variantAPL with t(15;17)APL with t(V;17)APL therapy related

AML not otherwise categorized: minimally differentiated (M0)without maturation (M1)with maturation (M2)M3myelomonocyticmonoblastic and monocyticerythroidmegakaryoblasticCD13/CD33 negativebasophilicmyeloid sarcomaacute panmyelosis with myelofibrosiswith Philadelphia chromosomewith pseudo Chediak-Higashi anomalyhypocellular

ALL: generalWHO classificationwith eosinophilia

PreB ALL: generalt(9;22)t(v;11q23)t(1;19)t(5;14)t(12;21)hyperdiploidyhypodiploidymature B ALL/Burkitt

Other ALL: T ALLambiguous lineagemixed phenotype

AML and related malignancies

Acute myeloid leukemias with recurrent genetic abnormalities:

  • AML with t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1
  • AML with inv(16)(p13.1;q22) or t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBF&beta-MYH11
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia with t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML/RAR&alpha and variants
  • AML with t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL
  • AML with t(6;9)(p23;q34); DEK-NUP214
  • AML with inv(3)(q21q26.2) or t(3;3)(q21;q26.2); RPN1-EVI1
  • AML (megakaryoblastic) with t(1;22)(p13;q13); RBM15-MKL1
  • AML with mutated NPM1*
  • AML with mutated CEBPA*

* provisional

Acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia related changes

Therapy related acute myeloid leukemia

  • Alkylating agent related
  • Topoisomerase II inhibitor related (some maybe lymphoid)

Acute myeloid leukemia not otherwise categorized:

  • AML minimally differentiated (M0)
  • AML without maturation (M1)
  • AML with maturation (M2)
  • Acute myelomonocytic leukemia (M4)
  • Acute monoblastic and monocytic leukemia (M5a, M5b)
  • Acute erythroid leukemia (M6)
  • Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (M7)
  • Acute basophilic leukemia
  • Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis

Myeloid Sarcoma

Myeloid proliferations related to Down syndrome:

  • Transient abnormal myelopoeisis
  • Myeloid leukemia associated with Down syndrome

Blastic plasmacytoid dentritic cell neoplasm:

Acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage:

  • Acute undifferentiated leukemia
  • Mixed phenotype acute leukemia with t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1
  • Mixed phenotype acute leukemia with t(v;11q23); MLL rearranged
  • Mixed phenotype acute leukemia, B/myeloid, NOS
  • Mixed phenotype acute leukemia, T/myeloid, NOS
  • Mixed phenotype acute leukemia, NOS, rare types
  • Other acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage
  • References: WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue (IARC, 2008), Discovery Medicine 2010, eMedicine

Acute lymphocytic leukemia

General
=================================================================

  • WHO classification system includes former FAB classifications ALL-L1 and L2
    ● FAB L3 is now considered Burkitt lymphoma

WHO classification of acute lymphoblastic leukemia
=================================================================

Precursor B lymphoblastic leukemia / lymphoblastic lymphoma:
● ALL with t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL (Philadelphia chromosome)
● ALL with t(v;11q23) (MLL rearranged)
● ALL with t(1;19)(q23;p13.3); TCF3-PBX1 (E2A-PBX1)
● ALL with t(12;21)(p13;q22); ETV6-RUNX1 (TEL-AML1)
● Hyperdiploid > 50
● Hypodiploid
● t(5;14)(q31;q32); IL3-IGH

Precursor T lymphoblastic leukemia / lymphoma

Additional references
=================================================================

Mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL)

General
=================================================================

  • De novo acute leukemia containing separate populations of blasts of more than one lineage (bilineal or bilineage), or a single population of blasts co-expressing antigens of more than one lineage (biphenotypic)Excludes:
    ● Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with recurrent translocations t(8;21), t(15;17) or inv(16)
    ● Leukemias with FGFR1 mutations
    ● Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in blast crisis
    ● Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-related AML and therapy-related AML, even if they have MPAL immunophenotypeCriteria for biphenotypic leukemia:
    ● Score of 2 or more for each of two separate lineages:The European Group for the Immunological Classification of Leukemias (EGIL) scoring system2008 WHO classification of acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage 

Prognosis
=================================================================

  • Poor, overall survival of 18 months
    ● Young age, normal karyotype and ALL induction therapy are associated with favorable survival
    ● Ph+ is a predictor for poor prognosis
    ● Bone marrow transplantation should be considered in first remission

Major Categories

MPAL with t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1
=================================================================

  • 20% of all MPAL
    ● Blasts with t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) translocation or BCR-ABL1 rearrangement (Ph+) without history of CML
    ● Majority in adults
    ● High WBC counts● Most of the cases B/myeloid phenotype
    ● Rare T/myeloid, B and T lineage, or trilineage leukemiasMorphology:
    ● Many cases show a dimorphic blast population, one resembling myeloblasts and the other lymphoblastsCytogenetic abnormalities:
    ● Conventional karyotyping for t(9;22), FISH or PCR for BCR-ABL1 translocation
    ● Additional complex karyotypes
    ● Ph+ is a poor prognostic factor for MPAL, with a reported median survival of 8 months
    ● Worse than patients of all other types of MPAL

MPAL with t(v;11q23); MLL rearranged
=================================================================

  • Meeting the diagnostic criteria for MPAL with blasts bearing a translocation involving the 11q23 breakpoint (MLL gene)
    ● MPAL with MLL rearranged rare
    ● More often seen in children and relatively common in infancy
    ● High WBC counts
    ● Poor prognosis
    ● Dimorphic blast population, with one resembling monoblasts and the other resembling lymphoblasts
    ● Lymphoblast population often shows a CD19+, CD10- B precursor immunophenotype, frequently CD15+
    ● Expression of other B markers usually weak
    ● Translocations involving MLL gene include t(4;11)(q21;q23), t(11;19)(q23;p13), and t(9;11)(p22;q23)
    ● Cases with chromosome 11q23 deletion should not be classified in this category

B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) / lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL)

General

=================================================================

  • Current 2008 WHO classification: B lymphoblastic leukemia / lymphoma, NOS or B lymphoblastic leukemia / lymphoma with recurrent genetic abnormalities
  • See also lymphomas: B cell chapter
  • Also called B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia / lymphoblastic lymphoma, pre B ALL / LBL
  • Usually children
  • B acute lymphoblastic leukemia presents with pancytopenia due to extensive marrow involvement, stormy onset of symptoms, bone pain due to marrow expansion, hepatosplenomegaly due to neoplastic infiltration, CNS symptoms due to meningeal spread and testicular involvement
  • B acute lymphoblastic lymphoma often presents with cutaneous nodules, bone or nodal involvement, < 25% lymphoblasts in bone marrow and peripheral blood; aleukemic cases are usually asymptomatic
  • Depending on specific leukemia, arises in either hematopoietic stem cell or B-cell progenitor
  • Tumors are derived from pre-germinal center naive B cells with unmutated VH region genes
  • Have multiple immunophenotyping aberrancies relative to normal B cell precursors (hematogones); at relapse, 73% show loss of 1+ aberrance and 60% show new aberrancies (Am J Clin Pathol 2007;127:39)

Prognostic features

=================================================================

  • Favorable prognosis: age 1-10 years, female, white; preB phenotype, hyperdiploidy>50, t(12,21), WBC count at presentation <50×108/L, non-traumatic tap with no blasts in CNS, rapid response to chemotherapy < 5% blasts on morphology on day 15, remission status after induction <5% blasts on morphology and <0.01% blast on flow or PCR, CD10+
  • Intermediate prognosis: hyperdiploidy 47-50, diploid, 6q- and rearrangements of 8q24
  • Unfavorable prognosis: under age 1 (usually have 11q23 translocations) or over age 10; t(9;22) (but not if age 59+ years, Am J Clin Pathol 2002;117:716); male, > 50×108/L WBC at presentation, hypodiploidy, near tetraploidy, 17p- and MLL rearrangements t(v;11q23); CD10-; non-traumatic tap with > 5% blasts or traumatic tap (7%); also increased microvessel staining using CD105 in children (Leuk Res 2007;31:1741), MDR1 expression in children (Oncol Rep 2004;12:1201) and adults (Blood 2002;100:974), 25%+ blasts on morphology on day 15, remission status after induction ≥ 5% blasts on morphology and ≥ 0.1% blasts on flow or PCR

Case reports

=================================================================

  • 12 month old girl and 13 month old boy with mature phenotype but no translocations (Arch Pathol Lab Med 2003;127:1340)
  • 56 year old man with ALL arising from follicular lymphoma (Arch Pathol Lab Med 2002;126:997)
  • 76 year old man with basal cell carcinoma (Diagn Pathol 2007;2:32)
  • With hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;50:381)

Treatment

================================================================

  • Chemotherapy cures more children than adults; adolescents benefit from intensive regimens (Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2005:123)

Micro description

=================================================================

  • Bone marrow smears: small to intermediate blast-like cells with scant, variably basophilic cytoplasm, round / oval or convoluted nuclei, fine chromatin and indistinct nucleoli; frequent mitotic figures; may have “starry sky” appearance similar to Burkitt lymphoma; may have large lymphoblasts with 1-4 prominent nucleoli resembling myeloblasts; usually no sclerosis
  • Bone marrow biopsy: usually markedly hypercellular with reduction of trilinear maturation; cells have minimal cytoplasm, medium sized nuclei that are often convoluted, moderately dense chromatin and indistinct nucleoli, brisk mitotic activity
  • Other tissues: may have “starry sky” appearance similar to Burkitt lymphoma; collagen dissection, periadipocyte growth pattern and single cell linear filing

Chronic Leukemia

Chronic Myeloid Neoplasms

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): general, WHO classification, childhood, refractory anemia, refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts, refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, refractory anemia with excess blasts, 5q-syndrome, therapy related, unclassified, arsenic toxicity

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN): general, WHO classification, chronic eosinophilic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic neutrophilic leukemia, essential thrombocythemia, hypereosinophilic syndrome, mast cell disease, polycythemia vera, primary myelofibrosis, unclassifiable

MDS/MPN: general, WHO classification, atypical CML, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, unclassifiable

Myeloid neoplasms associated with eosinophilia and abnormalities of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1: PDGFRA, PDGFRB, FGFR1

Miscellaneous: transient myeloproliferative disorder of Downís syndrome

Lymphoma and plasma cell neoplasms

Lymph nodes: normal development-generalB cellsT cellsNK cellsnormal histologygrossing lymph nodesfeatures to report

Molecular testing: theoryFISHnorthern blotPCRsouthern blot

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: generalcytogeneticsstagingstaging-pediatricmorphologic clueshemophagocytic syndromechemotherapeutic atypia

B cell disorders: generalpost-rituximabbone marrow biopsyclassification-historicalWHO classification

B cell lymphoma subtypes: age-related EBV-associatedALK positive large cellBurkittunclassifiable-intermediate between Burkitt and diffuse large B cell lymphomaCLL
diffuse large B cell: 
diffuse-NOSCD5+T cell / histiocyte richprimary cutaneous-generalprimary cutaneous-legprimary sites-other
follicular: 
generalchildhoodcutaneousGI
hairy cell leukemiaHCL variantintravascular large B celllymphomatoid granulomatosislymphoplasmacyticmantle cell-classicmantle cell-blastoidmarginal zone-generalmarginal zone-MALTMALT-primary sitesmarginal zone-nodalmediastinal (thymic)plasmablasticpre B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphomaprimary effusionprolymphocytic leukemiapyothorax associatedSLLsplenic marginal zonesplenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes

Plasma cell neoplasms: generalmyelomaplasmacytomaheavy chain diseaseprimary amyloidosisMGUSOsteosclerotic myeloma (POEMS)cryoglobulinemia

T/NK cell disorders: generalWHO classificationadult T cellaggressive NK cell leukemiaanaplastic large cell ALK+ALK-angioimmunoblastic T cellblastic plasmacytoidchronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cellscutaneous CD4+ small/medium sized T cell lymphomacutaneous CD30 positive T cell lymphoproliferative disorderscutaneous gamma delta T cell lymphomaenteropathyepidermotropic CD8+ T cell lymphomahepatosplenicindolent T cell proliferationsmycosis fungoidesNK/T cell lymphoma-nasal typenodal CD8+ cytotoxic T cellnonB nonT lymphoblasticperipheral T cell lymphoma, NOSprimary effusion lymphomaSezary syndromestagingsubcutaneous panniculitis-likeT cell large granular lymphocytic leukemiaT cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphomaT cell prolymphocytic leukemia

Hodgkin lymphoma: general/stagingclassiclymphocyte depletedlymphocyte rich classicalmixed cellularitynodular lymphocyte predominantnodular sclerosis

Post-transplantation: generalWHO classificationplasmacytic hyperplasia/IM-like lesionspolymorphic B cell lymphoproliferative disordersmonomorphic B cell lymphoproliferative disordersothergraft versus host disease

Other: AIDS associated-generalAIDS associated-examplesEBV+ T cell lymphoproliferative disorders of childhoodprimary immune disorders related

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN)

WHO 2008 – Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) 

General
=================================================================

  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia
    ● Polycythemia vera
    ● Essential thrombocythemia
    ● Primary myelofibrosis
    ● Chronic neutrophilic leukemia
    ● Chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise categorized
    ● Mast cell disease
    ● MPNs, unclassifiable

WHO 2001 – Chronic myeloproliferative diseases 

Definition
=================================================================

  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (Philadelphia chromosome, t(9;22)(q34;q11), BCR-ABL positive)
    ● Chronic neutrophilic leukemia
    ● Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (and the hypereosinophilic syndrome)
    ● Polycythemia vera
    ● Chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (with extramedullary hematopoiesis)
    ● Essential thrombocythemia
    ● Chronic myeloproliferative disease, unclassifiable

Additional references
=================================================================

The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of the myeloid neoplasms  James W. Vardiman, Nancy Lee Harris, and Richard D. Brunning
Blood 2002; 100(7)  http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-04-1199

Lymphoma – Non B cell neoplasms

T/NK cell disorders/WHO classification (2008)

Principles of classification
=================================================================

  • Based on all available information (morphology, immunophenotype, genetics, clinical)
    ● No one antigenic marker is specific for any neoplasm (except ALK1)
    ● Immune profiling less helpful in subclassification of T cell lymphomas then B cell lymphomas
    ● Certain antigens commonly associated with specific disease entities but not entirely disease specific
    ● CD30: common in anaplastic large cell lymphoma but also classic Hodgkin lymphoma and other B and T cell lymphomas
    ● CD56: characteristic for nasal NK/T cell lymphoma, but also other T cell neoplasms and plasma cell disorders
    ● Variation of immunophenotype within a given disease (hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma: usually γδ but some are αβ)
    ● Recurrent genetic alterations have been identified for many B cell lymphomas but not for most T cell lymphomas
    ● No attempt to stratify lymphoid malignancies by grade
    ● Recognize the existence of grey zone lymphomas
    ● This multiparameter approach has been validated in international studies as highly reproducible

WHO 2008 classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues (T/NK)
=================================================================

Precursor T-lymphoid neoplasms
● T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, 9837/3

Mature T cell and NK cell neoplasms
● T cell prolymphocytic leukemia, 9834/3
● T cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, 9831/3
● Chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of NK cells, 9831/3
● Aggressive NK cell leukemia, 9948/3
● Systemic EBV-positive T cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood, 9724/3
● Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma, 9725/3
● Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma, 9827/3
● Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, 9719/3
● Enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma, 9717/3
● Hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma, 9716/3
● Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma, 9708/3
● Mycosis fungoides, 9700/3
● Sézary syndrome, 9701/3
● Primary cutaneous CD30-positive T cell lymphoproliferative disorders
● Lymphomatoid papulosis, 9718/1
● Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, 9718/3
● Primary cutaneous gamma-delta T cell lymphoma, 9726/3
● Primary cutaneous CD8-positive aggressive epidermotropic cytotoxic T cell lymphoma, 9709/3
● Primary cutaneous CD4-positive small/medium T cell lymphoma, 9709/3
● Peripheral T cell lymphoma, NOS, 9702/3
● Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma, 9705/3
● Anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive, 9714/3
● Anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-negative, 9702/3

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Staging
Author: Sandy D Kotiah, MD; Chief Editor: Jules E Harris, MD
Medscape Sep 6, 2013
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2006578-overview

General considerations in the staging of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and the revised Rai (United States) and Binet (Europe) staging systems for CLL are provided below.[1, 2, 3]

See Chronic Leukemias: 4 Cancers to Differentiate, a Critical Images slideshow, to help detect chronic leukemias and determine the specific type present.

General considerations

  • CLL and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are different manifestations of the same disease; SLL is diagnosed when the disease is mainly nodal, and CLL is diagnosed when the disease is seen in the blood and bone marrow
  • CLL is diagnosed by > 5000 monoclonal lymphocytes/mm3 for longer than 3mo; the bone marrow usually has more than 30% monoclonal lymphocytes and is either normocellular or hypercellular
  • Monoclonal B lymphocytosis is a precursor form of CLL that is defined by a monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis < 5000 monoclonal lymphocytes/mm3; all lymph nodes smaller than 1.5 cm; no anemia; and no thrombocytopenia

Revised Rai staging system (United States)

Low risk (formerly stage 0)[1] :

  • Lymphocytosis, lymphocytes in blood > 15000/mcL, and > 40% lymphocytes in the bone marrow

Intermediate risk (formerly stages I and II):

  • Lymphocytosis as in low risk with enlarged node(s) in any site, or splenomegaly or hepatomegaly or both

High risk (formerly stages III and IV):

  • Lymphocytosis as in low risk and intermediate risk with disease-related anemia (hemoglobin level < 11.0 g/dL or hematocrit < 33%) or platelets < 100,000/mcL

Binet staging system (Europe)

Stage A:

  • Hemoglobin ≥ 10 g/dL, platelets ≥ 100,000/mm3, and < 3 enlarged areas

Stage B:

  • Hemoglobin ≥ 10 g/dL, platelets ≥ 100,000/mm3, and ≥ 3 enlarged areas

Stage C:

  • Hemoglobin < 10 g/dL, platelets < 100,000/mm3, and any number of enlarged areas

Read Full Post »


Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

This article has the following structure:

9.3.1  Cell based immunotherapy

9.3.2  Photodynamic therapy (PDT)

9.3.3  Small molecules targeted therapy drugs; Tyrosine kinase inhibitors; imatinib (Gleevec/Glivec) and gefitinib (Iressa).

9.3.4 Graft versus Host Disease

9.3.5 Aspergillus Complicating Allogeneic Transplantation

Introduction

9.3.1 Allogeneic Stem Cell Treatment

http://www.lls.org/treatment/types-of-treatment/stem-cell-transplantation/allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation involves transferring the stem cells from a healthy person (the donor) to your body after high-intensity chemotherapy or radiation.

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is used to cure some patients who:

  • Are at high risk of relapse
  • Don’t respond fully to treatment
  • Relapse after prior successful treatment

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation can be a high-risk procedure. The high-conditioning regimens are meant to severely or completely impair your ability to make stem cells and you will likely experience side effects during the days you receive high-dose conditioning radiation or chemotherapy. The goals of high-conditioning therapy are to:

treat the remaining cancer cells intensively, thereby making a cancer recurrence less likely
inactivate the immune system to reduce the chance of stem cell graft rejection
enable donor cells to travel to the marrow (engraftment), produce blood cells and bring about graft versus tumor effect

Possible Adverse Effects

The immune system and the blood system are closely linked and can’t be separated from each other. Because of this, allogeneic transplantation means that not only the donor’s blood system but also his or her immune system is transferred. As a result, these adverse effects are possible:

  • Immune rejection of the donated stem cells by the recipient (host-versus-graft effect)
  • Immune reaction by the donor cells against the recipient’s tissues (graft-versus-host disease [GVHD])

The immune reaction, or GVHD, is treated by administering drugs to the patient after the transplant that reduce the ability of the donated immune cells to attack and injure the patient’s tissues. See Graft Versus Host Disease.

Allogeneic stem cell transplants for patients who are older or have overall poor health are relatively uncommon. This is because the pre-transplant conditioning therapy is generally not well tolerated by such patients, especially those with poorly functioning internal organs. However, reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplants may be an appropriate treatment for some older or sicker patients.

T-Lymphocyte Depletion

One goal of allogeneic stem cell transplant is to cause the T lymphocytes in the donor’s blood or marrow to take hold (engraft) and grow in the patient’s marrow. Sometimes the T lymphocytes attack the cancer cells. When this happens, it’s called graft versus tumor (GVT) effect (also called graft versus cancer effect). The attack makes it less likely that the disease will return. This effect is more common in myeloid leukemias than it is in other blood cancers.

Unfortunately, T lymphocytes are the same cells that cause graft versus host disease (GVHD). Because of this serious and sometimes life-threatening side effect, doctors in certain cases want to decrease the number of T lymphocytes to be infused with the stem cells. This procedure, called T-lymphocyte depletion, is currently being studied by researchers. The technique involves treating the stem cells collected for transplant with agents that reduce the number of T lymphocytes.

The aim of T-lymphocyte depletion is to lessen GVHD’s incidence and severity. However, it can also cause increased rates of graft rejection, a decreased GVT effect and a slower immune recovery. Doctors must be careful about the number of T lymphocytes removed when using this technique.

Stem Cell Selection

Stem cell selection is another technique being studied in clinical trials that can reduce the number of T lymphocytes that a patient receives. Because of specific features on the outer coat of stem cells, doctors can selectively remove stem cells from a cell mixture. This technique produces a large number of stem cells and fewer other cells, including T lymphocytes.

