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Archive for the ‘International Global Work in Pharmaceutical’ Category


Pharmacy International Conference

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

 

3rd Nirma Institute of Pharmacy International Conference
NIPiCON – 2016
January 21 – 23, 2016 ………….http://www.nipicon.org/.

Anthony Melvin Crasto   https://www.facebook.com/groups/worlddrugtracker/permalink/1170816792946389/

The pharmaceutical sciences is a dynamic and interdisciplinary field that combines a broad range of scientific disciplines that are critical to the discovery and development of new drugs and therapies. Over the years, pharmaceutical scientists have been instrumental in discovering and developing innovative drugs that save people’s lives and improve the quality of life.

NIPiCON was initiated in a year 2013 to offer a common platform for academicians, researchers, industrialists, clinical practitioners and young budding pharmacists to share their ideas and research work and finally emerge with new concepts, innovations and novel strategies for various challenges in the pharmaceutical field.

The 3 International Conference, NIPiCON 2016 aims to provide a knowledge sharing experience in the area of “Global Challenges in Drug Discovery, Development and Regulatory Affairs”.

Pharmaceutical innovation is a complex creative process that harnesses the application of knowledge and creativity for discovering, developing and bringing to clinical use, new medicinal products that extend or improve the lives of patients.A successful pharmaceutical R&D process is one that minimizes the time and cost needed to bring a compound from the scientific ‘idea’, through discovery and clinical development, to final regulatory approval and delivery to the patient. This conference will provide an open forum for the academicians, researchers, clinicians and professionals of pharmaceutical industry to enrich their knowledge in the area of drug discovery, development and its regulatory requirements.

The conference features plenary sessions which will be delivered by eminent national and international speakers from different disciplines of pharmaceutical field. In addition, there will be invited lectures and sessions delivered by distinguished and young researchers in their respective fields during parallel technical sessions. The conference willalso provide the opportunity to scientists and research scholars from various organizations to put forth their innovative ideas and research findings by means of deliberations, discussions and poster presentations.

 

NIPiCON was initiated in a year 2013 to offer a common platform for academicians, researchers, industrialists, clinical practitioners and young budding pharmacists to share their ideas and research work and finally emerge with new concepts, innovations and novel strategies for various challenges in the pharmaceutical field.

The 3 International Conference, NIPiCON 2016 aims to provide a knowledge sharing experience in the area of “Global Challenges in Drug Discovery, Development and Regulatory Affairs”.

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targeting of GSK-3α and GSK-3β

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

 

4′-((5-(2,3-Dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-thio)-methyl)-4-fluorobiphenyl-2-carboxamide

by DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

str1

 

Cas 1820758-44-8

C24 H18 F N3 O4 S

4′-((5-(2,3-Dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-thio)-methyl)-4-fluorobiphenyl-2-carboxamide

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.wordpress.com/wp-admin/post-new.php

 

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a constitutively active, ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase that takes part in a number of physiological processes ranging from glycogen metabolism to apoptosis. GSK-3 is a key mediator of various signaling pathways, such as the Wnt and the insulin/AKT signaling pathways.

Therefore, dysregulation of GSK-3 has been linked to various human diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases.Two related isoforms of GSK-3 exist in mammals, GSK-3α and -β, which share a sequence identity within their catalytic domains of 98%.

Beyond the catalytic domains they show significant differences. Although these isoforms are structurally related, they are not functionally equivalent, and one cannot compensate for loss of the other.

The debate on the respective contributions of the isoforms GSK-3α and GSK-3β on the pathogenesis of different diseases is ongoing.

Various studies indicate that the therapies of certain diseases benefit from specific targeting of GSK-3α and GSK-3β. GSK-3α was recently identified as a differentiation target in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML is a hematopoietic malignancy defined by uncontrolled proliferation and disrupted myeloid differentiation. AML is the second most common form of leukemia in adults.

The current treatment of AML with conventional chemotherapy is very aggressive yet ineffective for the majority of patients with the disease.Thus, alternative targeted treatment approaches for AML are highly desirable. GSK-3α recently emerged as a potential target in this disease.

