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Posts Tagged ‘pharmacogenomics’


Genetic Testing incorporation in Medical Practice: Online Program aimed at Educating Physicians and other Health Care Professionals – Initiative by American Medical Association (AMA), in partnership with Scripps Translational Science Institute (Scripps) and The Jackson Laboratory (JAX)

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

JAX, AMA, Scripps Launch Genomic Education for Physicians

By Clinical Informatics News Staff

July 14, 2016 | The American Medical Association (AMA), in partnership with Scripps Translational Science Institute (Scripps) and The Jackson Laboratory (JAX), have announced a new online program aimed at educating physicians and other health care professionals on the benefits and limitations of genetic testing and when it is appropriate to incorporate it into their practices.

“For the very first time we’re moving into translational education—that is, we’re doing continuing medical education and doing it quite well,” Edison Liu, President and CEO of the Jackson Laboratory, told Clinical Informatics News. “What we have found is that there is an ever-widening gulf that is widening on a year by year basis between the practitioners of the art of medical medicine and the academic practitioners who use and experiment in genomics.”

The first educational module of the 12-part series, “Precision Medicine for Your Practice”, launched last week and focuses on expanded carrier screening. The module is designed to help physicians who provide prenatal care to understand the benefits and limitations of using expanded genetic screening panels to estimate whether expectant and prospective parents risk passing on to their children dozens of conditions.

Eleven additional modules, all carrying CME credit, will be released over the next year, and will focus on other applications of genetic testing, including targeted therapy in oncology, genomic sequencing, cardiogenomics, neurogenomics, pharmacogenomics, and ethics in precision medicine. In each module, clinicians will have the opportunity to practice applying genetic information to patient cases, assess the utility of genetic information, and learn about benefits and limitations of new genetic tests.

Liu said physicians will have the opportunity to combine online and experiential instruction. “Our fundamental belief… is that the most impactful education is combined, blended online and experiential. But it has to be blended in a way that accommodates the schedule of a busy physician,” he said.

JAX and its partners have been experimenting with online introductions to vocabulary and principles, and then day-long practicums at the JAX facility in Maine, “usually a Friday afternoon and Saturday morning,” Liu explained. JAX is also developing post-course communities, to connect physicians to resources, experts, and each other.

“Genomics is racing away in complexity; the technologies are just beyond belief,” Liu said. “We have found there’s really a growing misunderstanding by very smart practicing physicians on what genomics can or can’t deliver. What we are wanting to do is close that gap.”

SOURCE

http://www.clinicalinformaticsnews.com/2016/07/14/jax-ama-scripps-launch-genomic-education-physicians.aspx

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Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers for Personalized Cancer Treatment

Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

 

Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers for Personalized Cancer Treatment

Rodríguez-Antona C1Taron M.
J Intern Med. 2015 Feb; 277(2):201-17
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1111/joim.12321

Personalized medicine involves the selection of the safest and most effective pharmacological treatment based on the molecular characteristics of the patient. In the case of anticancer drugs, tumor cell alterations can have a great impact on drug activity and, in fact, most biomarkers predicting response originate from these cells. On the other hand, the risk of developing severe toxicity may be related to the genetic background of the patient. Thus, understanding the molecular characteristics of both the tumor and the patient, and establishing their relation with drug outcomes will be critical for the identification of predictive biomarkers and to provide the basis for individualized treatments. This is a complex scenario where multiple genes as well as pathophysiological and environmental factors are important; in addition, tumors exhibit large inter- and intraindividual variability in space and time. Against this background, the huge amounts of biological and genetic data generated by the high-throughput technologies will facilitate pharmacogenomic progress, suggest novel druggable molecules and support the design of future strategies aimed at disease control. Here, we will review the current challenges and opportunities for pharmacogenomic studies in oncology, as well as the clinically established biomarkers. Lung and renal cancer, two areas in which huge progress has been made in the last decade, will be used to illustrate advances in personalized cancer treatment; we will review EGFR mutation as the paradigm of targeted therapies in lung cancer, and discuss the dissection of lung cancer into clinically relevant molecular subsets and novel advances that suggest an important role of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the response to antiangiogenic agents, as well as the challenges that remain in these fields. Finally, we will present new approaches and future prospects for personalizing medicine in oncology.

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Biomarker Guided Therapy

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

Novel serum protein biomarker panel revealed by mass spectrometry and its prognostic value in breast cancer

Liping Chung, K Moore, L Phillips, FM Boyle, DJ Marsh and RC Baxter
Breast Cancer Research 2014, 16:R63
http://breast-cancer-research.com/content/16/3/R63

Introduction: Serum profiling using proteomic techniques has great potential to detect biomarkers that might improve diagnosis and predict outcome for breast cancer patients (BC). This study used surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to identify differentially expressed  proteins in sera from BC and healthy volunteers (HV), with the
goal  of developing a new prognostic biomarker panel.
Methods: Training set serum samples from 99 BC and 51 HV subjects were applied to four adsorptive chip surfaces (anion-exchange, cation-exchange, hydrophobic, and metal affinity) and analyzed by time-of-flight MS. For validation, 100 independent BC serum samples and 70 HV samples were analyzed similarly. Cluster analysis of protein spectra was performed to identify protein patterns related to BC and HV groups. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to develop a protein panel to distinguish breast cancer sera from healthy sera, and its prognostic potential was evaluated.
Results: From 51 protein peaks that were significantly up- or downregulated in BC patients by univariate analysis, binary logistic regression yielded five protein peaks that together classified BC and HV with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area-under-the-curve value of 0.961. Validation on an independent patient cohort confirmed the five-protein parameter (ROC value 0.939). The five-protein parameter showed positive association with large tumor size (P = 0.018) and lymph node involvement (P = 0.016). By matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS, immunoprecipitation and western blotting the proteins were identified as a fragment of apolipoprotein H (ApoH), ApoCI, complement C3a, transthyretin, and ApoAI. Kaplan-Meier analysis on 181 subjects after median follow-up of >5 years demonstrated that the panel significantly predicted disease-free survival (P = 0.005), its efficacy apparently greater in women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors (n = 50, P = 0.003) compared to ER-positive (n = 131, P = 0.161), although the influence of ER status needs to be confirmed after longer follow-up.
Conclusions: Protein mass profiling by MS has revealed five serum proteins which, in combination, can distinguish between serum from women with breast cancer and healthy control subjects with high sensitivity and specificity. The five-protein panel significantly predicts recurrence-free survival in women with ER-negative tumors and may have value in the management of these patients.

Variants of uncertain significance in BRCA: a harbinger of ethical and policy issues to come?

Jae Yeon Cheon, Jessica Mozersky and Robert Cook-Deegan
Genome Medicine 2014, 6:121
http://genomemedicine.com/content/6/12/121

After two decades of genetic testing and research, the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are two of the most well-characterized genes in the human genome. As a result, variants of uncertain significance (VUS; also called variants of unknown significance) are reported less frequently than for genes that have been less thoroughly studied. However, VUS continue to be uncovered, even for BRCA1/2. The increasing use of multi-gene panels and whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing will lead to higher rates of VUS detection because more genes are being tested, and most genomic loci have been far less intensively characterized than BRCA1/2. In this article, we draw attention to ethical and policy-related issues that will emerge. Experience garnered from BRCA1/2 testing is a useful introduction to the challenges of detecting VUS in other genetic testing contexts, while features unique to BRCA1/2 suggest key differences between the BRCA experience and the current challenges of multi-gene panels in clinical care. We propose lines of research and policy development, emphasizing the importance of pooling data into a centralized open-access database for the storage of gene variants to improve VUS interpretation. In addition, establishing ethical norms and regulated practices for sharing and curating data, analytical algorithms, interpretive frameworks and patient re-contact are important policy areas.

The Significance of Normal Pretreatment Levels of CA125 (<35 U/mL) in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma

Joseph Menczer,  Erez Ben-Shem,  Abraham Golan, and Tally Levy
Rambam Maimonides Med J 2015;6 (1):e0005. http://dx.doi.org:/10.5041/RMMJ.10180

Objective: To assess the association between normal CA125 levels at diagnosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) with prognostic factors and with outcome.
Methods: The study group consisted of histologically confirmed EOC patients with normal pretreatment CA125 levels, and the controls consisted of EOC patients with elevated (≥35 U/mL) pretreatment CA125 levels, diagnosed and treated between 1995 and 2112. Study and control group patients fulfilled the following criteria: 1) their pretreatment CA125 levels were assessed; 2) they had full standard primary treatment, i.e. cytoreductive surgery and cisplatin-based chemotherapy; and 3) they were followed every 2–4 months during the first two years and every 4–6 months thereafter.
Results: Of 114 EOC patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 22 (19.3%) had normal pretreatment CA125 levels. The control group consisted of the remaining 92 patients with ≥35 U/mL serum CA125 levels pretreatment. The proportion of patients with early-stage and low-grade disease, with optimal cytoreduction, and with platin-sensitive tumors was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly higher in the study group than in the control group on univariate analysis but not on multivariate analysis.

Higher gene expression variability in the more aggressive subtype of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Simone Ecker, Vera Pancaldi, Daniel Rico and Alfonso Valencia
Genome Medicine (2015) 7:8 http://dx.doi.org:/10.1186/s13073-014-0125-z

Background: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) presents two subtypes which have drastically different clinical outcomes, IgVH mutated (M-CLL) and IgVH unmutated (U-CLL). So far, these two subtypes are not associated to clear differences in gene expression profiles. Interestingly, recent results have highlighted important roles for heterogeneity, both at the genetic and at the epigenetic level in CLL progression.
Methods: We analyzed gene expression data of two large cohorts of CLL patients and quantified expression variability across individuals to investigate differences between the two subtypes using different measures and statistical tests. Functional significance was explored by pathway enrichment and network analyses. Furthermore, we implemented a random forest approach based on expression variability to classify patients into disease subtypes.
Results: We found that U-CLL, the more aggressive type of the disease, shows significantly increased variability of gene expression across patients and that, overall, genes that show higher variability in the aggressive subtype are related to cell cycle, development and inter-cellular communication. These functions indicate a potential relation between gene expression variability and the faster progression of this CLL subtype. Finally, a classifier based on gene expression variability was able to correctly predict the disease subtype of CLL patients.
Conclusions: There are strong relations between gene expression variability and disease subtype linking significantly increased expression variability to phenotypes such as aggressiveness and resistance to therapy in CLL.

The Emerging Roles of Thyroglobulin

Yuqian Luo, Yuko Ishido, Naoki Hiroi, Norihisa Ishii, and Koichi Suzuki
Advances in Endocrinology 2014, Article ID 189194, 7 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/189194

Thyroglobulin (Tg), the most important and abundant protein in thyroid follicles, is well known for its essential role in thyroid hormone synthesis. In addition to its conventional role as the precursor of thyroid hormones, we have uncovered a novel function of Tg as an endogenous regulator of follicular function over the past decade. The newly discovered negative feedback effect of Tg on follicular function observed in the rat and human thyroid provides an alternative explanation for the observation of follicle heterogeneity. Given the essential role of the regulatory effects of Tg, we consider that dysregulation of normal Tg function is associated with multiple human thyroid diseases including autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid cancer. Additionally, extrathyroid Tg may serve a regulatory function in other organs. Further exploration of Tg action, especially at the molecular level, is needed to obtain a better understanding of both the physiological and pathological roles of Tg.

The GUIDE-IT trial will help doctors find a new standard of care for heart failure.

Heart failure affects more than 25 million people worldwide, including 5.8 million in the United States and 6.9 million in Europe. About one to two percent of adults in developed countries have been diagnosed with heart failure; this increases to more than 10 percent in people over age 70. Moreover, heart failure accounts for more than 17 percent of Medicare spending and about 5 percent of total US healthcare spending. The cost to society in the US is about 30 billion dollars a year—and rising.

For people hospitalized due to heart failure, the outlook isn’t encouraging. Following discharge, one in four patients is likely to be back in the hospital in less than a month. With every acute heart failure event that requires readmission, the chances of dying from the disease increase.

Heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to fill with or pump sufficient blood to meet the needs of the body. Some heart failure symptoms—shortness of breath, fatigue and fluid buildup—which are present in other health problems. Heart failure may develop from coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, cardiomyopathy, heart valve disease, arrhythmias, viral or bacterial infections, and congenital heart defects. As a consequence, these patients often have additional diseases (comorbidities) and managing heart failure can be extremely challenging.

There have been no new drugs for heart failure in more than a decade. The last breakthrough was cardiac resynchronization therapy, a device and not a drug. The goals of therapy are to treat heart failure’s underlying causes, reduce symptoms, improve the patient’s quality of life and keep the disease from getting worse.

More than a pump

The heart isn’t just a muscle pumping blood through the body. It is also an endocrine gland that secretes peptides and hormones. When the heart is failing, its stressed cells release larger amounts of substances known as natriuretic peptides, including N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide, or NT-proBNP.

Roche’s NT-proBNP test measures the levels of this peptide and helps doctors to determine whether patients are suffering from heart failure and to assess their prognosis. Most recently, NT-proBNP has also been shown to help physicians guide and adjust the patient’s drug therapy. The objective of the pivotal GUIDE-IT trial is to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of NT-proBNP guided heart failure therapy.

Sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the GUIDE-IT trial will help doctors answer important questions about NT-proBNP’s impact on medical care. About 1100 patients are enrolled in this robustly powered, randomized controlled trial comparing NT-proBNP guided therapy on top of standard care versus standard care alone in high-risk heart failure patients. Its primary endpoint is time to cardiovascular death or first heart failure hospitalization.

With the NT-proBNP biomarker, doctors can create personalized treatment plans for patients to substantially reduce mortality and morbidity. It can be viewed as a companion diagnostic that works with all the drugs recommended by the major guidelines.

Finding new answers

GUIDE-IT will last five years and involve approximately 45 trial sites in the United States. The first group of patients will be enrolled by the end of 2012.

“We need to take a more strategic approach if we are going to meet the AHA/ASA’s 2020 goal of reducing heart failure hospitalizations by 20 percent,” Dr. O’Connor, Chief of the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine at Duke Heart Center in Durham, North Carolina, said at a media briefing held in October at Roche Diagnostics International in Rotkreuz, Switzerland.
The relative and combined ability of: high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic Peptide – to predict cardiovascular events and death in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Hillis GS; Welsh P; Chalmers J; Perkovic V; Chow CK; Li Q; Jun M; Neal B; et al.
http://reference.medscape.com/medline/abstract/24089534?src=wnl_ref_prac_diab

OBJECTIVE Current methods of risk stratification in patients with type 2 diabetes are suboptimal. The current study assesses the ability of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) to improve the prediction of cardiovascular events and death in patients with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A nested case-cohort study was performed in 3,862 patients who participated in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial. RESULTS Seven hundred nine (18%) patients experienced a major cardiovascular event (composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke) and 706 (18%) died during a median of 5 years of follow-up. In Cox regression models, adjusting for all established risk predictors, the hazard ratio for cardiovascular events for NT-proBNP was 1.95 per 1 SD increase (95% CI 1.72, 2.20) and the hazard ratio for hs-cTnT was 1.50 per 1 SD increase (95% CI 1.36, 1.65). The hazard ratios for death were 1.97 (95% CI 1.73, 2.24) and 1.52 (95% CI 1.37, 1.67), respectively. The addition of either marker improved 5-year risk classification for cardiovascular events (net reclassification index in continuous model, 39% for NT-proBNP and 46% for hs-cTnT). Likewise, both markers greatly improved the accuracy with which the 5-year risk of death was predicted. The combination of both markers provided optimal risk discrimination.
CONCLUSIONS NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT appear to greatly improve the accuracy with which the risk of cardiovascular events or death can be estimated in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Genetics and Heart Failure: A Concise Guide for the Clinician

Cécile Skrzynia, Jonathan S. Berg, Monte S. Willis and Brian C. Jensen
Current Cardiology Reviews, 2013; 9.