9.3.2 Defining Characteristics of  Stem Cells

http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/pages/basics1.aspx

Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. In addition, in many tissues they serve as a sort of internal repair system, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential either to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell.

Stem cells are distinguished from other cell types by two important characteristics. First, they are unspecialized cells capable of renewing themselves through cell division, sometimes after long periods of inactivity. Second, under certain physiologic or experimental conditions, they can be induced to become tissue- or organ-specific cells with special functions. In some organs, such as the gut and bone marrow, stem cells regularly divide to repair and replace worn out or damaged tissues. In other organs, however, such as the pancreas and the heart, stem cells only divide under special conditions.

Until recently, scientists primarily worked with two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans: embryonic stem cells and non-embryonic “somatic” or “adult” stem cells. The functions and characteristics of these cells will be explained in this document. Scientists discovered ways to derive embryonic stem cells from early mouse embryos more than 30 years ago, in 1981. The detailed study of the biology of mouse stem cells led to the discovery, in 1998, of a method to derive stem cells from human embryos and grow the cells in the laboratory. These cells are called human embryonic stem cells. The embryos used in these studies were created for reproductive purposes through in vitro fertilization procedures.

When they were no longer needed for that purpose, they were donated for research with the informed consent of the donor. In 2006, researchers made another breakthrough by identifying conditions that would allow some specialized adult cells to be “reprogrammed” genetically to assume a stem cell-like state. This new type of stem cell is called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

Stem cells differ from other kinds of cells in the body. All stem cells—regardless of their source—have three general properties: they are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods; they are unspecialized; and they can give rise to specialized cell types.

Stem cells are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods. Unlike muscle cells, blood cells, or nerve cells—which do not normally replicate themselves—stem cells may replicate many times, or proliferate. A starting population of stem cells that proliferates for many months in the laboratory can yield millions of cells. If the resulting cells continue to be unspecialized, like the parent stem cells, the cells are said to be capable of long-term self-renewal.

Scientists are trying to understand two fundamental properties of stem cells that relate to their long-term self-renewal:

  1. Why can embryonic stem cells proliferate for a year or more in the laboratory without differentiating, but most adult stem cells cannot; and
  2. What are the factors in living organisms that normally regulate stem cell proliferation and self-renewal?

Discovering the answers to these questions may make it possible to understand how cell proliferation is regulated during normal embryonic development or during the abnormal cell division that leads to cancer.

Stem cells are unspecialized. One of the fundamental properties of a stem cell is that it does not have any tissue-specific structures that allow it to perform specialized functions. For example, a stem cell cannot work with its neighbors to pump blood through the body (like a heart muscle cell), and it cannot carry oxygen molecules through the bloodstream (like a red blood cell). However, unspecialized stem cells can give rise to specialized cells, including heart muscle cells, blood cells, or nerve cells.

Stem cells can give rise to specialized cells. When unspecialized stem cells give rise to specialized cells, the process is called differentiation. While differentiating, the cell usually goes through several stages, becoming more specialized at each step. Scientists are just beginning to understand the signals inside and outside cells that trigger each step of the differentiation process. The internal signals are controlled by a cell’s genes, which are interspersed across long strands of DNA and carry coded instructions for all cellular structures and functions. The external signals for cell differentiation include chemicals secreted by other cells, physical contact with neighboring cells, and certain molecules in the microenvironment. The interaction of signals during differentiation causes the cell’s DNA to acquire epigenetic marks that restrict DNA expression in the cell and can be passed on through cell division.

Adult stem cells typically generate the cell types of the tissue in which they reside. For example, a blood-forming adult stem cell in the bone marrow normally gives rise to the many types of blood cells. It is generally accepted that a blood-forming cell in the bone marrow—which is called a hematopoietic stem cell—cannot give rise to the cells of a very different tissue, such as nerve cells in the brain.

Through years of experimentation, scientists have established some basic protocols or “recipes” for the directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells into some specific cell types (Figure 1). (For additional examples of directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells, refer to the NIH stem cell report available at

http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/pages/2006report.aspx.)

stem cell differentiation figure1_sm

stem cell differentiation figure1_sm

http://stemcells.nih.gov/StaticResources/images/figure1_sm.jpg

9.3.3 Types of Stem Cell Transplants for Treating Cancer

http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/treatmenttypes/bonemarrowandperipheralbloodstemcelltransplant/stem-cell-transplant-types-of-transplant

In a typical stem cell transplant for cancer very high doses of chemo are used, often along with radiation therapy, to try to destroy all the cancer cells. This treatment also kills the stem cells in the bone marrow. Soon after treatment, stem cells are given to replace those that were destroyed. These stem cells are given into a vein, much like a blood transfusion. Over time they settle in the bone marrow and begin to grow and make healthy blood cells. This process is called engraftment.

There are 3 basic types of transplants. They are named based on who gives the stem cells.

  • Autologous (aw-tahl-uh-gus)—the cells come from you
  • Allogeneic (al-o-jen-NEE-ick or al-o-jen-NAY-ick)—the cells come from a matched related or unrelated donor
  • Syngeneic (sin-jen-NEE-ick or sin-jen-NAY-ick)—the cells come from your identical twin or triplet
hematopoietic stem cell transplant

hematopoietic stem cell transplant

Autologous stem cell transplants

These stem cells come from you alone. In this type of transplant, your stem cells are taken before you get cancer treatment that destroys them. Your stem cells are removed, or harvested, from either your bone marrow or your blood and then frozen. To find out more about that process, please see the section “What’s it like to donate stem cells?” After you get high doses of chemo and/or radiation the stem cells are thawed and given back to you.

One advantage of autologous stem cell transplant is that you are getting your own cells back. When you donate your own stem cells you don’t have to worry about the graft attacking your body (graft-versus-host disease) or about getting a new infection from another person. But there can still be graft failure, and autologous transplants can’t produce the “graft-versus-cancer” effect.

This kind of transplant is mainly used to treat certain leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. It’s sometimes used for other cancers, like testicular cancer and neuroblastoma, and certain cancers in children.

Getting rid of cancer cells in autologous transplants

A possible disadvantage of an autologous transplant is that cancer cells may be picked up along with the stem cells and then put back into your body later. Another disadvantage is that your immune system is still the same as before when your stem cells engraft. The cancer cells were able to grow despite your immune cells before, and may be able to do so again. The need to remove cancer cells from transplants or transplant patients and the best way to do it is being researched.

Doing 2 autologous transplants in a row is known as a tandem transplant or a double autologous transplant. In this type of transplant, the patient gets 2 courses of high-dose chemo, each followed by a transplant of their own stem cells. All of the stem cells needed are collected before the first high-dose chemo treatment, and half of them are used for each transplant. Most often both courses of chemo are given within 6 months, with the second one given after the patient recovers from the first one.

Allogeneic stem cell transplants

In the most common type of allogeneic transplant, the stem cells come from a donor whose tissue type closely matches the patient’s. (This is discussed later under “HLA matching” in the section called “ Donor matching for allogeneic transplant.”) The best donor is a close family member, usually a brother or sister. If you do not have a good match in your family, a donor might be found in the general public through a national registry. This is sometimes called a MUD (matched unrelated donortransplant. Transplants with a MUD are usually riskier than those with a relative who is a good match.

Blood taken from the placenta and umbilical cord of newborns is a newer source of stem cells for allogeneic transplant. Called cord blood, this small volume of blood has a high number of stem cells that tend to multiply quickly. But the number of stem cells in a unit of cord blood is often too low for large adults, so this source of stem cells is limited to small adults and children. Doctors are now looking at different ways to use cord blood for transplant in larger adults, such as using cord blood from 2 donors.

Pros of allogeneic stem cell transplant: The donor stem cells make their own immune cells, which could help destroy any cancer cells that remain after high-dose treatment. This is called the graft-versus-cancer effect. Other advantages are that the donor can often be asked to donate more stem cells or even white blood cells if needed, and stem cells from healthy donors are free of cancer cells.

Cons to allogeneic stem cell transplants: The transplant, also known as the graft, might not take — that is, the donor cells could die or be destroyed by the patient’s body before settling in the bone marrow. Another risk is that the immune cells from the donor may not just attack the cancer cells – they could attack healthy cells in the patient’s body. This is called graft-versus-host disease (described in the section called “Problems that may come up shortly after transplant”). There is also a very small risk of certain infections from the donor cells, even though donors are tested before they donate. A higher risk comes from infections you have had, and which your immune system has under control. These infections often surface after allogeneic transplant because your immune system is held in check (suppressed) by medicines called immunosuppressive drugs. These infections can cause serious problems and even death.

Allogeneic transplant is most often used to treat certain types of leukemia, lymphomas, multiple myeloma,myelodysplastic syndrome, and other bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia.

Mini transplants (non-myeloablative transplants)

For some people, age or certain health conditions make it more risky to wipe out all of their bone marrow before a transplant. For those people, doctors can use a type of allogeneic transplant that’s sometimes called a mini-transplant. Compared with a standard allogeneic transplant, this one uses less chemo and/or radiation to get the patient ready for the transplant. Your doctor might refer to it as a non-myeloablative transplant or mention reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC). The idea here is to kill some of the cancer cells along with some of the bone marrow, and suppress the immune system just enough to allow donor stem cells to settle in the bone marrow.

Unlike the standard allogeneic transplant, cells from both the donor and the patient exist together in the patient’s body for some time after a mini-transplant. But slowly, over the course of months, the donor cells take over the bone marrow and replace the patient’s own bone marrow cells. These new cells can then develop an immune response to the cancer and help kill off the patient’s cancer cells — the graft-versus-cancer effect.

Syngeneic stem cell transplants – for those with an identical sibling

This is a special kind of allogeneic transplant that can only be used when the recipient has an identical sibling (twin or triplet) who can donate — someone who will have the same tissue type. An advantage of syngeneic stem cell transplant is that graft-versus-host disease will not be a problem. There are no cancer cells in the transplant, either, as there would be in an autologous transplant.

A disadvantage is that because the new immune system is so much like the recipient’s immune system, there is no graft-versus-cancer effect, either. Every effort must be made to destroy all the cancer cells before the transplant is done to help keep the cancer from relapsing (coming back).

9.3.4 Graft versus Host Disease

http://bethematch.org/For-Patients-and-Families/Life-after-transplant/Graft-versus-host-disease–GVHD-/

Graft-versus-host disease(GVHD) occurs because of differences between the cells of your body and the donated cells and is a common side effect of an allogeneic bone marrow transplant.

An allogeneic transplant uses blood cells from a family member, unrelated donor or cord blood unit. GVHD can affect many different parts of the body including the skin, eyes, mouth, stomach, and intestines.

There are two types of GVHD:

  • Acute GVHD: Develops in the first 100 days or so after transplant but can occur later. This primarily affects the skin, stomach, intestines, and liver.
  • Chronic GVHD: Usually develops 3-6 months after transplant, but signs can appear earlier or later. If you have had or currently have acute GVHD, you are more likely to have chronic GVHD.

The severity of acute and chronic GVHD can range from mild to life-threatening.

Doctors often see mild GVHD as a good thing after an allogeneic transplant when the transplant was done for a blood cancer. It is a sign that the donor’s immune system is working to destroy any remaining cancer cells. Patients who experience some GVHD have a lower risk of the cancer returning after transplant than patients who do not develop GVHD. If the transplant was to treat a disease other than cancer disease, like aplastic anemia, then the doctor may want to treat even mild GVHD.

Graft-versus-Host Disease

JLM FerraraJE LevineP Reddy, and E Holler
Lancet. 2009 May 2; 373(9674): 1550–1561.
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60237-3

The number of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCT) continues to increase with more than 25,000 allogeneic transplantations performed annually. The graft-versus-leukemia / tumor (GVL) effect during allogeneic HCT effectively eradicates many hematological malignancies.1 The development of novel strategies that use donor leukocyte infusions, non-myeloablative conditioning and umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation have helped expand the indications for allogeneic HCT over the last several years, especially among older patients.2 Improvements in infectious prophylaxis, immunosuppressive medications, supportive care and DNA-based tissue typing have also contributed to improved outcomes after allogeneic HCT.1 Yet the major complication of allogeneic HCT, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), remains lethal and limits the use of this important therapy.2 Given current trends, the number of transplants from unrelated donors is expected to double within the next five years, significantly increasing the population of patients with GVHD. In this seminar we review advances made in identifying the genetic risk factors and pathophysiology of this major HCT complication, as well as its prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

Etiology and Clinical Features

Fifty years ago Billingham formulated three requirements for the development of GVHD: the graft must contain immunologically competent cells; the recipient must express tissue antigens that are not present in the transplant donor; and the recipient must be incapable of mounting an effective response to eliminate the transplanted cells.3 We know now that the immunologically competent cells are T cells, and that GVHD can develop in various clinical settings when tissues containing T cells (blood products, bone marrow, and solid organs) are transferred from one person to another who is not able to eliminate those cells.45 Patients, whose immune systems are suppressed, and who receive white blood cells from another individual, are at particularly high risk for GVHD.

GVHD occurs when donor T cells respond to genetically defined proteins on host cells. The most important proteins are Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)267, which are highly polymorphic and are encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Class I HLA (A, B, and C) proteins are expressed on almost all nucleated cells of the body at varying densities. Class II proteins (DR, DQ, and DP) are primarily expressed on hematopoietic cells (B cells, dendritic cells, monocytes), but their expression can be induced on many other cell types following inflammation or injury. High-resolution DNA typing of HLA genes with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques have now largely replaced earlier methods. The incidence of acute GVHD is directly related to the degree of mismatch between HLA proteins89 and thus ideally, donors and recipients are matched at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1, (“8/8 matches”), but mismatches may be tolerated for UCB grafts (see below).1012

Non-HLA Genetics

Despite HLA identity between a patient and donor, approximately 40% of patients receiving HLA-identical grafts develop acute GVHD due to genetic differences that lie outside the HLA loci, or “minor” histocompatibility antigens (HA). Some minor HAs, such as HY and HA-3, are expressed on all tissues and are targets for both GVHD and GVL.13 Other minor HAs, such as HA-1 and HA-2, are expressed most abundantly on hematopoietic cells (including leukemic cells) and may therefore induce a greater GVL effect with less GVHD.1314

Polymorphisms in both donors and recipients for cytokines that are involved in the classical `cytokine storm’ of GVHD (discussed below) have been implicated as risk factors for GVHD.15 Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α, Interleukin 10 (IL-10), Interferon-γ (IFNγ) variants have correlated with GVHD in some, but not all, studies.1618 Genetic polymorphisms of proteins involved in innate immunity, such as nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 and Keratin 18 receptors, have also been associated with GVHD.1922 Future strategies to identify the best possible transplant donor will probably incorporate both HLA and non-HLA genetic factors.

Clinical Features of Acute GVHD

Based on an early Seattle experience, acute GVHD was defined to occur prior to day 100, whereas chronic GVHD occurred after that time.2325 This definition is far from satisfactory, and a recent National Institutes of Health classification includes late-onset acute GVHD (after day 100) and an overlap syndrome with features of both acute and chronic GVHD.26 Late-onset acute GVHD and the overlap syndrome occur with greater frequency after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC), an increasingly widespread technique (see below). As shown in Table 1, the clinical manifestations of acute GVHD occur in the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver.27 In a comprehensive review, Martin et al found that at the onset of acute GVHD, 81% of patients had skin involvement, 54% had GI involvement, and 50% had liver involvement.23 Recent data suggest that lungs might also be targets of experimental GVHD.28

Acute GVHD Symptoms

Table 1

Pathophysiology of Acute GVHD

Two important principles are important to consider regarding the pathophysiology of acute GVHD. First, acute GVHD reflects exaggerated but normal inflammatory mechanisms mediated by donor lymphocytes infused into the recipient where they function appropriately, given the foreign environment they encounter. Second, the recipient tissues that stimulate donor lymphocytes have usually been damaged by underlying disease, prior infections, and the transplant conditioning regimen.29 As a result, these tissues produce molecules (sometimes referred to as “danger” signals) that promote the activation and proliferation of donor immune cells.4245 Mouse models havebeen central to our identification and understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of GVHD, and canine models have been critical to the development of clinically useful strategies for GVHD prophylaxis and treatment and to the development of donor leukocyte infusions.364647 Based largely on these experimental models, the development of acute GVHD can be conceptualized in three sequential steps or phases: (1) activation of the APCs; (2) donor T cell activation, proliferation, differentiation and migration; and (3) target tissue destruction (Figure 3).

Figure 3

GVHD Pathophysiology

In Phase I, the recipient conditioning regimen damages host tissues and causes release of inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, IL-1 and IL-6. Increased levels of these cytokines leads to activation of host antigen presenting cells (APCs). In Phase II, host APCs activate mature donor cells. The subsequent proliferation and differentiation of these activated T cells produces additional effectors that mediate the tissue damage, including Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes, Natural Killer (NK) cells, TNFα and IL-1. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that has leaked through the damaged intestinal mucosa triggers additional TNFα production. TNFα can damage tissue directly by inducing necrosis and apoptosis in the skin and GI tract through either TNF receptors or the Fas pathway. TNFα plays a direct role in intestinal GVHD damage which further amplifies damage in the skin, liver and lung in a “cytokine storm.”

GVHD pathophysiology nihms-115970-f0003

GVHD pathophysiology nihms-115970-f0003

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735047/bin/nihms-115970-f0003.jpg

Phase I: Activation of Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs)

The first step involves the activation of APCs by the underlying disease and the HCT conditioning regimen. Damaged host tissues respond by producing “danger” signals, including proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α), chemokines, and increased expression of adhesion molecules, MHC antigens and costimulatory molecules on host APCs.424850 A recent report demonstrated that at one week after HCT, increased levels of TNF-α receptor I, a surrogate marker for TNF-α, strongly correlated with the later development of GVHD.51 Damage to the GI tract from the conditioning is particularly important because it allows for systemic translocation of additional inflammatory stimuli such as microbial products including lipopolysaccaride (LPS) or other pathogen-associated molecular patterns that further enhance the activation of host APCs.49 The secondary lymphoid tissue in the GI tract is likely the initial site of interaction between activated APCs and donor T cells.52 These observations have led an important clinical strategy to reduce acute GVHD by reducing the intensity of the conditioning regimen. Experimental GVHD can also be reduced by manipulating distinct subsets of APCs.53,54 In addition, non-hematopoietic stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells or stromal cells, can reduce allogeneic T cell responses, although the mechanism for such inhibition remains unclear.2

The concept that enhanced activation of host APCs increases the risk for acute GVHD unifies a number of seemingly disparate clinical associations with that risk, such as advanced stages of malignancy, more intense transplant conditioning regimens and histories of viral infections. APCs detect infections by recognizing conserved molecular patterns that are unique to microbes, called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Among the classes of receptors that recognize such patterns, the Toll-like receptors (TLR) are the best characterized.55 For example, TLR4 recognizes LPS55 and mice with mutant TLR4 receptors that do not respond to LPS cause less GVHD when used as donors.56 Other TLRs that recognize viral DNA or RNA also activate APCs and may enhance GVHD, providing a potential mechanistic basis for increased GVHD associated with viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV).57

Phase II: Donor T Cell Activation

The core of the GVH reaction is Step 2, where donor T cells proliferate and differentiate in response to host APCs. The “danger” signals generated in Phase I augment this activation at least in part by increasing the expression of costimulatory molecules.58 Blockade of co-stimulatory pathways to prevent GVHD is successful in animal models, but this approach has not yet been tested in large clinical trials.2

In mouse models, where genetic differences between donor and recipient strains can be tightly controlled, CD4+ cells induce acute GVHD to MHC class II differences, and CD8+ cells induce acute GVHD to MHC class I differences.5961 In the majority of HLA-identical HCTs, both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets respond to minor histocompatibility antigens and can cause GVHD in HLA-identical HCT.

Regulatory T cells can suppress the proliferation of conventional T cells and prevent GVHD in animal models when added to donor grafts containing conventional T cells.62 In mice, the Foxp3 protein functions as a master switch in the development of regulatory T cells, which normally constitute 5% of the CD4+ T cell population.62 Regulatory T cells secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and Transforming Growth Factor(TGF)-β and can also act through contact-dependent inhibition of APCs.62 It is likely that the use of regulatory T cells in clinical acute GVHD will require improved techniques to identify and expand them.

Natural Killer T cell (NKT) 1.1+ subsets of both the host and donors that have been shown to modulate acute GVHD.63 Host NKT cells have been shown to suppress acute GVHD in an IL-4 dependent manner.64 A recent clinical trial of total lymphoid irradiation used as conditioning significantly reduced GVHD and enhanced host NKT cell function.65 By contrast, donor NKT cells can reduce GVHD and enhance perforin mediated GVL in an experimental model.66

Activation of immune cells results in rapid intracellular biochemical cascades that induce transcription of genes for many proteins including cytokines and their receptors. Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α) are produced in large amounts during acute GVHD. IL-2 production by donor T cells remains the principal target of many current clinical therapeutic and prophylactic approaches to GVHD, such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against IL-2 and its receptor.9 But emerging data indicate an important role for IL-2 in the generation and maintenance of CD4+ CD25+ T regs, suggesting that prolonged interference with IL-2 may have an unintended consequence of preventing the development of long term tolerance after allogeneic HCT.67 IFN-γ has multiple functions and can either amplify or reduce GVHD.68,69 IFN-γ may amplify GVHD by increasing the expression of molecules such as chemokines receptors, MHC proteins, and adhesion molecules; it also increases the sensitivity of monocytes and macrophages to stimuli such as LPS and accelerates intracellular cascades in response to these stimuli.70Early polarization of donor T cells so that they secrete less IFN-γ and more IL-4 can also attenuate experimental acute GVHD.71 IFN-γ may amplify GVHD by directly damaging epithelium in the GI tract and skin and inducing immnosuppression through the induction of nitric oxide.72 By contrast, IFN-γ may suppress GVHD by hastening the apoptosis of activated donor T cells.6973. This complexity means the manipulation of IFN-γ may have diverse effects in vivo, making it a challenging target with respect to therapeutic intervention. IL-10 plays a key role in suppression of immune responses, and clinical data suggest it may regulate acute GVHD.17 TGF-β, another suppressive cytokine can suppress acute GVHD but exacerbate chronic GVHD.74 Thus the timing and duration of the secretion of any given cytokine may determine the specific effects of that cytokine on GVHD severity.