Abstract Image

http://pubs.acs.org/appl/literatum/publisher/achs/journals/content/jmcmar/0/jmcmar.ahead-of-print/acs.jmedchem.5b01200/20151105/images/medium/jm-2015-01200x_0015.gif

 

The challenge for glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor design lies in achieving high selectivity for one isoform over the other. The therapy of certain diseases, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), may require α-isoform specific targeting. The scorpion shaped GSK-3 inhibitors developed by our group achieved the highest GSK-3α selectivity reported so far but suffered from insufficient aqueous solubility. This work presents the solubility-driven optimization of our isoform-selective inhibitors using a scorpion shaped lead. Among 15 novel compounds, compound 27 showed high activity against GSK-3α/β with the highest GSK-3α selectivity reported to date. Compound 27was profiled for bioavailability and toxicity in a zebrafish embryo phenotype assay. Selective GSK-3α targeting in AML cell lines was achieved with compound 27, resulting in a strong differentiation phenotype and colony formation impairment, confirming the potential of GSK-3α inhibition in AML therapy.

Evaluation of Improved Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3α Inhibitors in Models of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Clemens Schöpf Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, United States
J. Med. Chem., Article ASAP
Publication Date (Web): October 23, 2015   Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01200

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01200/suppl_file/jm5b01200_si_001.pdf

compound 27 as a colorless solid. HPLC: 96%, tR = 6.93 min.

1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 500 MHz, 300 K): δ (ppm) = 4.32 (td, J = 5.2 Hz, J = 3.7 Hz, 4H), 4.60 (s, 2H), 7.05 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.25 (dd, J = 9.1 Hz, J = 2.7 Hz, 1H), 7.31 (td, J = 8.6 Hz, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (m, 3H), 7.41 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.45 (dd, J = 8.4 Hz, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 7.49 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 7.73 (s, 1H).

13C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz, 300 K): δ (ppm) = 35.6, 64.1, 64.4, 114.3 (d, JC–F = 21 Hz), 115.0, 115.9 (d, JC–F = 21 Hz), 115.9, 118.1, 120.0, 128.6 (2C), 128.8 (2C), 132.0 (d, JC–F = 8 Hz), 134.8, 135.5, 138.9, 139.0 (d, JC–F = 7 Hz), 143.8, 146.7, 160.9 (d, JC–F = 247 Hz), 162.7, 164.9, 169.5.

EI-MS: m/z = 463 (100, [M+]), 464 (26, [M+ + H]), 465 (7, [M+ + 2H].

 

 

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Diabetic Retinopathy

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

Lucentis effective for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

NIH-funded clinical trial marks first major advance in therapy in 40 years.

http://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/lucentis-effective-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy

Illustration of ruptured blood vessels

http://www.nih.gov/sites/default/files/styles/featured_media_breakpoint-large-extra/public/news-events/news-releases/2015/20151116-eye-blood-vessels.jpg

Abnormal blood vessels bleeding into the center of the eye due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

https://youtu.be/jPoCIa0_1po

A clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health has found that the drug ranibizumab (Lucentis) is highly effective in treating proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The trial, conducted by the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) compared Lucentis with a type of laser therapy called panretinal or scatter photocoagulation, which has remained the gold standard for proliferative diabetic retinopathy since the mid-1970s. The findings demonstrate the first major therapy advance in nearly 40 years.

“These latest results from the DRCR Network provide crucial evidence for a safe and effective alternative to laser therapy against proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” said Paul A. Sieving, M.D., Ph.D., director of NIH’s National Eye Institute (NEI), which funded the trial.  The results were published online today in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Treating abnormal retinal blood vessels with laser therapy became the standard treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy after the NEI announced results of the Diabetic Retinopathy Study in 1976. Although laser therapy effectively preserves central vision, it can damage night and side vision; so, researchers have sought therapies that work as well or better than laser but without such side effects.

A complication of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy can damage blood vessels in the light-sensitive retina in the back of the eye. As the disease worsens, blood vessels may swell, become distorted and lose their ability to function properly. Diabetic retinopathy becomes proliferative when lack of blood flow in the retina increases production of a substance called vascular endothelial growth factor, which can stimulate the growth of new, abnormal blood vessels. These new vessels are prone to bleeding into the center of the eye, often requiring a surgical procedure called a vitrectomy to clear the blood. The abnormal blood vessels can also cause scarring and retinal detachment. Lucentis is among several drugs that block the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor.

About 7.7 million U.S. residents have diabetic retinopathy, a leading cause of blindness among working-age Americans. Among these, about 1.5 percent have PDR.

