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Posts Tagged ‘glucokinase activator’


New glucokinase activator

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

RO-28-1675 for Type 2 Diabetes

by DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

http://www.medchemexpress.com/product_pic/hy-10595.gif

 

RO-28-1675

  • (2R)-3-Cyclopentyl-2-[4-(methanesulfonyl)phenyl]-N-(thiazol-2-yl)propionamide
  • Ro 028-1675
  • Ro 0281675
  • Ro 28-1675

3-Cyclopentyl-2(R)-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-N-(2-thiazolyl)propionamide

MW 378.51 .-70.4 °Conc 0.027 g/100mL; chloroform, 589 nm;  23 °C

 

Formula C18H22N2O3S2
CAS No 300353-13-3

Glucokinase Activators

Ro 28-1675 (Ro 0281675) is a potent allosteric GK activator with a SC1.5 value of 0.24± 0.0019 uM.

Roche (Innovator)

Hoffmann La Roche

PHASE 1    Type 2  DIABETES,
IC50 value: 0.24± 0.0019 uM (SC1.5) [1]
Target: Glucokinase activator
The R stereoisomer Ro 28-1675 activated GK with a SC1.5 of 0.24 uM, while the S isomer did not activated GK up to 10 uM. Oral administration of Ro 28-1675 (50 mg/Kg) to male C57B1/6J mice caused a statistically significant reduction in fasting glucose levels and improvement in glucose tolerance relative to the vehicle treated animals [1].
Comparison of rat PK parameters indicated that Ro 28-1675 displayed lower clearance and higher oral bioavailability compared to 9a.

Following a single oral dose, Ro 28-1675 reduced fasting and postprandial glucose levels following an OGTT, was well tolerated, and displayed no adverse effects related to drug administration other than hypoglycemia at the maximum dose (400 mg).

RO-28-1675 as glucokinase activator.

Joseph Grimsby et al., of Roche have recently discovered activators of glucokinase that increase kcat and decrease the S0.5 for glucose, and these may offer a treatment for type II diabetes. Glucokinase (GK) plays a key role in whole-body glucose homeostasis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of glucose in cells that express this enzyme, such as pancreatic β cells and hepatocytes.

By screening of a library of 120,000 structurally diverse synthetic compounds, they found one small molecule that increased the enzymatic activity of GK. Chemical optimization of this initial molecule led to the synthesis of RO-28-0450 as a lead GK activator which is a class of antidiabetic agents that act as nonessential, mixed-type GK activators (GKAs) that increase the glucose affinity and maximum velocity (Vmax) of GK. RO-28-0450 is a racemic compound.

Activation of GK was exquisitely sensitive to the chirality of the molecule: The R enantiomer, RO-28-1675, was found to be a potent GKA, whereas the S enantiomer, RO-28-1674, was inactive. RO-28-1675 also reversed the inhibitory action of the human glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP). The activators binding in a glucokinase regulatory site originally was discovered in patients with persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemi.

The result of RO-28-1675 as a potent small molecule GKA may shed light to the chemical biologists to devise strategy for developing activators. Thus for a success to this end we must focus on highly regulated enzymes, or cooperative enzymes such as glucokinase, where nature has provided binding sites that are designed to modulate catalysis.

 

SYNTHESIS

Paper

J. Med. Chem., 2010, 53 (9), pp 3618–3625
DOI: 10.1021/jm100039a
Abstract Image

Glucokinase (GK) is a glucose sensor that couples glucose metabolism to insulin release. The important role of GK in maintaining glucose homeostasis is illustrated in patients with GK mutations. In this publication, identification of the hit molecule 1 and its SAR development, which led to the discovery of potent allosteric GK activators 9a and21a, is described. Compound 21a (RO0281675) was used to validate the clinical relevance of targeting GK to treat type 2 diabetes.

Flash chromatography (Merck Silica gel 60, 70-230 mesh, 9/1, 3/1, and then 11/9 hexanes/ethyl acetate) afforded (2R)-3-cyclopentyl-2-(4-methanesulfonylphenyl)-N-thiazol-2-yl-propionamide (2.10 g, 74%) as a white foam.   ….