Phase III: Cellular and Inflammatory Effector Phase

The effector phase of this process is a complex cascade of both cellular mediators such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes(CTLs) and NK cells and soluble inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1 and nitric oxide.229 These soluble and cellular mediators synergize to amplify local tissue injury and further promote inflammation and target tissue destruction.

Cellular Effectors

The cellular effectors of acute GVHD are primarily CTLs and NK cells.49 CTLs that preferentially use the Fas/FasL pathway of target lysis and appear to predominate in GVHD liver damage (hepatocytes express large amounts of Fas) whereas GVHD CTLs that use the perforin /granzyme pathways are more important in the GI tract and skin.275 Chemokines direct the migration of donor T cells from lymphoid tissues to the target organs where they cause damage. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1α) and other chemokines such as CCL2-5, CXCL2, CXCL9-11, CCL17 and CCL27 are over-expressed and enhance the homing of cellular effectors to target organs during experimental GVHD.76Expression of integrins, such as α4β7 and its ligand MadCAM-1, are also important for homing of donor T cells to Peyer’s patches during intestinal GVHD.527778

Prevention of GVHD

Based on the evidence from animal models regarding the central role of T cells in initiating GVHD, numerous clinical studies evaluating T cell depletion (TCD) as prophylaxis for GVHD were performed in the 1980’s and 1990’s. There were three principal TCD strategies: (1) negative selection of T cells ex vivo, (2) positive selection of CD34+ stem cells ex vivo; and (3) anti-T cell antibodies in vivo.83Most strategies showed a significant limitation in both acute and chronic GVHD.8488 Unfortunately, the lower incidence of severe GVHD was offset by high rates of graft failure, relapse of malignancy, infections, and Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. Negative selection purging strategies using various anti-T cell antibodies achieved similar long-term results regardless of the breadth of antibody specificity.8993 One large registry study demonstrated that purging strategies using antibodies with broad specificities produced inferior leukemia-free survival than standard immunosuppression in patients receiving unrelated donor transplants.94 Several studies have investigated partial T cell depletion, either by eliminating specific T cell subsets (e.g., CD8+) or by titrating the dose of T cells present in the inoculum.9597 None of these approaches, however, has convincingly demonstrated an optimal strategy that improves long-term survival.

Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds CD52, a protein expressed on a broad spectrum of leukocytes including lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells. Its use in GVHD prophylaxis in a Phase II trial decreased the incidence of acute and chronic GVHD following reduced intensity transplant.98 In two prospective studies, patients who received alemtuzumab rather than methotrexate showed significantly lower rates of acute and chronic GVHD,99 but experienced more infectious complications and higher rates of relapse, so that there was no overall survival benefit. Alemtuzumab may also contribute to graft failure when used with minimal intensity conditioning regimens.100

An alternative strategy to TCD attempted to induce anergy in donor T cells by ex vivo antibody blockade of co-stimulatory pathways prior to transplantation. A small study using this approach in haploidentical HCT recipients was quite encouraging, but has not yet been replicated.101 Thus the focus of most prevention strategies remains pharmacological manipulation of T cells after transplant.

Administration of anti-T cell antibodies in vivo as GVHD prophylaxis has also been extensively tested. The best studied drugs are anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) or antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) preparations. These sera, which have high titers of polyclonal antibodies, are made by immunizing animals (horses or rabbits) to thymocytes or lymphocytes, respectively. A complicating factor in determining the role of these polyclonal sera in transplantation is the observation that even different brands of the same class of sera exert different biologic effects.102 However, the side effects of ATG/ALG infusions are common across different preparations and include fever, chills, headache, thrombocytopenia (from cross-reactivity to platelets), and, infrequently, anaphylaxis. In retrospective studies, rabbit ATG reduced the incidence of GVHD in related donor HSCT recipients without appearing to improve survival.103104 In recipients of unrelated donor HSCT, addition of ALG to standard GVHD prophylaxis effectively prevented severe GVHD, but did not result in improved survival because of increased infections.105 In a long term follow-up study, however, pretransplant ATG provided significant protection against extensive chronic GVHD and chronic lung dysfunction.106

The primary pharmacologic strategy to prevent GVHD is the inhibition of the cytoplasmic enzyme, calcineurin, that is critical for in the activation of T cells. The calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine and tacrolimus, have similar mechanisms of action, clinical effectiveness and toxicity profiles, including hypomagnesemia, hyperkalemia, hypertension, and nephrotoxicity.9107 Serious side effects include transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TAM) and neurotoxicity that can lead to premature discontinuation. Although clinically similar to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, TAM does not reliably respond to therapeutic plasmapheresis, carries a high mortality rate, and removal of the offending agent does not always result in improvement.108 Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome includes mental status changes, seizures, neurological deficits and characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings; this syndrome has been seen in 1-2% of HCT recipients receiving and calcineurin inhibitors.109 Side effects of these drugs decrease as the dose is tapered, usually two to four months after HCT.

Calcineurin inhibitors are often administered in combination with other immunosuppressants, such as methotrexate, which is given at low doses in the early post-transplant period.9107 The toxicities of methotrexate (neutropenia and mucositis) have led some investigators to replace it with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). In one prospective randomized trial, patients who received MMF as part of GVHD prophylaxis experienced significantly less severe mucositis and more rapid neutrophil engraftment than those who received methotrexate.110 The incidence and severity of acute GVHD was similar between the two groups, but the study closed early due to superiority of the MMF arm with respect to reduced mucositis and the speed of hematopoietic engraftment. A desire for faster neutrophil engraftment has led to the use of MMF in UCB blood transplants where graft failure is a major concern.111 MMF is also often used after RIC regimens for similar reasons.112113

Sirolimus is an immunosuppressant that is structurally similar to tacrolimus but does not inhibit calcineurin. In a small Phase II trial, it showed excellent efficacy in combination with tacrolimus;114 the drug damages endothelial cells, however, and it may enhance TAM that is associated with calcineurin inhibitors.115 The combination of tacrolimus and sirolimus is currently being compared in a large randomized multi-center trial.

RIC regimens attempt to suppress the host immune system sufficiently so that donor T cells can engraft and then ablate the lympho-hematopoietic compartment of the recipient. The term “non-myeloablative” is therefore somewhat misleading. RIC regimens produce less tissue damage and lower levels of the inflammatory cytokines that are important in the initiation of GVHD pathophysiology; this effect may explain the reduced incidence of severe GVHD following RIC compared to the full intensity conditioning used in historical controls.98116 The onset of acute GVHD may be delayed after RIC until after day 100, however, and it may present simultaneously with elements of chronic GVHD (“overlap syndrome”).116120

Treatment of Acute GVHD

GVHD generally first develops in the second month after HCT, during continued treatment with calcineurin-based prophylaxis.23121 Steroids, with their potent antilymphocyte and anti-inflammatory activity, are the gold standard for treatment of GVHD. Many centers treat mild GVHD of the skin (Grade I) with topical steroids alone, but for more severe skin GVHD and any degree of visceral GVHD involvement, high-dose systemic steroids are usually initiated. Steroid therapy results in complete remission in less than half of the patients,122 and more severe GVHD is less likely to respond to treatment.123124 In a prospective randomized study, the addition of ATG to steroids as primary therapy did not increase the response rate.124 In a retrospective study, the use of ATG in patients who showed early signs of steroid-resistance was beneficial,122 but not all studies show such benefit and ATG is not standardly used because of increased infection risks.106125126.

An increasingly common treatment for GVHD is extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP). During ECP, the patient’s white blood cells are collected by apheresis, incubated with the DNA-intercalating agent, 8-methoxypsoralen, exposed to ultraviolet light (UVA), and returned to the patient. ECP is known to induce cellular apoptosis, which has strong anti-inflammatory effects in a number of systems, including prevention of rejection of solid organ grafts.127 Animal studies show that ECP reverses acute GVHD by increasing the number of regulatory T cells.128 A Phase II clinical study of steroid-dependent or steroid refractory GVHD showed resolution of GVHD in a large majority of patients, with 50% long-term survival in this very high risk group.129 Randomized multi-center studies of this approach are needed to determine its place in the management of acute GVHD.

Another interesting strategy to treat GVHD is the blockade of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. TNF-α can activate APCs, recruit effector cells and cause direct tissue damage.130 In animal models, TNF-α plays a central role in GVHD of the GI tract, which is central to the “cytokine storm” and plasma levels of TNFR I (a surrogate marker for TNF-α) rise in patients before the clinical manifestations of GVHD appear. 51 A recent Phase II trial of etanercept, a solubilized TNFR II, showed significant efficacy when added to systemic steroids as primary therapy for acute GVHD. Seventy percent of patients had complete resolution of all GVHD symptoms within one month, with 80% complete responses in the GI tract and the skin. The authors also showed that plasma levels of TNFR I were a significant biomarker for clinical GVHD.131

Treatment of Chronic GVHD

In contrast to acute GVHD, the pathophysiology of chronic GVHD remains poorly understood, and it is treated with a variety of immunosuppressive agents. The response of chronic GVHD to treatment is unpredictable, and mixed responses in different organs can occur in the same patient. Confounding variables such as infection and co-morbidities also make responses hard to measure. The use of corticosteroids (with or without a calcineurin inhibitor) is the standard of care, but a randomized trial of more than 300 patients with chronic GVHD found no difference between cyclosporine plus prednisone versus prednisone alone.132 Chronic immunosuppressants, especially those containing steroids, are highly toxic and result in infectious deaths. Many second line therapies have been studied, but none has achieved widespread acceptance. As mentioned above, ECP shows some promise, with significant response rates in high-risk patients. The best responses were observed in skin, liver, oral mucosa, eye, and lung.133 This observation is particularly relevant because lung GVHD has the potential to be a particularly devastating complication necessitating lung transplant as the only therapeutic option.134135

Essential Supportive Care in GVHD Patients

Meticulous supportive care is critical for patients with both acute and chronic GVHD because of the extended duration of immunosuppressive treatments and because the multiple medications required may have synergistic toxicities. Such care includes extensive infectious prophylaxis, early interventions in cases of suspected infections, and prophylaxis against non-infectious side effects of medications (See Table 3). These complications often require rapid responses to prevent serious or irreversible damage, and are best handled in close collaboration between the primary physician and the transplant specialist.

Table 3

Recommendations for Supportive Care

All patients should receive at least fluconazole as prophylaxis against fungal infections. Invasive molds, especially aspergillus, are common in patients with prolonged steroid use.136 Prophylaxis with voriconazole or posaconazole should be considered for these patients. Usual sites of infection are the lungs, sinuses, brain, skin,137 and serial galactomannan assays may aid in the early detection.138 Candida can cause lesions in the lung and spleen, which may need screening with ultrasonography. Pneumocystis is another opportunistic infection that should receive cotrimoxazol (bactrim) prophylaxis.139

Viral infections are frequent in these patients with GVHD. Cytomegalovirus causes interstitial pneumonia and gastritis. Patients who are at risk should have their blood monitored several times monthly. Techniques that directly detect virus should be performed, such as CMV PCR or pp65 antigen, and evidence of increased viral load should prompt preemptive treatment with ganciclovir or foscarnet prior to clinical manifestations of disease. Shingles is not uncommon and acyclovir prophylaxis may be beneficial.140 Patients and caregivers should receive vaccinations against influenza, and treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors is recommended in the event of influenza infection.141142

Patients with GVHD often have IgG2 and IgG4 subclass deficiencies despite normal lgG levels, making them susceptible to infections with encapsulated organisms. Treatment of severe hypogammaglobulinemia with intravenous immunoglobulin is standard in many centers,143 but the level that triggers replacement varies considerably among transplant specialists. There is little supporting evidence for the routine use of intravenous immunoglobulin as prophylaxis144 but patients should receive routine prophylaxis (penicillin or its equivalent) due to the increased risk of streptococcal sepsis.145 Pneumococcal conjugate and hemophilus influenza vaccine may provide additional protection and are also recommended for all patients, including those with chronic GVHD.139146147 The sites of any indwelling catheters should be assessed regularly and early treatment of a suspected infection initiated. Early signs or symptoms of septic shock such as shaking chills or low blood pressure requires prompt evaluation with chest X-ray and/or CT scan, blood culture and broad spectrum antibiotics because shock may progress rapidly in these patients.

9.3.5 Aspergillus Complicating Allogeneic Transplantation

Aspergillus infections in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: have we made any progress?

E Jantunen, V-J Anttila and T Ruutu
BMT 2002; 30(12):925-929
http://www.nature.com/bmt/journal/v30/n12/full/1703738a.html
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1038/sj.bmt.1703738

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is common in allogeneic SCT recipients, with an incidence of 4-10%. The majority of these infections are diagnosed several months after SCT and they are frequently associated with GVHD. The diagnosis is difficult and often delayed. Established IA is notoriously difficult to treat with a death rate of 80-90%. This review summarises recent data on this problem to assess whether there has been any progress. Effective prophylactic measures are still lacking. Severe immunosuppression is the main obstacle to the success of therapy. Recent and ongoing developments in diagnostic measures and new antifungal agents may improve treatment results to some extent, but Aspergillus infections still remain a formidable problem in allogeneic transplantation. Further studies in this field will focus on the role of various cytokines and combinations of antifungal agents.

Summary

Read Full Post »


Medical Informatics View

Chapter 1 Statement of Inferential    Second Opinion

Realtime Clinical Expert Support

Gil David and Larry Bernstein have developed, in consultation with Prof. Ronald Coifman, in the Yale University Applied Mathematics Program, a software system that is the equivalent of an intelligent Electronic Health Records Dashboard that provides empirical medical reference and suggests quantitative diagnostics options.

 

Keywords: Entropy, Maximum Likelihood Function, separatory clustering, peripheral smear, automated hemogram, Anomaly, classification by anomaly, multivariable and multisyndromic, automated second opinion

Abbreviations: Akaike Information Criterion, AIC;  Bayes Information Criterion, BIC, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, SIRS.

 

Background: The current design of the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) is a linear presentation of portions of the record by services, by diagnostic method, and by date, to cite examples.  This allows perusal through a graphical user interface (GUI) that partitions the information or necessary reports in a workstation entered by keying to icons.  This requires that the medical practitioner finds the history, medications, laboratory reports, cardiac imaging and EKGs, and radiology in different workspaces.  The introduction of a DASHBOARD has allowed a presentation of drug reactions, allergies, primary and secondary diagnoses, and critical information about any patient the care giver needing access to the record.  The advantage of this innovation is obvious.  The startup problem is what information is presented and how it is displayed, which is a source of variability and a key to its success.

Intent: We are proposing an innovation that supercedes the main design elements of a DASHBOARD and utilizes the conjoined syndromic features of the disparate data elements.  So the important determinant of the success of this endeavor is that it facilitates both the workflow and the decision-making process with a reduction of medical error. Continuing work is in progress in extending the capabilities with model datasets, and sufficient data because the extraction of data from disparate sources will, in the long run, further improve this process.  For instance, the finding of  both ST depression on EKG coincident with an elevated cardiac biomarker (troponin), particularly in the absence of substantially reduced renal function. The conversion of hematology based data into useful clinical information requires the establishment of problem-solving constructs based on the measured data.

The most commonly ordered test used for managing patients worldwide is the hemogram that often incorporates the review of a peripheral smear.  While the hemogram has undergone progressive modification of the measured features over time the subsequent expansion of the panel of tests has provided a window into the cellular changes in the production, release or suppression of the formed elements from the blood-forming organ to the circulation.  In the hemogram one can view data reflecting the characteristics of a broad spectrum of medical conditions.

Progressive modification of the measured features of the hemogram has delineated characteristics expressed as measurements of size, density, and concentration, resulting in many characteristic features of classification. In the diagnosis of hematological disorders proliferation of marrow precursors, the domination of a cell line, and features of suppression of hematopoiesis provide a two dimensional model.  Other dimensions are created by considering the maturity of the circulating cells.  The application of rules-based, automated problem solving should provide a valid approach to the classification and interpretation of the data used to determine a knowledge-based clinical opinion. The exponential growth of knowledge since the mapping of the human genome enabled by parallel advances in applied mathematics that have not been a part of traditional clinical problem solving.  As the complexity of statistical models has increased the dependencies have become less clear to the individual.  Contemporary statistical modeling has a primary goal of finding an underlying structure in studied data sets.  The development of an evidence-based inference engine that can substantially interpret the data at hand and convert it in real time to a “knowledge-based opinion” could improve clinical decision-making by incorporating multiple complex clinical features as well as duration of onset into the model.

An example of a difficult area for clinical problem solving is found in the diagnosis of SIRS and associated sepsis.  SIRS (and associated sepsis) is a costly diagnosis in hospitalized patients.   Failure to diagnose sepsis in a timely manner creates a potential financial and safety hazard.  The early diagnosis of SIRS/sepsis is made by the application of defined criteria (temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and WBC count) by the clinician.   The application of those clinical criteria, however, defines the condition after it has developed and has not provided a reliable method for the early diagnosis of SIRS.  The early diagnosis of SIRS may possibly be enhanced by the measurement of proteomic biomarkers, including transthyretin, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin.  Immature granulocyte (IG) measurement has been proposed as a more readily available indicator of the presence of granulocyte precursors (left shift).  The use of such markers, obtained by automated systems in conjunction with innovative statistical modeling, provides a promising approach to enhance workflow and decision making.   Such a system utilizes the conjoined syndromic features of disparate data elements with an anticipated reduction of medical error.  This study is only an extension of our approach to repairing a longstanding problem in the construction of the many-sided electronic medical record (EMR).  In a classic study carried out at Bell Laboratories, Didner found that information technologies reflect the view of the creators, not the users, and Front-to-Back Design (R Didner) is needed.

Costs would be reduced, and accuracy improved, if the clinical data could be captured directly at the point it is generated, in a form suitable for transmission to insurers, or machine transformable into other formats.  Such data capture, could also be used to improve the form and structure of how this information is viewed by physicians, and form a basis of a more comprehensive database linking clinical protocols to outcomes, that could improve the knowledge of this relationship, hence clinical outcomes.

 

 

How we frame our expectations is so important that it determines the data we collect to examine the process.   In the absence of data to support an assumed benefit, there is no proof of validity at whatever cost.   This has meaning for hospital operations, for nonhospital laboratory operations, for companies in the diagnostic business, and for planning of health systems.

In 1983, a vision for creating the EMR was introduced by Lawrence Weed,  expressed by McGowan and Winstead-Fry (J J McGowan and P Winstead-Fry. Problem Knowledge Couplers: reengineering evidence-based medicine through interdisciplinary development, decision support, and research. Bull Med Libr Assoc. 1999 October; 87(4): 462–470.)   PMCID: PMC226622    Copyright notice

 

 

 

 

They introduce Problem Knowledge Couplers as a clinical decision support software tool that  recognizes that functionality must be predicated upon combining unique patient information, but obtained through relevant structured question sets, with the appropriate knowledge found in the world’s peer-reviewed medical literature.  The premise of this is stated by LL WEED in “Idols of the Mind” (Dec 13, 2006): “ a root cause of a major defect in the health care system is that, while we falsely admire and extol the intellectual powers of highly educated physicians, we do not search for the external aids their minds require”.  HIT use has been focused on information retrieval, leaving the unaided mind burdened with information processing.

 

 

The data presented has to be comprehended in context with vital signs, key symptoms, and an accurate medical history.  Consequently, the limits of memory and cognition are tested in medical practice on a daily basis.  We deal with problems in the interpretation of data presented to the physician, and how through better design of the software that presents this data the situation could be improved.  The computer architecture that the physician uses to view the results is more often than not presented as the designer would prefer, and not as the end-user would like.  In order to optimize the interface for physician, the system would have a “front-to-back” design, with the call up for any patient ideally consisting of a dashboard design that presents the crucial information that the physician would likely act on in an easily accessible manner.  The key point is that each item used has to be closely related to a corresponding criterion needed for a decision.  Currently, improved design is heading in that direction.  In removing this limitation the output requirements have to be defined before the database is designed to produce the required output.  The ability to see any other information, or to see a sequential visualization of the patient’s course would be steps to home in on other views.  In addition, the amount of relevant information, even when presented well, is a cognitive challenge unless it is presented in a disease- or organ-system structure.  So the interaction between the user and the electronic medical record has a significant effect on practitioner time, ability to minimize errors of interpretation, facilitate treatment, and manage costs.  The reality is that clinicians are challenged by the need to view a large amount of data, with only a few resources available to know which of these values are relevant, or the need for action on a result, or its urgency. The challenge then becomes how fundamental measurement theory can lead to the creation at the point of care of more meaningful actionable presentations of results.  WP Fisher refers to the creation of a context in which computational resources for meeting the challenges will be incorporated into the electronic medical record.  The one which he chooses is a probabilistic conjoint (Rasch) measurement model, which uses scale-free standard measures and meets data quality standards. He illustrates this by fitting a set of data provided by Bernstein (19)(27 items for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to a Rasch multiple rating scale model testing the hypothesis that items work together to delineate a unidimensional measurement continuum. The results indicated that highly improbable observations could be discarded, data volume could be reduced based on internal, and increased ability of the care provider to interpret the data.