The DRCR.net enrolled 305 participants (394 eyes) with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in one or both eyes at 55 clinical sites across the country. Eyes were assigned randomly to treatment with Lucentis or laser. For participants who enrolled both eyes in the study, one eye was assigned to the laser group and the other was assigned to the Lucentis group. About half of the eyes assigned to the laser group required more than one round of laser treatment. In the other group, Lucentis (0.5 mg/0.05 ml) was given via injections into the eye once per month for three consecutive months, and then as needed until the disease resolved or stabilized.

Because Lucentis is commonly used to treat diabetic macular edema—the build-up of fluid in the central area of the retina—the study permitted the use of Lucentis for diabetic macular edema in the laser group, if necessary. Slightly more than half (53 percent) of eyes in the laser group received Lucentis injections to treat diabetic macular edema. About 6 percent of eyes in the Lucentis group received laser therapy, mostly to treat retinal detachment or bleeding.

At two years, vision in the Lucentis group improved by about half a line on an eye chart compared with virtually no change in the laser group. There was little change in side vision with injection (average worsening of 23 decibels) but a substantial loss of side vision with laser (average worsening of 422 decibels).   The vitrectomy rate was lower in the Lucentis group (8 of 191 eyes) than in the laser group (30 of 203 eyes).

Rates of serious systemic adverse events, including cardiac arrest and stroke, were similar between the two groups. One patient in the Lucentis group developed endophthalmitis, an infection in the eye. Other side effects were low, with little difference between treatment groups.

“Lucentis should be considered a viable treatment option for people with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, especially for individuals needing anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular edema,” said Jeffrey G. Gross, M.D., of the Carolina Retina Center in Columbia, South Carolina, who chaired the study. Dr. Gross presented results November 13, 2015, at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology in Las Vegas.

In addition to treating proliferative diabetic retinopathy, the report suggests Lucentis may even help prevent diabetic macular edema from occurring. Among people without diabetic macular edema at the start of the study, only 9 percent of Lucentis-treated eyes developed diabetic macular edema during the study, compared with 28 percent in the laser group. The DRCR.net will continue to follow patients in this study for a total of five years.

The DRCR.net is dedicated to facilitating multicenter clinical research of diabetic eye disease. The network formed in 2002 and comprises more than 350 physicians practicing at more than 140 clinical sites across the country. For more information, visit the DRCR.net website at http://drcrnet.jaeb.org/(link is external).

The study was funded by NEI grants EY14231, EY23207, EY18817.

Lucentis was provided by Genentech. Additional research funding for this study was provided by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, also a part of the NIH.

The study is registered as NCT01489189 at ClinicalTrials.gov(link is external).

The NEI provides information about diabetic eye disease at http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/diabetic/.

Information about diabetes is available through the National Diabetes Education Program, www.ndep.nih.gov/.

View an NEI video about the study at https://youtu.be/jPoCIa0_1po(link is external).

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Novartis – Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

LIK 066, NOVARTIS, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

by DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

 

LIK-066

C23 H28 O7 . 2 C6 H11 N O, 642.7795

(1S)-1,5-Anhydro-1-[3-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-ylmethyl)-4-ethylphenyl]-D-glucitol bis[1-[(2S)-pyrrolidin-2-yl]ethanone]

(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-[3-(2,3-Dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-6-ylmethyl)-4- ethyl-phenyl]-6-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydro-pyran-3,4,5-triol

Sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitor

SGLT 1/2 inhibitor

 

Novartis Ag innovator

LIK-066 is in phase II clinical studies at Novartis for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

In June 2014, the EMA’s PDCO adopted a positive opinion on a pediatric investigation plan (PIP) for LIK-066 for type 2 diabetes

 

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent or persistent hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) and other signs, as distinct from a single disease or condition. Glucose level abnormalities can result in serious long-term complications, which include cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, retinal damage, nerve damage (of several kinds), microvascular damage and obesity.

Type 1 diabetes, also known as Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM), is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing β-cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas leading to a deficiency of insulin. Type-2 diabetes previously known as adult- onset diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes, or Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) – is due to a combination of increased hepatic glucose output, defective insulin secretion, and insulin resistance or reduced insulin sensitivity (defective responsiveness of tissues to insulin). Chronic hyperglycemia can also lead to onset or progression of glucose toxicity characterized by decrease in insulin secretion from β-cell, insulin sensitivity; as a result diabetes mellitus is self-exacerbated [Diabetes Care, 1990, 13, 610].

Chronic elevation of blood glucose level also leads to damage of blood vessels. In diabetes, the resultant problems are grouped under “microvascular disease” (due to damage of small blood vessels) and “macro vascular disease” (due to damage of the arteries). Examples of microvascular disease include diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy, while examples of macrovascular disease include coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and diabetic myonecrosis.