PATENT

WO 2000058293

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2000058293A2?cl=en

 

Discovery, Structure−Activity Relationships, Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of Glucokinase Activator (2R)-3-Cyclopentyl-2-(4-methanesulfonylphenyl)-N-thiazol-2-yl-propionamide (RO0281675)

J. Med. Chem., 2010, 53 (9), pp 3618–3625   DOI:http://dx.doi.org:/10.1021/jm100039a
Abstract Image
Glucokinase (GK) is a glucose sensor that couples glucose metabolism to insulin release. The important role of GK in maintaining glucose homeostasis is illustrated in patients with GK mutations. In this publication, identification of the hit molecule 1 and its SAR development, which led to the discovery of potent allosteric GK activators 9a and 21a, is described. Compound 21a (RO0281675) was used to validate the clinical relevance of targeting GK to treat type 2 diabetes.

REFERENCES

[1]. Haynes NE, et al. Discovery, structure-activity relationships, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of glucokinase activator (2R)-3-cyclopentyl-2-(4-methanesulfonylphenyl)-N-thiazol-2-yl-propionamide (RO0281675).

Glucokinase (GK) is a glucose sensor that couples glucose metabolism to insulin release. The important role of GK in maintaining glucose homeostasis is illustrated in patients with GK mutations. In this publication, identification of the hit molecule 1 and its SAR development, which led to the discovery of potent allosteric GK activators 9a and 21a, is described. Compound 21a (RO0281675) was used to validate the clinical relevance of targeting GK to treat type 2 diabetes.

http://www.nature.com/nrd/journal/v8/n5/fig_tab/nrd2850_T2.html

NMR…..http://www.medchemexpress.com/product_pdf/HY-10595/Ro%2028-1675-NMR-HY-10595-13569-2014.pdf

http://www.medchemexpress.com/product_pdf/HY-10595/Ro%2028-1675-Lcms_Ms-HY-10595-13569-2014.pdf

J Grimsby et al. Allosteric Activators of Glucokinase: Potential Role in Diabetes Therapy. Science Signaling 2003, 301(5631), 370-373.
T Kietzmann and GK Ganjam. Glucokinase: old enzyme, new target. Exp. Opin. Ther. Patents. 2005, 15(6), 705-713.
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Glucokinase target for type 2 diabetes

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

 

Pfizer’s PF 04991532 a Hepatoselective Glucokinase Activator Clinical Candidate for Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, WORLD DRUG TRACKER
http://newdrugapprovals.org/2015/11/27/pfizers-pf-04991532-a-hepatoselective-glucokinase-activator-clinical-candidate-for-treating-type-2-diabetes-mellitus/

 

PF 04991532

GKA PF-04991532

(S)-6-{3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl]propanamido}nicotinic acid

(S)-6-(3-Cyclopentyl-2-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propanamido)nicotinic Acid

(S)-6-(3-cyclopentyl-2-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propanamido)nicotinic acid

MW 396.36, MF C18 H19 F3 N4 O3

CAS 1215197-37-7

3-​Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 6-​[[(2S)​-​3-​cyclopentyl-​1-​oxo-​2-​[4-​(trifluoromethyl)​-​1H-​imidazol-​1-​yl]​propyl]​amino]​-

http://www.biochemj.org/content/441/3/881

 

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a rapidly expanding public epidemic affecting over 300 million people worldwide. This disease is characterized by elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin resistance, abnormally elevated hepatic glucose production (HGP), and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Moreover, long-term lack of glycemic control increases risk of complications from neuropathic, microvascular, and macrovascular diseases.

The standard of care for T2DM is metformin followed by sulfonylureas, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-IV) inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones (TZD) as second line oral therapies. As disease progression continues, patients typically require injectable agents such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues and, ultimately, insulin to help maintain glycemic control. Despite these current therapies, many patients still remain unable to safely achieve and maintain tight glycemic control, placing them at risk of diabetic complications and highlighting the need for novel therapeutic options.