 

Classified data a separate issue from automation

 Feature Extraction. This further breakdown in the modern era is determined by genetically characteristic gene sequences that are transcribed into what we measure.  Eugene Rypka contributed greatly to clarifying the extraction of features in a series of articles, which set the groundwork for the methods used today in clinical microbiology.  The method he describes is termed S-clustering, and will have a significant bearing on how we can view hematology data.  He describes S-clustering as extracting features from endogenous data that amplify or maximize structural information to create distinctive classes.  The method classifies by taking the number of features with sufficient variety to map into a theoretic standard. The mapping is done by a truth table, and each variable is scaled to assign values for each: message choice.  The number of messages and the number of choices forms an N-by N table.  He points out that the message choice in an antibody titer would be converted from 0 + ++ +++ to 0 1 2 3.

Even though there may be a large number of measured values, the variety is reduced by this compression, even though there is risk of loss of information.  Yet the real issue is how a combination of variables falls into a table with meaningful information.  We are concerned with accurate assignment into uniquely variable groups by information in test relationships. One determines the effectiveness of each variable by its contribution to information gain in the system.  The reference or null set is the class having no information.  Uncertainty in assigning to a classification is only relieved by providing sufficient information.  One determines the effectiveness of each variable by its contribution to information gain in the system.  The possibility for realizing a good model for approximating the effects of factors supported by data used for inference owes much to the discovery of Kullback-Liebler distance or “information”, and Akaike found a simple relationship between K-L information and Fisher’s maximized log-likelihood function. A solid foundation in this work was elaborated by Eugene Rypka.  Of course, this was made far less complicated by the genetic complement that defines its function, which made  more accessible the study of biochemical pathways.  In addition, the genetic relationships in plant genetics were accessible to Ronald Fisher for the application of the linear discriminant function.    In the last 60 years the application of entropy comparable to the entropy of physics, information, noise, and signal processing, has been fully developed by Shannon, Kullback, and others,  and has been integrated with modern statistics, as a result of the seminal work of Akaike, Leo Goodman, Magidson and Vermunt, and unrelated work by Coifman. Dr. Magidson writes about Latent Class Model evolution:

 

The recent increase in interest in latent class models is due to the development of extended algorithms which allow today’s computers to perform LC analyses on data containing more than just a few variables, and the recent realization that the use of such models can yield powerful improvements over traditional approaches to segmentation, as well as to cluster, factor, regression and other kinds of analysis.

Perhaps the application to medical diagnostics had been slowed by limitations of data capture and computer architecture as well as lack of clarity in definition of what are the most distinguishing features needed for diagnostic clarification.  Bernstein and colleagues had a series of studies using Kullback-Liebler Distance  (effective information) for clustering to examine the latent structure of the elements commonly used for diagnosis of myocardial infarction (CK-MB, LD and the isoenzyme-1 of LD),  protein-energy malnutrition (serum albumin, serum transthyretin, condition associated with protein malnutrition (see Jeejeebhoy and subjective global assessment), prolonged period with no oral intake), prediction of respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn (RDS), and prediction of lymph nodal involvement of prostate cancer, among other studies.   The exploration of syndromic classification has made a substantial contribution to the diagnostic literature, but has only been made useful through publication on the web of calculators and nomograms (such as Epocrates and Medcalc) accessible to physicians through an iPhone.  These are not an integral part of the EMR, and the applications require an anticipation of the need for such processing.

Gil David et al. introduced an AUTOMATED processing of the data available to the ordering physician and can anticipate an enormous impact in diagnosis and treatment of perhaps half of the top 20 most common causes of hospital admission that carry a high cost and morbidity.  For example: anemias (iron deficiency, vitamin B12 and folate deficiency, and hemolytic anemia or myelodysplastic syndrome); pneumonia; systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with or without bacteremia; multiple organ failure and hemodynamic shock; electrolyte/acid base balance disorders; acute and chronic liver disease; acute and chronic renal disease; diabetes mellitus; protein-energy malnutrition; acute respiratory distress of the newborn; acute coronary syndrome; congestive heart failure; disordered bone mineral metabolism; hemostatic disorders; leukemia and lymphoma; malabsorption syndromes; and cancer(s)[breast, prostate, colorectal, pancreas, stomach, liver, esophagus, thyroid, and parathyroid].

Extension of conditions and presentation to the electronic medical record (EMR)

We have published on the application of an automated inference engine to the Systemic Inflammatory Response (SIRS), a serious infection, or emerging sepsis.  We can report on this without going over previous ground.  Of considerable interest is the morbidity and mortality of sepsis, and the hospital costs from a late diagnosis.  If missed early, it could be problematic, and it could be seen as a hospital complication when it is not. Improving on previous work, we have the opportunity to look at the contribution of a fluorescence labeled flow cytometric measurement of the immature granulocytes (IG), which is now widely used, but has not been adequately evaluated from the perspective of diagnostic usage.  We have done considerable work on protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), to which the automated interpretation is currently in review.  Of course, the

cholesterol, lymphocyte count, serum albumin provide the weight of evidence with the primary diagnosis (emphysema, chronic renal disease, eating disorder), and serum transthyretin would be low and remain low for a week in critical care.  This could be a modifier with age in providing discriminatory power.

 

Chapter  3           References

 

The Cost Burden of Disease: U.S. and Michigan. CHRT Brief. January 2010. @www.chrt.org

The National Hospital Bill: The Most Expensive Conditions by Payer, 2006. HCUP Brief #59.

 

Rudolph RA, Bernstein LH, Babb J: Information-Induction for the diagnosis of

myocardial infarction. Clin Chem 1988;34:2031-2038.

Bernstein LH (Chairman). Prealbumin in Nutritional Care Consensus Group.

Measurement of visceral protein status in assessing protein and energy malnutrition: standard of care. Nutrition 1995; 11:169-171.

Bernstein LH, Qamar A, McPherson C, Zarich S, Rudolph R. Diagnosis of myocardial infarction: integration of serum markers and clinical descriptors using information theory. Yale J Biol Med 1999; 72: 5-13.

 

Kaplan L.A.; Chapman J.F.; Bock J.L.; Santa Maria E.; Clejan S.; Huddleston D.J.; Reed R.G.; Bernstein L.H.; Gillen-Goldstein J. Prediction of Respiratory Distress Syndrome using the Abbott FLM-II amniotic fluid assay. The National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) Fetal Lung Maturity Assessment Project.  Clin Chim Acta 2002; 326(8): 61-68.

 

Bernstein LH, Qamar A, McPherson C, Zarich S. Evaluating a new graphical ordinal logit method (GOLDminer) in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction utilizing clinical features and laboratory data. Yale J Biol Med 1999; 72:259-268.

 

Bernstein L, Bradley K, Zarich SA. GOLDmineR: Improving models for classifying patients with chest pain. Yale J Biol Med 2002; 75, pp. 183-198.

Ronald Raphael Coifman and Mladen Victor Wickerhauser. Adapted Waveform Analysis as a Tool for Modeling, Feature Extraction, and Denoising. Optical Engineering, 33(7):2170–2174, July 1994.

 

R. Coifman and N. Saito. Constructions of local orthonormal bases for classification and regression. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 319 Série I:191-196, 1994.

 

Chapter 4           Clinical Expert System

Realtime Clinical Expert Support and validation System

We have developed a software system that is the equivalent of an intelligent Electronic Health Records Dashboard that provides empirical medical reference and suggests quantitative diagnostics options. The primary purpose is to gather medical information, generate metrics, analyze them in realtime and provide a differential diagnosis, meeting the highest standard of accuracy. The system builds its unique characterization and provides a list of other patients that share this unique profile, therefore utilizing the vast aggregated knowledge (diagnosis, analysis, treatment, etc.) of the medical community. The main mathematical breakthroughs are provided by accurate patient profiling and inference methodologies in which anomalous subprofiles are extracted and compared to potentially relevant cases. As the model grows and its knowledge database is extended, the diagnostic and the prognostic become more accurate and precise. We anticipate that the effect of implementing this diagnostic amplifier would result in higher physician productivity at a time of great human resource limitations, safer prescribing practices, rapid identification of unusual patients, better assignment of patients to observation, inpatient beds, intensive care, or referral to clinic, shortened length of patients ICU and bed days.

The main benefit is a real time assessment as well as diagnostic options based on comparable cases, flags for risk and potential problems as illustrated in the following case acquired on 04/21/10. The patient was diagnosed by our system with severe SIRS at a grade of 0.61 .

 

The patient was treated for SIRS and the blood tests were repeated during the following week. The full combined record of our system’s assessment of the patient, as derived from the further Hematology tests, is illustrated below. The yellow line shows the diagnosis that corresponds to the first blood test (as also shown in the image above). The red line shows the next diagnosis that was performed a week later.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As we can see the following treatment, the SIRS risk as a major concern was eliminated and the system provides a positive feedback for the treatment of the physician.

 

Method for data organization and classification via characterization metrics.

Our database organized to enable linking a given profile to known profiles. This is achieved by associating a patient to a peer group of patients having an overall similar profile, where the similar profile is obtained through a randomized search for an appropriate weighting of variables. Given the selection of a patients’ peer group, we build a metric that measures the dissimilarity of the patient from its group. This is achieved through a local iterated statistical analysis in the peer group.

We then use this characteristic metric to locate other patients with similar unique profiles, for each of whom we repeat the procedure described above. This leads to a network of patients with similar risk condition. Then, the classification of the patient is inferred from the medical known condition of some of the patients in the linked network. Given a set of points (the database) and a newly arrived sample (point), we characterize the behavior of the newly arrived sample, according to the database. Then, we detect other points in the database that match this unique characterization. This collection of detected points defines the characteristic neighborhood of the newly arrived sample. We use the characteristic neighbor hood in order to classify the newly arrived sample. This process of differential diagnosis is repeated for every newly arrived point.   The medical colossus we have today has become a system out of control and beset by the elephant in the room – an uncharted complexity. We offer a method that addresses the complexity and enables rather than disables the practitioner.  The method identifies outliers and combines data according to commonality of features.

 

 

Read Full Post »


Graft-versus-Host Disease

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP 

 

Introduction

This piece is a follow up to the article on allogeneic transfusion reactions, which extends into transplantation and transplantation outcomes for hematological diseases, both malignant and nonmalignant. The safety of transfusions in Western countries has improved substantially, and the causes for transfusion mishaps has been reduced to unexpected infectious sources, uncommon immune incompatibilities, and errors in processing the blood products.  The greatest risk is incurred in platelet transfusions because of the short shelf-life of the product, and the time needed for testing prior to release.  This portion of the review is concerned with Graft-versus-Host Disease, which is unique to transfusion and transplanting of blood. In other transplantation, there is graft failure because of host versus graft incompatibility or complications.  The reverse order applies to blood.  In this case, on the contrary, the transfused or grafted donor tissue becomes a pursuer after the recipients hematopoietic cells.

Peter Brian Medawar: Father of Transplantation

Thomas E. Starzl, M.D., PH.D., F.A.C.S.
J Am Coll Surg. 1995 Mar; 180(3): 332–336

Most of the surgical specialities can be tracked to the creative vision of a surgeon. Transplantation is an exception. Here, the father of the field is succinctly defined in the dictionary as: “Peter Brian Medawar: a Brazilian born British Zoologist who at the age of 45 shared a 1960 Nobel Prize for his work on acquired immunologic tolerance”. Medawar was mysteriously overwhelming to many colleagues and observers, even when he was young. He was the son of a Lebanese father and an English mother—tall, athletic, abnormally handsome, hypnotically articulate in public, and politely cordial in his personal relations. In September 1969, at the age of 54, he had the first of a series of strokes. These crippled him physically but not in spirit. Although I saw Medawar often professionally and privately over a 22 year period, before and after he was disabled, this sporadic exposure was not enough to understand him. My sense is that no one did, except perhaps Jean, his wife for nearly 50 years.

Medawar’s dazzling personality before and great courage after his strokes was inspirational, but his fame was based on the unique achievement in 1953 captured by the terse dictionary mention of “acquired immunologic tolerance.” The roots leading to this accomplishment had fed on the blood of war. More than 12 years earlier, the recently wed zoologist Medawar—24 years of age and fresh from graduate studies at Oxford University—was assigned to
the service of the British surgeon, Dr. Thomas Gibson, to determine if skin allografts could be used to treat casualties from the Battle of Britain. First,
in human studies with Gibson, and then with simple and logical rabbit experiments, Medawar showed that rejection of the skin was an immunologic phenomenon. This later was shown  to be analogous to the cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity that confers immunity to diseases such as tuberculosis. The principal evidence in the early studies was that repetitive grafts from the same donor were rejected more rapidly with each successive attempt —the sensitization and donor specificity confirming an earlier clinical observations by Emil Holman of Stanford in skin-grafted burn victims. Once it was established that rejection was an immune reaction, strategies began to evolve to weaken the recipient immune system. By 1953, total body irradiation and adrenal cortical steroids had been shown to delay skin rejection. However, this immunosuppressive effect was either minor if the animals survived, or lethal to the recipient if the grafts were spared.

Bombshell

In the resulting atmosphere of nihilism about clinical applications, a three and one-half page article by Billingham, Brent, and Medawar in the October 3, 1953 issue of Nature describing acquired tolerance, came as a blinding beacon of hope. The three men had learned that donor splenocytes could be engrafted by their intravenous infusion into immunologically immature mice in utero or perinatally. When these inoculated recipients matured, they could accept skin and other tissues from the donor (but from no other) mouse strain. The immune system of the recipients had been populated by the immunocytes of the donor, meaning that they were now chimeras. The race was on to convert this principle to humans. However, the dark side of their accomplishment soon was revealed by the two younger members of Medawar’s team, Billingham and Brent and by the Dane, Simonsen. The engrafted donor cells could turn the tables and reject the defenseless recipient unless the tissue match was a good one. This was the dreaded graft versus host disease (GVHD) in which transplanted donor cells attacked the recipient skin, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, liver, and the bone marrow itself. Medawar’s dream of 1953 was suddenly a nightmare. Or was it?

On the contrary, the work took a straight line to clinical application, after the demonstration by Prehn and Main that similar tolerance could be induced in adult mice rendered immunologically defenseless by total body irradiation before splenocyte (or later bone marrow) infusion. The recipient conditioning, known as cytoablation, also could be accomplished with myelotoxic drugs. However, as Billingham, Brent, and Medawar had predicted, donor specific tolerance could be induced in humans without GVHD only if there was a good tissue (HLA) match. In 1968, 15 years after the epic Billingham, Brent and Medawar publication, Robert Good and Fritz Bach reported the first two successful human bone marrow transplants. Both recipients of well matched bone marrow from blood relatives are still alive. This was a triumph in which the principal clinicians were internists, as summarized 25 years later in the acceptance speech by the 1990 Nobel Laureate Donnall Thomas.

The growth of bone marrow and whole organ transplantation

The growth of bone marrow and whole organ transplantation

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2681237/bin/nihms-87975-f0001.gif

The growth of bone marrow (right) and whole organ transplantation (left) from the seed planted by Peter Medawar during World War II. GVHD, Graft versus host disease.

Immunological Tolerance: Medawar Nobel Acceptance Lecture

“Immunological tolerance” may be described as a state of indifference or non-reactivity towards a substance that would normally be expected to excite an immunological response. The term first came to be used in the context of tissue transplantation immunity, i.e. of the form of immunity that usually prohibits the grafting of tissues between individuals of different genetic make-up; and it was used to refer only to a non-reactivity caused by exposing animals to antigenic stimuli before they were old enough to undertake an immunological response. For example, if living cells from a mouse of strain CBA are injected into an adult mouse of strain A, the CBA cells will be destroyed by an immunological process, and the A-line mouse that received them will destroy any later graft of the same origin with the speed to be expected of an animal immunologically forearmed. But if the CBA cells are injected into a foetal or newborn A-line mouse, they are accepted; more than that, the A-line mouse, when it grows up, will accept any later graft from a CBA donor as if it were its own. I shall begin by using the term “immunological tolerance” in the rather restricted sense that is illustrated by this experiment, and shall discuss its more general usage later on.

The experiment I have just described can be thought of as an artificial reproduction of an astonishing natural curiosity, the phenomenon of red-cell chimerism in certain dizygotic twins. The blood systems of twin cattle before birth are not sharply distinct from each other, as they are in most other twins; instead, the blood systems make anastomoses with each other, with the effect that the twins can indulge in a prolonged exchange of blood before birth. In 1945, R.D. Owen2 made the remarkable discovery that most twin cattle are born with, and may retain throughout life, a stable mixture – not necessarily a fifty-fifty mixture – of each other’s red cells; it followed, then, that the twin cattle must have exchanged red-cell precursors and not merely red cells in their mutual transfusion before birth. This is the first example of the phenomenon we came to call immunological tolerance; the red cells could not have “adapted” themselves to their strange environment, because they were in fact identified as native or foreign by those very antigenie properties which, had an adaptation occurred, must necessarily have been transformed. A few years later R.E. Billingham and I3, with the help of three members of the scientific staff of the Agricultural Research Council, showed that most dizygotic cattle twins would accept skin grafts from each other, and that this mutual tolerance was specific, for skin transplanted from third parties was cast off in the expected fashion.

Some properties of the tolerant state

The main points that emerged from our analysis of the tolerant state were these. In the first place, tolerance must be due to an alteration of the host, not to an antigenic adaptation of the grafted cells, for grafts newly transplanted in adult life have no opportunity to adapt themselves, and the descendants of the cells injected into foetal or newborn animals can be shown by N.A. Mitcbison’s methods to retain their antigenic power10. Once established, the state of tolerance is systemic; if one part of the body will tolerate a foreign graft, so will another; we found no evidence that a tolerated graft builds up a privileged position for itself within its own lymphatic territory. The stimulus that is responsible for instating tolerance is an antigenic stimulus – one which, had it been applied to older animals, would have caused them to become sensitive or immune. A plural stimulus can induce plural tolerance; the donor will usually contain several important antigens that are lacking in the recipient, and long-lasting tolerance must imply tolerance of them all. The state of tolerance is specific in the sense that it will discriminate between one individual and another, for an animal made tolerant of grafts from one individual will not accept grafts from a second individual unrelated to the first; but it will not discriminate between one tissue and another from the same donor.

Tolerance and auto-immunity: 50 years after Burnet.

Martini A1, Burgio GR
Eur J Pediatr. 1999 Oct;158(10):769-75.

Fifty years ago Sir F. Macfarlane Burnet published his first fundamental contribution to the theory of immune tolerance he perfected 10 years later. Since then an impressive amount of new information on the function of the immune system has been gathered. As any original meaningful theory, Burnet’s hypothesis on the development of immune tolerance has undergone extensive modifications to take into account all these new findings. An improved understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance has led to new possibilities for the treatment of auto-immune diseases.

Clonal Selection
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clonal_selection

Clonal selection theory is a scientific theory in immunology that explains the functions of cells (lymphocytes) of the immune system in response to specific antigens invading the body. The concept was introduced by an Australian doctor Frank Macfarlane Burnet in 1957 in an attempt to explain the formation of a diversity of antibodies during initiation of the immune response. The theory has become a widely accepted model for how the immune system responds to infection and how certain types of B and T lymphocytes are selected for destruction of specific antigens.

The theory states that in a pre-existing group of lymphocytes (specifically B cells), a specific antigen only activates (i.e. selection) its counter-specific cell so that particular cell is induced to multiply (producing its clones) for antibody production. In short the theory is an explanation of the mechanism for the generation of diversity of antibody specificity. The first experimental evidence came in 1958, when Gustav Nossal and Joshua Lederberg showed that one B cell always produces only one antibody. The idea turned out to be the foundation of molecular immunology, especially in adaptive immunity.

The fundamental contribution of Robert A. Good to the discovery of the crucial role of thymus in mammalian immunity

Domenico Ribatti
Immunology. 2006 Nov; 119(3): 291–295.
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1111/j.1365-2567.2006.02484.x

Robert Alan Good was a pioneer in the field of immunodeficiency diseases. He and his colleagues defined the cellular basis and functional consequences of many of the inherited immunodeficiency diseases. His was one of the groups that discovered the pivotal role of the thymus in the immune system development and defined the separate development of the thymus-dependent and bursa-dependent lymphoid cell lineages and their responsibilities in cell-mediated and humoral immunity.  Keywords: bursa of Fabricius, history of medicine, immunology, thymus

Robert Alan Good (May 21, 1922 – June 13, 2003) was an American physician who performed the first successful human bone marrow transplant

Robert A. Good began his intellectual and experimental queries related to the thymus in 1952 at the University of Minnesota, initially with pediatric patients. However, his interest in the plasma cell, antibodies and the immune response began in 1944, while still in Medical School at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, with his first publication appearing in 1945.