Diabetic retinopathy, characterized by the growth of weakened blood vessels in the retina as well as macular edema (swelling of the macula), can lead to severe vision loss or blindness. Retinal damage (from microangiopathy) makes it the most common cause of blindness among non-elderly adults in the US. Diabetic neuropathy is characterized by compromised nerve function in the lower extremities. When combined with damaged blood vessels, diabetic neuropathy can lead to diabetic foot. Other forms of diabetic neuropathy may present as mononeuritis or autonomic neuropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by damage to the kidney, which can lead to chronic renal failure, eventually requiring dialysis. Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of l adult kidney failure worldwide. A high glycemic diet (i.e., a diet that consists of meals that give high postprandial blood sugar) is known to be one of the causative factors contributing to the development of obesity.

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and/or inadequate insulin secretion in response to elevated glucose level. Therapies for type 2 diabetes are targeted towards increasing insulin sensitivity (such as TZDs), hepatic glucose utilization (such as biguanides), directly modifying insulin levels (such as insulin, insulin analogs, and insulin secretagogues), increasing increttn hormone action (such as exenatide and sitagliptin), or inhibiting glucose absorption from the diet (such as alpha glucosidase inhibitors) [Nature 2001 , 414, 821-827],

Glucose is unable to diffuse across the cell membrane and requires transport proteins. The transport of glucose into epithelial cells is mediated by a secondary active cotransport system, the sodium-D-glucose co-transporter (SGLT), driven by a sodium- gradient generated by the Na+/K+-ATPase. Glucose accumulated in the epithelial cell is further transported into the blood across the membrane by facilitated diffusion through GLUT transporters [Kidney International 2007, 72, S27-S35].

SGLT belongs to the sodium/glucose co-transporter family SLCA5. Two different SGLT isoforms, SGLT1 and SGLT2, have been identified to mediate renal tubular glucose reabsorption in humans [Curr. Opinon in Investigational Drugs (2007): 8(4), 285-292 and references cited herein]. Both of them are characterized by their different substrate affinity. Although both of them show 59% homology in their amino acid sequence, they are functionally different. SGLT1 transports glucose as well as galactose, and is expressed both in the kidney and in the intestine, while SGLT2 is found exclusively in the S1 and S2 segments of the renal proximal tubule. As a consequence, glucose filtered in the glomerulus is reabsorbed into the renal proximal tubular epithelial cells by SGLT2, a low-affinity/high-capacity system, residing on the surface of epithelial cell lining in S1 and S2 tubular segments. Much smaller amounts of glucose are recovered by SGLT1 , as a high-affinity/low-capacity system, on the more distal segment of the proximal tubule. In healthy human, more than 99% of plasma glucose that is filtered in the kidney glomerulus is reabsorbed, resulting in less than 1 % of the total filtered glucose being excreted in urine. It is estimated that 90% of total renal glucose absorption is facilitated by SGLT2; remaining 10 % is likely mediated by SGLT1 [J. Parenter. Enteral Nutr. 2004, 28, 364-371]. SGLT2 was cloned as a candidate sodium glucose co-transporter, and its tissue distribution, substrate specificity, and affinities are reportedly very similar to those of the low-affinity sodium glucose co-transporter in the renal proximal tubule. A drug with a mode of action of SGLT2 inhibition will be a novel and complementary approach to existing classes of medication for diabetes and its associated diseases to meet the patient’s needs for both blood glucose control, while preserving insulin secretion. In addition, SGLT2 inhibitors which lead to loss of excess glucose (and thereby excess calories) may have additional potential for the treatment of obesity.

Indeed small molecule SGLT2 inhibitors have been discovered and the anti-diabetic therapeutic potential of such molecules has been reported in literature [T-1095 (Diabetes, 1999, 48, 1794-1800, Dapagliflozin (Diabetes, 2008, 57, 1723-1729)].

PATENT     WO 2011048112

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2011048112A1

 

H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): δ 1.07 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 3H), 2.57 (q, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 3.34- 3.50 (m, 4H), 3.68 (dd, J = 12.0, 5.6 Hz, 1 H), 3.85-3.91 (m, 3H), 4.08 (d, J = 9.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.17 (s, 4H), 6.53-6.58 (m, 2H), 6.68 (d, J – 8.4 Hz, 1 H), 7.15-7.25 (m, 3H).