 

Glucokinase (hexokinase IV) continues to be a compelling target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes given the wealth of supporting human genetics data and numerous reports of robust clinical glucose lowering in patients treated with small molecule allosteric activators. Recent work has demonstrated the ability of hepatoselective activators to deliver glucose lowering efficacy with minimal risk of hypoglycemia.

While orally administered agents require a considerable degree of passive permeability to promote suitable exposures, there is no such restriction on intravenously delivered drugs. Therefore, minimization of membrane diffusion in the context of an intravenously agent should ensure optimal hepatic targeting and therapeutic index.

 

Diabetes is a major public health concern because of its increasing prevalence and associated health risks. The disease is characterized by metabolic defects in the production and utilization of carbohydrates which result in the failure to maintain appropriate blood glucose levels. Two major forms of diabetes are recognized. Type I diabetes, or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), is the result of an absolute deficiency of insulin. Type II diabetes, or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), often occurs with normal, or even elevated levels of insulin and appears to be the result of the inability of tissues and cells to respond appropriately to insulin. Aggressive control of NIDDM with medication is essential; otherwise it can progress into IDDM.

As blood glucose increases, it is transported into pancreatic beta cells via a glucose transporter. Intracellular mammalian glucokinase (GK) senses the rise in glucose and activates cellular glycolysis, i.e. the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, and subsequent insulin release. Glucokinase is found principally in pancreatic β-cells and liver parenchymal cells. Because transfer of glucose from the blood into muscle and fatty tissue is insulin dependent, diabetics lack the ability to utilize glucose adequately which leads to undesired accumulation of blood glucose (hyperglycemia). Chronic hyperglycemia leads to decreases in insulin secretion and contributes to increased insulin resistance. Glucokinase also acts as a sensor in hepatic parenchymal cells which induces glycogen synthesis, thus preventing the release of glucose into the blood. The GK processes are thus critical for the maintenance of whole body glucose homeostasis.

It is expected that an agent that activates cellular GK will facilitate glucose-dependent secretion from pancreatic beta cells, correct postprandial hyperglycemia, increase hepatic glucose utilization and potentially inhibit hepatic glucose release. Consequently, a GK activator may provide therapeutic treatment for NIDDM and associated complications, inter alia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance syndrome, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and obesity.

Several drugs in five major categories, each acting by different mechanisms, are available for treating hyperglycemia and subsequently, NIDDM (Moller, D. E., “New drug targets for Type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome” Nature414; 821-827, (2001)): (A) Insulin secretogogues, including sulphonyl-ureas (e.g., glipizide, glimepiride, glyburide) and meglitinides (e.g., nateglidine and repaglinide) enhance secretion of insulin by acting on the pancreatic beta-cells. While this therapy can decrease blood glucose level, it has limited efficacy and tolerability, causes weight gain and often induces hypoglycemia. (B) Biguanides (e.g., metformin) are thought to act primarily by decreasing hepatic glucose production. Biguanides often cause gastrointestinal disturbances and lactic acidosis, further limiting their use. (C) Inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase (e.g., acarbose) decrease intestinal glucose absorption. These agents often cause gastrointestinal disturbances. (D) Thiazolidinediones (e.g., pioglitazone, rosiglitazone) act on a specific receptor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) in the liver, muscle and fat tissues. They regulate lipid metabolism subsequently enhancing the response of these tissues to the actions of insulin. Frequent use of these drugs may lead to weight gain and may induce edema and anemia. (E) Insulin is used in more severe cases, either alone or in combination with the above agents.

Ideally, an effective new treatment for NIDDM would meet the following criteria: (a) it would not have significant side effects including induction of hypoglycemia; (b) it would not cause weight gain; (c) it would at least partially replace insulin by acting via mechanism(s) that are independent from the actions of insulin; (d) it would desirably be metabolically stable to allow less frequent usage; and (e) it would be usable in combination with tolerable amounts of any of the categories of drugs listed herein.