Idiopathic Acquired Agammaglobulinemia Associated with Thymoma (1953)

  • a markedly deficient ability to produce antibodies and significant deficits of all or most of the cell-mediated immunities
  • in no instance did removal of the thymic tumour restore immunological function or correct the protein deficit

Good syndrome: thymoma with immunodeficiency

  • increased susceptibility to bacterial infections by encapsulated organisms and opportunistic viral and fungal infections
  • immunodeficiencies, leukopenia, lymphopenia and eosinophylopenia
  • severely hypogammaglobulinemic rather than agammaglobulinemic

Good and others found that the patients lacked all of the subsequently described immunoglobulins. These patients were found not to have plasma cells or germinal centers in their hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. They possessed circulating lymphocytes in normal numbers.

Speculation on the reason for immunological failure following neonatal thymectomy has centered on the thymus as a source of cells or humoral factors essential to normal lymphoid development and immunological maturation.

The bursa of Fabricius and the thymus are ‘central lymphoid organs’ in the chicken, essential to the ontogenetic development of adaptive immunity in that species. Studies by Papermaster and co-workers in Good’s laboratory34,35 indicated that bursectomy in the newly hatched chicks did not completely abolish immunological potential in the adult animal but rather produced a striking quantitative reduction insufficient to eliminate the homograft reaction. The failure of thymectomy in newly hatched chicks to alter the immunological potential of the maturing animal probably only reflected the participation of the bursa of Fabricius in the development of full immunological capacity.

Bursectomized and irradiated birds were completely devoid of germinal centers, plasma cells and the capacity to make antibodies yet they had perfectly normal development of thymocytes and lymphocytes elsewhere in the body that mediated cellular immune reactions. On the other hand, thymectomized and irradiated animals were deficient in lymphocytes that mediated cellular immunity as assessed by skin graft rejection, delayed-type hypersensitivity and graft versus host assays, but they still produced germinal centers, plasma cells and circulating immunoglobulins.

 

Graft vs Host Disease

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a complication that can occur after a stem cell or bone marrow transplant. With GVHD, the newly transplanted donor cells attack the transplant recipient’s body.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication following an allogeneic tissue transplant. It is commonly associated with stem cell or bone marrow transplant but the term also applies to other forms of tissue graft. Immune cells (white blood cells) in the tissue (the graft) recognize the recipient (the host) as “foreign“. The transplanted immune cells then attack the host’s body cells. GVHD can also occur after a blood transfusion if the blood products used have not been irradiated or treated with an approved pathogen reduction system.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graft-versus-host_disease

Causes

GVHD may occur after a bone marrow or stem cell transplant in which someone receives bone marrow tissue or cells from a donor. This type of transplant is called allogeneic. The new, transplanted cells regard the recipient’s body as foreign. When this happens, the newly transplanted cells attack the recipient’s body.

GVHD does not occur when someone receives his or her own cells during a transplant. This type of transplant is called autologous.

Before a transplant, tissue and cells from possible donors are checked to see how closely they match the person having the transplant. GVHD is less likely to occur, or symptoms will be milder, when the match is close. The chance of GVHD is:

  • Around 30 – 40% when the donor and recipient are related
  • Around 60 – 80% when the donor and recipient are not related

There are two types of GVHD: acute and chronic. Symptoms in both acute and chronic GVHD range from mild to severe.

  • Acute GVHD usually happens within the first 6 months after a transplant.
  • Chronic GVHD usually starts more than 3 months after a transplant, and can last a lifetime.

Bone marrow transplant

A bone marrow transplant is a procedure to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells.  Stem cells are immature cells in the bone marrow that give rise to all of your blood cells.

There are three kinds of bone marrow transplants:

  • Autologous bone marrow transplant: The term auto means self. Stem cells are removed from you before you receive high-dose chemotherapy or radiation treatment. The stem cells are stored in a freezer (cryopreservation). After high-dose chemotherapy or radiation treatments, your stems cells are put back in your body to make (regenerate) normal blood cells. This is called a rescue transplant.
  • Allogeneic bone marrow transplant: The term allo means other. Stem cells are removed from another person, called a donor. Most times, the donor’s genes must at least partly match your genes. Special blood tests are done to see if a donor is a good match for you. A brother or sister is most likely to be a good match. Sometimes parents, children, and other relatives are good matches. Donors who are not related to you may be found through national bone marrow registries.
  • Umbilical cord blood transplant: This is a type of allogeneic transplant. Stem cells are removed from a newborn baby’s umbilical cord right after birth. The stem cells are frozen and stored until they are needed for a transplant. Umbilical cord blood cells are very immature so there is less of a need for matching. But blood counts take much longer to recover.

Before the transplant, chemotherapy, radiation, or both may be given. This may be done in two ways:

  • Ablative (myeloablative) treatment: High-dose chemotherapy, radiation, or both are given to kill any cancer cells. This also kills all healthy bone marrow that remains, and allows new stem cells to grow in the bone marrow.
  • Reduced intensity treatment, also called a mini transplant: Patients receive lower doses of chemotherapy and radiation before a transplant. This allows older patients, and those with other health problems to have a transplant.

Histocompatibility antigen:

  • A histocompatibility antigen blood test looks at proteins called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). These are found on the surface of almost all cells in the human body. HLAs are found in large amounts on the surface of white blood cells. They help the immune system tell the difference between body tissue and substances that are not from your own body.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001309.htm

Induction of transplantation tolerance in haploidenical transplantation under reduced intensity conditioning: The role of ex-vivo generated donor CD8+ T cells with central memory phenotype

Eran Ophir, Y Eidelstein, E Bachar-Lustig, D Hagin, N Or-Geva, A Lask, , Y Reisner
Best Practice & Research Clinical Haematology 24 (2011) 393–401
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.beha.2011.05.007

Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers the advantage of readily available family member donors for nearly all patients. A ‘megadose’ of purified CD34þ hematopoietic stem cells is used to overcome the host’s residual immunity surviving the myeloablative conditioning, while avoiding severe GVHD. However, the number of CD34+ cells that can be harvested is insufficient for overcoming the large numbers of host T cells remaining after reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). Therefore, combining a ‘megadose’ of CD34+ HSCT with other tolerizing cells could potentially support and promote successful engraftment of haploidentical purified stem cell transplantation under a safer RIC. One approach to address this challenge
could be afforded by using Donor CD8 T cells directed against 3rd-party stimulators, bearing an ex-vivo induced central memory phenotype (Tcm). These Tcm cells, depleted of GVH reactivity, were shown to be highly
efficient in overcoming host T cells mediated rejection and in promoting
fully mismatched bone-marrow (BM) engraftment, in HSCT murine models.
This is likely due to the marked lymph node homing of the Tcm, their strong proliferative capacity and prolonged persistence in BM transplant recipients. Thus, combining anti 3rd-party Tcm cell therapy with a ‘megadose’ of purified CD34+ stem cells, could offer a safer RIC protocol for attaining hematopoietic chimerism in patients with hematological diseases and as a platform for organ transplantation or cell therapy in cancer patients.

Induction of tolerance in organ recipients by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Eran Ophir, Yair Reisner
International Immunopharmacology 9 (2009) 694–700
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.intimp.2008.12.009

The use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for the establishment of mixed chimerism represents a viable and attractive approach for generating tolerance in transplantation biology, as it generally leads to durable immune tolerance, enabling the subsequent engraftment of organ transplants without the need for a deleterious continuous immunosuppressive therapy. However, in order to apply HSCT to patients in a manner that enables long term survival, transplant-related mortality must be minimized by eliminating the risk for graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) and by reducing the toxicity of the conditioning protocol. T-cell depleted bone marrow transplants (TDBMT) have been shown to adequately eliminate GVHD. However, even in leukemia patients undergoing supralethal conditioning, mismatched TDBMT are vigorously rejected. This barrier can be overcome through the modulatory activity of CD34 cells, which are endowed with veto activity, by the use of megadose stem cell transplants. In mice, megadoses of Sca+linhematopoietic stem cells can induce mixed chimerism following sub-lethal conditioning. Nevertheless, the number of human CD34 cells that can be harvested is not likely to be sufficient to overcome rejection under reduced intensity conditioning (RIC), which might be acceptable in recipients of organ transplantation. To address this challenge, we investigated a novel source of veto cells, namely anti 3rd-party cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) which are depleted of GVH reactivity, combined with megadoses of purified stem cells and a RIC protocol. This approach might provide a safer modality for the induction of durable chimerism.

Intrinsic unresponsiveness of Mertk/B cells to chronic graft-versus-host disease is associated with unmodulated CD1d expression

Wen-Hai Shao, Y Zhen, FD Finkelman, RA Eisenberg, PL Cohen
Journal of Autoimmunity 39 (2012) 412e419
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2012.07.001

Activation and migration of marginal zone B (MZB) cells into follicular (FO) regions of the spleen has been proposed as one of the mechanisms that regulate the development of autoreactive B cells. The mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mertk) mediates apoptotic cell clearance and regulates activation and cytokine secretion. In the well-studied class II chronic GVH model of bm12 cells into B6 hosts, we observed that Mertk deficient B6 mice did not generate autoantibodies in response to this allogeneic stimulus. We posited that Mertk is important in MHC-II-mediated B cell signaling. In the present study, we show that B cells from Mertk-/- mice but not WT B6 mice exhibited decreased calcium mobilization and tyrosine phosphorylation when stimulated by MHC-II cross-linking. The finding that Mertk was important for class II signaling in B cells was further supported by the preponderance of a-allotype autoantibodies in cGVH in RAG-KO mice reconstituted with a mixture of bone marrow from Mertk-/-mice (b-allotype) and C20 mice (a-allotype). MZB cells from Mertk-/-  mice were unable to down regulate surface CD1d expression and subsequent inclusion in the MZ, associated with significantly lower germinal center responses compared to MZB cells from WT. Moreover, Mertk-/- mice treated with an anti-CD1d down regulating antibody responded significantly to bm12 cells, while no response was observed in Mertk-/- mice treated with control antibodies. Taken together, these findings extend the role of Mertk to include CD1d down regulation on MZB cells, a potential mechanism limiting B cell activation in cGVH.

Galectin-9 ameliorates acute GVH disease through the induction of T-cell apoptosis

Kazuki Sakai, Eri Kawata, Eishi Ashihara, Yoko Nakagawa, et al.
Eur. J. Immunol. 2011. 41: 67–75 http://dx.doi.org:/10.1002/eji.200939931

Galectins comprise a family of animal lectins that differ in their affinity for β-galactosides. Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a tandem-repeat-type galectin that was recently shown to function as a ligand for T-cell immunoglobin domain and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3) expressed on terminally differentiated CD41 Th1 cells. Gal-9 modulates immune reactions, including the induction of apoptosis in Th1 cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of Gal-9 in murine models of acute GVH disease (aGVHD). First, we demonstrated that recombinant human Gal-9 inhibit MLR in a dose-dependent manner, involving both Ca21 influx and apoptosis in T cells. Next, we revealed that recombinant human Gal-9 significantly inhibit the progression of aGVHD in murine BM transplantation models. In conclusion, Gal-9 ameliorates aGVHD, possibly by inducing T-cell apoptosis, suggesting that gal-9 may be an attractive candidate for the treatment of aGVHD.

 

GVHD Prevention: An Ounce Is Better Than a Pound

Pavan Reddy, Gerard Socie, Corey Cutler, Daniel Weisdorf
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 18:S17-S26, 2012  http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.10.034

The pathophysiology of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is known to involve donor T cells responding to host histoincompatible allo-antigens presented by the host antigen presenting cells (APCs) and the subsequent induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cellular effectors that cause target organ damage. In a more general sense, GVHD can be considered as an immune response against foreign antigens that has gone awry. Similar to all immune responses, GVHD, can be understood as a process that consists of (A) triggers, (B) sensors, (C) mediators, and (D) effectors of GVHD.

Like all immune responses, certain triggers are critical for induction of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). These include: (1) Disparities between histocompatibility antigens: antigen disparity can be at the level of major histocompatibility complex (MHC), that is, MHC mismatched or at the level of minor histocompatibility antigens (miHA), that is, MHC matched but miHA mismatched. The severity of aGVHD is directly related to the degree of M HC mismatch. In bone marrow transplants (BMT) that are MHC matched but miHA disparate, donor T cells still recognize MHC-peptide derived from the products of recipient polymorphic genes, the miHAs.

Damage induced by conditioning regimens and underlying diseases: under most circumstances, the initiation of an adaptive immune response is triggered by the innate immune response. The innate immune system is triggered by certain exogenous and endogenous molecules. This is likely the case in the induction of aGVHD. Pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLR), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) play an essential role in innate immunity and in initiating the cellular signaling pathways that activate cytokine secretion, such as NF-kB. Some of their ligands, such as lipopolysaccharide, CpG, and MDP2, which is recognized by TLR-4, TLR-9, and NOD2, respectively, are released by the preparative regimens and contribute to the induction and enhancement of allo-T cell responses. In this way, the conditioning regimens amplify the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α,  IL-6, and other interferon family members in a process described as a ‘‘cytokine storm.’’

The triggers that initiate an immune response have to be sensed and presented. APCs might be considered the sensors for aGVHD. The APCs sense the DAMPs, present the MHC disparate or miHA disparate protein, and provide the critical secondary (costimulatory) and tertiary (cytokine) signals for activation of the alloreactive T cells, the mediators of aGVHD. APCs sense allo-disparity through MHC and peptide complexes. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent APCs and the primary sensors of allo-disparity.

APCs provide the critical costimulation signals for turning on the aGVHD process. The interaction between the MHC/allopeptide complex on APCs and the T cell receptor of donor T cells along with the signal via T cell costimulatory molecules and their ligands on APCs is required to achieve T cell activation, proliferation, differentiation, and survival and the in vivo blockade of positive costimulatory molecules (such as CD28, ICOS, CD40, CD30, etc.), or inhibitory signals (such as PD-1 and CTLA-4) mitigate or exacerbate aGVHD, respectively.

Evidence suggests that alloreactive donor T cells consist of several subsets with different stimuli responsiveness, activation thresholds, and effector functions.

The allo-antigen composition of the host determines which donor T cells subsets differentiate and proliferate. As mentioned previously, in the majority of HLA-matched HCT, aGVHD may be induced by either or both CD41 and CD81 subsets responses to miHAs. The repertoire and immunodominance of the GVHD-associated peptides presented by MHC class I and class II molecules has not been defined. Donor naive CD62L1 T cells are the primary alloreactive T cells that drive the GVHD reaction while the donor effector memory CD62L2 T cells do not. Interestingly, donor regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing CD62L are also critical to the regulation of GVHD. We now know that it is possible to modulate the alloreactivity of na€ıve T cells by inducing anergy with costimulation blockade, deletion via cytokine modulation, or mixed chimerism. Donor effector memory T cells that are nonalloreactive do not induce GVHD, yet are able to transfer functional memory. In contrast, memory T cells that are alloreactive can cause severe GVHD.

The effector phase that leads to GVHD target organ damage is a complex cascade that involves cytolytic cellular effectors such as CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), CD4 T cells, natural killer cells, and inflammatory molecules such as IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-ϒ, IL-6, and reactive oxygen species. The cellular effectors require cell-cell contact to kill the cells of the target tissues via activation of perforin granzyme, Fas-FasL (CD95-CD95L), or TNFR TRAIL pathways. Other CTLs killing mechanisms such as TWEAK, and LTβ/LIGHT pathways have also been implicated in GVHD. It is important to note that
CTL pathways are essential for GVL effects as well.

All of the above aspects of the biology of aGVHD have been summarized in the mold of a normal immune response. Although this allows for accessing the biology of GVHD, it is important to note that GVHD is a complicated systemic process with as yet still many unknowns and is not a simplified, linear, or cyclical process.

Kinetics of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) in ginbuna crucian carp Carassius auratus langsdorfii

Yasuhiro Shibasakia, H Todaa, Isao kobayashib, T Moritomoa, T Nakanishia
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 34 (2010) 1075–1081
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.dci.2010.05.009

We have previously demonstrated the presence of graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) in fish employing a model system of clonal triploid ginbuna and tetraploid ginbuna-goldfish hybrids. To elucidate the role of CD8+ T cells in the induction of GVHR, we investigate the kinetics of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in GVHR along with the pathological changes associated with GVH disease (GVHD) in ginbuna. GVHR was not induced with a leukocyte fraction lacking CD8+ T cells separated by magnetic cell sorting. Ploidy and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that CD4+ and CD8+  T cells from sensitized donors greatly

increased in the host trunk kidney, constituting more than 80% of total cells 1–2 weeks after donor cell injection, while those from non-sensitized donors constituted less than 50% of cells present. The increase of CD4+ T cells was greater and more rapid than that of CD8+ T cells. The number of donor CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was highest in trunk kidney followed by spleen. Increases in donor CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were also found in liver and PBL, although the percentages were not as high. Pathologic changes similar to those in human and murine acute GVHD were observed in the lymphoid organs as well as target organs such as skin, liver and intestine, including the destruction of cells and tissues and massive leukocyte infiltration. The pathologic changes became more severe with the increase of CD8+ T cells. These results suggest that donor-derived CD8+ T cells play essential roles for the induction of acute GVHR/D in teleosts as in mammals.

Fludarabine and Exposure-Targeted Busulfan Compares Favorably with Busulfan/Cyclophosphamide-Based Regimens in Pediatric Hematopoietic
Cell Transplantation: Maintaining Efficacy with Less Toxicity

I.H. Bartelink, E.M.L. van Reij, C.E. Gerhardt, E.M. van Maarseveen, et al
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 20 (2014) 345e353
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.11.027

Busulfan (Bu) is used as a myeloablative agent in conditioning regimens before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). In line with strategies explored in adults, patient outcomes may be optimized by replacing cyclophosphamide (Cy) with or without melphalan (Mel) with fludarabine (Flu). We compared outcomes in 2 consecutive cohorts of HCT recipients with a nonmalignant HCT indication, a myeloid malignancy, or a lymphoid malignancy with a contraindication for total body irradiation (TBI). Between 2009 and 2012, 64 children received Flu + Bu at a target dose of 80-95 mg-h/L, and between 2005 and 2008, 50 children received Bu targeted to 74-80 mg-h/L þ Cy. In the latter group, Mel was added for patients with myeloid malignancy (n = 12). Possible confounding effects of calendar time were studied in 69 patients receiving a myeloablative dose of TBI between 2005 and 2012. Estimated 2-year survival and event-free survival were 82% and 78%, respectively, in the FluBu arm and 78% and 72%, respectively, in the BuCy (Mel) arm (P,  not significant). Compared with the BuCy (Mel) arm, less toxicity was noted in the FluBu arm, with lower rates of acute (noninfectious) lung injury (16% versus 36%; P < .007), veno-occlusive disease (3% versus 28%; P < .003), chronic graft-versus-host disease (9% versus 26%; P < .047), adenovirus infection (3% versus 32%; P < .001), and human herpesvirus 6 infection reactivation (21% versus 44%; P < .005). Furthermore, the median duration of neutropenia was shorter in the FluBu arm (11 days versus 22 days; P < .001), and the patients in this arm required fewer transfusions. Our data indicate that Flu (160 mg/m2) with targeted myeloablative Bu (90 mg-h/L) is less toxic than and equally effective
as BuCy (Mel) in patients with similar indications for allo-HCT.

Fibrotic and Sclerotic Manifestations of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease

Carrie L. Kitko, Eric S. White, Kristin Baird
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 18:S46-S52, 2012
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.10.021

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a common cause of morbidity
and mortality following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HCT), with approximately 50% to 60% of long-term HCT survivors developing one or more manifestations of the disorder. Although acute GVHD is typically limited to skin, liver, and gastrointestinal involvement, virtually every organ is at risk for the development of cGVHD. Although the pathophysiology of cGVHD remains poorly understood, some of the most severe organ manifestations are linked by end-organ fibrosis. In particular, fibrotic cutaneous and bronchiolar changes, resulting in scleroderma-like changes and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), respectively, are two of the most devastating outcomes for these patients. Both sclerotic GVHD (ScGVHD) and BOS have been reported in 5% to 15% of patients with cGVHD.

Many of the manifestations of cGVHD share clinical characteristics seen in nontransplant conditions, including systemic sclerosis or pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, understanding the pathophysiology underlying these related conditions may help identify potential mechanisms and ultimately new therapeutic options for patients with cGVHD.

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been shown to inhibit two different profibrotic pathways (transforming growth factor β [TGF-β] and platelet-derived growth factor [PDGF]) in various mouse models of fibrotic disease and offer a possible novel treatment approach for cGVHD patients suffering from severe sclerosis. Likewise, overexpression of TNF-α has been shown to induce fibrogenesis in experimental hepatocellular disease and has been linked with human scleroderma-associated interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and profibrotic responses in human osteoarthritic hip joint fibroblasts. The use of TNF antagonists has been examined in some clinical situations associated with fibrosis, suggesting they may also be of some benefit to patients with cGVHD; however, this must first be prospectively tested.

Table. Proposed Modifications to NIH BOS Clinical Definition

  • Absence of infection (no change)
  • Another cGVHD manifestation in another organ (no change)
  • FEV1 <75% predicted (no change) or >10% decline from pre-HCT value (modification)
  • Signs of Obstruction
  • FEV1/SVC ratio <0.7 (modification), or
  • RV >120% predicted (no change), or
  • RV/TLC >120% (modification), and
  • HRCT with evidence of air trapping (no change)

SVC indicates slow vital capacity; RV, residual volume; TLC, total lung capacity; HRCT, high-resolution computed tomography

Figure (not shown)
Effect of etanercept on survival in post-HCT patients with subacute lung injury. (A) Overall 5-year survival by pulmonary function testing defect. Patients with an obstructive defect (solid line) had a 5-year survival of 67% compared with 44% in those with a restrictive lung defect (dashed line) (P 5 .19). (B) Overall 5-year survival by response to therapy. Patients who responded to etanercept therapy (solid line) had a 5-year survival of 90% compared with 55% in patients who failed to respond (dashed line) (P 5.07). (Figures reprinted with permission, Biol Blood and Marrow Trans).