MS (ES) m z 434.2 (M+18).

 

REF

Pediatric investigation plan (PIP) decision: (S)-Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid compound with (2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-(3-((2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)methyl)-4-ethylphenyl)-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol (2:1) ( LIK066) (EMEA-001527-PIP01-13)
European Medicines Agency (EMA) Web Site 2014, July 24

Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) assessment of LIK066 in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (NCT01407003)
ClinicalTrials.gov Web Site 2011, August 07

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Biomarker Development


Biomarker Development

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

 

 

NBDA’s Biomarker R&D Modules

http://nbdabiomarkers.org/

“collaboratively creating the NBDA Standards* required for end-to-end, evidence – based biomarker development to advance precision (personalized) medicine”

http://nbdabiomarkers.org/sites/all/themes/nbda/images/nbda_logo.jpg

http://nbdabiomarkers.org/about/what-we-do/pipeline-overview/assay-development

 

Successful biomarkers should move systematically and seamlessly through specific R&D “modules” – from early discovery to clinical validation. NBDA’s end-to-end systems approach is based on working with experts from all affected multi-sector stakeholder communities to build an in-depth understanding of the existing barriers in each of these “modules” to support decision making at each juncture.  Following extensive “due diligence” the NBDA works with all stakeholders to assemble and/or create the enabling standards (guidelines, best practices, SOPs) needed to support clinically relevant and robust biomarker development.

Mission: Collaboratively creating the NBDA Standards* required for end-to-end, evidence – based biomarker development to advance precision (personalized) medicine.
NBDA Standards include but are not limited to: “official existing standards”, guidelines, principles, standard operating procedures (SOP), and best practices.

https://vimeo.com/83266065

 

“The NBDA’s vision is not to just relegate the current biomarker development processes to history, but also to serve as a working example of what convergence of purpose, scientific knowledge and collaboration can accomplish.”

NBDA Workshop VII – “COLLABORATIVELY BUILDING A FOUNDATION FOR FDA BIOMARKER QUALIFICATION”
NBDA Workshop VII   December 14-15, 2015   Washington Court Hotel, Washington, DC

The upcoming meeting was preceded by an NBDA workshop held on December 1-2, 2014, “The Promising but Elusive Surrogate Endpoint:  What Will It Take?” where we explored in-depth with FDA leadership and experts in the field the current status and future vison for achieving success in surrogate endpoint development.  Through panels and workgroups, the attendees extended their efforts to pursue the FDA’s biomarker qualification pathway through the creation of sequential contexts of use models to support qualification of drug development tools – and ultimately surrogate endpoints.

Although the biomarker (drug development tools) qualification pathway (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/DrugDevelopmentTools…) represents an opportunity to increase the value of predictive biomarkers, animal models, and clinical outcomes across the drug (and biologics) development continuum, there are myriad challenges.  In that regard, the lack of evidentiary standards to support contexts of use-specific biomarkers emerged from the prior NBDA workshop as the major barrier to achieving the promise of biomarker qualification.  It also became clear that overall, the communities do not understand the biomarker qualification process; nor do they fully appreciate that it is up to the stakeholders in the field (academia, non-profit foundations, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, and patient advocate organizations) to develop these evidentiary standards.

This NBDA workshop will feature a unique approach to address these problems.  Over the past two years, the NBDA has worked with experts in selected disease areas to develop specific case studies that feature a systematic approach to identifying the evidentiary standards needed for sequential contexts of use for specific biomarkers to drive biomarker qualification.   These constructs, and accompanying whitepapers are now the focus of collaborative discussions with FDA experts.

The upcoming meeting will feature in-depth panel discussions of 3-4 of these cases, including the case leader, additional technical contributors, and a number of FDA experts.  Each of the panels will analyze their respective case for strengths and weaknesses – including suggestions for making the biomarker qualification path for the specific biomarker more transparent and efficient. In addition, the discussions will highlight the problem of poor reproducibility of biomarker discovery results, and its impact on the qualification process.

 

Health Care in the Digital Age

Mobile, big data, the Internet of Things and social media are leading a revolution that is transforming opportunities in health care and research. Extraordinary advancements in mobile technology and connectivity have provided the foundation needed to dramatically change the way health care is practiced today and research is done tomorrow. While we are still in the early innings of using mobile technology in the delivery of health care, evidence supporting its potential to impact the delivery of better health care, lower costs and improve patient outcomes is apparent. Mobile technology for health care, or mHealth, can empower doctors to more effectively engage their patients and provide secure information on demand, anytime and anywhere. Patients demand safety, speed and security from their providers. What are the technologies that are allowing this transformation to take place?