Substituted heteroaryls, particularly pyridones, have been implicated in mediating GK and may play a significant role in the treatment of NIDDM. For example, U.S. Patent publication No. 2006/0058353 and PCT publication Nos. WO2007/043638, WO2007/043638, and WO2007/117995 recite certain heterocyclic derivatives with utility for the treatment of diabetes. Although investigations are on-going, there still exists a need for a more effective and safe therapeutic treatment for diabetes, particularly NIDDM.

 

s1

s1

 

s1

 

PATENT

US 20100063063

http://www.google.com/patents/US20100063063

SYNTHESIS CONSTRUCTION

6-aminonicotinic acid

 

BENZYL BROMIDE

 

Figure US20100063063A1-20100311-C00076

FIRST KEY INTERMEDIATE

 

SECOND SERIES FOR NEXT INTERMEDIATE

CONDENSED WITH

4-Trifluoromethyl-1H-imidazole

TO  GIVE PRODUCT SHOWN BELOW

 

Figure US20100063063A1-20100311-C00025

(S)-methyl 3-cyclopentyl-2-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propanoate (I-8a)

 

CONVERTED TO ACID CHLORIDE, (S)-3-cyclopentyl-2-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propanoyl chloride (I-8c)

AND CONDENSED WITH

Figure US20100063063A1-20100311-C00076

WILL GIVE BENZYL DERIVATIVE

THEN DEBENZYLATION TO FINAL PRODUCT

 

 

 

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 13.10-13.25 (1H), 11.44 (1H), 8.83 (1H), 8.23-8.26 (1H), 8.09-8.12 (1H), 7.94-7.95 (2H), 5.22-5.26 (1H), 2.06-2.17 (2H), 1.29-1.64 (8H), 1.04-1.07 (1H); m/z 397.3 (M+H)+.

 

Organic Process Research & Development (2012), 16(10), 1635-1645

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/op300194c

Abstract Image

This work describes the process development and manufacture of early-stage clinical supplies of a hepatoselective glucokinase activator, a potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Critical issues centered on challenges associated with the synthesis of intermediates and API bearing a particularly racemization-prone α-aryl carboxylate functionality. In particular, a T3P-mediated amidation process was optimized for the coupling of a racemization-prone acid substrate and a relatively non-nucleophilic amine. Furthermore, an unusually hydrolytically-labile amide in the API also complicated the synthesis and isolation of drug substance. The evolution of the process over multiple campaigns is presented, resulting in the preparation of over 110 kg of glucokinase activator.

(S)-6-(3-Cyclopentyl-2-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propanamido)nicotinic Acid (1)

 

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2012), 55(3), 1318-1333

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm2014887

Abstract Image

Glucokinase is a key regulator of glucose homeostasis, and small molecule allosteric activators of this enzyme represent a promising opportunity for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Systemically acting glucokinase activators (liver and pancreas) have been reported to be efficacious but in many cases present hypoglycaemia risk due to activation of the enzyme at low glucose levels in the pancreas, leading to inappropriately excessive insulin secretion. It was therefore postulated that a liver selective activator may offer effective glycemic control with reduced hypoglycemia risk. Herein, we report structure–activity studies on a carboxylic acid containing series of glucokinase activators with preferential activity in hepatocytes versus pancreatic β-cells. These activators were designed to have low passive permeability thereby minimizing distribution into extrahepatic tissues; concurrently, they were also optimized as substrates for active liver uptake via members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family. These studies lead to the identification of 19 as a potent glucokinase activator with a greater than 50-fold liver-to-pancreas ratio of tissue distribution in rodent and non-rodent species. In preclinical diabetic animals, 19 was found to robustly lower fasting and postprandial glucose with no hypoglycemia, leading to its selection as a clinical development candidate for treating type 2 diabetes.

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2013), 23(24), 6588-6592

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X13012638

Image for unlabelled figure

 

Structure of Hepatoselective GKA PF-04991532 (1).

Figure 1.

Structure of Hepatoselective GKA PF-04991532 (1).