Extensive, sclerotic skin changes with superficial or deep subcutaneous or fascial involvement are seen in approximately 4% to 13% of patients with cGVHD and can be a life-threatening manifestation. ScGVHD of the skin includes several cutaneous presentations characterized by inflammation and progressive fibrosis of the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. These changes can resemble morphea, systemic sclerosis, or eosinophilic fasciitis and may or may not occur in the setting of concurrent overlying epidermal GVHD. When severe, ScGVHD can result in contractures, severe wasting, and chest wall restriction.

Development of clinical trials for patients with cGVHD is difficult because of the complexity and heterogeneity of disease, variable approaches to treatment, and the lack of standardized assessments of disease. In particular, the study of ScGVHD lacks universally accepted measures of disease burden and response. Investigators have used several measures to assess ScGVHD involvement including body surface area, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, and range-of-motion measurements. Additionally, investigators have tried to apply the Rodnan score, the standardmeasure for skin involvement in scleroderma. Thus far, none of these measures has proven
to be completely reliable in the setting of ScGVHD, and it is likely that multiple measures will need to be integrated into the assessment of ScGVHD.

Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec in the US; Glivec in Europe, Australia, and Latin America, marketed by Novartis) is a TKI that has biological activity against both PDGF and TGF-β signaling pathways. Both cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several fibrosing diseases, including hepatic, renal, and lung, as well as in scleroderma, a disease that closely resembles ScGVHD. In addition, stimulatory antibodies specific for the PDGF receptor (PDGFR) were identified in a series of 39 patients with extensive cGVHD with higher levels detected in those patients with skin involvement. Similar stimulatory antibodies targeting PDGFR have been reported in patients with scleroderma, suggesting an important therapeutic target for these fibrosing conditions. Imatinib mesylate has particularly potent activity against PDGF and is FDA approved in the United States for the treatment of several disorders associated with aberrant PDGFR signaling. The side effect profile of the drug is well established in non-HCT patients, which is helpful in the setting of a therapy for allogenic HCT patients, many of whom have multiorgan system symptoms and possible dysfunction and who will require ongoing immunosuppressive therapy.

Through the efforts of the Chronic GVHD Consortium, led by Stephanie Lee at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, there is a multicenter, ongoing prospective evaluation of the NIH diagnostic and assessment tools. This effort has already resulted in several publications that have further refined essential criteria for cGVHD evaluation, including organ-specific manifestations such as BOS and ScGVHD. Currently, the Consortium is conducting a multicenter prospective clinical trial of fluticasone propionate, azithromycin, and montelukast for the treatment of BOS (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01307462); a separate trial of imatinib versus rituximab for treatment of ScGVHD is also enrolling subjects (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01309997).

Although cGVHD remains a significant problem for many long-term survivors of HCT, critical advances in cGVHD research and treatment can be achieved by cooperative group efforts such as those put forth by the Chronic GVHD Consortium and the Clinical Trials Network.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT): An approach to autoimmunity

Carmen Alaez, Mariana Loyola, Andrea Murguıa, Hilario Flores, et al.
Autoimmunity Reviews 5 (2006) 167– 179
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.autrev.2005.06.003

HSCT provides the opportunity to replace a damaged tissue. It is the most important treatment for high risk hematologic malignant and nonmalignant disorders. An important challenge in the identification of matched donors/patients is the HLA diversity. The Mexican Bone Marrow Registry (DONORMO) has nowadays N5000 donors. The prevalent alleles are Amerindian, Mediterranean (Semitic and Spanish genes) and African. In theory, it is possible to find 11% of 6/6 A–B–DR low resolution matches for 70% of patients with Mexican ancestry. We contributed with 39 unrelated, cord blood and autologous HSCT for patients with malignant, genetic and autoimmune disorders. Overall disease survival was 50% (2–7 years) depending on the initial diagnosis, conditioning, disease evolution or other factors. Clinical studies using autologous and unrelated HSC are performed on patients with refractory autoimmune diseases producing mixed results: mainly, T1D, RA, MS, SLE. Improvement has been observed in skin damage and quality of life in SLE and systemic sclerosis. Disease stabilization in 2/3 of MS patients. However, in RA and T1D, initial benefits have been followed by eventual relapse. With growing clinical experience and protocol improvement, treatment-related mortality is decreasing. Proof efficacy will be achieved by comparing HSCT with standard therapy in autoimmunity.

Monoclonal Antibody-Mediated Targeting of CD123, IL-3 Receptor α Chain, Eliminates Human Acute Myeloid Leukemic Stem Cells

Liqing Jin, Erwin M. Lee, Hayley S. Ramshaw, Samantha J. Busfield, et al.
Cell: Stem Cell 5, 31–42, July 2, 2009
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.stem.2009.04.018

Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) initiate and sustain the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) clonal hierarchy and possess biological properties rendering them resistant to conventional chemotherapy. The poor survival of AML patients raises expectations that LSC-targeted therapies might achieve durable remissions. We report that an anti-interleukin-3 (IL-3) receptor α chain (CD123)-neutralizing antibody (7G3) targeted AML-LSCs, impairing homing
to bone marrow (BM) and activating innate immunity of nonobese diabetic/ severe-combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice. 7G3 treatment profoundly reduced AML-LSC engraftment and improved mouse survival.
Mice with preestablished disease showed reduced AML burden in the BM
and periphery and impaired secondary transplantation upon treatment, establishing that AMLLSCs were directly targeted. 7G3 inhibited IL-3-mediated intracellular signaling of isolated AML CD34+ CD38[1] cells in vitro and reduced their survival. These results provide clear validation for therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting of AML-LSCs and for translation of in vivo preclinical research findings toward a clinical application.

Many Days at Home during Neutropenia after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Correlates with Low Incidence of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease

Olle Ringdén, Mats Remberger, Katarina Holmberg, Charlotta Edeskog, et al.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 19 (2013) 314e320
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.10.011

Patients are isolated in the hospital during the neutropenic phase after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We challenged this by allowing patients to be treated at home. A nurse from the unit visited and checked the patient. One hundred forty-six patients treated at home were compared with matched hospital control subjects. Oral intake was intensified from September 2006 and improved (P < .002). We compared 4 groups: home care and control subjects before and after September 2006. The cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of grades II to IV was 15% in the “old” home care group, which was significantly lower than that of 32% to 44% in the other groups (P <.03). Transplantation-related mortality, chronic GVHD, and relapse were similar in the groups. The “new” home care patients spent fewer days at home (P < .002). In multivariate analysis, GVHD of grades 0 to I was associated with home care (hazard ratio [HR], 2.46; P <.02) and with days spent at home (HR, .92; P < .005) but not with oral nutrition (HR, .98; P = .13). Five year survival was 61% in the home care group as compared with 49% in the control subjects (P < .07). Home care is safe. Home care and many days spent at home were correlated with a low risk of acute GVHD.

Impact on Outcomes of Human Leukocyte Antigen Matching by Allele-Level Typing in Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation

Jaime Sanz, Francisco J. Jaramillo, Dolores Planelles, Pau Montesinos, et al.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 20 (2014) 106e110
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.10.016

This retrospective study analyzed the impact of directional donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) disparity using allele-level typing at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 in 79 adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who received single-unit umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplant at a single institution. With extended high resolution HLA typing, the donor-recipient compatibility ranged from 2/8 to 8/8. HLA disparity showed no negative impact on nonrelapse mortality (NRM), graft-versus-host (GVH) disease or engraftment. Considering disparities in the GVH direction, the 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 44% and 22% for patients receiving an UCB unit matched > 6/8 and < 6/8, respectively (P <.04). In multivariable analysis, a higher HLA disparity in the GVH direction using extended high-resolution typing (Risk ratio [RR] 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 5.1; P ¼.0009) and first complete remission at time of transplantation (RR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.8; P < .01) were the only variables significantly associated with an improved disease-free survival. In conclusion, we found that in adults with AML undergoing single-unit UCBT, an increased number of HLA disparities at allele-level typing improved disease-free survival by decreasing the relapse rate without a negative effect on NRM.

HLA mismatch direction in cord blood transplantation: impact on outcome and implications for cord blood unit selection
Cladd E. Stevens, C Carrier, C Carpenter, D Sung, and A Scaradavou

Blood. 2011; 118(14):3969-3978
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1182/blood-2010-11-317271

Donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen mismatch level affects the outcome of unrelated cord blood (CB) transplantation. To identify possible “permissive” mismatches, we examined the relationship between  direction of human leukocyte antigen mismatch (“vector”) and transplantation outcomes in 1202 recipients of single CB units from the New York Blood Center National Cord Blood Program treated in United States Centers from 1993-2006. Altogether, 98 donor/patient pairs had only unidirectional mismatches: 58 in the graft-versus-host (GVH) direction only (GVH-O) and 40 in the host-versus-graft or rejection direction only (R-O). Engraftment was faster in patients with GVH-O mismatches compared with those with 1 bidirectional mismatch (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.6, P < .003). In addition, patients with hematologic malignancies given GVH-O grafts had lower transplantation-related mortality (HR = 0.5, P < .062), overall mortality (HR = 0.5, P < .019), and treatment failure (HR = 0.5, P < .016), resulting in outcomes similar to those of matched CB grafts. In contrast, R-O mismatches had slower engraftment, higher graft failure, and higher relapse rates (HR = 2.4, P < .010). Based on our findings, CB search algorithms should be modified to identify unidirectional mismatches. We recommend that transplant centers give priority to GVH-O-mismatched units over other mismatches and avoid selecting R-O mismatches, if possible.

Mutation of the NPM1 gene contributes to the development of donor cell–derived acute myeloid leukemia after unrelated cord blood transplantation
for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

G Rodríguez-Macías, C Martínez-Laperche, J Gayoso, V Noriega, .., Ismael Buño
Human Pathology (2013) 44, 1696–1699
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2013.01.001

Donor cell leukemia (DCL) is a rare but severe complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Its true incidence is unknown because of a lack of correct recognition and reporting, although improvements in molecular analysis of donor-host chimerism are contributing to a better diagnosis of this complication. The mechanisms of leukemogenesis are unclear, and multiple factors can contribute to the development of DCL. In recent years, cord blood has emerged as an alternative source of hematopoietic progenitor cells, and at least 12 cases of DCL have been reported after unrelated cord blood transplantation. We report a new case of DCL after unrelated cord blood transplantation in a 44-year-old woman diagnosed as having acute lymphoblastic leukemia with t(1;19) that developed acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype and nucleophosmin (NPM1) mutation in donor cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of NPM1 mutation contributing to DCL development.

Graft-versus-leukemia in the bone marrow
Blood, 23 JAN 2014; 123(4)
http://imagebank.hematology.org.

63-year-old female with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation reached CR2 after re-induction therapy followed by consolidation with donor lymphocyte infusions: 3 x 107/kg and 3 x 108/kg after 1 and 2.5 months, respectively. No signs of graft-versus-host disease were observed at this time. At 5 months follow-up, her blood count deteriorated: hemoglobin: 6.9 mmol/L, thrombocytes: 58 x 109/L and leukocytes: 1.37 x 109/L. Bone marrow aspirate was not evaluable. Bone marrow trephine biopsy showed relapse AML with hypercellularity in the H&E staining (340 objective lens, panel A) and 20% CD341 blast cells without any signs of maturation (panel B). Also, a high number of CD3 positive T cells (panel C) was noted, intermingling with the CD34 positive blasts, both staining positively with CD43 (panel D). Only supportive care was given. However, normalization of the blood count was observed in the following months and she developed graft-versus-host disease of the lung, which was treated with ciclosporin and prednisone. A bone marrow aspirate performed 3 months after relapse showed a third remission with 0.8% myeloid blasts. In retrospect, one could therefore consider the picture of the bone marrow trephine biopsy at the second relapse as graft-versus-leukemia in the bone marrow.

GVL- panel A

GVL- panel A

GVL - panel B

GVL – panel B

GVL - panel C

GVL – panel C

GVL - panel D

Long-Term Outcomes of Alemtuzumab-Based Reduced-Intensity Conditioned Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Secondary to Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Victoria T. Potter, Pramila Krishnamurthy, Linda D. Barber, ZiYi Lim, et al.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 20 (2014) 111e117
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.10.021

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) offers a potential cure for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who are ineligible for standard-intensity regimens. Previously published data from our institution suggest excellent outcomes at 1 yr using a uniform fludarabine, busulfan, and alemtuzumab-based regimen. Here we report long-term follow-up of 192 patients with MDS and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) secondary to MDS (MDS-AML) transplanted with this protocol, using sibling (n = 45) or matched unrelated (n = 147) donors. The median age of the cohort was 57 yr (range, 21 to 72 yr), and median follow-up was 4.5 yr (range, 0.1 to 10.6 yr). The 5-yr overall survival (OS), event-free survival, and nonrelapse mortality were 44%, 33%, and 26% respectively. The incidence of de novo chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was low at 19%, illustrating the efficacy of alemtuzumab for GVHD prophylaxis. Conversely, the 5-yr relapse rate was 51%. For younger patients (age <50 yr), the 5-yr OS and relapse rates were 58% and 39%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, advanced age predicted significantly worse outcomes, with patients age >60 yr having a 5-yr OS of 15% and relapse rate of 66%. Patients receiving preemptive donor lymphocyte infusions had an impressive 5-yr OS of 67%, suggesting that this protocol may lend itself to the incorporation of immunotherapeutic strategies. Overall, these data demonstrate good 5-yr OS for patients with MDS and MDS-AML undergoing alemtuzumab-based RIC-HSCT. The low rate of chronic GVHD is encouraging, and comparative studies with other RIC protocols are warranted.

Natural killer cell activity influences outcome after T cell depleted stem cell transplantation from matched unrelated and haploidentical donors

Peter Lang, Matthias Pfeiffer,  Heiko-Manuel Teltschik, Patrick Schlegel, et al.
Best Practice & Research Clinical Haematology 24 (2011) 403–411
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.beha.2011.04.009

Lytic activity and recovery of natural killer (NK) cells was monitored in pediatric patients with leukemias (ALL, AML, CML, JMML) and myelodysplastic syndromes after transplantation of T cell depleted stem cells from matched unrelated (n = 18) and mismatched related (haploidentical, n = 29) donors. CD34+ selection with magnetic microbeads resulted in 8 x 103/kg residual T cells. No post-transplant immune suppression was given. NK cells recovered rapidly after transplantation (300 CD56+/mL at day 30, median), whereas T cell recovery was delayed (median: 12 CD3+/mL at day 90). NK activity was measured as specific lysis of K 562 targets several times (mean: 3 assays per patient). Four temporal patterns of lytic activity could be differentiated: consistently low, consistently high, decreasing and increasing activity. Patients with consistently high or increasing activity had significantly lower relapse probability than patients with consistently low or decreasing levels (0.18 vs 0.73 at 2 years, p < 0.05). The subgroup of patients with ALL showed similar results (0.75 vs 0.14 at 2 years, p < 0.05). Speed of T cell recovery had no influence. These data suggest that both achieving and maintaining a high level of NK activity may contribute to prevent relapse. Since NK activity could be markedly increased by in vitro stimulation with Interleukin 2 (IL-2), in vivo administration should be considered.

Graft-versus-host disease: Pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of graft-versus-host disease

Sharon R. Hymes, Amin M. Alousi,  and Edward W. Cowen
J Am Acad Dermatol  2012; 66: 515.e1-18.

  • Graft-versus-host disease is the primary cause of morbidity and nonerelapse related mortality in patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
  • Acute graft-versus-host disease manifests as a skin exanthem, liver dysfunction, and gastrointestinal involvement.
  • Chronic graft-versus-host disease of the skin is remarkably variable in its clinical presentation.
  • Chronic graft-versus-host disease is a multisystem disorder that may affect nearly any organ; the most common sites are the skin, oral mucosa, and eyes.

Key points

  • Allogeneic transplantation is in widespread use for hematologic malignancies, but is also increasingly used for marrow failure syndromes, immunodeficiencies, and other life-threatening conditions
  • Graft-versus-host disease is the primary cause of morbidity and nonerelapse related mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
  • Minimizing graft-versus-host disease without losing the graft-versus-tumor effect is an area of active research
  • The skin is the most common organ affected in patients with graft-versus-host disease

Outcomes of Thalassemia Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation by Using a Standard Myeloablative versus a Novel Reduced-Toxicity Conditioning Regimen According to a New Risk Stratification

Usanarat Anurathapan, S Pakakasama, P Mekjaruskul, N Sirachainan, et al.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 20 (2014) 2056e2075
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.07.016

Improving outcomes among class 3 thalassemia patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) remains a challenge. Before HSCT, patients who were > 7 years old and had a liver size > 5 cm constitute what the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research defined as a very high risk subset of a conventional high-risk class 3 group (here referred to as class 3 HR). We performed HSCT in 98 patients with related and unrelated donor stem cells. Seventy-six of the patients with age < 10 years received the more conventional myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen (cyclophos-phamide, busulfan,  + fludarabine); the remaining 22 patients with age > 10 years and hepatomegaly (class 3 HR), and in several instances additional comorbidity problems, underwent HSCT with a novel reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) regimen (fludarabine and busulfan). We then compared the outcomes between these 2 groups (MAC versus RTC). Event-free survival (86% versus 90%) and overall survival (95% versus 90%) were not significantly different between the respective groups; however, there was a higher incidence of serious treatment-related complications in the MAC group, and although we experienced 6 graft failures in the MAC group (8%), there were none in the RTC group. Based on these results, we suggest that (1) class 3HRthalassemia patients can safely receive HSCT with our novel RTC regimen and achieve the same excellent outcome as low/standard-risk thalassemia patients who received the standard MAC regimen, and further, (2) that this novel RTC approach should be tested in the low/standard-risk patient population.

Pharmacological Immunosuppression Reduces But Does Not Eliminate the Need for Total-Body Irradiation in Nonmyeloablative Conditioning Regimens for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

Marco Mielcarek, Beverly Torok-Storb, Rainer Storb
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 17: 1255-1260 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.01.003

In the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-identical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) model, stable marrow engraftment can be achieved with total-body irradiation (TBI) of 200 cGy when used in combination with postgrafting immunosuppression. The TBI dose can be reduced to 100 cGy without compromising engraftment rates if granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (G-PBMC) are infused with the marrow. T cell-depleting the G-PBMC product abrogates this effect. These results were interpreted to suggest that the additional T cells provided with G-PBMC facilitated engraftment by overcoming host resistance.We therefore hypothesized that the TBI dose may be further reduced to 50 cGy by augmenting immunosupression either by (1) tolerizing or killing recipient T cells, or (2) enhancing the graft-versus-host (GVH) activity of donor T cells. To test the first hypothesis, recipient T cells were activated before HCT by repetitive donor-specific PBMC infusions followed by administration of methotrexate (MTX) (n 5 5), CTLA4-Ig (n = 4), denileukin diftitox (Ontak; n = 4), CTLA4-Ig 1 MTX (n = 8), or 5c8 antibody (anti-CD154) 1 MTX (n = 3). To test the second hypothesis, recipient dendritic cells were expanded in vivo by infusion of Flt3 ligand given either pre-HCT (n = 4) or pre- and post-HCT (n = 5) to augment GVH reactions. Although all dogs showed initial allogeneic engraftment, sustained engraftment was seen in only 6 of 42 dogs (14% of all dogs treated in 9 experimental groups). Hence, unless more innovative pharmacotherapy can be developed that more forcefully shifts the immunologic balance in favor of the donor, noncytotoxic immunosuppressive drug therapy as the sole component of HCT preparative regimens may not suffice to ensure sustained engraftment.

Pretransplant Immunosuppression followed by Reduced-Toxicity Conditioning and Stem Cell Transplantation in High-Risk Thalassemia: A Safe Approach to Disease Control

Usanarat Anurathapan, S Pakakasama, P Rujkijyanont, N Sirachainan, et al.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 19 (2013) 1254e1270
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.04.023

Patients with class 3 thalassemia with high-risk features for adverse events after high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are difficult to treat, tending to either suffer serious toxicity or fail to establish stable graft function. We performed HSCT in 18 such patients age 7 years and hepatomegaly using a novel approach with pretransplant immunosuppression followed by a myeloablative reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen (fludarabine and i.v. busulfan [Flu-IV Bu]) and then HSCT. The median patient age was 14 years (range, 10 to 18 years). Before the Flu-IV Bu þ antithymocyte globulin conditioning regimen, all patients received 1 to 2 cycles of pretransplant immunosuppression with fludarabine and dexamethasone. Thirteen patients received a related donor graft, and 5 received an unrelated donor graft. An initial prompt engraftment of donor cells with full donor chimerism was observed in all 18 patients, but 2 patients developed secondary mixed chimerism that necessitated withdrawal of immunosuppression to achieve full donor chimerism. Two patients (11%) had acute grade III-IV graft-versus-host disease, and 5 patients had limited chronic graft-versus-host disease. The only treatment-related mortality was from infection, and with a median follow-up of 42 months (range, 4 to 75), the 5-year overall survival and thalassemia-free survival were 89%. We conclude that this novel sequential immunoablative pretransplant-ation conditioning program is safe and effective for patients with high-risk class 3 thalassemia exhibiting additional comorbidities.