 

https://youtu.be/WeXEa2cL3oA    Monday, April 27, 2015  Milken Institute

Moderator


Michael Milken, Chairman, Milken Institute

 

Speakers


Anna Barker, Fellow, FasterCures, a Center of the Milken Institute; Professor and Director, Transformative Healthcare Networks, and Co-Director, Complex Adaptive Systems Network, Arizona State University
Atul Butte, Director, Institute of Computational Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco
John Chen, Executive Chairman and CEO, BlackBerry
Victor Dzau, President, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences; Chancellor Emeritus, Duke University
Patrick Soon-Shiong, Chairman and CEO, NantWorks, LLC

 

Mobile, big data, the Internet of Things and social media are leading a revolution that is transforming opportunities in health care and research. Extraordinary advancements in mobile technology and connectivity have provided the foundation needed to dramatically change the way health care is practiced today and research is done tomorrow. While we are still in the early innings of using mobile technology in the delivery of health care, evidence supporting its potential to impact the delivery of better health care, lower costs and improve patient outcomes is apparent. Mobile technology for health care, or mHealth, can empower doctors to more effectively engage their patients and provide secure information on demand, anytime and anywhere. Patients demand safety, speed and security from their providers. What are the technologies that are allowing this transformation to take place?

 

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blocking copper transport in cancer cells

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

DC_AC50, selective way of blocking copper transport in cancer cells

http://newdrugapprovals.org/2015/11/11/dc_ac50-selective-way-of-blocking-copper-transport-in-cancer-cells/

Dr. Melvin Crasto, World Drug Tracker

Jing Chen of Emory University School of Medicine, Hualiang Jiang of the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chuan He of the University of Chicago, and coworkers have now developed a selective way of blocking copper transport in cancer cells (Nat. Chem. 2015, DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2381). By screening a database of 200,000 druglike small molecules, the researchers discovered a promising compound, DC_AC50, for cancer treatment. They zeroed in on the compound by testing how well database hits inhibited a protein-protein interaction leading to copper transport and reduced proliferation of cancer cells.

 

Figure imgf000094_0001

DC_AC50

3-amino-N-(2-bromo-4,6-difluorophenyl)-6,7-dihydro-5H- cyclopenta [b] thieno [3,2-e] pyridine-2-carboxamide

licensed DC_AC50 to Suring Therapeutics, in Suzhou, China

INNOVATORS  Jing Chen of Emory University School of Medicine, Hualiang Jiang of the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chuan He of the University of Chicago, and coworkers

 

Developing small molecules that specifically inhibit human copper-trafficking proteins and an overview of the screening process.

http://www.nature.com/nchem/journal/vaop/ncurrent/images/nchem.2381-f1.jpg

 

COPPER TRANSPORT
Chaperone proteins (green) transfer copper ions to copper-dependent proteins (lilac) via ligand exchange between two cysteines (-SH groups) on each protein. DC_AC50 binds the chaperone and inhibits this interaction.
Credit: Nat. Chem.

Jing Chen of Emory University School of Medicine, Hualiang Jiang of the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Chuan He of the University of Chicago, and coworkers have now developed a selective way of blocking copper transport in cancer cells (Nat. Chem. 2015, DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2381). By screening a database of 200,000 druglike small molecules, the researchers discovered a promising compound, DC_AC50, for cancer treatment. They zeroed in on the compound by testing how well database hits inhibited a protein-protein interaction leading to copper transport and reduced proliferation of cancer cells.

20151109lnp1-dca

http://cen.acs.org/content/cen/articles/93/web/2015/11/Agent-Fight-Cancer-Inhibiting-Copper/_jcr_content/articlebody/subpar/articlemedia_0.img.jpg/1447092911801.jpg

 

Scientists had already found a molecule, tetrathiomolybdate, that interferes with copper trafficking and have tested it in clinical trials against cancer. But tetrathiomolybdate is a copper chelator: It inhibits copper transport in cells by nonselectively sequestering copper ions. Sometimes, the chelator snags too much copper, inhibiting essential copper-based processes in normal cells and causing side effects.

In contrast, DC_AC50 works by inhibiting interactions between proteins in the copper-trafficking pathway: It prevents chaperone proteins, called Atox1 and CCS, from passing copper ions to enzymes that use them to run vital cellular processes. Cancer cells are heavy users of Atox1 and CCS, so DC_AC50 affects cancer cells selectively.