 

Pfizer’s PF 04937319 glucokinase activators for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes
DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, WORLD DRUG TRACKER
http://newdrugapprovals.org/2015/11/27/pfizers-pf-04937319-glucokinase-activators-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes/

Graphical abstract: Designing glucokinase activators with reduced hypoglycemia risk: discovery of N,N-dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)-carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yloxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide as a clinical candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

PF 04937319

N,N-dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)-carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yloxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide

MW 432.43

MF C22 H20 N6 O4
CAS 1245603-92-2
2-​Pyrimidinecarboxamid​e, N,​N-​dimethyl-​5-​[[2-​methyl-​6-​[[(5-​methyl-​2-​pyrazinyl)​amino]​carbonyl]​-​4-​benzofuranyl]​oxy]​-
N,N-Dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)carbamoyl)-benzofuran-4- yloxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide
Pfizer Inc. clinical candidate currently in Phase 2 development.
CLINICAL TRIALS

A trial to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of single doses of PF-04937319 in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (NCT01044537)

Multiple dose study of PF-04937319 in patients with type 2 diabetes (NCT01272804)
Phase 2 study to evaluate safety and efficacy of investigational drug – PF04937319 in patients with type 2 diabetes (NCT01475461)

 

SYNTHESIS

PF 319 SYN

Glucokinase is a key regulator of glucose homeostasis and small molecule activators of this enzyme represent a promising opportunity for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Several glucokinase activators have advanced to clinical studies and demonstrated promising efficacy; however, many of these early candidates also revealed hypoglycemia as a key risk. In an effort to mitigate this hypoglycemia risk while maintaining the promising efficacy of this mechanism, we have investigated a series of substituted 2-methylbenzofurans as “partial activators” of the glucokinase enzyme leading to the identification ofN,N-dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)-carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yloxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide as an early development candidate.

 

It is expected that an agent that activates cellular GK will facilitate glucose-dependent secretion from pancreatic beta cells, correct postprandial hyperglycemia, increase hepatic glucose utilization and potentially inhibit hepatic glucose release. Consequently, a GK activator may provide therapeutic treatment for NIDDM and associated complications, inter alia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance syndrome, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and obesity. Several drugs in five major categories, each acting by different mechanisms, are available for treating hyperglycemia and subsequently, NIDDM (Moller, D. E., “New drug targets for Type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome” Nature 414; 821 -827, (2001 )): (A) Insulin secretogogues, including sulphonyl-ureas (e.g., glipizide, glimepiride, glyburide) and meglitinides (e.g., nateglidine and repaglinide) enhance secretion of insulin by acting on the pancreatic beta-cells. While this therapy can decrease blood glucose level, it has limited efficacy and tolerability, causes weight gain and often induces hypoglycemia. (B) Biguanides (e.g., metformin) are thought to act primarily by decreasing hepatic glucose production. Biguanides often cause gastrointestinal disturbances and lactic acidosis, further limiting their use. (C) Inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase (e.g., acarbose) decrease intestinal glucose absorption. These agents often cause gastrointestinal disturbances. (D) Thiazolidinediones (e.g., pioglitazone, rosiglitazone) act on a specific receptor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) in the liver, muscle and fat tissues. They regulate lipid metabolism subsequently enhancing the response of these tissues to the actions of insulin. Frequent use of these drugs may lead to weight gain and may induce edema and anemia. (E) Insulin is used in more severe cases, either alone or in combination with the above agents. Ideally, an effective new treatment for NIDDM would meet the following criteria: (a) it would not have significant side effects including induction of hypoglycemia; (b) it would not cause weight gain; (c) it would at least partially replace insulin by acting via mechanism(s) that are independent from the actions of insulin; (d) it would desirably be metabolically stable to allow less frequent usage; and (e) it would be usable in combination with tolerable amounts of any of the categories of drugs listed herein.