Abstract: The pathogenesis of heart failure involves a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Genetic factors may influence the susceptibility to the underlying etiology of heart failure, the rapidity of disease progression, or the response to pharmacologic therapy. The genetic contribution to heart failure is relatively minor in most multifactorial cases, but more direct and profound in the case of familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Early studies of genetic risk for heart failure focused on polymorphisms in genes integral to the adrenergic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Some of these variants were found to increase the risk of developing heart failure, and others appeared to affect the therapeutic response to neurohormonal antagonists. Regardless, each variant individually confers a relatively modest increase in risk and likely requires complex interaction with other variants and the environment for heart failure to develop. Dilated cardiomyopathy frequently leads to heart failure, and a genetic etiology increasingly has been recognized in cases previously considered to be “idiopathic”. Up to 50% of dilated cardiomyopathy cases without other cause likely are due to a heritable genetic mutation. Such mutations typically are found in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins and are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. In recent years, rapid advances in sequencing technology have improved our ability to diagnose familial dilated cardiomyopathy and those diagnostic tests are available widely. Optimal care for the expanding population of patients with heritable heart failure involves counselors and physicians with specialized training in genetics, but numerous online genetics resources are available to practicing clinicians.

Cardiac Troponin Testing Is Overused after the Rule-In or Rule-Out of Myocardial Infarction

Olaia Rodriguez Fraga, Y Sandoval, SA Love, ZJ McKinney, MAM Murakami, SW Smith, FS Apple
Clinical Chemistry 2015; 61:2 http://dx.doi.org:/10.1373/clinchem.2014.232694

No good studies have systematically evaluated appropriate clinical utilization of cardiac troponin testing in the clinical setting of the rule-in and rule-out of myocardial infarction (MI). Our collective 100-plus years of clinical and laboratory experience suggested that provider test ordering and use of cardiac troponin has been excessive after a diagnosis of MI or no MI has been determined. There is no evidence that supports continuation of cardiac troponin testing after a diagnosis is made.

Number of cTnI results demonstrating excessive orders by diagnosis

Number of cTnI results demonstrating excessive orders by diagnosis

Time and Frequency Domain Analysis of Heart Rate Variability and their orrelations in Diabetes Mellitus
T. Ahamed Seyd, V. I. Thajudin Ahamed, Jeevamma Jacob, Paul Joseph K
Intl J Biolog and Life Sciences 2008; 4(1)

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently characterized by autonomic nervous dysfunction. Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has become a popular noninvasive tool for assessing the activities of autonomic nervous system (ANS). In this paper, changes in ANS
activity are quantified by means of frequency and time domain analysis of R-R interval variability. Electrocardiograms (ECG) of 16 patients suffering from DM and of 16 healthy volunteers were recorded. Frequency domain analysis of extracted normal to normal interval (NN interval) data indicates significant difference in very low frequency (VLF) power, low frequency (LF) power and high frequency (HF) power, between the DM patients and control group. Time domain measures, standard deviation of NN interval (SDNN), root mean square of successive NN interval differences (RMSSD), successive NN intervals differing more than 50 ms (NN50 Count), percentage value of NN50 count (pNN50), HRV triangular index and triangular interpolation of NN intervals (TINN) also show significant difference between the DM patients and control group.

Power Spectral Density of the RR interval of a 55 year old healthy volunteer

Power Spectral Density of the RR interval of a 55 year old healthy volunteer

Power Spectral Density of the RR interval of a 55 year old healthy volunteer

Power Spectral Density of the RR interval of a 62 year old woman suffering

Power Spectral Density of the RR interval of a 62 year old woman suffering

Power Spectral Density of the RR interval of a 62 year old woman suffering
from diabetes for the last 15 years

HRV analysis has gained much importance in recent years, as a technique employed to explore the activity of ANS, and as an important early marker for identifying different pathological conditions. DM is a disease in which the cardiac autonomic activity is progressively compromised. Our investigation indicates that different time domain and frequency domain measures of HRV would be able to provide valuable information regarding the autonomic dysfunction to DM.

Time domain and frequency domain analysis of the RR interval variability of diabetic and normal subjects shows that there is significant difference in these measures for DM patients with respect to normal subjects. Variation of the HRV parameters indicates changes in ANS activity of DM patients. This can provide valid information regarding autonomic neuropathy in people with diabetes. It may be noted that these methods can detect changes before clinical signs appear. So we can expect that these measures enable early detection and treatment/subsequent management of patients and thus can avoid acute and chronic complications.

Multiparametric diagnostics of cardiomyopathies by microRNA signatures

Christine S. Siegismund & Maria Rohde & Uwe Kühl & Dirk Lassner
Microchim Acta 2014   http://dx.doi.org:/10.1007/s00604-014-1249-y

The diagnosis of cardiomyopathies by endomyocardial biopsy analysis is the gold standard for confirmation of causative reasons but is failing if a sample does not contain the area of interest due to focal pathology. Biopsies are revealing an extract of the current situation of the heart muscle only, and the need for global organ-specific or systemic markers is obvious in order to minimize sampling errors. Global markers like specific gene expression signatures in myocardial tissue may therefore reflect the focal situation or condition of the whole myocardium. Besides gene expression profiles, microRNAs (miRNAs) represent a new group of stable biomarkers that are detectable both in tissue and body fluids. Such miRNAs may serve as cardiological biomarkers to characterize inflammatory processes, to confirm viral infections, and to differentiate various forms of infection.
The predictive power of single miRNAs for diagnosis of complex diseases may be further increased if several distinctly deregulated candidates are combined to form a specific miRNA signature. Diagnostic systems that generate disease related miRNA profiles are based on microarrays, bead-based oligo sorbent assays, or on assays based on real-time polymerase chain reactions and placed on microfluidic cards or nanowell plates. Multiparametric diagnostic systems that can measure differentially expressed miRNAs may become the diagnostic tool of the future due to their predictive value with respect to clinical course, therapeutic decisions, and therapy monitoring. We discuss here specific merits, limitations and the potential of currently available analytical platforms for diagnostics of heart muscle diseases based on miRNA profiling.

Predictive value of plasma galectin-3 levels in heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction

Rudolf A. de Boer, DJA Lok, T Jaarsma, P van der Meer, AA Voors, et al.
Annals Med, 2011; 43: 60–68 http://dx.doi.org:/10.3109/07853890.2010.538080

We studied the prognostic value of base-line galectin-3 in a large HF cohort, with preserved and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and compared this to other biomarkers.
Methods. We studied 592 HF patients who had been hospitalized for HF and were followed for 18 months. The primary end-point was a composite of all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization.
Results. A doubling of galectin-3 levels was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.97 (1.62–2.42) for the primary outcome (P= 0.001). After correction for age, gender, BNP, eGFR, and diabetes the HR was 1.38 (1.07–1.78; P= 0.015). Galectin-3 levels were correlated with higher IL -6 and CRP levels (P= 0.002). Changes of galectin-3 levels after 6 months did not add prognostic information to the base-line value (n= 291); however, combining plasma galectin-3 and BNP levels increased prognostic value over either biomarker alone (ROC analysis, P = 0.05). The predictive value of galectin-3 was stronger in patients with preserved LVEF (n= 114) compared to patients with reduced LVEF (P= 0.001).
Conclusions. Galectin-3 is an independent marker for outcome in HF and appears to be particularly useful in HF patients with preserved LVEF.

Criteria for the use of omics-based predictors in clinical trials

Lisa M. McShane, MM Cavenagh, TG Lively, DA Eberhard, et al.
Nature  17 Oct 2013; 502: 317-320. http://dx.doi.org:/10.1038/nature12564

The US National Cancer Institute (NCI), in collaboration with scientists representing multiple areas of expertise relevant to ‘omics’-based test development, has developed a checklist of criteria that can be used to determine the readiness of omics-based tests for guiding patient care in clinical trials. The checklist criteria cover issues relating to specimens, assays, mathematical modelling, clinical trial design, and ethical, legal and regulatory aspects. Funding bodies and journals are encouraged to consider the checklist, which they may find useful for assessing study quality and evidence strength. The checklist will be used to evaluate proposals for NCI-sponsored clinical
trials in which omics tests will be used to guide therapy.

M-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Nitroglycerin in a Canine Model of Experimental Acute Hypertensive Heart Failure: Differential Actions of 2 cGMP Activating Therapeutics.

Paul M McKie, Alessandro Cataliotti, Tomoko Ichiki, S Jeson Sangaralingham, Horng H Chen, John C Burnett
J Am Heart Assoc 01/2014; 3(1):e000206. http://dx.doi.org:/10.1161/JAHA.113.000206

Systemic hypertension is a common characteristic in acute heart failure (HF). This increasingly recognized phenotype is commonly associated with renal dysfunction and there is an unmet need for renal enhancing therapies. In a canine model of HF and acute vasoconstrictive hypertension we characterized and compared the cardiorenal actions of M-atrial natriuretic peptide (M-ANP), a novel particulate guanylyl cyclase (pGC) activator, and nitroglycerin, a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activator.
HF was induced by rapid RV pacing (180 beats per minute) for 10 days. On day 11, hypertension was induced by continuous angiotensin II infusion. We characterized the cardiorenal and humoral actions prior to, during, and following intravenous M-ANP (n=7), nitroglycerin (n=7), and vehicle (n=7) infusion. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was reduced by M-ANP (139±4 to 118±3 mm Hg, P<0.05) and nitroglycerin (137±3 to 116±4 mm Hg, P<0.05); similar findings were recorded for pulmonary wedge pressure (PCWP) with M-ANP (12±2 to 6±2 mm Hg, P<0.05) and nitroglycerin (12±1 to 6±1 mm Hg, P<0.05). M-ANP enhanced renal function with significant increases (P<0.05) in glomerular filtration rate (38±4 to 53±5 mL/min), renal blood flow (132±18 to 236±23 mL/min), and natriuresis (11±4 to 689±37 mEq/min) and also inhibited aldosterone activation (32±3 to 23±2 ng/dL, P<0.05), whereas nitroglycerin had no significant (P>0.05) effects on these renal parameters or aldosterone activation.
Our results advance the differential cardiorenal actions of pGC (M-ANP) and sGC (nitroglycerin) mediated cGMP activation. These distinct renal and aldosterone modulating actions make M-ANP an attractive therapeutic for HF with concomitant hypertension, where renal protection is a key therapeutic goal.

Genome-Wide Association Study of a Heart Failure Related Metabolomic Profile Among African Americans in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

Bing Yu, Y Zheng, D Alexander, TA Manolio, A Alonso, JA Nettleton, & E Boerwinkle
Genet Epidemiol 2013; 00:1–6, http://dx.doi.org:/10.1002/gepi.21752

Both the prevalence and incidence of heart failure (HF) are increasing, especially among African Americans, but no large-scale, genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HF-related metabolites has been reported. We sought to identify novel genetic variants that are associated with metabolites previously reported to relate to HF incidence. GWASs of three metabolites identified previously as risk factors for incident HF (pyroglutamine, dihydroxy docosatrienoic acid, and X-11787, being either hydroxy-leucine or hydroxy-isoleucine) were performed in 1,260 African Americans free of HF at the baseline examination of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. A significant association on chromosome 5q33 (rs10463316, MAF = 0.358, P-value = 1.92 × 10−10) was identified for pyroglutamine. One region on chromosome 2p13 contained a nonsynonymous substitution in N-acetyltransferase 8 (NAT8) was associated with X-11787 (rs13538, MAF = 0.481, P-value = 1.71 × 10−23). The smallest P-value for dihydroxy docosatrienoic acid was rs4006531 on chromosome 8q24 (MAF = 0.400, P-value = 6.98 × 10−7). None of the above SNPs were individually associated with incident HF, but a genetic risk score (GRS) created by summing the most significant risk alleles from each metabolite detected 11% greater risk of HF per allele. In summary, we identified three loci associated with previously reported HF-related metabolites. Further use of metabolomics technology will facilitate replication of these findings in independent samples.

Global Left Atrial Strain Correlates with CHADS2 Risk Score in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

SK Saha, PL Anderson, G Caracciolo, A Kiotsekoglou, S Wilansky, S Govind, et al.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2011; 24(5): 506-512.
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.echo.2011.02.012

Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between echocardiographic parameters and CHADS2 score in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF).
Methods: Seventy-seven subjects (36 patients with AF, 41 control subjects) underwent standard twodimensional, Doppler, and speckle-tracking echocardiography to compute regional and global left atrial (LA) strain.
Results: Global longitudinal LA strain was reduced in patients with AF compared with controls (P < .001) and was a predictor of high risk for thromboembolism (CHADS2 score $ 2; odds ratio, 0.86; P = .02). LA strain indexes showed good interobserver and intraobserver variability. In sequential Cox models, the prediction of hospitalization and/or death was improved by addition of global LA strain and indexed LA volume to CHADS2 score (P = .003).
Conclusions: LA strain is a reproducible marker of dynamic LA function and a predictor of stroke risk and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with AF.

Gene Expression and Genetic Variation in Human Atria

Honghuang Lin, EV Dolmatova, MP Morley, KL Lunetta, et al.
Heart Rhythm, HRTHM5533. PII: S1547-5271(13)01226-5
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2013.10.051

Background— The human left and right atria have different susceptibilities to develop atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the molecular events related to structural and functional changes that enhance AF susceptibility are still poorly understood.
Objective— To characterize gene expression and genetic variation in human atria.
Methods— We studied the gene expression profiles and genetic variations in 53 left atrial and 52 right atrial tissue samples collected from the Myocardial Applied Genomics Network (MAGNet) repository. The tissues were collected from heart failure patients undergoing transplantation and from unused organ donor hearts with normal ventricular function. Gene expression was profiled using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133A Array. Genetic variation was profiled using the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0.
Results— We found that 109 genes were differentially expressed between left and right atrial tissues. A total of 187 and 259 significant cis-associations between transcript levels and genetic variants were identified in left and right atrial tissues, respectively. We also found that a SNP at a known AF locus, rs3740293, was associated with the expression of MYOZ1 in both left and right atrial tissues. Conclusion— We found a distinct transcriptional profile between the right and left atrium, and extensive cis-associations between atrial transcripts and common genetic variants. Our results implicate MYOZ1 as the causative gene at the chromosome 10q22 locus for AF.

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Patients with Nonfamilial Structural Atrial Fibrillation

Pietro Francia, A Ricotta, A Frattari, R Stanzione, A Modestino, et al.
Clinical Medicine Insights: Cardiology 2013:7 153–159
http://dx.doi.org:/10.4137/CMC.S12239

Background: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has antihypertrophic and antifibrotic properties that are relevant to AF substrates. The −G664C and rs5065 ANP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have been described in association with clinical phenotypes, including hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. A recent study assessed the association of early AF and rs5065 SNPs in low-risk subjects. In a Caucasian population with moderate-to-high cardiovascular risk profile and structural AF, we conducted a case-control study to assess whether the ANP −G664C and rs5065 SNP associate with nonfamilial structural AF.
Methods: 168 patients with nonfamilial structural AF and 168 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. The rs5065 and −G664C ANP SNPs were genotyped.
Results: The study population had a moderate-to-high cardiovascular risk profile with 86% having hypertension, 23% diabetes, 26% previous myocardial infarction, and 23% left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Patients with AF had greater left atrial diameter (44 ± 7
vs. 39 ± 5 mm; P , 0.001) and higher plasma NTproANP levels (6240 ± 5317 vs. 3649 ± 2946 pmol/mL; P , 0.01). Odds ratios (ORs)
for rs5065 and −G664C gene variants were 1.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7–1.8; P = 0.71) and 1.2 (95% CI, 0.3–3.2; P = 0.79), respectively, indicating no association with AF. There were no differences in baseline clinical characteristics among carriers and noncarriers of the −664C and rs5065 minor allele variants.
Conclusions: We report lack of association between the rs5065 and −G664C ANP gene SNPs and AF in a Caucasian population of patients with structural AF. Further studies will clarify whether these or other ANP gene variants affect the risk of different subphenotypes of AF driven by distinct pathophysiological mechanisms.