The team has licensed DC_AC50 to Suring Therapeutics, in Suzhou, China, for developing anticancer therapies. The group also plans to further tweak DC_AC50 to develop more-potent versions.

Thomas O’Halloran of Northwestern University, who has studied tetrathiomolybdate, comments that “the challenge in drug design is hitting one of these copper-dependent processes without messing with housekeeping functions that normal cells depend upon. DC_AC50 appears to block the function of copper metallochaperone proteins without interacting directly with their cargo, copper ions. As the first member of a new class of inhibitors, it provides a new way to interrogate the physiology of copper trafficking disorders and possibly intervene.”

PATENT

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2014116859A1?cl=en

 

Figure imgf000053_0003

COMPD IS LC-1 COMPD 50

 

NMR and mass spectral data: LC-1 (Compound 50)- 3-amino-N-(2-bromo-4,6-difluorophenyl)-6,7-dihydro-5H- cyclopenta [b] thieno [3,2-e] pyridine-2-carboxamide

Figure imgf000075_0001

1H NMR (CDCI3, 400 MHz) δ 9.15 (s, 1H), 7.61 (s, 1H), 7.13(m, 1H), 6.60 (m, 1H), 6.27 (s, 2H), 3.20 (t, 2H), 2.98 (t, 2H), 2.39 (m, 2H); ESI-MS (EI) m/z 422 (M+)

 

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ZYDPLA 1, New Antidiabetic in Gliptin Class

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

ZYDPLA 1 From ZYDUS CADILA, a new NCE in Gliptin class of antidiabetic agents.

by DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

Figure imgf000004_0001

 

Probable structure –

https://newdrugapprovals.files.wordpress.com/2015/11/zydk-1.jpg

 

ZYDPLA1 is a novel compound in the Gliptin class of antidiabetic agents. It works by blocking the enzyme Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP-4), which inactivates the Incretin hormone GLP-1. By increasing the GLP-1 levels, ZYDPLA1 glucose-dependently increases insulin secretion and lowers glucagon secretion.

 

Zydus announces data presentations on ZYDPLA1 “A once-weekly small molecule DPP-IV inhibitor for treating diabetes”, at the ENDO conference in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Ahmedabad, India June 9, 2014 The Zydus group will be presenting data on its molecule ZYDPLA1 a novel compound in the Gliptin class of anti-diabetic agents during the joint meeting of the International Society of Endocrinology and the Endocrine Society: ICE/ENDO 2014 to be held from June 21-24, 2014 in Chicago, Illinois.

ZYDPLA1, currently in Phase I clinical evaluation in USA, is an orally active, small molecule NCE, discovered and developed by the Zydus Research Centre. ZYDPLA1 works by blocking the enzyme Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP-4), which inactivates the Incretin hormone GLP-1. By increasing the GLP- 1 levels, ZYDPLA1 glucose-dependently increases insulin secretion. This results in an overall improvement in the glucose homoeostasis, including reduction in HbA1c and blood sugar levels.

The Chairman & Managing Director of Zydus, Mr. Pankaj R. Patel said, “Currently, all available DPP-4 inhibitors are dosed once-daily. ZYDPLA1 with a once-a-week dosing regimen would provide diabetic patients with a more convenient treatment alternative. ZYDPLA1 will offer sustained action, which will result in an improved efficacy profile.”

The abstract of Poster Number: LB-PP02-4 can also be viewed on the ENDO web program at https://endo.confex.com/endo/2014endo/webprogram/authora.html. The Poster Preview is scheduled on Sunday, June 22, 2014 at McCormick Place West.

The number of diabetics in the world is estimated to be over 360 million. In 2025 nearly half of the world’s diabetic population will be from India, China, Brazil, Russia and Turkey. The sales of the DPP IV inhibitors is expected to peak at almost $14 billion by 2022. Research in the field of anti-diabetic therapy seeks to address the problems of hypoglycemia, GI side effects, lactic acidosis, weight gain, CV risks, edema, potential immunogenicity etc., which pose a major challenge in the treatment of diabetes.

About Zydus

Headquartered in Ahmedabad, India, Zydus Cadila is an innovative, global pharmaceutical company that discovers, manufactures and markets a broad range of healthcare therapies. The group employs over 16,000 people worldwide including over 1100 scientists engaged in R & D and is dedicated to creating healthier communities globally. As a leading healthcare provider, it aims to become a global researchbased pharmaceutical company by 2020. The group has a strong research pipeline of NCEs, biologics and vaccines which are in various stages of clinical trials including late stage.