Profiling antibodies to class II HLA in transplant patient sera

Curtis McMurtrey, D Lowe, R Buchli, S Daga, D Royer, A Humphrey, et al.
Human Immunology 75 (2014) 261–270
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2013.11.015

Immunizing events including pregnancy, transfusions, and transplantation promote strong alloantibody responses to HLA. Such alloantibodies to HLA preclude organ transplantation, foster hyperacute rejection, and contribute to chronic transplant failure. Diagnostic antibody-screening assays detect alloreactive antibodies, yet key attributes including antibody concentration and isotype remain largely unexplored. The goal here was to provide a detailed profile of allogeneic antibodies to class II HLA. Methodologically, alloantibodies were purified from sensitized patient sera using an HLA-DR11 immunoaffinity column and subsequently categorized. Antibodies to DR11 were found to fix complement, exist at a median serum concentration of 2.3 lg/mL, consist of all isotypes, and isotypes IgG2, IgM, and IgE were elevated. Because multimeric isotypes can confound diagnostic determinations of antibody concentration, IgM and IgA isotypes were removed and DR11-IgG tested alone. Despite removal of multimeric isotypes, patient-to patient antibody concentra-tions did not correlate with MFI values. In conclusion, allogeneic antibody responses to DR11 are comprised of all antibody isotypes at differing proportions, these combined isotypes fix complement at nominal serum concentrations, and enhancements other than the removal of IgM and IgA multimeric isotypes may be required if MFI is to be used as a means of determining anti-HLA serum antibody concentrations in diagnostic clinical assays.

Reduced-intensity conditioning and HLA-matched hemopoietic stem-cell transplantation in patients with chronic granulomatous disease: a prospective multicenter study

Tayfun Güngör, P Teira, M Slatter, G Stussi, P Stepensky, D Moshous, et al.
Lancet 2014; 383: 436–48
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62069-3

Background In chronic granulomatous disease allogeneic hemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) in adolescents and young adults and patients with high-risk disease is complicated by graft-failure, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and transplant-related mortality. We examined the effect of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen designed to enhance myeloid engraftment and reduce organ toxicity in these patients.       Methods This prospective study was done at 16 centers in ten countries worldwide. Patients aged 0–40 years with chronic granulomatous disease were assessed and enrolled at the discretion of individual centers. Reduced-intensity conditioning consisted of high-dose fludarabine (30 mg/m² [infants <9 kg 1∙2 mg/kg]; one dose per day on days –8 to –3), serotherapy (anti-thymocyte globulin [10 mg/kg, one dose per day on days –4 to –1; or thymoglobulin 2·5 mg/kg, one dose per day on days –5 to –3]; or low-dose alemtuzumab [<1 mg/kg on days –8 to –6]), and low-dose (50–72% of myeloablative dose) or targeted busulfan administration (recommended cumulative area under the curve: 45–65 mg/L × h). Busulfan was administered mainly intravenously and exceptionally orally from days –5 to –3. Intravenous busulfan was dosed according to weight-based recommendations and was administered in most centers (ten) twice daily over 4 h. Unmanipulated bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells from HLA-matched related donors or HLA-9/10 or HLA-10/10 matched unrelated-donors were infused. The primary endpoints were overall survival and event-free survival (EFS), probabilities of overall survival and EFS at 2 years, incidence of acute and chronic GVHD, achievement of at least 90% myeloid donor chimerism, and incidence of graft failure after at least 6 months of follow-up. Findings 56 patients (median age 12∙7 years; IQR 6·8–17·3) with chronic granulomatous disease were enrolled from June 15, 2003, to Dec 15, 2012. 42 patients (75%) had high-risk features (ie, intractable infections and autoinflammation), 25 (45%) were adolescents and young adults (age 14–39 years). 21 HLA-matched related-donor and 35 HLA-matched unrelated-donor transplants were done. Median time to engraftment was 19 days (IQR 16–22) for neutrophils and 21 days (IQR 16–25) for platelets. At median follow-up of 21 months (IQR 13–35) overall survival was 93% (52 of 56) and EFS was 89% (50 of 56). The 2-year probability of overall survival was 96% (95% CI 86∙46–99∙09) and of EFS was 91% (79∙78–96∙17). Graft-failure occurred in 5% (three of 56) of patients. The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD of grade III–IV was 4% (two of 56) and of chronic graft-versus-host disease was 7% (four of 56). Stable (≥90%) myeloid donor chimerism was documented in 52 (93%) surviving patients. Interpretation This reduced-intensity conditioning regimen is safe and efficacious in high-risk patients with chronic granulomatous disease.

Refinement of the Definition of Permissible HLA-DPB1 Mismatches with Predicted Indirectly ReCognizable HLA-DPB1 Epitopes

Kirsten A. Thus, MTA Ruizendaal, TA de Hoop, Eric Borst, et al.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 20 (2014) 1705e1710
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.06.026

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with HLA-DPB1emismatched donors leads to an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Studies have indicated a prognostic value for classifying HLA-DPB1 mismatches based on T cell epitope (TCE) groups. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of indirect recognition of HLA-DPe derived epitopes, as determined with the Predicted Indirectly ReCognizable HLA Epitopes (PIRCHE) method. We therefore conducted a retrospective single-center analysis on 80 patients transplanted with a 10/10 matched unrelated donor that was HLA-DPB1 mismatched. HLADPB1 mismatches that were classified as GVH nonpermissive by the TCE algorithm correlated to higher numbers of HLA class I as well as HLA class II presented PIRCHE (PIRCHE-I and -II) compared with permissive or host-versus-graft nonpermissive mismatches. Patients with acute GVHD grades II to IV presented significantly higher numbers of PIRCHE-I compared with patients without acute GVHD (P < .05). Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of PIRCHE. Patients with PIRCHE-I or -II have an increased hazard of acute GVHD when compared with patients without PIRCHE-I or -II (hazard ratio [HR], 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 9.19; P <.05; and HR, 4.07; 95% CI, .97 to 17.19; P < .06, respectively). Patients classified as having an HLA-DPB1 permissive mismatch by the TCE model had an increased risk of acute GVHD when comparing presence of PIRCHE-I with absence of PIRCHE-I (HR, 2.96; 95% CI, .84 to 10.39; P < .09). We therefore conclude that the data presented in this study describe an attractive and feasible possibility to better select permissible HLA-DPB1 mismatches by including both a direct and an indirect recognition model.

Treosulfan-Thiotepa-FludarabineeBased Conditioning Regimen for
Allogeneic Transplantation in Patients with Thalassemia Major: A
Single-Center Experience from North India

Dharma Choudhary, SK Sharma, N Gupta,…, Satyendra Katewa
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 19 (2013) 492e503
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.11.007

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the definite treatment
for patients with thalassemia major. A busulfan (Bu) and cyclophosphamide
(Cy)ebased regimen has been the standard myeloablative chemotherapy,
but it is associated with higher treatment-related toxicity, particularly in
patients classified as high risk by the Pesaro criteria. Treosulfan-based
conditioning regimens have been found to be equally effective and less
toxic. Consequently, we analyzed the safety and efficacy of treosulfan/
thiotepa/fludarabine (treo/thio/flu)-based conditioning regimens for
allogeneic HSCT in patients with thalassemia major between February
2010 and September 2012. We compared those results retrospectively
with results in patients who underwent previous HSCT with a Bu/Cy/
antithymocyte globulin (ATG)ebased conditioning regimen. A treo/thio/
flu-based conditioning regimen was used in 28 consecutive patients with
thalassemia major. The median patient age was 9.7 years (range, 2-18
years), and the mean CD34+ stem cell dose was 6.18 x 106/kg. Neutrophil
and platelet engraftment occurred at a median of 15 days (range, 12-23
days) and 21 days (range, 14-34 days), respectively. Three patients
developed veno-occlusive disease, 4 patients developed acute graft
versus-host disease (GVHD), and 2 patients had chronic GVHD. Treatment-
related mortality (TRM) was 21.4%. Two patients experienced secondary
graft rejection. We compared these results with results in patients who
underwent previous HSCT using a Bu/Cy/ATG-based conditioning regimen.
Twelve patients were treated with this protocol, at a median age of 7.2
years (range, 2-11 years). One patient had moderate veno-occlusive disease,
2 patients developed acute GVHD, 2 patients had chronic GVHD, and 2
patients experienced graft rejection. There was no TRM in this group. We
found no significant differences between the 2 groups (treo/thio/flu vs Bu/
Cy/ATG) in terms of the incidence of acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, TRM,
and graft failure, although a trend toward higher TRM was seen with the
treo/thio/flu regimen.

Graft-versus-Host Disease
James L.M. Ferrara, John E. Levine, Pavan Reddy, and Ernst Holler
Lancet. 2009 May 2; 373(9674): 1550–1561
http:dx.doi.org:/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60237-3

The number of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCT)
continues to increase with more than 25,000 allogeneic transplantations
performed annually. The graft-versus leukemia/ tumor (GVL) effect during
allogeneic HCT effectively eradicates many hematological malignancies.
The development of novel strategies that use donor leukocyte infusions,
non-myeloablative conditioning and umbilical cord blood (UCB)
transplantation have helped expand the indications for allogeneic HCT
over the last several years, especially among older patients. Improvements
in infectious prophylaxis, immunosuppressive medications, supportive care
and DNA-based tissue typing have also contributed to improved outcomes
after allogeneic HCT. Yet the major complication of allogeneic HCT, graft-
versus-host disease (GVHD), remains lethal and limits the use of this
important therapy. Given current trends, the number of transplants from
unrelated donors is expected to double within the next five years,
significantly increasing the population of patients with GVHD. In this
seminar we review advances made in identifying the genetic risk
factors and pathophysiology of this major HCT complication, as well
as its prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

Non-HLA Genetics—Despite HLA identity between a patient and donor,
approximately 40% of patients receiving HLA-identical grafts develop
acute GVHD due to genetic differences that lie outside the HLA loci,
or “minor” histocompatibility antigens (HA). Some minor HAs, such as HY
and HA-3, are expressed on all tissues and are targets for both GVHD
and GVL. Other minor HAs, such as HA-1 and HA-2, are expressed most
abundantly on hematopoietic cells (including leukemic cells) and may
therefore induce a greater GVL effect with less GVHD. Polymorphisms
in both donors and recipients for cytokines that are involved in the
classical `cytokine storm’ of GVHD have been implicated as risk factors
for GVHD. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α, Interleukin 10 (IL-10),
Interferon-γ (IFNγ) variants have correlated with GVHD in some, but
not all, studies. Genetic polymorphisms of proteins involved in innate
immunity, such as nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 and Keratin 18
receptors, have also been associated with GVHD.

Future strategies to identify the best possible transplant donor will
probably incorporate both HLA and non-HLA genetic factors. Skin is most
commonly affected and is usually the first organ involved, often coinciding
with engraftment of donor cells. The characteristic maculopapular rash is
pruritic and can spread throughout the body, sparing the scalp. In severe
cases the skin may blister and ulcerate. Apoptosis at the base of epidermal
rete pegs is a characteristic pathologic finding. Other features include
dyskeratosis, exocytosis of lymphocytes, satellite lymphocytes adjacent
to dyskeratotic epidermal keratinocytes, and a perivascular lymphocytic
infiltration in the dermis.

Gastrointestinal tract involvement of acute GVHD usually presents as
diarrhea but may also include vomiting, anorexia, and/or abdominal pain
when severe. The diarrhea of GVHD is secretory and often voluminous
(greater than two liters per day). Bleeding, which carries a poor prognosis,
occurs as a result of mucosal ulceration but patchy involvement of the
mucosa often leads to a normal appearance on endoscopy.

The incidence of the severity of acute GVHD is determined by the extent
of involvement of  three principal target organs. The overall grades are
classified as I (mild), II (moderate), III (severe) and IV (very severe). Severe
GVHD carries a poor prognosis, with 25% long term survival for grade III and
5% for grade IV. The incidence of acute GVHD is directly related to the
degree of mismatch between HLA proteins and ranges from 35-45% in
recipients of full matched sibling donor grafts to 60-80% in recipients of
one-antigen HLA mismatched unrelated donor grafts. The same degree
of mismatch causes less GVHD using UCB grafts and incidence of acute
GVHD is lower following the transplant of partially matched UCB units
and ranges from 35-65%.

Two important principles are important to consider regarding the
pathophysiology of acute GVHD. First, acute GVHD reflects exaggerated
but normal inflammatory mechanisms mediated by donor lymphocytes infused
into the recipient where they function appropriately, given the foreign
environment they encounter. Second, the recipient tissues that stimulate
donor lymphocytes have usually been damaged by underlying disease,
prior infections, and the transplant conditioning regimen. As
a result, these tissues produce molecules (sometimes referred to as
“danger” signals) that promote the activation and proliferation of donor
immune cells.  Based largely on experimental models, the development
of acute GVHD can be conceptualized in three sequential steps or phases:
(1) activation of the APCs; (2) donor T cell activation, proliferation,
differentiation and migration; and (3) target tissue destruction.

Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds CD52, a protein
expressed on a broad spectrum of leukocytes including lymphocytes,
monocytes, and dendritic cells. Its use in GVHD prophylaxis in a
Phase II trial decreased the incidence of acute and chronic GVHD
following reduced intensity transplant.98 In two prospective studies,
patients who received alemtuzumab rather than methotrexate showed
significantly lower rates of acute and chronic GVHD, but experienced
more infectious complications and higher rates of relapse, so that there
was no overall survival benefit. Alemtuzumab may also contribute to
graft failure when used with minimal intensity conditioning regimens.

An alternative strategy to TCD attempted to induce anergy in donor
T cells by ex vivo antibody blockade of co-stimulatory pathways prior
to transplantation. A small study using this approach in haploidentical
HCT recipients was quite encouraging, but has not yet been replicated.
Thus the focus of most prevention strategies remains  pharmacological
manipulation of T cells after transplant.

Administration of anti-T cell antibodies in vivo as GVHD prophylaxis
has also been extensively tested. The best studied drugs are anti-
thymocyte globulin (ATG) or antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) preparations.
These sera, which have high titers of polyclonal antibodies, are made
by immunizing animals (horses or rabbits) to thymocytes or lymphocytes,
respectively. A complicating factor in determining the role of these
polyclonal sera in transplantation is the observation that even different
brands of the same class of sera exert different biologic effects. However,
the side effects of ATG/ALG infusions are common across different
preparations and include fever, chills, headache, thrombocytopenia
(from cross-reactivity to platelets), and, infrequently, anaphylaxis. In
retrospective studies, rabbit ATG reduced the incidence of GVHD in
related donor HSCT recipients without appearing to improve survival.
In recipients of unrelated donor HSCT, addition of ALG to standard
GVHD prophylaxis effectively prevented severe GVHD, but did not
result in improved survival because of increased infections. In a long
term follow-up study, however, pretransplant ATG provided significant
protection against extensive chronic GVHD and chronic lung dysfunction.

As allogeneic transplantation becomes an increasingly attractive therapeutic
option, the need for novel approaches to GVHD has accelerated. The
number of patients receiving transplants from unrelated donors is
expected to double in the next five years, significantly increasing
the population of patients with GVHD. The advent of RIC regimens
has reduced transplant-related mortality and lengthened the period
during which acute GVHD may develop (many new cases present up
to day 200) and the need for close monitoring of patients in this period
has increased. Patients have often returned to the care of their primary
hematologists by this time, increasing the need for these physicians to
collaborate with transplant specialists in the management of GVHD and
its complications.

Identification of biomarkers for GVHD with diagnostic (and possibly
prognostic) significance may eventually make the treatment of GVHD
preemptive rather than prophylactic. The use of cellular component therapy,
such as regulatory T cells that have been expanded ex vivo. will also
enter clinical trials in the near future, but the extensive infrastructure
required for such cellular approaches will likely limit their use initially.

Immunomodulatory Effects of Palifermin (Recombinant Human
Keratinocyte Growth Factor) in 
an SLE-Like Model of Chronic
Graft-Versus-Host Disease

C. A. Ellison, Y. V. Lissitsyn, I. Gheorghiu & J. G. Gartner
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 2011; 75, 69–76
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1111/j.1365-3083.2011.02628.x

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) promotes epithelial cell proliferation
and survival. Recombinant human KGF, also known as palifermin, protects
epithelial cells from injury induced by chemicals, irradiation and acute murine
graft versus-host disease (GVHD). Findings from our studies and others
have shown that palifermin also has immunomodulatory properties. In a
model of acute GVHD, we showed that it shifts the immune response
from one in which Th1 cytokines dominate to mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine
profile. Using the DBA⁄ 2 fi (C57BL ⁄ 6 · DBA⁄ 2)F1-hybrid model of chronic,
systemic lupus erythematosus-like GVHD, we showed that palifermin
treatment is associated with higher levels of Th2 cytokines, the production
of anti-nuclear antibodies, cryoglobulinemia and the development of more
severe pathological changes in the kidney. The aim of our current study
was to gain a better understanding of the immunobiology of KGF by
further characterizing the palifermin-mediated effects in this model of
chronic GVHD. Because the pathological changes we observed resemble
those seen in thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) transgenic mice, we
had originally hypothesized that palifermin might augment TSLP levels.
Surprisingly, we did not observe an increase in thymic

TSLP mRNA expression in palifermin-treated recipients. We did, however,
observe some differences in the percentages of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+
regulatory T cells in the spleen at some time points in palifermin-treated
recipients. Most importantly, we found that TGFβ levels were higher in
palifermin-treated recipients early in the GVH reaction, raising the
possibility that KGF might indirectly induce the development of fibrosis
and glomerulonephritis through a pathway involving TGFβ.

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is an epithelial cell growth factor that is
produced by both mesenchymal cells and intraepithelial cdT cells. It is
also known as fibroblast growth factor 7. Its receptor, (KGFR⁄FGF7R), an
alternatively spliced form of FGFR2 ⁄ bek, is found on epithelial cells in
the intestine, mammary glands, ovaries and urinary tract, and on
hepatocytes, keratinocytes and alveolar type II cells. Previously, it
was shown that recombinant human KGF, also known as palifermin,
can protect the lung, bladder or intestine from chemical- or irradiation-
induced injury. This has been attributed to the ability of KGF to reduce
oxidative damage and enhance DNA repair.

Our own studies have provided a better understanding of the immuno-
biological properties of KGF in pathologically distinct models of systemic
disease driven by intense immunological and inflammatory responses.
The acute GVHD that develops in the C57BL ⁄ 6 fi (C57BL ⁄ 6 · DBA⁄ 2)F1-
hybrid model is characterized by the activation of alloreactive donor T cells,
the production of Th1 cytokines and tissue injury in the skin, gastrointestinal
tract, liver, thymus and lung, where epithelia are present. Injury to the
intestinal mucosa permits the translocation of endotoxin into the system,
which, if untreated, leads to the development of endotoxemic shock. We
showed that palifermin treatment protects recipients from epithelial
cell injury, endotoxemia and morbidity in GVH mice. Palifermin also
shifts the immune response away from one that is predominated by Th1
cytokines towards a profile of mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokines, with a
preponderance of Th2 cytokines. The DBA⁄ 2 fi (C57BL ⁄ 6 · DBA⁄ 2)F1-
hybrid model of chronic GVHD is characterized by pathological changes
resembling those seen in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Using this
model, we showed that palifermin treatment augments the production of Th2
cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and obviates IFN-c production. Both
untreated and palifermin-treated recipients developed pathological changes
in the kidney, but these changes were more severe in palifermin-treated
recipients. Some of the changes that developed in the palifermin-treated
recipients resemble those seen in thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)
transgenic mice. These similarities include the presence of ANA in the
sera, the development of cryoglobulinemia and the development of
glomerulonephritis featuring the deposition of immune complexes
consisting of IgG, IgA, IgM and C3 in the mesangium and the glomerular
capillaries. This led us to hypothesize that treating the recipient mice with
palifermin might induce TSLP expression in this model.

In this study, we were interested in determining whether palifermin
treatment was indeed associated with increased TSLP expression.
We were also interested in knowing whether palifermin treatment
changes the percentage of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ cells in the spleen,
because palifermin treatment has been associated with increased
percentages of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ cells in other studies including
our own. Lastly, we wished to study the effect of palifermin treatment
on TGFb levels, because this cytokine is known to play a pivotal role
in the development of glomerulonephritis.

We studied the histopathological changes to confirm that the pathological
changes seen in the kidney in this study were the same as those reported
by us previously.We examined kidney sections from both untreated and
palifermin-treated recipients. In these experiments, we were able to
reproduce findings from an earlier study that showed that palifermin-
treated recipients mice in this model of chronic GVHD develop a severe,
extracapillary proliferative glomerular nephritis characterized by epithelial
crescents and hyaline thrombi. These changes were associated with higher
levels of protein in the urine and the development of ascites, presumably
related to the development of nephrotic syndrome, as a consequence
of glomerular injury.

Pathological changes in the kidney

Pathological changes in the kidney. (A) shows a section from a BDF1-hybrid control
mouse that did not receive a graft. (B) shows increased epithelial cellularity within a
glomerulus from an untreated recipient with chronic graft-versus-host disease, on
day 50. No crescents were observed in sections from this group of recipients.
(C and D) show examples of pathological changes observed in kidneys from
palifermin-treated recipients on day 50. Arrows indicate examples of crescentic
glomerulonephritis and the development of protein casts within tubular lumena.
(E and F) show examples of the hyaline thrombi (arrows) seen in the glomeruli
in kidney sections from palifermin-treated recipients on day 50. All sections
were stained with haematoxylin and eosin except for that shown in (F), which
was stained with Masson Trichrome. The concentration of protein measured in
the urine is shown in the lower left corner of each photomicrograph. Original
magnification: ·200 (B–E) and ·400 (A and F).