N-terminal proBNP and mortality in hospitalized patients with heart failure and preserved vs. reduced systolic function: data from the prospective Copenhagen Hospital Heart Failure Study (CHHF)

Kirk, M. Bay, J. Parnerc, K. Krogsgaard, T.M. Herzog, S. Boesgaard, et al.
Eur Journal Heart Failure 6 (2004) 335–341
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.ejheart.2004.01.002

Preserved systolic function among heart failure patients is a common finding, a fact that has only recently been fully appreciated. The aim of the present study was to examine the value of NT-proBNP to predict mortality in relation to established risk factors among consecutively hospitalised heart failure patients and secondly to characterise patients in relation to preserved and reduced systolic function. Material: At the time of admission 2230 consecutively hospitalised patients had their cardiac status evaluated through determinations of NT-proBNP, echocardiography, clinical examination and medical history. Follow-up was performed 1 year later in all patients. Results: 161 patients fulfilled strict diagnostic criteria for heart failure (HF). In this subgroup of patients 1-year mortality was approximately 30% and significantly higher as compared to the remaining non-heart failure population (approx. 16%). Using univariate analysis left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), New York Heart Association classification (NYHA) and plasma levels of NT-proBNP all predicted mortality independently. However, regardless of systolic function, age and NYHA class, risk-stratification was provided by measurements of NT-proBNP. Having measured plasma levels of NT-proBNP, LVEF did not provide any additional prognostic information on mortality among heart failure patients (multivariate analysis).
Conclusion: The results show that independent of LVEF, measurements of NT-proBNP add additional prognostic information. It is concluded that NT-proBNP is a strong predictor of 1-year mortality in consecutively hospitalised patients with heart failure with preserved as well as reduced systolic function.

N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and the prediction of primary cardiovascular events: results from 15-year follow-up of WOSCOPS

Paul Welsh, Orla Doolin, Peter Willeit, Chris Packard, Peter Macfarlane, et al.
Eur Heart Journal 2014. http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/

Aims: To test whether N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was independently associated with, and improved the prediction of, cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a primary prevention cohort.
Methods and results:  In the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS), a cohort of middle-aged men with hypercholesterolemia at a moderate risk of CVD, we related the baseline NT-proBNP (geometric mean 28 pg/mL) in 4801 men to the risk of CVD over 15 years during which 1690 experienced CVD events. Taking into account the competing risk of non-CVD death, NT-proBNP was associated with an increased risk of all CVD [HR: 1.17 (95% CI: 1.11–1.23) per standard deviation increase in log NT-proBNP] after adjustment for classical and clinical cardiovascular risk factors plus C-reactive protein. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide was more strongly related to the risk of fatal [HR: 1.34 (95% CI: 1.19–1.52)] than non-fatal CVD [HR: 1.17 (95% CI: 1.10–1.24)] (P ¼ 0.022). The addition of NT-proBNP to traditional risk factors improved the C-index (+0.013; P , 0.001). The continuous net reclassification index improved with the addition of NT-proBNP by 19.8% (95% CI: 13.6–25.9%) compared with 9.8% (95% CI: 4.2–15.6%) with the addition of C-reactive protein. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide correctly reclassified 14.7% of events, whereas C-reactive protein correctly reclassified 3.4% of events. Results were similar in the 4128 men without evidence of angina, nitrate prescription, minor ECG abnormalities, or prior cerebrovascular disease.
Conclusion: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide predicts CVD events in men without clinical evidence of CHD, angina, or history of stroke, and appears related more strongly to the risk for fatal events. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide also provides moderate risk discrimination, in excess of that provided by the measurement of C-reactive protein.

Effect of B-type natriuretic peptide-guided treatment of chronic heart failure on total mortality and hospitalization: an individual patient meta-analysis

Richard W. Troughton, Christopher M. Frampton, Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca,
Matthias Pfisterer, Luc W.M. Eurlings, Hans Erntell, Hans Persson, et al.
Eur Heart J 2014; 35: 1559–1567 http://dx.doi.org:/10.1093/eurheartj/ehu090

Aims Natriuretic peptide-guided (NP-guided) treatment of heart failure has been tested against standard clinically guided care in multiple studies, but findings have been limited by study size. We sought to perform an individual patient data metaanalysis to evaluate the effect of NP-guided treatment of heart failure on all-cause mortality.
Methods and results
Eligible randomized clinical trials were identified from searches of Medline andEMBASEdatabases and the Cochrane Clinical
Trials Register. The primary pre-specified outcome, all-cause mortality was tested using a Cox proportional hazards regression model that included study of origin, age (< 75 or ≥75 years), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, ≤45 or .45%) as covariates. Secondary endpoints included heart failure or cardiovascular hospitalization. Of 11 eligible studies, 9 provided individual patient data and 2 aggregate data. For the primary endpoint individual data from 2000 patients were included, 994 randomized to clinically guided care and 1006 to NP-guided care. All-cause mortality was significantly reduced by NP-guided treatment [hazard ratio = 0.62 (0.45–0.86);
P = 0.004] with no heterogeneity between studies or interaction with LVEF. The survival benefit from NP-guided therapy was seen in younger ( <75 years) patients [0.62 (0.45–0.85); P = 0.004] but not older (≥75 years) patients [0.98 (0.75–1.27); P = 0.96]. Hospitalization due to heart failure [0.80 (0.67–0.94); P = 0.009] or cardiovascular disease [0.82 (0.67–0.99); P = 0.048]was significantly lower in NP-guided patients with no heterogeneity between studies and no interaction with age or LVEF.
Conclusion: Natriuretic peptide-guided treatment of heart failure reduces all-cause mortality in patients aged < 75 years and overall reduces heart failure and cardiovascular hospitalization.

Diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of left ventricular systolic heart failure by plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide concentrations in a large sample of the general population

B A Groenning, I Raymond, P R Hildebrandt, J C Nilsson, M Baumann, F Pedersen
Heart 2004;90:297–303. http://dx.doi.org:/10.1136/hrt.2003.026021

Objective: To evaluate N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for systolic heart failure in the general population.
Design: Study participants, randomly selected to be representative of the background population, filled in a heart failure questionnaire and underwent pulse and blood pressure measurements, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and blood sampling and were followed up for a median (range) period of 805 (6021171) days.
Setting: Participants were recruited from four randomly selected general practitioners and were examined in a Copenhagen university hospital.
Patients: 382 women and 290 men in four age groups (50259 (n = 174); 60269 (n = 204); 70279 (n = 174); > 80 years (n = 120)).
Main outcome measures: Value of NT-proBNP in evaluating patients with symptoms of heart failure and impaired left ventricular (LV) systolic function; prognostic value of NT-proBNP for mortality and hospital admissions.
Results: In 38 (5.6%) participants LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was (40%. NT-proBNP identified patients with symptoms of heart failure and LVEF (40% with a sensitivity of 0.92, a specificity of 0.86, positive and negative predictive values of 0.11 and 1.00, and area under the curve of 0.94. NT-proBNP was the strongest independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 5.70, p = 0.0001), hospital admissions for heart failure (HR = 13.83, p = 0.0001), and other cardiac admissions (HR = 3.69, p = 0.0001). Mortality (26 v 6, p = 0.0003), heart failure admissions (18 v 2, p = 0.0002), and admissions for other cardiac causes (44 v 13, p = 0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with NTproBNP above the study median (32.5 pmol/l). Conclusions: Measurement of NT-proBNP may be useful as a screening tool for systolic heart failure in the general population.

Copeptin—Marker of Acute Myocardial Infarction

Martin Möckel & Julia Searle
Curr Atheroscler Rep 2014; 16:421 http://dx.doi.org:/10.1007/s11883-014-0421-5

The concentration of copeptin, the C-terminal part of pro-arginine vasopressin, has been shown to increase early after acute and severe events. Owing to complementary pathophysiology and kinetics, the unspecific marker copeptin, in combination with highly cardio-specific troponin, has been evaluated as an early-rule-out strategy for acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with signs and symptoms of acute coronary syndrome. Overall, most studies have reported a negative predictive value between 97 and 100 % for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in low- to intermediate-risk patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Additionally, a recent multicenter, randomized process study, where patients who tested negative for copeptin and troponin were discharged from the emergency department, showed that the safety of the new process was comparable to that of the current standard process. Further interventional trials and data from registries are needed to ensure the effectiveness and patient benefit of the new strategy.

The role of copeptin as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for risk stratification in the emergency department

Christian H Nickel1, Roland Bingisser and Nils G Morgenthaler
BMC Medicine 2012, 10:7 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/7

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is activated in response to stress. One of the activated hypothalamic hormones is arginine vasopressin, a hormone involved in hemodynamics and osmoregulation. Copeptin, the C-terminal part of the arginine vasopressin precursor peptide, is a sensitive and stable surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin release. Measurement of copeptin levels has been shown to be useful in a variety of clinical scenarios, particularly as a prognostic marker in patients with acute diseases such as lower respiratory tract infection, heart disease and stroke. The measurement of copeptin levels may provide crucial information for risk stratification in a variety of clinical situations. As such, the emergency department appears to be the ideal setting for its potential use. This review summarizes the recent progress towards determining the prognostic and diagnostic value of copeptin in the emergency department.

Variability of the Transferrin Receptor 2 Gene in AMD

Daniel Wysokinski, Janusz Blasiak, Mariola Dorecka, Marta Kowalska, et al.
Disease Markers 2014, Article ID 507356, 8 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/507356

Oxidative stress is a major factor in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Iron may catalyze the Fenton reaction resulting in overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Transferrin receptor 2 plays a critical role in iron homeostasis and variability in its gene may influence oxidative stress and AMD occurrence. To verify this hypothesis we assessed the association between  polymorphisms of the TFR2 gene and AMD. A total of 493AMDpatients and 171matched controls were genotyped for the two polymorphisms of the TFR2 gene: c.1892C>T (rs2075674) and c.−258+123T>C (rs4434553). We also assessed the modulation of some AMD risk factors by these polymorphisms.The CC and TT genotypes of the c.1892C>T were associated with AMD occurrence but the latter only in obese patients. The other polymorphism was not associated with AMD occurrence, but the CC genotype was correlated with an increasing AMD frequency in subjects with BMI < 26. The TT genotype and the T allele of this polymorphism decreased AMD occurrence in subjects above 72 years, whereas the TC genotype and the C allele increased occurrence of AMD in this group.The c.1892C>T and c.−258+123T>C polymorphisms of the TRF2 gene may be associated with AMD occurrence, either directly or by modulation of risk factors.

Urinary N-Acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase as an Early Marker for Acute Kidney Injury in Full-Term Newborns with Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia

Bangning Cheng, Y Jin, G Liu, Z Chen, H Dai, and M Liu
Disease Markers 2014, Article ID 315843, 6 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/315843

Purpose. To investigate renal function estimated by markers in full-term newborns with hyperbilirubinemia.
Methods. A total of 332 full-term newborns with hyperbilirubinemia and 60 healthy full-term newborns were enrolled. Total serum bilirubin, serum creatinine (Cr), serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum cystatin C (Cys-C), urinary beta-2-microglobulin (𝛽2MG) index, and urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) index were measured before and after treatment. All newborns were divided into three groups according to total serum bilirubin levels: group 1 (221-256), group 2 (256-342), and group 3 (>342). Results. The control group and group 1 did not differ significantly in regard to serum Cr, serum BUN, serum Cys-C, urinary 𝛽2MG index, and urinary NAG index. Urinary NAG index in group 2 was significantly higher than that in control group (𝑃 < 0.001). Between control group and group 3, serum Cys-C, urinary 𝛽2MG index, and urinary NAG index differed significantly. The significant positive correlation between total serum bilirubin and urinary NAG index was found in newborns when total serum bilirubin level was more than 272 𝜇mol/L.
Conclusions. High unconjugated bilirubin could result in acute kidney injury in full-term newborns. Urinary NAG might be the suitable marker for predicting acute kidney injury in full-term newborns with hyperbilirubinemia.

Urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio detects absolute insulin deficiency in Type 2 diabetes.

S V Hope, A G Jones, E Goodchild, M Shepherd, R E J Besser, B Shields, T McDonald, B A Knight, A Hattersley

Department of Geriatrics, Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust; NIHR Exeter Clinical Research Facility, University of Exeter.

Diabetic Medicine (impact factor: 2.9). 05/2013; http://dx.doi.org:/10.1111/dme.12222

Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT AIMS: To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of absolute insulin deficiency in long-standing Type 2 diabetes, using a strategy based on home urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio measurement.
METHODS: We assessed the urinary C-peptide creatinine ratios, from urine samples taken at home 2 h after the largest meal of the day, in 191 insulin-treated subjects with Type 2 diabetes (diagnosis age ≥45 years, no insulin in the first year). If the initial urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio was ≤0.2 nmol/mmol (representing absolute insulin deficiency), the assessment was repeated. A standardized mixed-meal tolerance test with 90-min stimulated serum C-peptide measurement was performed in nine subjects with a urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio ≤ 0.2 nmol/mmol (and in nine controls with a urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio >0.2 nmol/mmol) to confirm absolute insulin deficiency.
RESULTS: A total of 2.7% of participants had absolute insulin deficiency confirmed by a mixed-meal tolerance test. They were identified initially using urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio: 11/191 subjects (5.8%) had two consistent urinary C-peptide creatinine ratios ≤ 0.2 nmol/mmol; 9/11 subjects completed a mixed-meal tolerance test and had a median stimulated serum C-peptide of 0.18nmol/l. Five out of nine subjects had stimulated serum C-peptide <0.2 nmol/l and 9/9 subjects with urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio >0.2 had endogenous insulin secretion confirmed by the mixed-meal tolerance test. Compared with subjects with a urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio >0.2 nmol/mmol, those with confirmed absolute insulin deficiency had a shorter time to insulin treatment (median 2.5 vs. 6 years, P=0.005) and lower BMI (25.1 vs. 29.1kg/m(2) , P=0.04). Two out of five patients were glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody-positive.
CONCLUSIONS: Absolute insulin deficiency may occur in long-standing Type 2 diabetes, and cannot be reliably predicted by clinical features or autoantibodies. Its recognition should help guide treatment, education and management. The urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio is a practical non-invasive method to aid detection of absolute insulin deficiency, with a urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio > 0.2 nmol/mmol being a reliable indicator of retained endogenous insulin secretion.

Unlocking Biomarkers’ Full Potential

David Daniels, Ph.D.     genengnews  Feb 1, 2013 (Vol. 33, No. 3)

http://www.genengnews.com/gen-articles/unlocking-biomarkers-full-potential/4700/

Biomarker research and development has evolved over the past years from looking for a single marker (e.g., PSA) linked to a disease state to looking for a panel of markers that can capture the heterogeneity inherent in both the disease and the impacted patient population.