Substituted heteroaryls, particularly pyridones, have been implicated in mediating GK and may play a significant role in the treatment of NIDDM. For example, U.S. Patent publication No. 2006/0058353 and PCT publication No’s. WO2007/043638, WO2007/043638, and WO2007/117995 recite certain heterocyclic derivatives with utility for the treatment of diabetes. Although investigations are on-going, there still exists a need for a more effective and safe therapeutic treatment for diabetes, particularly NIDDM.

 

Designing glucokinase activators with reduced hypoglycemia risk: discovery of N,N-dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)-carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yloxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide as a clinical candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

*Corresponding authors
aPfizer Worldwide Research & Development, Eastern Point Road, Groton
E-mail: jeffrey.a.pfefferkorn@pfizer.com
Tel: +860 686 3421
Med. Chem. Commun., 2011,2, 828-839

DOI: 10.1039/C1MD00116G

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2011/md/c1md00116g/unauth#!divAbstract

http://www.rsc.org/suppdata/md/c1/c1md00116g/c1md00116g.pdf

Glucokinase is a key regulator of glucose homeostasis and small molecule activators of this enzyme represent a promising opportunity for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Several glucokinase activators have advanced to clinical studies and demonstrated promising efficacy; however, many of these early candidates also revealed hypoglycemia as a key risk. In an effort to mitigate this hypoglycemia risk while maintaining the promising efficacy of this mechanism, we have investigated a series of substituted 2-methylbenzofurans as “partial activators” of the glucokinase enzyme leading to the identification ofN,N-dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)-carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yloxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide as an early development candidate.

Graphical abstract: Designing glucokinase activators with reduced hypoglycemia risk: discovery of N,N-dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)-carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yloxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide as a clinical candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

N,N-Dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)carbamoyl)-benzofuran-4- yloxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide (28).

 

PAPER

 

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2013/md/c2md20317k#!divAbstract

 

PAPER

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2013), 23(16), 4571-4578

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X13007452

Glucokinase activators 1 and 2.

Figure 1.

Glucokinase activators 1 and 2.

 

PATENT

Pfizer Inc.

WO 2010103437

https://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2010103437A1?cl=en

Scheme I outlines the general procedures one could use to provide compounds of the present invention having Formula (I).

Figure imgf000011_0001
PF 319 SYN

Preparations of Starting Materials and Key Intermediates

 

 

Beebe, D.A.; Ross, T.T.; Rolph, T.P.; Pfefferkorn, J.A.; Esler, W.P.
The glucokinase activator PF-04937319 improves glycemic control in combination with exercise without causing hypoglycemia in diabetic rats
74th Annu Meet Sci Sess Am Diabetes Assoc (ADA) (June 13-17, San Francisco) 2014, Abst 1113-P

 

Amin, N.B.; Aggarwal, N.; Pall, D.; Paragh, G.; Denney, W.S.; Le, V.; Riggs, M.; Calle, R.A.
Two dose-ranging studies with PF-04937319, a systemic partial activator of glucokinase, as add-on therapy to metformin in adults with type 2 diabetes
Diabetes Obes Metab 2015, 17(8): 751

 

Study to compare single dose of three modified release formulations of PF-04937319 with immediate release material-sparing-tablet (IR MST) formulation previously studied in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (NCT02206607)

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Phase I/II Hepato-specific Glucokinase Activator

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

Advinus Therapeutics announced that it has successfully completed a 14-day POC study in 60 Type II diabetic patients on its lead molecule, GKM-001, a glucokinase activator. The results of the trial show effective glucose lowering across all doses tested without any incidence of hypoglycemia or any other clinically relevant adverse events.

GKM-001 is differentiated from most other GK molecules that are in development, or have been discontinued, due to its novel liver selective mechanism of action.

GKM-001 belongs to a novel class of molecules for treatment of type II diabetes. It is an activator of Glucokinase (GK), a glucose-sensing enzyme found mainly in the liver and pancreas. Being liver selective, GKM-001 mostly activates GK in the liver and not in pancreas, which is its key differentiation from most competitor molecules that activate GK in pancreas as well.