TGFβ is a highly pleiotropic cytokine with three isoforms, TGFβ1, TGFβ2 and
TGFβ3 . Nearly, all cells have receptors for at least one of these isoforms,
but cells of the immune system primarily express TGFβ1. This cytokine
was implicated in the development of experimental glomerulonephritis in
experiments in which rats were treated with antiserum directed against
TGFβ1. The ability of palifermin to induce TGFβ release and reverse
limited airflow was demonstrated in a mouse model of emphysema. The
authors further showed that palifermin induced the release of TGFβ1
from primary cultures of mouse alveolar type 2 cells. Our results show
that palifermin treatment is associated with a rise in splenic TGFβ levels
during the first month of the GVH reaction. It is possible that by inducing
TGFβ production shortly after transplantation, palifermin treatment is able
to promote the development of the severe, crescentic glomerulonephritis
that we observed at later time points. As such, our findings raise the
possibility that endogenous KGF might play a role in the development
of glomerulonephritis and ⁄ or other autoimmune phenomena associated
with chronic GVHD and ⁄ or SLE.

T cells, murine chronic graft-versus-host disease and autoimmunity

Robert A. Eisenberg, Charles S. Via
Journal of Autoimmunity 39 (2012) 240e247
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.jaut.2012.05.017

The chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) in mice is characterized by
the production of autoantibodies and immunopathology characteristic of
systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus). The basic pathogenesis involves
the cognate recognition of foreign MHC class II of host B cells by alloreactive
CD4 T cells from the donor. CD4 T cells of the host are also necessary for
the full maturation of host B cells before the transfer of donor T cells.
CD8 T cells play critical roles as well. Donor CD8 T cells that are highly
cytotoxic can ablate or prevent the lupus syndrome, in part by killing
recipient B cells. Host CD8 T cells can reciprocally downregulate donor
CD8 T cells, and thus prevent them from suppressing the autoimmune
process. Thus, when the donor inoculum contains both CD4 T cells and
CD8 T cells, the resultant syndrome depends on the balance of activities
of these various cell populations. For example, in one cGVHD model
(DBA/2 (C57BL/6xDBA/2)F1, the disease is more severe in females, as
it is in several of the spontaneous mouse models of lupus, as well as in
human disease. The mechanism of this female skewing of disease
appears to depend on the relative inability of CD8 cells of the female host
to downregulate the donor CD4 T cells that drive the autoantibody response.
In general, then, the abnormal CD4 T cell help and the modulating roles
of CD8 T cells seen in cGVHD parallel the participation of T cells in
genetic lupus in mice and human lupus, although these spontaneous
syndromes are presumably not driven by overt alloreactivity.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by a spectrum of auto-
antibodies that targets multiple normal cellular components, particularly
nucleic acids or proteins that are physiologically bound to nucleic acids.
Although SLE is highly diverse in its manifestations, a common theme
is the loss of B cell tolerance to these cellular autoantigens. More than
for any other human condition, several spontaneously arising mouse
models for SLE have been described, beginning with the New Zealand
strains in 1959. These models are largely genetic. In some cases, an
individual gene such as fas or Yaa plays a major role in driving the loss
of tolerance. However, in general the genetic contribution is complex and
involves multiple loci, which are not yet fully defined.

Despite extensive investigations, the failures in immunoregulation that
underlie the genetic SLE models remain poorly understood. It is not known
for sure which B cell tolerance checkpoints are breached in a given model,
and why. The autoantibody response to DNA, Sm, and other autoantigens
resembles the normal response to exogenous antigens: it involves clonal
expansion, somatic mutation, and a pattern of isotype use characteristic of
a T-cell dependent immunization. Thus the cellular dynamics of the response
may be basically normal. Yet the B-cell repertoire is abnormally autoreactive.

In this review we wish to focus more on the role of the T cell in SLE. As
stated above, the loss of B cell tolerance in SLE does appear in general
to require the participation of T cells. Multiple T cells abnormalities have
been described in human and in murine SLE, although in most cases it is
not clear if these are primary or secondary manifestations. Nevertheless,
it is striking how difficult it has been to demonstrate definitively the specificity
of the T cells that provide help for autoantibody production.

The key cellular mechanism in the cGVHD that results in the loss of B cell
tolerance and the production of the autoantibodies typical of SLE is the
cognate interaction of CD4 T cells with an MHC class II determinant on
the B cell surface. A variety of protocols have achieved this interaction.
In general, either the donor/recipient strains are paired in such away
that they only differ at the MHC class II loci, or the CD4 cells are isolated
free of CD8 cells that would recognize MHC class I. If the allorecognition
involves both CD4 T cell interaction with MHC II and CD8 interaction with
MHC I, an acute GVHD occurs, which is immunosuppressive, rather than
immunostimulatory. The DBA/2 (C57BL/6 DBA/2)F1 (B6D2F1) and the
BALB/c (BALB/c A/J)F1 models are exceptions to this rule. The former
has been investigated extensively for a deficiency in CD8 cytotoxic
lymphocytes.

The MHC class II recognition may be at either the I-A or the I-E locus.
However, the autoantibody specificities seen and the degree of immuno-
pathology differ depending on the locus targeted. In one set of experiments,
F1 mice were bred between either B6 or coisogenic bm12 mice and
B10.A(2R) or B10.A(4R) MHC recombinant congenics. The MHC class II
of B6 is I-Ab, while that of bm12 is I-Abm12. These two alleles differ by
only three amino acids, which is sufficient for a full strength MLR (mixed
lymphocyte reaction) between the two strains. Otherwise B6 and bm12
are identical. B10.A(2R) and B10.A(4R) differ only by the expression of
I-E in the former strain, but not in the latter strain. Thus, donor/recipient
combinations could be employed that provided for allogeneic differs only
at I-A, only at I-E, or at both loci.

Results from Busser et al. delineate requirements for this MHC class II
recognition. Utilizing several transgenic mouse strains that express a
more or less constricted CD4 autoreactive repertoire, they showed that
a diverse repertoire was essential to the production of SLE autoantibodies
by MHC II recognition. On the other hand, the non-specific, early polyclonal
B cell activation phase of cGVHD occurred even with a limited CD4 repertoire.

Figure not shown. Chronic GVHD in bm12 C57BL/6 mice. The MHC of the
bm12 donor differs from the MHC of the C57BL/6 recipient just in three
amino acids in the I-A class II molecule. Thus donor CD4 T cells recognize
MHC IIþ B cells as foreign. Donor CD8 T cells see only self MHC I. All T
cells do not express MHC II. Polyclonal activation and specific lupus
autoantibody responses ensue..

Lupus can result from unchecked CD4 T cell cognate help to a polyclonal
population of B cells. CD8 T cells can downregulate this CD4 driven B-cell
hyperactivity through CD8 CTL effectors and can maintain remission,
possibly through memory CD8 T cells. Whether CD8 CTL actually prevent
lupus in normals and fail in lupus prone individuals is not known; however,
data from the P F1 model suggest that therapeutic induction of CD8 CTL
and possibly long term memory cells may be beneficial in preventing or
limiting disease expression. The potential major role played by either
IFNa and IL-21 in both lupus expression and CD8 CTL function remains
to be further defined, but already these cytokines are being targeted in
human or murine lupus.

It is not surprising that the T cells have been shown to have diverse roles in
the autoimmune cGVHD in mice. Donor CD4 T cells drive the host B cell
activation, while host CD4 T cells are required to mature these B cells prior
to their encounter with donor T cells. Donor CD4 T cells also help activate
donor CD8 T cells, which in turn can downregulate or even ablate the
autoimmune response. Donor CD4 T cells license host DC cells, which in
turn can interact with donor CD8 T cells. Host CD8 T cells can suppress
the activity of donor CD8 T cells, and thereby favor the development of
the lupus syndrome. Although the precise mechanisms of T cell participation
in spontaneous lupus are still being defined, it seems reasonable to probe
these syndromes in humans and in mice for T cell mechanism that have
been shown to participate in cGVHD, CD4-B cell interactions almost
certainly are central to the pathogenesis of spontaneous lupus, and they
have been a target of investigation for several decades. If we understood
the peptide specificity of the alloreactive CD4 T cells that drive the formation
of the characteristic lupus autoantibodies, we would have a much clearer
idea where to look for such epitopes in spontaneous disease. Much less
is known about the other T cell activities defined in cGVHD, particularly
those that involve CD8 T cells. This area should invite further detailed
investigation. For example, the striking role of CD8 T cells in the stronger
female disease in the DBA BDF1 model clearly demands that similar
mechanisms be sought for in spontaneous disease.

Understanding Chronic GVHD from Different Angles

Bruce Blazar, Eric S. White, Daniel Couriel
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 18:S184-S188, 2012
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.10.025

Whereas acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) rates have decreased
with more intensive GVHD preventive agents and use of single and double
umbilical cord blood units as a source of donor cells in adult recipients,
significant chronic GVHD (cGVHD) rates unexpectedly have remained high.
Moreover, granulocyte colony stimulating factor mobilized peripheral blood
stem cell grafts have been associated with an increased overall risk of
cGVHD. As such, cGVHD has emerged as a primary cause of morbidity
and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Progress in developing cGVHD interventional strategies has been hampered
by variable onset and clinical and pathological manifestations of cGVHD, now
better defined by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus conference,
and a dearth of preclinical models that closely mimic the conditions in which
cGVHD is generated and manifested. Although the exact causes of cGVHD
remain unknown, higher antibody levels have been associated with auto-
immunity and implicated in cGVHD. Newly diagnosed patients with
extensive cGVHD had elevated soluble B cell activating factor levels and
anti-double-strand DNA antibodies were found, which was associated with
higher circulating levels of pregerminal center (GC) B cells and post-GC
plasmablasts. B cells from cGVHD patients were hyperresponsive to Toll-like
receptor-9 signaling and have up-regulated CD86 levels.

By using a Cy and low doses of donor T cells, aGVHD was avoided and
cGVHD with BO favored. Histologic changes were similar to the findings in
human cGVHD with peribronchiolar and perivascular cuffing and infiltration
of the airway epithelium. The liver had inflammation and lymphocytic
infiltration, along with collagen deposition. The parotid and submandibular
salivary glands displayed lymphocytic infiltrates in both the bone marrow
and cGVHD groups, likely because of transplantation conditioning.

Treatment of steroid refractory cGVHD patients with rituximab, a B cell–
depleting anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has shown a beneficial role in
resolution of the autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythmatosus
and rheumatoid arthritis, andcGVHD, with overall response rates of 29%
to 36% for oral, hepatic, gastrointestinal, and lung cGVHD, and 60% for
cutaneous cGVHD in aggregate data from multiple trials. Thus, we recently
undertook studies to identify the presence of CD41 T helper cells and B2201
B cells in the airways of mice that had BO, tissue-specific antibodies from sera,
and alloantibody deposition in the lung and liver of cGVHD recipients. cGVHD
development was associated with IgG2c deposition in the lung and liver,
abrogated if the donor bone marrow was deficient in mature B cells or
incapable of producing antihost reactive IgG. Robust GC formation was
seen in mice with cGVHD. Alleviation of symptoms in mice that received
B cell–deficient bone marrow confirms the requirement of B cells for lung
dysfunction and inflammation and fibrosis in the lung and liver.

Given a role for IgG antibodies, allo- or auto-Ab binding to the cGVHD organs
could enable tissue destruction or the pathology could be defined by the
specific function of these secreted antibodies. Pathogenic antibody production
therefore is likely to be an important inducer of cGVHD, and targeting this
specific function of the B cells is an attractive strategy for cGVHD. Because
GC B cells display lower susceptibility to rituximab-mediated clearance, probably
because they reside in a nonoptimal environment for antibody-based depletion,
our observation that GC B cells are critical to the development of cGVHD
suggests that agents that are more effective at disrupting the GC might be
more clinically useful. Treatment with LTbR-Ig, a fusion protein that blocks
interactions between LTbR and its ligands, had a direct effect on the
symptoms of cGVHD, at least in part by blocking GC formation and suggest
that LTbR-Ig could be a potential clinical interventional strategy for prevention
and therapy of cGVHD.

Fibrosis is the end result of a number of inflammatory and other injurious events,
resulting in replacement of normal tissue with a dense extracellular matrix (ECM)
scar composed primarily of collagens. While some degree of tissue fibrosis is
considered protective (e.g. in the setting of cutaneous wound healing),
exaggerated or unrelenting ECM deposition with replacement of the normal
tissue architecture is considered pathologic. Fibroproliferative disorders as
a class involving multiple organs (e.g. cGVHD following hematopoietic stem
cell transplant [affecting up to 30% of recipients surviving more than 100 days,
scleroderma [estimated to affect 70,000 in the US], idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
[estimated to affect 200,000 in the US], hepatic cirrhosis [estimated to affect
up to 400,000 in the US], and renal fibrosis due to diabetic nephropathy and
other causes [estimated to affect over 400,000 in the US]) are a major cause
of morbidity and mortality. Combined, these disorders alone are conservatively
estimated to affect approximately 1 in 300 persons in the United States. When
coupled with a host of other disorders in which tissue fibrosis contributes to
morbidity (e.g. fibroproliferative acute respiratory distress syndrome,
hypersensitivity pneumonitis, solid organ transplant rejection), that estimate
is likely to be much greater.

Wound healing occurs by a highly orchestrated, complex process that has
been well defined. In general, wound repair occurs in 4 stages which overlap
considerably: clotting/coagulation, inflammation, fibroproliferation, and tissue
remodeling. The initial injury leads to a local disruption of epithelial and
endothelial barriers resulting in the elaboration of inflammatory mediators and
extravasation of cells and plasma proteins that serve to achieve hemostasis
and provide a provisional fibrin-rich matrix for the influx of inflammatory and
other reparative cells. Simultaneously, platelet degranulation provides a local
“boost” of vasodilators, growth factors, and ECM proteins that aid in the wound
healing response. Inflammatory cell influx occurs next, with polymorphonuclear
leukocytes (PMNs) arriving first. Following PMN degranulation, mononuclear
cells (macrophages and lymphocytes) arrive next and, along with PMN derived
products, sterilize and remove foreign materials from the wound. This process
also results in the elaboration of cytokines and chemokines designed to
augment the inflammatory response, to promote angiogenesis (allowing for
enhanced nutrient and oxygen delivery to the wound bed), and to recruit
fibroblasts to the wound bed. Fibroblast recruitment and transdifferentiation to
myofibroblasts (or recruitment of already-differentiated myofibroblasts or
fibroblast precursors; this point is still controversial) marks the fibroproliferative
stage, with the result being the elaboration of ECM proteins (collagens,
fibronectins) to repair the tissue defect.

Vorinostat plus tacrolimus and mycophenolate to prevent graft-versus-host
disease after related-donor reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic
hemopoietic 
stem-cell transplantation: a phase 1/2 trial

Sung Won Choi, T Braun, L Chang, JLM Ferrara, A Pawarode, et al.
Lancet Oncol 2014; 15: 87–95
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70512-6

Background Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a barrier to more
widespread application of allogeneic hemopoietic stem-cell transplantation.
Vorinostat is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases and was shown to attenuate
GVHD in preclinical models. We aimed to study the safety and activity of
vorinostat, in combination with standard immunoprophylaxis, for prevention of
GVHD in patients undergoing related-donor reduced-intensity conditioning
hemopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Methods Between March 31, 2009,
and Feb 8, 2013, we did a prospective, single-arm, phase 1/2 study at two
centers in the USA. We recruited adults (aged ≥18 years) with high-risk
hematological malignant diseases who were candidates for reduced-intensity
conditioning hemopoietic stem-cell transplantation and had an available 8/8
or 7/8 HLA matched related donor. All patients received a conditioning regimen
of fl udarabine (40 mg/m² daily for 4 days) and busulfan (3·2 mg/kg daily for
2 days) and GVHD immunoprophylaxis of mycophenolate mofetil (1 g three
times a day, days 0–28) and tacrolimus (0·03 mg/kg a day, titrated to a goal
level of 8–12 ng/mL, starting day –3 until day 180). Vorinostat (either 100 mg
or 200 mg, twice a day) was initiated 10 days before haemopoietic stem-cell
transplantation until day 100. The primary endpoint was the cumulative
incidence of grade 2–4 acute GVHD by day 100. This trial is registered with
ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00810602.
Findings 50 patients were assessable for both toxic effects and response;
eight additional patients were included in the analysis of toxic effects. All
patients engrafted neutrophils and platelets at expected times after
hemopoietic stem-cell transplantation. The cumulative incidence of grade
2–4 acute GVHD by day 100 was 22% (95% CI 13–36). The most common
non-hematological adverse events included electrolyte disturbances (n=15),
hyperglycemia (11), infections (six), mucositis (four), and increased activity
of liver enzymes (three). Non-symptomatic thrombocytopenia after
engraftment was the most common hematological grade 3–4 adverse
event (nine) but was transient and all cases resolved swiftly.
Interpretation Administration of vorinostat in combination with standard
GVHD prophylaxis after related-donor reduced-intensity conditioning
hemopoietic stem-cell transplantation is safe and is associated with a
lower than expected incidence of severe acute GVHD. Future studies
are needed to assess the effect of vorinostat for prevention of GVHD in
broader settings of hemopoietic stem-cell transplantation.

Read Full Post »


Cell Research News – What’s to Follow?

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reporter

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Intelligence

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/26/larryhbern/Cell_Research_News_-_What’s_to_Follow?

 

Stem Cell Research ‘Holy Grail’ Uncovered, Thanks to Zebrafish

By Estel Grace Masangkay

With help from the zebrafish, a team of Australian researchers has uncovered how
hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) renew themselves.

HSCs refers to stem cells present in the blood and bone marrow that are used 
for  the replenishment of the body’s supply of blood and immune cells – 

  • in transplants for leukemia and myeloma.
  • Stem cells have the potential to transform into vital cells

    including muscle, bone, and blood vessels.

Understanding how HSCs form and renew themselves has potential application in the
treatment of

  • spinal cord injuries
  • degenerative disorders
  • diabetes.

Professor Peter Currie, of the Australian Regen Med Institute at Victoria’s Monash
University, led a research team to discover a crucial part of HSC’s development. Using 
a high-resolution microscopy, Prof. Curie’s team 

  • caught zebrafish embyonic SCs on film as they formed. 
  • the researchers were studying muscle mutations in the aquatic animal.

“Zebrafish make ESCs in exactly the same way as humans do, but their embryos and
larvae develop free living, but the larvae are both free swimming and transparent, so one could see every cell in the body forming, including ESCs,” explained Prof. Currie.

The researchers noticed in films that a

  •  ‘buddy cell’ came along to help the ESCs form.

Called endotome cells, 

  • they aided pre-ESCs to turn into ESCs.  

Prof. Currie said that endotome cells act as helper cells for pre-ESCs , 

  • helping them progress to become fully fledged stem cells.

The team not only

  • identified some of the cells and signals 
  • required for ESC formation, but also 
  • pinpointed the genes required 
  • for endotome formation in the first place.

The next step for the researchers is to 

  • locate the signals present in the endotome cells 
  • that trigger ESC formation in the embryo. 

This may provide clues for developing

  • specific blood cells on demand for blood-related disorders. 

Professor Currie also pointed out the discovery’s potential for 

  • correcting genetic defects in the cell and 
  • transplanting them back in the body to treat disorders.

The team’s work was published in the international journal Nature.

 

Jell-O Like Biomaterial Could Hold Key to Cancer Cell Destruction

by Estel Grace Masangkay

Scientists from Penn State University reported that a biomaterial made of tiny 
molecules was able to attract and destroy cancer cells.

Professor Yong Wang and bioengineering faculty at Penn State, built the 
tissue-like biomaterial to accomplish what chemotherapy could not –

  • kill every cancer cell without leaving
  • the possibility of a recurrence.

Prof. Wang and team built polymers 

  • from tiny molecules called monomers. They
  • then wove the polymers into 3D networks 

called hydrogels. Hydrogel is soft and flexible, 
like Jell-O, and it contains a lot of water, and

  • can be safely put into the body, unlike 

other implants that the body often tries 

  • to get rid of through the immune response.

“We want to make sure the materials we are using are compatible in the body.”

The researchers 

  • attached aptamers to the hydrogels, 
  • which release bio-chemical signal-only molecules 
  • that draw in cancer cells. 

Once attracted, the cancer cells are entrapped in the Jell-O-like substance. 

What happens next is 

  • an oligonucleotide binds to the protein-binding site of the aptamer 
  • and triggers the release of anticancer drugs at the proper time.

“Once we trap the cancer cells, we can deliver anticancer drugs 

  • to that specific location to kill them. 

This technique would help avoid the need for systemic medications that kill not only cancer cells, but normal cells as well. Systemic chemotherapy drugs

  • make patients devastatingly sick and possibly 
  • leave behind cancer cells to wreak havoc another day

If our new technique has any side effects at all, it would be only local side 
effects and not whole-body systemic side effects,” explained Prof. Wang.

The initial results of the research were published by Prof. Wang in the 
Journal of the American Chemical Society in 2012. Prof. Wang also shared 
the latest results of his work at the Society for Biomaterials Meeting &
 Exposition in April this year.

 

Read Full Post »

Older Posts »