That is one of the key messages to be delivered at GTC’s “Biomarkers Summit” next month. Across the board, resources are being focused on the delivery of more precise, quantifiable biomarkers with predictive value in therapeutic decisions and for the prognosis of illness.

“Our focus on biomarker development is the recognition that the new products need to provide cost savings for the already strapped healthcare systems rather than just be cost effective,” shares Paul Billings, M.D., Ph.D., CMO at Life Technologies.

“We have built a new medical sciences group to address the needs of the multiple delivery systems in the world—from the sophisticated medical clinics in the developed world to the nurse-run shanty clinic in the third world. Providing tools for equitable access to quality diagnosis, on assay platforms that can provide care for all patients, is our goal.”

Life Tech’s medical sciences division has been built by acquisition of Pinpoint Genomics, Navigenics, and Compendia, and collaborations with partners such as Ingenuity Systems and CollabRx. The division is focused on taking the tools that have been used in the life science laboratories and providing molecular diagnostic data to the clinic. The intent is to deliver data in a valuable format that can be used by the molecular pathologist or the treating physician.

The division is developing the Pervenio™ Lung RS assay, a 14-gene expression profile that serves as a risk stratifier that uses a weighted algorithm for the expressed biomarkers within the tumor biopsy, a first-of-its-kind prognostic test for lung cancer, the firm reports.

Initially, tests will be offered as a service through Life Tech’s CLIA laboratory. Then, from the performance lessons learned, Life Tech’s will develop a simpler assay platform, with FDA approval, that can be dispersed globally without reduction of the essential content in the biomarker panel. The focus is on the workflow—screening for known mutations using established easy-to-use assay platforms, like RT-PCR. Should the screen not produce useful results, clinicians can search for new mutations via discovery platforms like next-gen sequencing (NGS).

http://www.genengnews.com/Media/images/Article/thumb_Sequenom_LungCartaPanel1722631391.jpg

Sequenom’s LungCarta panel of 214 somatic mutations in 26 tumor suppressors and oncogenes covers highly mutated pathways in lung adenocarcinomas.

At Sequenom, the company provides both the tools (DNA mass spectrometry and reagents) for confirmatory biomarker development as well as serving on the front lines as a diagnostic service provider (CLIA lab). The beauty of DNA mass spec is that it can process multiplexed PCR samples (10–60 loci) in a method that is quantitative when used for profiling tumor biopsies that are either archival or fresh tissue.

Given a tumor sample with multiple somatic mutations, the instrument enables the determination of the homogeneity of the cells, in which case the mutations will have the same allele frequency. Accuracy, as measured by coefficient of variance, is less than 2%. Despite this level of sensitivity, the mass spec can only be used as a confirmatory tool looking for known mutations. Discovery is best done using DNA sequencing. DNA mass spec can also be used to study methylation in tumor samples.

“In the not-too-distant future, we will be looking for mutations in plasma samples rather than biopsies,” predicts Charles Cantor, Ph.D., CSO at Sequenom.

“The key is to look noninvasively for mutations within plasma samples such that we can potentially catch the disease state earlier, rather than after tumor formation. Regardless of the tumor type, this approach will enable us to monitor therapeutic response and metastatic potential noninvasively. DNA mass spec is an ultrasensitive detection product that can detect somatic mutations at levels of 1 per 1,000. This level of sensitivity is critical for the future of plasma screening. NGS technology is not that sensitive.”

Sequenom’s CLIA lab is using automated DNA mass spec to provide three different test protocols: (1) carrier screening for cystic fibrosis looking at more than 100 different mutations, (2) adult macular degeneration progression using an SNP test with 13 loci, and (3) a noninvasive test for Rh compatibility between a mother and her unborn fetus.

http://www.genengnews.com/Media/images/Article/thumb_Illumina_HiSeq_Scientist2141841107.jpg

Scientists are using Illumina’s HiSeq system to discover molecular biomarkers that may provide opportunities for early detection of a range of diseases.

Sequenom has also set up an NGS facility within a CLIA lab in San Diego using Illumina’s HiSEQ platform. The NGS platform has been set up for noninvasive aneuploidy detection of maternal plasma (10 cc sample) looking at chromosomes 13, 18, and 21. The lab says it has analyzed more than 40,000 samples this year and is planning to increase that volume up to 100,000 samples per year. Most of these samples come from the U.S., but given the development of a new blood collection tube that allows for 72-hour ambient shipping, the lab is looking to increase the number of samples from outside the U.S.

Drug Development

During drug development, biomarkers function as pharmacodynamic markers to help assess the mechanism of action of a drug candidate, to define the downstream biological pathway, and to determine whether the drug is engaging the target with the anticipated biological effect. Later, biomarkers help determine whether a drug is effective using the tested regime (route of delivery, dosage level, and length of exposure time).

Following early development, the second stage is to use biomarkers to help segment patients for clinical trials. Part of the consideration here is how heterogeneous the disease is; are there homogeneous subsets of patients that will respond differentially to the drug based on different mechanisms of the disease?

“Biomarker research is focused on on- target effects,” says Nick Dracopoli, Ph.D., vp, head of oncology biomarkers at Janssen Research and Development, a J&J company.

“We look at indications and at patients with those indications that are most likely to respond to the drug candidates we’re developing. For oncology biomarkers, germ-line effects are weaker indicators than somatic changes in the tumor. As a consequence, SNP-based, genome-wide association studies are not very useful. It is better to focus on molecular changes within the tumor and define gene expression profiles and epigenetic modifications that correlate with the tumor phenotype. We are increasingly tracking patient immune response, particularly as more immuno-oncology products are moving into the drug development pipeline.”

The number of biomarkers being developed varies from project to project. But it is very clear that to be successful in the clinic, the biomarkers and the assays need to be of low complexity. Of the 10 to 12 companion diagnostics that have been approved by the FDA to date, all measure the status of the drug target (on-target markers). For example, EGFR measures the level of receptor expression; Braf and Kras markers measure the presence of the mutation and translocation in the ALK gene measures gene knockout.

It is important to realize that molecular profiles for first-in-class drugs are not optimal because they are based on only a few patients. Consequently they have weak predictive value overall.

“Aside from that rule of thumb, if you have a greater than 50% response rate for your drug, it is unlikely that you need a biomarker to predict response. Biomarker utility is best for drugs that would have a difficult road to approval, where it is critical to enrich for the subpopulation of responders. For example, Pfizer’s crizontinib was approved for non-small-cell lung patients but is only effective for 5% of all patients. If Pfizer was unable to demonstrate the relationship between activation of the ALK gene and disease, this inhibitor would not have been approved,” says Dr. Dracopoli.

“Drugs that are more broadly active can come to market without a companion diagnostic test. There is always a balance between the predictive values of the biomarker test and the response rates to treatment. That is, we should not treat if the chance of response is only 3–5%, rather than if it were 50% where the patient would want to take the chance if the drug were safe.”

An important take-home message is that mutations are not unique to an indication. So if you find a driver mutation in indications for which the drug has not been approved, you could discover new indications for the drug.

“At the end of the day, this is what cancer is—heterogeneous,” says Dr. Dracopoli. “We’d all love to treat one cancer with one drug and at one dose, but the story is more complex. The future of oncology is around understanding the molecular heterogeneity or underlying molecular pathology of the disease and the diversity of it, and then treat each patient accordingly.”

Clinical Considerations

“Given the complexity of biology,” says Achim Plum, Ph.D., principal consultant, Siemens, “whether is it cancer, metabolic disease, or any other disease state, we have been forced to move away from the idea that a single biomarker can capture the entire ‘story’ or mechanistic view of any disease. Hence newly developed biomarkers will be made up of a panel of markers that serve as a profile. In addition, with the sheer volume of DNA and protein analytics data, the clinic will need to employ software tools and algorithms to help the decision making.”

The task of getting broad profiling technologies that are analytical into a clinical setting and making them routine is difficult but not insurmontable. This will take a collaborative effort, something that Siemens among others are looking to develop. The key is to avoid technology hype and to establish good reliable software to process the data for decision making. “Data is not knowledge, and knowledge is not automatically decision making.”

As an academic, Daniel Chan, Ph.D., has a view of the whole value chain for biomarkers from discovery to development to use in the clinic. Dr. Chan holds the titles of professor in pathology, oncology, radiology, and urology, and is the director of the clinical chemistry division lab at Johns Hopkins Hospital.

Given his perspective from discovery to clinical use, Dr. Chan indicated that from the clinical point of view, “we need more markers.” He oversees the discovery of new biomarkers in his research lab, their validation in his translational research lab, and finally their utility in practice in his clinical chemistry lab. He is a strong advocate for collaboration of biomarker development from discovery to verification and validation to incorporation within the clinical practice.

Beyond the use of biomarkers for patient stratification and correlation between marker and therapeutic choice, as is the focus of the biopharma industry, for the clinic the use of biomarkers is for prevention and early detection. The earlier the detection, the better the outcome. That is, provide the “cure” before you need to initiate treatment.

To be successful in the future of biomarkers, we need to look beyond the biopharma focus and expand the horizon for early detection and monitor therapy later, says Dr. Chan. He describes a roadmap of developing bridges (to bridge the knowledge gaps), gates (decision gates for go/no go decisions as to whether a development path is viable), and partnerships (to collaborate with different points of view) for efficient new biomarker development.

According to Dr. Chan, we must define the intended use of the biomarker, which identifies the specific application and sets up the clinical study and study population to meet the clinical needs. We need to define specific assays to monitor biomarkers that will work within a clinical setting, not a research lab setting that uses disease models (tissue culture cells or small animals) and not real patient samples.

“The days when single markers are sufficient (PSA for prostate cancer or troponin for cardiovascular disease) are behind us. We need to develop a panel of markers or a profile pattern to address patient population heterogeneity and disease complexity that will guide our decision-making process,” remarks Dr. Chan. “Molecular biomarkers are giving way to protein biomarkers,” he adds.

Prevention and early detection will require the use of whole-body scans, so the sampling technology and analytical tools to be developed are critical to realize this goal. Assay ease of use, automation, and analytical performance that is suitable for the clinical lab are fundamental.

“An important future goal for biomarkers,” says Dr. Billings, “is to sample circulating tumor cells or circulating DNA in blood or plasma samples as a noninvasive measure of patient status. A decline in tumor biomarkers during chemotherapy, for example, could reflect the efficacy of the therapy. In contrast, an increase in tumor biomarkers, in a patient who had previously undergone surgery and therapy, might indicate disease recurrence, and is likely to do so before a tumor mass is detectable by imaging methods.”

STAT4 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Susceptibility and ANA Status in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

Satoru Joshita, T Umemura, M Nakamura, Y Katsuyama, S Shibata, et al.
Disease Markers  2014, Article ID 727393, 8 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/727393

Recent genome-wide association studies suggest that genetic factors contribute to primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) susceptibility. Although several reports have demonstrated that the interleukin (IL) 12 signaling pathway is involved in PBC pathogenesis, its precise genetic factors have not been fully clarified. Here, we performed an association analysis between IL12A, IL12RB, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) genetic variations and susceptibility to PBC. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 395 PBC patients and 458 healthy subjects of Japanese ethnicity and evaluated for associations with PBC susceptibility, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) status, and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) status. We detected significant associations with PBC susceptibility for several STAT4 SNPs (rs10168266; p = 9.4 × 10−3, rs11889341; p = 1.2 × 10−3, rs7574865; p = 4.0 × 10−4, rs8179673; p = 2.0 × 10−4, and rs10181656; p = 4.2 × 10−5). Three risk alleles (rs7574865; p = 0.040, rs8179673; p = 0.032, and rs10181656; p = 0.031) were associated with ANA status, but not with AMA positivity. Our findings confirm that STAT4 is involved in PBC susceptibility and may play a role in ANA status in the Japanese population.

Serum Omentin-1 as a Disease Activity Marker for Crohn’s Disease

Yan Lu, Li Zhou, L Liu, Yan Feng, Li Lu, X Ren, X Dong, & W Sang
Disease Markers  2014, Article ID 162517, 5 pages   http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/162517

Background and Aim. It remains challenging to determine the inflammatory activity in Crohn’s disease (CD) for lack of specific laboratory markers. Recent studies suggest that serum omentin-1 is associated with inflammatory response. We aimed to assess the potential of serum omentin-1 as a marker of disease activity in CD patients.
Methods. Serum omentin-1 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients with CD (n = 240), functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGDs, n = 120), and healthy controls (HC, n = 60) and evaluated for correlation with disease activity. Expression of omentin-1 in colonic tissues from patients with CD was also analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Serum omentin-1 levels as an activity index were evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.
Results. Serum omentin-1 concentrations were significantly decreased in active CD patients compared with patients in remission, FGDs, and HC (all p < 0.001). Expression of omentin-1 was decreased at mRNA and protein levels in inflamed colonic tissues in active CD than that in noninflamed colonic tissues. Serum omentin-1 levels were negatively correlated with disease activity in CD, better than C-reactive protein (CRP).
Conclusion. Our results indicate that serum and colonic omentin-1 expressions are decreased in active CD patients. The correlation of serum omentin-1 with disease activity in CD is superior to that of CRP. Serum omentin-1 is a potential marker for CD disease activity.
Serum Levels of Resistin, Adiponectin, and Apelin in Gastroesophageal Cancer Patients

Dorota Diakowska, K Markocka-Mdczka, P Szelachowski, and K Grabowski
Disease Markers 2014, Article ID 619649, 8 pages   http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/619649

The aim of the study was the investigation of relationship between cachexia syndrome and serum resistin, adiponectin, and apelin in patients with gastroesophageal cancer (GEC).
Material and Methods. Adipocytokines concentrations were measured in sera of 85 GEC patients and 60 healthy controls. They were also evaluated in tumor tissue and appropriate normal mucosa of 38 operated cancer patients.
Results. Resistin and apelin concentrations were significantly higher in GEC patients than in the controls. The highest resistin levels were found in cachectic patients and in patients with distant metastasis. Serum adiponectin significantly decreased in GEC patients with regional and distant metastasis. Serum apelin was significantly higher in cachectic patients than in the controls. Apelin was positively correlated with hsCRP level. Resistin and apelin levels increased significantly in tumor tissues. Weak positive correlations between adipocytokines levels in serum and in tumor tissue were observed.
Conclusions. Resistin is associated with cachexia and metastasis processes of GEC. Reduction of serum adiponectin reflects adipose tissue wasting in relation to GEC progression. Correlation of apelin with hsCRP can reflect a presumable role of apelin in systemic inflammatory response in esophageal and gastric cancer.