GKM 001 in pipeline for Diabetes by Advinus

by DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

ad 1
GKM 001

Advinus Therapeutics Private L,

A glucokinase activator for treatment of type II diabetes, currently in PI. Advinus is actively exploring partnership options to expedite further development and WW marketing of GKM-001.

Company Advinus Therapeutics Ltd.
Description Activator of glucokinase (GCK; GK)
Molecular Target Glucokinase (GCK) (GK)
Mechanism of Action Glucokinase activator
Therapeutic Modality Small molecule
Latest Stage of Development Phase I/II
Standard Indication Diabetes
Indication Details Treat Type II diabetes

PATENT

https://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2009047798A2?cl=en

Example Cl : (-)-{5-ChIoro-2-[2-(4-cyclopropanesulfonylphenyI)-2-(2,4- difluorophenoxy)acetylamino]thiazol-4-yl}-acetic acid, ethyl ester
1H NMR(400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 1.06-1.08 (m, 2H), 1.30 (t, J=7.2 Hz, 3H), 1.33-1.38 (m, 2H), 2.42-2.50 (m, IH), 3.73 (d, J=2 Hz, 2H), 4.22 (q, J=7.2 Hz ,2H), 5.75 (s, IH), 6.76- 6.77 (m, IH), 6.83-6.86 (m, IH), 6.90-6.98 (m, IH), 7.73 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.96 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 2H), 9.96 (bs, IH). MS (EI) m/z: 571.1 and 573.1 (M+ 1; for 35Cl and 37Cl respectively).

Examples C2 and C3 were prepared in analogues manner of example (Cl) from the appropriate chiral intermediate:

Figure imgf000044_0002

Example Dl : (+)-{5-Chloro-2-[2-(4-cyclopropanesulfonylphenyl)-2-(2,4- difluorophenoxy)acetylamino]thiazol-4-yl}acetic acid, ethyl ester

Advinus’ GK-activator Achieves Early POC for Diabetes

November 29 2011

Partnership Dialog Actively Underway

Advinus Therapeutics, a research-based pharmaceutical company founded by globally experienced industry executives and promoted by the TATA Group, announced that it has successfully completed a 14-day POC study in 60 Type II diabetic patients on its lead molecule, GKM-001, a glucokinase activator. The results of the trial show effective glucose lowering across all doses tested without any incidence of hypoglycemia or any other clinically relevant adverse events.

The clinical trials on GKM-001 validate the company’s pre-clinical hypothesis that a liver selective Glucokinase activator would not cause hypoglycemia (very low blood sugar), while showing robust efficacy.

“GKM-001 is differentiated from most other GK molecules that are in development, or have been discontinued, due to its novel liver selective mechanism of action. GKM-001 has a prolonged pharmacological effect and a half-life that should support a once a day dosing as both mono and combination therapy.” said Dr. Rashmi Barbhaiya, MD & CEO, Advinus Therapeutics. He added that Advinus is actively exploring partnership options to expedite further development and global marketing of GKM-001.

GKM-001 belongs to a novel class of molecules for treatment of type II diabetes. It is an activator of Glucokinase (GK), a glucose-sensing enzyme found mainly in the liver and pancreas. Being liver selective, GKM-001 mostly activates GK in the liver and not in pancreas, which is its key differentiation from most competitor molecules that activate GK in pancreas as well. The resulting increase in insulin secretion creates a potential for hypoglycemia-a risk GKM-001 is designed to avoid. Advinus has the composition of matter patent on GKM-001 for all major markets globally. Both the Single Ascending Dose data, in healthy and type II diabetics, and the Multiple Ascending Dose Study in Type II diabetics has shown that the molecule shows effective glucose lowering in a dose dependent manner and has excellent safety and tolerability profile over a 40-fold dose range. The pharmacokinetic properties of the molecule support once a day dosing. GKM-001 has the potential to be “First-in-Class” drug to address this large, growing and yet poorly addressed market.

Advinus also has identified a clinical candidate as a back-up to GKM-001, which is structurally different. In its portfolio, the company has a growing pipeline for COPD, sickle cell disease, inflammatory bowel disease, type 2 diabetes, acute and chronic pain and rheumatoid arthritis in various stages of late discovery and pre-clinical development.