About Zydus Research Centre

The Zydus Research Centre has over 20 discovery programmes in the areas of cardio-metabolic disorders, pain, inflammation and oncology. Zydus has in-house capabilities to conduct discovery research from concept to IND-enabling pre-clinical development and human proof-of-concept clinical trials. The Zydus Research group had identified and developed Lipaglyn™ (Saroglitazar) which has now become India’s first NCE to reach the market. Lipaglyn™ is a breakthrough therapy in the treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia and Hypertriglyceridemia. The company recently announced the commencement of Phase III trials of LipaglynTM (Saroglitazar) in patients suffering from Lipodystrophy.

PATENT

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2011013141A2?cl=en

Rajendra Kharul, Mukul R. Jain, Pankaj R. Patel    Substituted benzamide derivatives as glucokinase (gk) activators.

Zydus announces US FDA approval for initiating Phase I clinical trials of ‘ZYDPLA1’ – a novel next generation orally active, small molecule DPP-4 inhibitor to treat Type 2 Diabetes Ahmedabad, October 23, 2013
• Zydus strengthens its cardiometabolic pipeline with the addition of ZYDPLA1
• Novel next generation New Chemical Entity (NCE) would offer once-a-week oral treatment option, a significant benefit to Type-2 diabetic patients Close on the heels of launching Lipaglyn, the breakthrough therapy to treat diabetic dyslipidemia and India’s first NCE to reach the market, the Zydus group announced the Phase I clinical trial approval from the USFDA for ZYDPLA1 – a Next Generation, long-acting DPP-4 Inhibitor.
ZYDPLA1 is an orally active, small molecule NCE, discovered and developed by the Zydus Research Centre, the NCE research wing of Zydus. ZYDPLA1 is a novel compound in the Gliptin class of antidiabetic agents. It works by blocking the enzyme Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP-4), which inactivates the Incretin hormone GLP-1. By increasing the GLP-1 levels, ZYDPLA1 glucose-dependently increases insulin secretion and lowers glucagon secretion. This results in an overall improvement in the glucose homoeostasis, including reduction in HbA1c and blood sugar levels.
Currently, all available DPP-4 inhibitors are dosed once-daily. ZYDPLA1 with a once-a-week dosing regimen, would provide diabetic patients with a more convenient treatment alternative. ZYDPLA1 will offer sustained action, which will result in an improved efficacy profile.
Speaking on the new development, Mr. Pankaj R. Patel, Chairman and Managing Director, Zydus Group, said, “After a promising start with Lipaglyn, we take another big leap forward in the area of diabetic research and long term management of Type 2 diabetes. The IND approval by USFDA is another major regulatory milestone for us. We believe that ZYDPLA1 holds promise and would take us closer to our mission of reducing the burden of chronic diseases and addressing unmet medical needs in the treatment of diabetes.”
The number of diabetics in the world is estimated to be over 360 million. In 2025 nearly half of the world’s diabetic population will be from India, China, Brazil, Russia and Turkey. The sales of the DPPIV inhibitors is expected to peak at almost $14 billion by 2022. Research in the field of anti-diabetic therapy seeks to address the problems of hypoglycemia, GI side effects, lactic acidosis, weight gain, CV risks, edema, potential immunogenicity etc., which pose a major challenge in the treatment of diabetes.
Zydus is the only Indian pharma company to launch its own patented NCE – Lipaglyn™, the world’s first drug to be approved for the treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia. It aims to be a leading global healthcare provider with a robust product pipeline, achieve sales of over $3 billion by 2015 and be a research-based pharmaceutical company by 2020.
The Zydus Research Centre has over 20 discovery programmes ongoing with several candidates in the pre-clinical development stage focused on metabolic, cardiovascular, pain, inflammation and oncology therapeutic areas. With over 400 research professionals spearheading its research programme, Zydus has inhouse capabilities to conduct discovery research from concept to IND-enabling pre-clinical development and human proof-of-concept clinical trials. ZYDPLA1 is the latest addition to the group’s strong research pipeline of 6 NCEs which are in various stages of clinical trials. For more information, please visit: http://www.zyduscadila.com
REFERENCES

http://zyduscadila.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/ZYDPLA1-a-Novel-LongActing-DPP-4-Inhibitor.pdf

 

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