Serum Level of HER-2 Extracellular Domain in Iranian Patients with Breast Cancer: A Follow-up Study

Mehrnoosh Doroudchi, Abdolrasoul Talei, Helmout Modjtahedi, et al.
IJI 2005; 2(4): 191-200

Background: A soluble form of HER-2/neu extracellular domain (sHER-2) is reported to be released in the sera of metastatic breast cancer patients.
Objective: To measure the level of sHER-2 in sera of 115 breast cancer patients. Methods: Serial samples of 27 patients with metastasis, 18 non-metastatic patients, 15 patients in stage 0/I and 14 patients with accompanying benign breast disease were also included in this study.
Results: No significant difference was observed between sHER-2 level in the pre-operative sera of breast cancer patients and that of healthy individuals. Only 8 out of 27 patients whom later developed metastasis showed elevated levels of sHER-2 in their first serum sample. However, a trend of increase in the level of sHER-2 was observed in 14 (51.8%) of 27 metastatic sera before clinical diagnosis of the metastasis. A significant association between sHER-2 positive status and vascular invasion of the tumor was observed (P = 0.02). In addition, significant correlation of sHER-2 level with CEA (highest r = 0.74) and CA 15.3 (highest r = 0.74) tumor marker levels in the serial sera were observed. The mean time from sHER-2 positivity to tumor metastasis was calculated to be 98 days (range = 29-174).  Conclusion: Our results indicate that a relatively high percentage of Iranian patients with breast cancer show an elevated level of sHER-2 in their sera before clinical diagnosis of the tumor metastasis. Therefore, measuring the level of this oncoprotein, not only helps physicians in monitoring the patients during HERCEPTIN therapy, but also can be helpful in choosing more aggressive treatments at the early satges of tumor metastasis.
B-type natriuretic peptide is a biomarker for pulmonary hypertension in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Alain Cuna, Jegen Kandasamy, Naomi Fineberg, Brian Sims
Research and Reports in Neonatology 2013:3 33–36
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RRN.S42236

Background: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a cardiac biomarker useful in screening for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in adults. It is possible that BNP may also be useful in detecting PH among preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).
Objective: To determine the utility of BNP for identification of PH among preterm infants with BPD.
Methods: We retrospectively identified preterm infants with BPD who underwent screening echocardiography for suspected PH and had serum BNP levels measured within 10 days before or after echocardiography. Eligible infants were classified based on echocardiographic diagnosis of either PH or no PH. Median and interquartile ranges (IQR) of BNP values were compared, and area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimum threshold value for detection of PH.
Results: Twenty-five preterm infants with BPD (mean gestational age 26.5 ± 1.7 weeks, mean birth weight 747 ± 248 g) were identified. The median difference in days between echocardiography and BNP measurement was 1 day (IQR 0–3, range 0–10 days). Based on echocardiography, 16 were diagnosed with PH and nine without PH. No significant difference in terms of gestational age, birth weight, sex, race, or respiratory support was found between the two groups. Median (IQR) BNP values of those with PH were higher than those without PH (413 [212–1178] pg/mL versus 55 [21–84] pg/mL, P , 0.001). AUC of ROC analysis showed that a BNP value of 117 pg/mL had 93.8% sensitivity and 100% specificity for detecting PH.
Conclusion: BNP estimation may be useful for screening of PH in infants with BPD.

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8:50AM 11/12/2014 – 10th Annual Personalized Medicine Conference at the Harvard Medical School, Boston

REAL TIME Coverage of this Conference by Dr. Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN – Director and Founder of LEADERS in PHARMACEUTICAL BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE, Boston http://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com

8:50 a.m. – Keynote Speaker – CEO, American Medical Association

The American Medical Association (AMA) has the largest number of practicing physicians of all specialties as its members and the organization plays a very important role in health care policy and education of medical professionals.  AMA has been quite active in assessing the role of personalized medicine in the future of healthcare in all of its facets.  Dr. Madara will talk about the status of AMA’s thinking about personalized medicine and his vision of how it might be able to transform medical care.

Keynote Speaker

James Madara, M.D. @AmerMedicalAssn


Executive Vice President and CEO, American Medical Association

AMA Strategy the context for PM  – Outside looking in View applied

Mission statement: Promote Medicine 167 years since it was established. Societies of MDs – all population of American MDs, are members.

AMA developed:

  • CPT Curation – Billing of Procedures
  • Standard Procedure for Katrina and Emergency Medicine
  • Strategic Plan 110 active Projects to be compressed into three big ideas
  1. Connect clinics with community – OUTCOMES, cooperation with CDC i.e., Diabetes, HTN (KaiserPermanente)
  2. Medical education bring t to 21th century: Competence vs Time-in-Chair, 141 Medical Schools, teaching methods: Gaming/mobile, the lecture Hall in Medicine is poor form for education, Simulation methods, Clinical Research and Basic Research – blend across disciplines, platforms in Silicon Valley to create new TEACHING of MDs, Genomics must be incorporated, shifting from Inpatient to Outpatient to HOME, all training is for Inpatient – Nothing for HOME delivery of Care. 85% of all Medical School responded they need change in Teaching — 11 Excellence Medical Schools selected: Vanderbilt, MI, UCSF, UC Davis…
  3. Make practice of medicine joyous again – installation in MDs Offices, optimize the efficiency of MDs reporting now emphasis on USABILITY

Doing through Partnership: PM in Nutrition is everywhere — it is a HYPE, Gartner Group Hype Cycle was used by the Speaker for an analogy with Personalized Medicine (PM)

SHAKE out for a steady state in PM mitigation the hype

  • Mixed perceptions of Cost effectiveness of Healthcare delivery – Growth of Health Spending by Component:
  • Center on Outcomes and Values: PM redefined: away from behavioral toward procedural (actions): i.e, CV death risk predicted by waist size –

Cost/Behavior: sweet-spots are the following

  • Pharmaconeconomics: Is cost effective and it does not involve behavior
  • Cancer
  • Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs)

– need be approved by FDA – New challenge in PM

– AMA View: Medical services not Medical Devices, CLIA ensure the quality and Standards, it requires more than guidance, currently FDA has ONLY guidance

 

 

– See more at: http://personalizedmedicine.partners.org/Education/Personalized-Medicine-Conference/Program.aspx#sthash.qGbGZXXf.dpuf

 

@HarvardPMConf

#PMConf

@SachsAssociates

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8:20AM 11/12/2014 – 10th Annual Personalized Medicine Conference at the Harvard Medical School, Boston

REAL TIME Coverage of the Conference by Dr. Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN – Director and Founder of LEADERS in PHARMACEUTICAL BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE, Boston http://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com

 

8:20 a.m. Special Guest Keynote Speaker – The Future of Personalized Medicine

The Future of Personalized Medicine

Special Guest Speaker

Margaret Hamburg, M.D.
Commissioner of Food and Drugs Administration

[Her Father was President of IOM said at the introduction to the Keynote]

How to ask the right question is what HMS taught me best 

Increasing the knowledge of Biology, response to disease, preventive strategies.

2004 — Monumental year — One year after completion of sequencing the Genome

2008/9 – Breast Cancer – pharmacotherapy approved, a protein involved in triggering the disease.Target therapy – risk of disease identified

WHAT FDA is doing on Genetics Information as PARTNERS in Medicine

25% of drugs approved are Targeted therapies

LABELING drugs on genetic information

diagnostics test — identify good respondents

Companion Diagnostics – should be used in Targeted therapies. IGF1, HER2 expression and amplification

PM more important in ONCOLOGY , HepB, Cystic Fibrosis, differential response, CVD – expansion, more to be done

In 2002 — a Program to discuss Genetic information VSDS – New Genomics Program, National Center for Toxicology Research a participants

Translational Scientist are added.

Completion Genome sequencing — push to PM 2011 – Genomics evaluation Team for Safety.

Challenge – Drug, Biologics – interaction need coordination by Agency to discuss challenges and collaboration with out side Group.

Developers of Targeted therapies: Orphan Drugs, Biomarkers – expedited review to promote innovations, fast track breakthrough therapies. Opportunities of Scientist to engage discussion with FDA

 – ALL hands on Deck Approach at FDA – making products available, i.e. SCLC (small cell lung cancer)

Since 2005 – 25 Guidance Reports, i.e., Orphan Drugs and on Companion Diagnostics to be developed in tandem with drug development.

Companion Diagnostics – 3 month review, enforcement and direction – in the framework

FDA — needs to keep up with development in the Diagnostics and in the disease ares.

Illumina – Assays using SNIPS – FDA assesses a shared curated DB on mutation, reduce the review time significantly

FDA – NGS – reference libraries, Genomics Reference and Storage of genomics data

Tools and Capabilities  – support regulatory and science, statistical methods of analysis — implemented for Breast Cancer — signaled the way of new Partnerships and New Clinical Trials formats and methods in its development.

New diagnostics – AMP Program Alzheimer’s Disease, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS)

What Science is needed for the Regulators to effectively HELP spar innovation.

Pharmacogenomics, Pharmacogenetics — MAPPING the Human Genome and all other areas of “OMICS” – moving from Lab to bedside — requires expertise in Disease prevention, Difference in patients life, Standard medical practice

  • Biology and Pathways
  • Biomarkers
  • New diagnostics
  • Increased communication Universities, new paradigms models and continual effort of SHARING and coordination of shared resources

 

– See more at: http://personalizedmedicine.partners.org/Education/Personalized-Medicine-Conference/Program.aspx#sthash.qGbGZXXf.dpuf

 

@HarvardPMConf

#PMConf

@SachsAssociates

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The Future of Translational Medicine with Smart Diagnostics and Therapies: PharmacoGenomics

Curator: Demet Sag, PhD

Since Human Genome project is completed we saw several projects to understand function and how they relate to personal health.  These advancements hope to improve diagnostics in preventive medicine. The future of medicine may involve a personal wireless unit to detect the vital records with genomics changes and compare the assumed “healthy” state to “unhealthy” to suggest options to treat in a palm of hand.

Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genes affect a person’s response to drugs. This relatively new field combines pharmacology (the science of drugs) and genomics (the study of genes and their functions) to develop effective, safe medications and doses that will be tailored to a person’s genetic makeup.

The American Medical Association and  Critical Path Institute and the Arizona Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics developed a brochure for health care providers on pharmacogenomics. The man purpose is to help physicians to ue this information correctly by case based approach.   View an electronic version of the brochure.

Like always, there are debates and controversies but the positives outweighs the negatives in this case such as some patients with the same gene abnormality may not benefit due to his or her deficiency or polymorphisms in another connected gene so it is a system approach including origin of pathways during development. There is nothing simply white or black but like Goethe said “there are shades of gray”. This shade is light compared to one size fits all drug making.

The main idea is create safer, effective and perfect dose medication to gain health for a quality life with less expense but more beneficial outcomes.

At the same token these developments decreases the cost of making drugs since they are specific to a small population or group so there are less clinical trial time, less time for approval, less adverse affects.

Functional genomics suggests how piece of information utilized in body in a nut shell. However, use of these knowledge to develop new drugs created a new area called Pharmacogenomics. Thus, FDA included the terminology for drug labeling that contain biomarkers along with several other factors containing variation of clinical response to drug exposure, possible side or adverse effects, genotype-specific dosing, drug action mechanism,  polymorphic drug target and disposition genes.

What can be on the label: Age, Sex, Origin/Ethinicity (Asian, Caucasian, African, South Asian), gene of interest, possible SNPs, variation/polymorphisms warnings, dose etc.

Here are the FDA-approved drugs with pharmacogenomic information in their labeling:

Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labeling

Drug Therapeutic Area HUGO Symbol Referenced Subgroup Labeling Sections
Abacavir Infectious Diseases HLA-B HLA-B*5701 allele carriers Boxed Warning, Contraindications, Warnings and Precautions, Patient Counseling Information
Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine Oncology ERBB2 HER2 protein overexpression or gene amplification positive Indications and Usage, Warnings and Precautions, Adverse Reactions, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Afatinib Oncology EGFR EGFR exon 19 deletion or exon 21 substitution (L858R) mutation positive Indications and Usage, Dosage and Administration, Adverse Reactions, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies, Patient Counseling Information
Amitriptyline Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Precautions
Anastrozole Oncology ESR1, PGR Hormone receptor positive Indications and Usage, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Aripiprazole Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Clinical Pharmacology, Dosage and Administration
Arsenic Trioxide Oncology PML/RARA PML/RARα (t(15;17)) gene expression positive Boxed Warning, Clinical Pharmacology, Indications and Usage, Warnings
Atomoxetine Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Dosage and Administration, Warnings and Precautions, Drug Interactions, Clinical Pharmacology
Atorvastatin Endocrinology LDLR Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia Indications and Usage, Dosage and Administration, Warnings and Precautions, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Azathioprine Rheumatology TPMT TPMT intermediate or poor metabolizers Dosage and Administration, Warnings and Precautions, Drug Interactions, Adverse Reactions, Clinical Pharmacology
Belimumab Autoimmune Diseases BAFF/TNFSF13B CD257 positive Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Boceprevir Infectious Diseases IFNL3 IL28B rs12979860 T allele carriers Clinical Pharmacology
Bosutinib Oncology BCR/ABL1 Philadelphia chromosome (t(9;22)) positive Indications and Usage, Adverse Reactions, Clinical Studies
Brentuximab Vedotin Oncology TNFRSF8 CD30 positive Indications and Usage, Description, Clinical Pharmacology
Busulfan Oncology Ph Chromosome Ph Chromosome negative Clinical Studies
Capecitabine Oncology DPYD DPD deficient Contraindications, Warnings and Precautions, Patient Information
Carbamazepine (1) Neurology HLA-B HLA-B*1502 allele carriers Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions
Carbamazepine (2) Neurology HLA-A HLA-A*3101 allele carriers Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions
Carglumic Acid Metabolic Disorders NAGS N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency Indications and Usage, Warnings and Precautions, Special Populations, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Carisoprodol Rheumatology CYP2C19 CYP2C19 poor metabolizers Clinical Pharmacology, Special Populations
Carvedilol Cardiology CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions, Clinical Pharmacology
Celecoxib Rheumatology CYP2C9 CYP2C9 poor metabolizers Dosage and Administration, Drug Interactions, Use in Specific Populations, Clinical Pharmacology
Cetuximab (1) Oncology EGFR EGFR protein expression positive Indications and Usage, Warnings and Precautions, Description, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Cetuximab (2) Oncology KRAS KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutation negative Indications and Usage, Dosage and Administration, Warnings and Precautions, Adverse Reactions, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Cevimeline Dermatology CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions
Chloroquine Infectious Diseases G6PD G6PD deficient Precautions
Chlorpropamide Endocrinology G6PD G6PD deficient Precautions
Cisplatin Oncology TPMT TPMT intermediate or poor metabolizers Clinical Pharmacology, Warnings, Precautions
Citalopram (1) Psychiatry CYP2C19 CYP2C19 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions, Warnings
Citalopram (2) Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions
Clobazam Neurology CYP2C19 CYP2C19 poor metabolizers Clinical Pharmacology, Dosage and Administration, Use in Specific Populations
Clomipramine Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions
Clopidogrel Cardiology CYP2C19 CYP2C19 intermediate or poor metabolizers Boxed Warning, Dosage and Administration, Warnings and Precautions, Drug Interactions, Clinical Pharmacology
Clozapine Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions, Clinical Pharmacology
Codeine Anesthesiology CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Warnings and Precautions, Use in Specific Populations, Clinical Pharmacology
Crizotinib Oncology ALK ALK gene rearrangement positive Indications and Usage, Dosage and Administration, Drug Interactions, Warnings and Precautions, Adverse Reactions, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Dabrafenib (1) Oncology BRAF BRAF V600E mutation positive Indications and Usage, Dosage and Administration, Warnings and Precautions, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies, Patient Counseling Information
Dabrafenib (2) Oncology G6PD G6PD deficient Warnings and Precautions, Adverse Reactions, Patient Counseling Information
Dapsone (1) Dermatology G6PD G6PD deficient Indications and Usage, Precautions, Adverse Reactions, Patient Counseling Information
Dapsone (2) Infectious Diseases G6PD G6PD deficient Precautions, Adverse Reactions, Overdosage
Dasatinib Oncology BCR/ABL1 Philadelphia chromosome (t(9;22)) positive; T315I mutation-positive Indications and Usage, Clinical Studies, Patient Counseling Information
Denileukin Diftitox Oncology IL2RA CD25 antigen positive Indications and Usage, Warnings and Precautions, Clinical Studies
Desipramine Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions
Dexlansoprazole (1) Gastroenterology CYP2C19 CYP2C19 poor metabolizers Clinical Pharmacology, Drug Interactions
Dexlansoprazole (2) Gastroenterology CYP1A2 CYP1A2 genotypes Clinical Pharmacology
Dextromethorphan and Quinidine Neurology CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Clinical Pharmacology, Warnings and Precautions, Drug Interactions
Diazepam Psychiatry CYP2C19 CYP2C19 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions, Clinical Pharmacology
Doxepin Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Precautions
Drospirenone and Ethinyl Estradiol Neurology CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Clinical Pharmacology, Warnings and Precautions, Drug Interactions
Eltrombopag (1) Hematology F5 Factor V Leiden carriers Warnings and Precautions
Eltrombopag (2) Hematology SERPINC1 Antithrombin III deficient Warnings and Precautions
Erlotinib (1) Oncology EGFR EGFR protein expression positive Clinical Pharmacology
Erlotinib (2) Oncology EGFR EGFR exon 19 deletion or exon 21 substitution (L858R) positive Indications and Usage, Dosage and Administration, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Esomeprazole Gastroenterology CYP2C19 CYP2C19 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions, Clinical Pharmacology
Everolimus (1) Oncology ERBB2 HER2 protein overexpression negative Indications and Usage, Boxed Warning, Adverse Reactions, Use in Specific Populations, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Everolimus (2) Oncology ESR1 Estrogen receptor positive Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Exemestane Oncology ESR1 Estrogen receptor positive Indications and Usage, Dosage and Administration, Clinical Studies, Clinical Pharmacology
Fluorouracil (1) Dermatology DPYD DPD deficient Contraindications, Warnings, Patient Information
Fluorouracil (2) Oncology DPYD DPD deficient Warnings
Fluoxetine Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Warnings, Precautions, Clinical Pharmacology
Flurbiprofen Rheumatology CYP2C9 CYP2C9 poor metabolizers Clinical Pharmacology, Special Populations
Fluvoxamine Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions
Fulvestrant Oncology ESR1 Estrogen receptor positive Indications and Usage, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies, Patient Counseling Information
Galantamine Neurology CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Special Populations
Glimepiride Endocrinology G6PD G6PD deficient Warning and Precautions
Glipizide Endocrinology G6PD G6PD deficient Precautions
Glyburide Endocrinology G6PD G6PD deficient Precautions
Ibritumomab Tiuxetan Oncology MS4A1 CD20 positive Indications and Usage, Clinical Pharmacology, Description
Iloperidone Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Clinical Pharmacology, Dosage and Administration, Drug Interactions, Specific Populations, Warnings and Precautions
Imatinib (1) Oncology KIT c-KIT D816V mutation negative Indications and Usage, Dosage and Administration Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Imatinib (2) Oncology BCR/ABL1 Philadelphia chromosome (t(9;22)) positive Indications and Usage, Dosage and Administration, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Imatinib (3) Oncology PDGFRB PDGFR gene rearrangement positive Indications and Usage, Dosage and Administration, Clincal Studies
Imatinib (4) Oncology FIP1L1/PDGFRA FIP1L1/PDGFRα fusion kinase (or CHIC2 deletion) positive Indications and Usage, Dosage and Administration, Clinical Studies
Imipramine Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions
Indacaterol Pulmonary UGT1A1 UGT1A1 *28 allele homozygotes Clinical Pharmacology
Irinotecan Oncology UGT1A1 UGT1A1*28 allele carriers Dosage and Administration, Warnings, Clinical Pharmacology
Isosorbide and Hydralazine Cardiology NAT1-2 Slow acetylators Clinical Pharmacology
Ivacaftor Pulmonary CFTR CFTR G551D carriers Indications and Usage, Adverse Reactions, Use in Specific Populations, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Lansoprazole Gastroenterology CYP2C19 CYP2C19 poor metabolizer Drug Interactions, Clinical Pharmacology
Lapatinib Oncology ERBB2 HER2 protein overexpression positive Indications and Usage, Clinical Pharmacology, Patient Counseling Information
Lenalidomide Hematology del (5q) Chromosome 5q deletion Boxed Warning, Indications and Usage, Clinical Studies, Patient Counseling
Letrozole Oncology ESR1, PGR Hormone receptor positive Indications and Usage, Adverse Reactions, Clinical Studies, Clinical Pharmacology
Lomitapide Endocrinology LDLR Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and LDL receptor mutation deficient Indication and Usage, Adverse Reactions, Clinical Studies
Mafenide Infectious Diseases G6PD G6PD deficient Warnings, Adverse Reactions
Maraviroc Infectious Diseases CCR5 CCR5 positive Indications and Usage, Warnings and Precautions, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies, Patient Counseling Information
Mercaptopurine Oncology TPMT TPMT intermediate or poor metabolizers Dosage and Administration, Contraindications, Precautions, Adverse Reactions, Clinical Pharmacology
Methylene Blue Hematology G6PD G6PD deficient Precautions
Metoclopramide Gastroentrology CYB5R1-4 NADH cytochrome b5 reductase deficient Precautions
Metoprolol Cardiology CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Precautions, Clinical Pharmacology
Mipomersen Endocrinology LDLR Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and LDL receptor mutation deficient Indication and Usage, Clinical Studies, Use in Specific Populations
Modafinil Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions
Mycophenolic Acid Transplantation HPRT1 HGPRT deficient Precautions
Nalidixic Acid Infectious Diseases G6PD G6PD deficient Precautions, Adverse Reactions
Nefazodone Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions
Nilotinib (1) Oncology BCR/ABL1 Philadelphia chromosome (t(9 :22)) positive Indications and Usage, Patient Counseling Information
Nilotinib (2) Oncology UGT1A1 UGT1A1*28 allele homozygotes Warnings and Precautions, Clinical Pharmacology
Nitrofurantoin Infectious Diseases G6PD G6PD deficient Warnings, Adverse Reactions
Nortriptyline Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions
Ofatumumab Oncology MS4A1 CD20 positive Indications and Usage, Clinical Pharmacology
Omacetaxine Oncology BCR/ABL1 BCR-ABL T315I Clinical Pharmacology
Omeprazole Gastroenterology CYP2C19 CYP2C19 poor metabolizers Dosage and Administration, Warnings and Precautions, Drug Interactions
Panitumumab (1) Oncology EGFR EGFR protein expression positive Indications and Usage, Warnings and Precautions, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Panitumumab (2) Oncology KRAS KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutation negative Indications and Usage, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Pantoprazole Gastroenterology CYP2C19 CYP2C19 poor metabolizers Clinical Pharmacology, Drug Interactions, Special Populations
Paroxetine Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Clinical Pharmacology, Drug Interactions
Pazopanib Oncology UGT1A1 (TA)7/(TA)7 genotype (UGT1A1*28/*28) Clinical Pharmacology, Warnings and Precautions
PEG-3350, Sodium Sulfate, Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride, Sodium Ascorbate, and Ascorbic Acid Gastroenterology G6PD G6PD deficient Warnings and Precautions
Peginterferon alfa-2b Infectious Diseases IFNL3 IL28B rs12979860 T allele carriers Clinical Pharmacology
Pegloticase Rheumatology G6PD G6PD deficient Contraindications, Patient Counseling Information
Perphenazine Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Clinical Pharmacology, Drug Interactions
Pertuzumab Oncology ERBB2 HER2 protein overexpression positive Indications and Usage, Warnings and Precautions, Adverse Reactions, Clinical Studies, Clinical Pharmacology
Phenytoin Neurology HLA-B HLA-B*1502 allele carriers Warnings
Pimozide Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Warnings, Precautions, Contraindications, Dosage and Administration
Ponatinib Oncology BCR/ABL1 Philadelphia chromosome (t(9;22)) positive, BCR –ABL T315I mutation Indications and Usage, Warnings and Precautions, Adverse Reactions, Use in Specific Populations, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Prasugrel Cardiology CYP2C19 CYP2C19 poor metabolizers Use in Specific Populations, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Pravastatin Endocrinology LDLR Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and LDL receptor deficient Clinical Studies, Use in Specific Populations
Primaquine Infectious Diseases G6PD G6PD deficient Warnings and Precautions, Adverse Reactions
Propafenone Cardiology CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Clinical Pharmacology
Propranolol Cardiology CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Precautions, Drug Interactions, Clinical Pharmacology
Protriptyline Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Precautions
Quinidine Cardiology CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Precautions
Quinine Sulfate Infectious Diseases G6PD G6PD deficient Contraindications, Patient Counseling Information
Rabeprazole Gastroenterology CYP2C19 CYP2C19 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions, Clinical Pharmacology
Rasburicase Oncology G6PD G6PD deficient Boxed Warning, Contraindications
Rifampin, Isoniazid, and Pyrazinamide Infectious Diseases NAT1-2 Slow inactivators Adverse Reactions, Clinical Pharmacology
Risperidone Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions, Clinical Pharmacology
Rituximab Oncology MS4A1 CD20 positive Indication and Usage, Clinical Pharmacology, Description, Precautions
Rosuvastatin Endocrinology LDLR Homozygous and Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia Indications and Usage, Dosage and Administration, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Sodium Nitrite Antidotal Therapy G6PD G6PD deficient Warnings and Precautions
Succimer Hematology G6PD G6PD deficient Clinical Pharmacology
Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Infectious Diseases G6PD G6PD deficient Precautions
Tamoxifen (1) Oncology ESR1, PGR Hormone receptor positive Indications and Usage, Precautions, Medication Guide
Tamoxifen (2) Oncology F5 Factor V Leiden carriers Warnings
Tamoxifen (3) Oncology F2 Prothrombin mutation G20210A Warnings
Telaprevir Infectious Diseases IFNL3 IL28B rs12979860 T allele carriers Clinical Pharmacology
Terbinafine Infectious Diseases CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions
Tetrabenazine Neurology CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Dosage and Administration, Warnings, Clinical Pharmacology
Thioguanine Oncology TPMT TPMT poor metabolizer Dosage and Administration, Precautions, Warnings
Thioridazine Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Precautions, Warnings, Contraindications
Ticagrelor Cardiology CYP2C19 CYP2C19 poor metabolizers Clinical Studies
Tolterodine Urology CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Clinical Pharmacology, Drug Interactions, Warnings and Precautions
Tositumomab Oncology MS4A1 CD20 antigen positive Indications and Usage, Clinical Pharmacology
Tramadol Analgesic CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Clinical Pharmacology
Trametinib Oncology BRAF BRAF V600E/K mutation positive Indications and Usage, Dosage and Administration, Adverse Reactions, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies, Patient Counseling Information
Trastuzumab Oncology ERBB2 HER2 protein overexpression positive Indications and Usage, Warnings and Precautions, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Tretinoin Oncology PML/RARA PML/RARα (t(15;17)) gene expression positive Clinical Studies, Indications and Usage, Warnings
Trimipramine Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions
Valproic Acid (1) Neurology POLG POLG mutation positive Boxed Warning, Contraindications, Warnings and Precautions
Valproic Acid (2) Neurology NAGS, CPS1, ASS1, OTC, ASL, ABL2 Urea cycle enzyme deficient Contraindications, Warnings and Precautions, Adverse Reactions, Medication Guide
Velaglucerase Alfa Metabolic Disorders GBA Lysosomal glucocerebrosidase enzyme Indication and Usage, Description, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies
Vemurafenib Oncology BRAF BRAF V600E mutation positive Indications and Usage, Warning and Precautions, Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies, Patient Counseling Information
Venlafaxine Psychiatry CYP2D6 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers Drug Interactions
Voriconazole Infectious Diseases CYP2C19 CYP219 intermediate or poor metabolizers Clinical Pharmacology, Drug Interactions
Warfarin (1) Cardiology or Hematology CYP2C9 CYP2C9 intermediate or poor metabolizers Dosage and Administration, Drug Interactions, Clinical Pharmacology
Warfarin (2) Cardiology or Hematology VKORC1 VKORC1 rs9923231 A allele carriers Dosage and Administration, Clinical Pharmacology

References and Further Readings:

 

There are several practical applications pharmacogenomics in cancer, depression, cardiovascular disease and drug metabolism that is used today.  Some of these included in the following references:

JAMA 2004; 291(23) 2821-2827.

Useful Links:

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Genomics and Medicine: The Physician’s View


Genomics and Medicine: The Physician’s View

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

 

Genomics has had a rapid growth of research into variability of human genetics in both healthy populations in the study of population migration, and in the study of genetic sequence alterations that may increase the risk of expressed human disease.  This is the case for cardiology, cancer, inflammtory conditions, and gastrointestinal diseases. For the most part, genomics research in the last decade has shed light on potential therapeutic targets, but the identification of drug toxicities in late phase trials has been associated with a 70 percent failure rate in bringing new drugs to the market.   Despite good technologies for investigative studies, initial work is carried out on animals and then the transferrability of the work from a “model” to man has to be assured.  That is the first issue of concern.

Secondly, there is a well considered reluctance on the part of experienced and well prepared physicians to be “early” adopters to newly introduced drugs, with the apprehension that unidentified clinical problems can be expected to be unmasked.  It is, however, easier to consider when a new drug belongs to an established class of medications, and it has removed known adverse effects.  In this case, the adverse effects are known side effects, but not necessarily serious drug reactions that would preclude use.

A third consideration is the cost of drug development, and the cost of development is passed on to the healthcare organization in the purchasing cost. We can rest assured that the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Review Committee will not cease meeting on a regular schedule anytime soon.  Further, how do the drug failures become embedded in the cost of the pharmaceutical budget passed on to the recipient.  Historically, insurance is an actuarial discipline.  But in the lifetime of an individual, they are bound to see a physician for acute or chronic medical attention.  Only the timing cannot be predicted.  As a result, dealing with the valid introduction of new medications is a big concern for both the public and the private insurer.

How does this compute for the physician provider.  The practice of medicine is not quickly adaptive, as the physician’s primary concern is to do no harm.   Genomics testing is not widely available, and it is for the most part not definitive for diagnostic purposes as things stand today.  It may provide assessment of risk, or of survival expectation.  The physician uses a step by step assessment, using the patient and family history, a focused physical exam, laboratory and radiology, proceeding to other more specialized exams.  Much of the laboratory testing is based on the appearance in the circulation of changes in blood chemistry of the nature of electrolytes, circulating cells in the blood and of the blood forming organ, proteins, urea and uric acid.  They are not exquisitely sensitive, but they might be sufficient for their abnormal concentrations appearing at the time the patient presents with a complaint. What tests are ordered is determioned by a need for relevant information to make a medical decision.

The relevant questions are:

1. acuity of symptoms and signs.
2. actions to be taken.
3. tests that are needed to clarify the examination findings.

once a provisional diagnosis is obtained, referrals, additional testing, and medication orders are provided based on the assessment.

Where does genetic testing fit into this? At this point, it will only be used

  1. to confirm a restricted list of diagnoses that have a high association with the condition, and
  2. only with the participation of a medical geneticist, when
  3. profiling the patient and other members of the family is required.

10d0de1 Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci

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Genomics & Genetics of Cardiovascular Disease Diagnoses: A Literature Survey of AHA’s Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics, 3/2010 – 3/2013

 

Curators: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN and Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

 

348 articles that appeared in AHA’s Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics, 3/2010 – 3/2013 were classified by the curators of this article into the following TEN categories. The first 9, represent DIAGNOSES of cardiovascular diseases, the last, deals with Pharmacogenomics.