Advinus Therapeutics team discovers novel molecule for treatment of diabetes

  • The first glucokinase modulator discovered and developed in India 
  • A new concept for the management of diabetes for patients, globally 
  • 100 per cent ‘made in India’ molecule for the treatment of diabetes 
  • IND approved by DGCI, Phase I clinical trial shows excellent safety and tolerance profiles with efficacy

Bangalore: Advinus Therapeutics (Advinus), the research-based pharmaceutical company founded by leading global pharmaceutical executives and promoted by the Tata group, today, announced the discovery of a novel molecule for the treatment of type II diabetes — GKM-001.The molecule is an activator of glucokinase; an enzyme that regulates glucose balance and insulin secretion in the body.

GKM-001 is a completely indigenously developed molecule and the initial clinical trials have shown excellent results for both safety and efficacy.

“Considering past failures of other companies on this target, our discovery programme primarily focused on identifying a molecule that would be efficacious without causing hypoglycaemia; a side effect associated with most compounds developed for this target.

“Recently completed Phase I data indicate that Advinus’ GKM–001 is a liver selective molecule that has overcome the biggest clinical challenge of hypoglycaemia. GKM-001 is differentiated from most other GK molecules in development due to this novel mechanism of action,” said Dr Rashmi Barbhaiya, MD and CEO, Advinus Therapeutics.

He further added, “We are very proud that GKM-001 is 100 per cent Indian. Advinus’s discovery team in Pune discovered the molecule and entire preclinical development was carried out at our centre in Bangalore. The Investigational New Drug (IND) application was filed with the DGCI for approval to initiate clinical trials in India within 34 months of initiation of the discovery programme. Subsequent to the approval of the IND, we have completed the Phase I Single Ascending Dose study in India within two months.”

GKM-001 is a novel molecule for the treatment of type II diabetes. It is the first glucokinase modulator discovered and developed in India and has potential to be both first or best in class. The success in discovering GKM-001 is attributed to the science-driven efforts in Advinus laboratories and ‘breaking the conventional mold’ for selection of a drug candidate. Advinus has ‘composition of matter’ patent on the molecule for all major markets globally. Glucokinase as a class of target is considered to be novel as currently there is no product in the market or in late clinical trials. The strategy for early clinical development revolved around assessing safety (particularly hypoglycaemia) and early assessment of therapeutic activity (glucose lowering and other biomarkers) in type II diabetics. The Phase I data, in both healthy and type II diabetics, shows excellent safety and tolerability over a 40-fold dose range and desirable pharmacokinetic properties consistent with ‘once a day’ dosing. The next wave of clinical studies planned continues on this strategy of early testing in type II diabetics.

Right behind the lead candidate GKM-001, Advinus has a rich pipeline of back up compounds on the same target. These include several structurally different compounds with diverse potency, unique pharmacology and tissue selectivity. Having discovered the molecule with early indication of wide safety margins, desired efficacy and pharmacokinetic profiles, the company now seeks to out-licence GKM-001 and its discovery portfolio.

Kasim A. Mookhtiar, , Debnath Bhuniya, Siddhartha De, Anita Chugh, Jayasagar
Gundu, Venkata Palle, Dhananjay Umrani, Nimish Vachharajani, Vikram
Ramanathan and Rashmi H. Barbhaiya
Advinus Therapeutics Ltd, Hinjewadi, Pune – 411057, and Peenya Industrial Area,
Bangalore – 560058, India
REFERENCES

patent

wo 2008104994

wo 2008 149382

wo 2009047798
WO2008104994A2* 25 Feb 2008 4 Sep 2008 Advinus Therapeutics Private L 2,2,2-tri-substituted acetamide derivatives as glucokinase activators, their process and pharmaceutical application

///////GKM 001, pipeline, Diabetes, Advinus, type II diabetes, glucokinase modulator, Rashmi Barbhaiya

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