The Cardiovascular Diagnoses that were covered in the period of 3/2010 – 3/2013, include the following:

  • Preventative Cardiology
  • MicroRNA in Serum as Bimarker for Cardiovascular Pathologies: acute myocardial infarction, viral myocarditis, diastolic dysfunction, and acute heart failure
  • Genetic Determinants of Potassium Sensitivity and Hypertension
  • Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology: 1700 MIs and 2300 coronary heart disease events among about 29 000 eligible patients
  • Genetics of CVD and Hyperlipidemia, Hyper Cholesterolemia, Metabolic Syndrome
  • Genomics and Valvular Disease
  • Pharmacogenomics

Introductions

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

 

The curation of this large amount of material in 10 categories begins with a first chapter on preventative cardiology, which has had much public attention for the last decade.  Much of the concern with preventive cardiology has emphasized diet and exercise.  There is much to be said about this in articles not yet written.  However, there are several decades of research on the amino acid composition of foods, and the essential fatty acids, that indicates an essential balance between proinflammatory and antiinflammatory fatty acids in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and of the harmful effects of saturated fats.  There is also much to be said of essential amino acids, and in particular, those essential for methylation processes, and sulfur metabolism.

The next eight chapters are all concerned with genomics in cardiovascular disease.  This is in no small part a follow up on the completion of the genetic code in 2003, a seminal event.  Let us look at these in clusters.

[1]   microRNA in serum is now considered for a biomarker for cardiovascular disease.  It can be measured at very low levels, but we don’t yet know where it fits.   It might be more revealing once we understand the adaptive mechanism in development of congestive heart failure, renal hypertension, and post-genomic events.

[2]  It appears to me that potassium sensitivity and hypertension approached from the genomic side is more complicate.  Why is that?   The kidney excretes a sodium load and in metabolic acidosis, the serum potassium rises with a metabolic acidemia that can’t be compensated by the respiratory loss of CO2 through the carbonic anhydrase mechanism.

[3]  Heart and aging research is a rich area for work on the long term post-genomic changes, and it involves a large population base.

[4][5]  The genomics of cardiac dysrrhytmias and cardiomyopathies will open new doors into our understanding of the mechanisms of these diseases, and perhaps find therapeutic targets.  There has been a large volume of work on lipid synthesis, the role of the liver in generating apolipoproteins, and this has new answers on the way.  The most important feature, not readily accepted is the measurement of particles, which has now been done by a monoclonal antibody.  Metabolic syndrome brings together adipose tissue metabolism, endocrine and changes in CRP and IL-1.

[6]   Vascular pathologies and coagulation, hyperviscosity has had an enormous increase in intensity of research.  The concept of plaque rupture to account for all AMIs is being modified, and the high sensitivity cardio-specific troponins have become the most widely use test.

[7]  The genomics of valvular disease fits with the increased surgical procedures for valvular disease related to atheroschlerosis and advent of minimally invasive surgical procedures for the reapir and replacement of valves, procedure called TAVR vs. Openhealrt surgery for valve replacement.

[8]  Inherited cardiovascular disease is an older family of disorders, going back to Victor McKusik, and also the “Blue Baby” operation, both at Johns Hopkins.

[9] Pharmacogenomics is a vary active field of investigation and has uncovered inter-individual differences in handling Warfarin as a starter.

 

 

Preventative Cardiology

 

Methods in Genetics and Clinical Interpretation Randomized Trial of Personal Genomics for Preventive Cardiology Design and Challenges

Joshua W. Knowles, MD, PhD, Themistocles L. Assimes, MD, PhD, Michaela Kiernan, PhD, Aleksandra Pavlovic, BS, Benjamin A. Goldstein, PhD, Veronica Yank, MD, Michael V. McConnell, MD, Devin Absher, PhD, Carlos Bustamante, PhD, Euan A. Ashley, MD, DPhil and John P.A. Ioannidis, MD, DSc

Author Affiliations

From the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine (J.W.K., T.L.A., A.P., M.V.M., E.A.A.), Stanford Prevention Research Center (M.K., V.Y., J.P.A.I.), Division of General Medical Disciplines (V.Y.), Department of Genetics (C.B.), Department of Health Research and Policy (J.P.A.I.), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA; Quantitative Sciences Unit, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA (B.A.G.); HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, Huntsville, AL (D.A.); Department of Statistics, Stanford University School of Humanities and Sciences, Stanford, CA (J.P.A.I.).

Correspondence to Joshua W. Knowles, MD, PhD, Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Falk CVRC, 300 Pasteur Dr, Stanford, CA 94305. E-mail knowlej@stanford.edu

Background

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 1500 disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including many related to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Associations have been found for most traditional risk factors (TRFs), including lipids,1,2 blood pressure/hypertension,3,4 weight/body mass index,5,6 smoking behavior,7 and diabetes.8–13 GWAS have also identified susceptibility variants for coronary heart disease (CHD). The first and, so far, strongest of these signals was found in the 9p21.3 locus, where common variants in this region increase the relative risk of CVD by 15% to 30% per risk allele in most race/ethnic groups.13–20 Subsequent large-scale GWAS meta-analyses and replication studies in largely white/European populations have led to the reliable identification of an additional 26 loci conferring susceptibility to CHD,2,20–23 all with substantially lower effects sizes compared with the 9p21 locus. Many of these CVD susceptibility loci appear to be conferring risk independent of TRFs and thus cannot currently be assessed by surrogate clinical measures (Table 1). Among the 27 independent loci identified in the most recent large meta-analyses of CVD, 21 were reported not to be associated with any of the TRFs.20,21

 SOURCE

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics 2012; 5: 368-376

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.112.962746

 

 

MicroRNA in Serum as Bimarker for Cardiovascular Pathologies: acute myocardial infarction, viral myocarditis,  diastolic dysfunction, and acute heart failure

Increased MicroRNA-1 and MicroRNA-133a Levels in Serum of Patients With Cardiovascular Disease Indicate Myocardial Damage

 

Yasuhide Kuwabara, MD, Koh Ono, MD, PhD, Takahiro Horie, MD, PhD, Hitoo Nishi, MD, PhD, Kazuya Nagao, MD, PhD, Minako Kinoshita, MD, PhD, Shin Watanabe, MD, PhD, Osamu Baba, MD, Yoji Kojima, MD, PhD, Satoshi Shizuta, MD, Masao Imai, MD, Toshihiro Tamura, MD, Toru Kita, MD, PhD and Takeshi Kimura, MD, PhD

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan (Y. Kuwabara, K.O., T.H., H.N., K.N., M.K., S.W., O.B., Y. Kojima, S.S., M.I., T.T., T. Kimura); and Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Japan (T. Kita).

Correspondence to Koh Ono, MD, PhD, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan 606-8507. E-mail kohono@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp

 

Abstract

Background—Recently, elevation of circulating muscle-specific microRNA (miRNA) levels has been reported in patients with acute myocardial infarction. However, it is still unclear from which part of the myocardium or under what conditions miRNAs are released into circulating blood. The purpose of this study was to identify the source of elevated levels of circulating miRNAs and their function in cardiovascular diseases.

Conclusions—These results suggest that elevated levels of circulating miR-133a in patients with cardiovascular diseases originate mainly from the injured myocardium. Circulating miR-133a can be used as a marker for cardiomyocyte death, and it may have functions in cardiovascular diseases.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. 2011; 4: 446-454

Published online before print June 2, 2011,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.110.958975

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Circulating MicroRNA-208b and MicroRNA-499 Reflect Myocardial Damage in Cardiovascular Disease

Maarten F. Corsten, MD, Robert Dennert, MD, Sylvia Jochems, BSc, Tatiana Kuznetsova, MD, PhD, Yvan Devaux, PhD, Leon Hofstra, MD, PhD, Daniel R. Wagner, MD, PhD, Jan A. Staessen, MD, PhD, Stephane Heymans, MD, PhD and Blanche Schroen, PhD

Author Affiliations

From the Center for Heart Failure Research (M.F.C., R.D., S.J., S.H., B.S.), Cardiovascular Research Institute, Maastricht, The Netherlands; the Division of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation (T.K., J.A.S.), Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium and Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Centre de Recherche Public–Santé, Luxembourg (Y.D., D.R.W.), Luxembourg; Maastricht University Medical Center (L.H.), Maastricht, The Netherlands; and Centre Hospitalier Luxembourg (D.R.W.), Luxembourg.

Correspondence to Blanche Schroen, PhD, Center for Heart Failure Research, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Universiteitssingel 50, 6229 ER Maastricht, The Netherlands. E-mail b.schroen@cardio.unimaas.nl

Drs Heymans and Schroen contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Background— Small RNA molecules, called microRNAs, freely circulate in human plasma and correlate with varying pathologies. In this study, we explored their diagnostic potential in a selection of prevalent cardiovascular disorders.

Methods and Results— MicroRNAs were isolated from plasmas from well-characterized patients with varying degrees of cardiac damage:

(1) acute myocardial infarction,

(2) viral myocarditis,

(3) diastolic dysfunction, and

(4) acute heart failure.

Plasma levels of selected microRNAs, including heart-associated (miR-1, -133a, -208b, and -499), fibrosis-associated (miR-21 and miR-29b), and leukocyte-associated (miR-146, -155, and -223) candidates, were subsequently assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Strikingly, in plasma from acute myocardial infarction patients, cardiac myocyte–associated miR-208b and -499 were highly elevated, 1600-fold (P<0.005) and 100-fold (P<0.0005), respectively, as compared with control subjects. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.94 (P<1010) for miR-208b and 0.92 (P<109) for miR-499. Both microRNAs correlated with plasma troponin T, indicating release of microRNAs from injured cardiomyocytes. In viral myocarditis, we observed a milder but significant elevation of these microRNAs, 30-fold and 6-fold, respectively. Plasma levels of leukocyte-expressed microRNAs were not significantly increased in acute myocardial infarction or viral myocarditis patients, despite elevated white blood cell counts. In patients with acute heart failure, only miR-499 was significantly elevated (2-fold), whereas no significant changes in microRNAs studied could be observed in diastolic dysfunction. Remarkably, plasma microRNA levels were not affected by a wide range of clinical confounders, including age, sex, body mass index, kidney function, systolic blood pressure, and white blood cell count.

Conclusions— Cardiac damage initiates the detectable release of cardiomyocyte-specific microRNAs-208b and -499 into the circulation.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. 2010; 3: 499-506

Published online before print October 4, 2010,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.110.957415

 

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Genetic Determinants of Potassium Sensitivity and Hypertension

 

Integrated Computational and Experimental Analysis of the Neuroendocrine Transcriptome in Genetic Hypertension Identifies Novel Control Points for the Cardiometabolic Syndrome

Ryan S. Friese, PhD, Chun Ye, PhD, Caroline M. Nievergelt, PhD, Andrew J. Schork, BS, Nitish R. Mahapatra, PhD, Fangwen Rao, MD, Philip S. Napolitan, BS, Jill Waalen, MD, MPH, Georg B. Ehret, MD, Patricia B. Munroe, PhD, Geert W. Schmid-Schönbein, PhD, Eleazar Eskin, PhD and Daniel T. O’Connor, MD

Author Affiliations

From the Departments of Bioengineering (R.S.F., G.W.S.-S.), Medicine (R.S.F., A.J.S., F.R., P.S.N., D.T.O.), Pharmacology (D.T.O.), and Psychiatry (C.M.N.), the Bioinformatics Program (C.Y.), and the Institute for Genomic Medicine (D.T.O.), University of California at San Diego; the VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA (D.T.O.); the Departments of Computer Science & Human Genetics, University of California at Los Angeles (E.E.); the Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India (N.R.M.); Clinical Pharmacology and The Genome Centre, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom (P.B.M.); Center for Complex Disease Genomics, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (G.B.E.); and Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (J.W.).

Correspondence to Daniel T. O’Connor, MD, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego School of Medicine, VASDHS (0838), Skaggs (SSPPS) Room 4256, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0838. E-mail doconnor@ucsd.edu

Abstract

Background—Essential hypertension, a common complex disease, displays substantial genetic influence. Contemporary methods to dissect the genetic basis of complex diseases such as the genomewide association study are powerful, yet a large gap exists betweens the fraction of population trait variance explained by such associations and total disease heritability.

Methods and Results—We developed a novel, integrative method (combining animal models, transcriptomics, bioinformatics, molecular biology, and trait-extreme phenotypes) to identify candidate genes for essential hypertension and the metabolic syndrome. We first undertook transcriptome profiling on adrenal glands from blood pressure extreme mouse strains: the hypertensive BPH (blood pressure high) and hypotensive BPL (blood pressure low). Microarray data clustering revealed a striking pattern of global underexpression of intermediary metabolism transcripts in BPH. The MITRA algorithm identified a conserved motif in the transcriptional regulatory regions of the underexpressed metabolic genes, and we then hypothesized that regulation through this motif contributed to the global underexpression. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated transcriptional activity of the motif through transcription factors HOXA3, SRY, and YY1. We finally hypothesized that genetic variation at HOXA3, SRY, and YY1 might predict blood pressure and other metabolic syndrome traits in humans. Tagging variants for each locus were associated with blood pressure in a human population blood pressure extreme sample with the most extensive associations for YY1 tagging single nucleotide polymorphism rs11625658 on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, and fasting glucose. Meta-analysis extended the YY1 results into 2 additional large population samples with significant effects preserved on diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, and fasting glucose.

Conclusions—The results outline an innovative, systematic approach to the genetic pathogenesis of complex cardiovascular disease traits and point to transcription factor YY1 as a potential candidate gene involved in essential hypertension and the cardiometabolic syndrome.

 SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2012; 5: 430-440

Published online before print June 5, 2012,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.111.962415

Genome-Wide Linkage and Positional Candidate Gene Study of Blood Pressure Response to Dietary Potassium Intervention

The Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity Study

Tanika N. Kelly, PhD, James E. Hixson, PhD, Dabeeru C. Rao, PhD, Hao Mei, MD, PhD, Treva K. Rice, PhD, Cashell E. Jaquish, PhD, Lawrence C. Shimmin, PhD, Karen Schwander, MS, Chung-Shuian Chen, MS, Depei Liu, PhD, Jichun Chen, MD, Concetta Bormans, PhD, Pramila Shukla, MS, Naveed Farhana, MS, Colin Stuart, BS, Paul K. Whelton, MD, MSc, Jiang He, MD, PhD and Dongfeng Gu, MD, PhD

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Epidemiology (T.N.K., H.M., C.-S.C., J.H.), Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, and Department of Medicine (J.H.), Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, La; Department of Epidemiology (J.E.H., L.C.S., C.B., P.S., N.F., C.S.), University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, Tex; Division of Biostatistics (D.C.R., T.K.R., K.S.), Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo; Division of Prevention and Population Sciences (C.E.J.), National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute, Bethesda, Md; National Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology (D.L.), Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China; Cardiovascular Institute and Fuwai Hospital (J.C., D.G.), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College and Chinese National Center for Cardiovascular Disease Control and Research, Beijing, China; and Office of the President (P.K.W.), Loyola University Health System and Medical Center, Maywood, Ill.

Correspondence to Dongfeng Gu, MD, PhD, Division of Population Genetics and Prevention, Cardiovascular Institute and Fuwai Hospital, 167 Beilishi Rd, Beijing 100037, China. E-mail gudongfeng@vip.sina.com

Abstract

Background— Genetic determinants of blood pressure (BP) response to potassium, or potassium sensitivity, are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan and positional candidate gene analysis to identify genetic determinants of potassium sensitivity.

Conclusions— Genetic regions on chromosomes 3 and 11 may harbor important susceptibility loci for potassium sensitivity. Furthermore, the AGTR1 gene was a significant predictor of BP responses to potassium intake.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. 2010; 3: 539-547

Published online before print September 22, 2010,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.110.940635

 

Genome-Wide Association Study of Cardiac Structure and Systolic Function in African Americans

The Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) Study

Ervin R. Fox, MD*, Solomon K. Musani, PhD*, Maja Barbalic, PhD*, Honghuang Lin, PhD, Bing Yu, MS, Kofo O. Ogunyankin, MD, Nicholas L. Smith, PhD, Abdullah Kutlar, MD, Nicole L. Glazer, MD, Wendy S. Post, MD, MS, Dina N. Paltoo, PhD, MPH, Daniel L. Dries, MD, MPH, Deborah N. Farlow, PhD, Christine W. Duarte, PhD, Sharon L. Kardia, PhD, Kristin J. Meyers, PhD, Yan V. Sun, PhD, Donna K. Arnett, PhD, Amit A. Patki, MS, Jin Sha, MS, Xiangqui Cui, PhD, Tandaw E. Samdarshi, MD, MPH, Alan D. Penman, PhD, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, MD, PhD, Petra Bůžková, PhD, Emelia J. Benjamin, MD, David A. Bluemke, MD, PhD, Alanna C. Morrison, PhD, Gerardo Heiss, MD, J. Jeffrey Carr, MD, MSc, Russell P. Tracy, PhD, Thomas H. Mosley, PhD, Herman A. Taylor, MD, Bruce M. Psaty, MD, PhD, Susan R. Heckbert, MD, PhD, Thomas P. Cappola, MD, ScM and Ramachandran S. Vasan, MD

Author Affiliations

Guest Editor for this article was Barry London, MD, PhD.

Correspondence to Ervin Fox, MD MPH, FAHA, FACC, Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State St, Jackson, MS 39216. E-mail efox@medicine.umsmed.edu

* These authors contributed equally as joint first authors.

Abstract

Background—Using data from 4 community-based cohorts of African Americans, we tested the association between genome-wide markers (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) and cardiac phenotypes in the Candidate-gene Association Resource study.

Methods and Results—Among 6765 African Americans, we related age, sex, height, and weight-adjusted residuals for 9 cardiac phenotypes (assessed by echocardiogram or magnetic resonance imaging) to 2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped using Genome-wide Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0 (Affy6.0) and the remainder imputed. Within the cohort, genome-wide association analysis was conducted, followed by meta-analysis across cohorts using inverse variance weights (genome-wide significance threshold=4.0 ×107). Supplementary pathway analysis was performed. We attempted replication in 3 smaller cohorts of African ancestry and tested lookups in 1 consortium of European ancestry (EchoGEN). Across the 9 phenotypes, variants in 4 genetic loci reached genome-wide significance: rs4552931 in UBE2V2 (P=1.43×107) for left ventricular mass, rs7213314 in WIPI1 (P=1.68×107) for left ventricular internal diastolic diameter, rs1571099 in PPAPDC1A (P=2.57×108) for interventricular septal wall thickness, and rs9530176 in KLF5 (P=4.02×107) for ejection fraction. Associated variants were enriched in 3 signaling pathways involved in cardiac remodeling. None of the 4 loci replicated in cohorts of African ancestry was confirmed in lookups in EchoGEN.

Conclusions—In the largest genome-wide association study of cardiac structure and function to date in African Americans, we identified 4 genetic loci related to left ventricular mass, interventricular septal wall thickness, left ventricular internal diastolic diameter, and ejection fraction, which reached genome-wide significance. Replication results suggest that these loci may be unique to individuals of African ancestry. Additional large-scale studies are warranted for these complex phenotypes.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. 2013; 6: 37-46

Published online before print December 28, 2012,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.111.962365

 

Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology: 1700 MIs and 2300 coronary heart disease events among about 29 000 eligible patients

 

Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium

Design of Prospective Meta-Analyses of Genome-Wide Association Studies From 5 Cohorts

Bruce M. Psaty, MD, PhD, Christopher J. O’Donnell, MD, MPH, Vilmundur Gudnason, MD, PhD, Kathryn L. Lunetta, PhD, Aaron R. Folsom, MD, Jerome I. Rotter, MD, André G. Uitterlinden, PhD, Tamara B. Harris, MD, Jacqueline C.M. Witteman, PhD, Eric Boerwinkle, PhD and on Behalf of the CHARGE Consortium

Author Affiliations

From the Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Wash; Center for Health Studies, Group Health (B.M.P.), Seattle, Wash; the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the Framingham Heart Study (C.J.O.D.), Framingham, Mass; Icelandic Heart Association and the Department of Cardiovascular Genetics (Y.G.), University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; Department of Biostatistics (K.L.), Boston University School of Public Health, Mass; Division of Epidemiology and Community Health (A.R.F.), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis; Medical Genetics Institute (J.I.R.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, Calif; Departments of Internal Medicine (A.G.U.) and Epidemiology (A.G.U., J.C.M.W.), Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry (T.B.H.), Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Md; and Human Genetics Center and Division of Epidemiology (E.B.), University of Texas, Houston.

Guest editor for this article was Elizabeth R. Hauser, PhD.

Abstract

Background— The primary aim of genome-wide association studies is to identify novel genetic loci associated with interindividual variation in the levels of risk factors, the degree of subclinical disease, or the risk of clinical disease. The requirement for large sample sizes and the importance of replication have served as powerful incentives for scientific collaboration.

Methods— The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium was formed to facilitate genome-wide association studies meta-analyses and replication opportunities among multiple large population-based cohort studies, which collect data in a standardized fashion and represent the preferred method for estimating disease incidence. The design of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium includes 5 prospective cohort studies from the United States and Europe: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility—Reykjavik Study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Rotterdam Study. With genome-wide data on a total of about 38 000 individuals, these cohort studies have a large number of health-related phenotypes measured in similar ways. For each harmonized trait, within-cohort genome-wide association study analyses are combined by meta-analysis. A prospective meta-analysis of data from all 5 cohorts, with a properly selected level of genome-wide statistical significance, is a powerful approach to finding genuine phenotypic associations with novel genetic loci.

Conclusions— The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium and collaborating non-member studies or consortia provide an excellent framework for the identification of the genetic determinants of risk factors, subclinical-disease measures, and clinical events.

Example of Coronary Heart Disease

The cohort-study methods papers provide detail about many of the phenotypes listed in Table 2. For coronary heart disease, investigators knowledgeable about the phenotype in each study decided to focus on fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) as the primary outcome because the MI criteria differed in only trivial ways among the studies. There were some minor differences in the definition of the composite outcome of MI, fatal coronary heart disease, and sudden death, which became the secondary outcome. Only subjects at risk for an incident event were included in the analysis. MI survivors whose DNA was drawn after the event were not eligible. The primary analysis was restricted to Europeans or European Americans. Patients entered the analysis at the time of the DNA blood draw, and were followed until an event, death, loss to follow up, or the last visit. The main recommendations of the Analysis Committee were adopted, and a threshold of 5×108 was selected for genome-wide statistical significance. Analyses in progress include about 1700 MIs and 2300 coronary heart disease events among about 29 000 eligible patients. Each cohort conducted its own analysis, and results were uploaded to a secure share site for the fixed-effects meta-analysis. Even with this number of events (Supplemental Figure 2), power is good for only for relatively high minor allele frequencies (>0.25) and large relative risks (>1.3).

The authors had full access to and take full responsibility for the integrity of the data. All authors have read and agree to the manuscript as written.

Discussion

In thousands of published papers, the 5 CHARGE cohort studies and many of the collaborating studies have already characterized the risk factors for and the incidence and prognosis of a variety of aging-related and cardiovascular conditions. The analysis of the incident MI, for instance, is free from the survival bias typically associated with cross-sectional or case-control studies. The methodologic advantages of the prospective population-based cohort design, the similarity of phenotypes across 5 studies, the availability of genome-wide genotyping data in each cohort, and the need for large sample sizes to provide reliable estimates of genotype-phenotype associations have served as the primary incentives for the formation of the CHARGE consortium, which includes GWAS data on about 38 000 individuals. The consortium effort relies on collaborative methods that are similar to those used by the individual contributing cohorts.

Phenotype experts who know the studies and the data well are responsible for phenotype-standardization across cohorts. The coordinated prospectively planned meta-analyses of CHARGE provide results that are virtually identical to a cohort-adjusted pooled analysis of individual level data. This approach–the within-study analysis followed by a between-study meta-analysis–avoids the human subjects issues associated with individual-level data sharing.

Editors, reviewers, and readers expect replication as the standard in science.6 The finding of a genetic association in one population with evidence for replication in multiple independent populations provides moderate assurance against false-positive reports and helps to establish the validity of the original finding. In a single experiment, the discovery-replication structure is traditionally embodied in a 2-stage design. The CHARGE consortium includes up to 5 independent replicate samples as well as additional collaborating studies for some phenotype working groups, so that it would have been possible to set up analysis plans within CHARGE to mimic the traditional 2-stage design for replication. For instance, the 2 largest cohorts could have served as the discovery set and the others as the replication set. However, attaining the extremely small probability values expected in GWAS requires large sample sizes. For any phenotype, a prospective meta-analysis of all participating cohorts, with a properly selected level of genome-wide statistical significance to minimize the chance of false-positives, is the most powerful approach to finding new genuine associations for genetic loci.25 When findings narrowly miss the prespecified significance threshold, genotyping individuals in other independent populations provides additional evidence about the association. For findings that substantially exceed pre-established significance thresholds, the results of a CHARGE meta-analysis effectively provide evidence of a multistudy replication.

The effort to assemble and manage the CHARGE consortium has provided some interesting and unanticipated challenges. Participating cohorts often had relationships with outside study groups that predated the formation of CHARGE. Timelines for genotyping and imputation have shifted. Purchases of new computer systems for the volume of work were sometimes necessary. Each cohort came to the consortium with their own traditions for methods of analysis, organization, and authorship policies that, while appropriate for their own work, were not always optimal for collaboration with multiple external groups. Within each cohort, the investigators had often formed working groups that divided up the large number of available phenotypes in ways that made sense locally but did not necessarily match the configuration that had been adopted by other cohorts. The Research Steering Committee has attempted to create a set of CHARGE working groups that accommodate the needs and the conventions of the various cohorts. Transparency, disclosure, and professional collaborative behavior by all participating investigators have been essential to the process.

Resource limitations are another challenge. Grant applications that funded the original single-study genome-wide genotyping effort typically imagined a much simpler design. The CHS whole-genome study had as its primary aim, for instance, the analysis of data on 3 endpoints, coronary disease, stroke and heart failure. With a score of active phenotype working groups, the CHARGE collaboration broadened the scope of the short-term work well beyond initial expectations for all the participating cohorts.

One of the premier challenges has been communications among scores of investigators at a dozen sites. CHS and ARIC are themselves multi-site studies. To be successful, the CHARGE collaboration has required effective communications: (1) within each cohort; (2) between cohorts; (3) within the CHARGE working groups; and (4) among the major CHARGE committees. In addition to the traditional methods of conference calls and email, the CHARGE “wiki,” set up by Dr J. Bis (Seattle, Wash), has provided a crucial and highly functional user-driven website for calendars, minutes, guidelines, working group analysis plans, manuscript proposals, and other documents. In the end, there is no substitute for face-to-face meetings, especially at the beginning of the collaboration, and this complex meta-organization has benefited from several CHARGE-wide meetings.

The major emerging opportunity is the collaboration with other studies and consortia. Many working groups have already incorporated nonmember studies into their efforts. Several working groups have coordinated submissions of initial manuscripts with the parallel submission of manuscripts from other studies or consortia. Several working groups have embarked on plans for joint meta-analyses between CHARGE and other consortia. CHARGE has tried to acknowledge and reward the efforts of champions, who assume leadership responsibility for moving these large complex projects forward and who are often hard-working young investigators, the key to the future success of population science.

The CHARGE Consortium represents an innovative model of collaborative research conducted by research teams that know well the strengths, the limitations, and the data from 5 prospective population-based cohort studies. By leveraging the dense genotyping, deep phenotyping and the diverse expertise, prospective meta-analyses are underway to identify and replicate the major common genetic determinants of risk factors, measures of subclinical disease, and clinical events for cardiovascular disease and aging.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2009; 2: 73-80

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.108.829747

 

 

Genomics of Ventricular arrhythmias, A-Fib, Right Ventricular Dysplasia, Cardiomyopathy

 

Comprehensive Desmosome Mutation Analysis in North Americans With Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy

A. Dénise den Haan, MD, Boon Yew Tan, MBChB, Michelle N. Zikusoka, MD, Laura Ibañez Lladó, MS, Rahul Jain, MD, Amy Daly, MS, Crystal Tichnell, MGC, Cynthia James, PhD, Nuria Amat-Alarcon, MS, Theodore Abraham, MD, Stuart D. Russell, MD, David A. Bluemke, MD, PhD, Hugh Calkins, MD, Darshan Dalal, MD, PhD and Daniel P. Judge, MD

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Medicine/Cardiology (A.D.d.H., B.Y.T., M.N.Z., L.I.L., R.J., A.D., C.T., C.J., N.A.-A., T.A., S.D.R., H.C., D.D., D.P.J.), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md; Department of Cardiology, Division of Heart and Lungs (A.D.d.H.), University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; and National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences (D.A.B.), Bethesda, Md.

Correspondence to Daniel P. Judge, MD, Johns Hopkins University, Division of Cardiology, Ross 1049; 720 Rutland Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21205. E-mail djudge@jhmi.edu

Abstract

Background— Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is an inherited disorder typically caused by mutations in components of the cardiac desmosome. The prevalence and significance of desmosome mutations among patients with ARVD/C in North America have not been described previously. We report comprehensive desmosome genetic analysis for 100 North Americans with clinically confirmed or suspected ARVD/C.

Methods and Results— In 82 individuals with ARVD/C and 18 people with suspected ARVD/C, DNA sequence analysis was performed on PKP2, DSG2, DSP, DSC2, and JUP. In those with ARVD/C, 52% harbored a desmosome mutation. A majority of these mutations occurred in PKP2. Notably, 3 of the individuals studied have a mutation in more than 1 gene. Patients with a desmosome mutation were more likely to have experienced ventricular tachycardia (73% versus 44%), and they presented at a younger age (33 versus 41 years) compared with those without a desmosome mutation. Men with ARVD/C were more likely than women to carry a desmosome mutation (63% versus 38%). A mutation was identified in 5 of 18 patients (28%) with suspected ARVD. In this smaller subgroup, there were no significant phenotypic differences identified between individuals with a desmosome mutation compared with those without a mutation.

Conclusions— Our study shows that in 52% of North Americans with ARVD/C a mutation in one of the cardiac desmosome genes can be identified. Compared with those without a desmosome gene mutation, individuals with a desmosome gene mutation had earlier-onset ARVD/C and were more likely to have ventricular tachycardia.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2009; 2: 428-435

Published online before print June 3, 2009,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.109.858217

 

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Large-Scale Candidate Gene Analysis in Whites and African Americans Identifies IL6R Polymorphism in Relation to Atrial Fibrillation

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) Project

Renate B. Schnabel, MD, MSc*, Kathleen F. Kerr, PhD*, Steven A. Lubitz, MD*, Ermeg L. Alkylbekova, MD*, Gregory M. Marcus, MD, MAS, Moritz F. Sinner, MD, Jared W. Magnani, MD, Philip A. Wolf, MD, Rajat Deo, MD, Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, MD, ScM, Kathryn L. Lunetta, PhD, Reena Mehra, MD, MS, Daniel Levy, MD, Ervin R. Fox, MD, MPH, Dan E. Arking, PhD, Thomas H. Mosley, PhD, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, MSc, PhD, Taylor R. Young, MA, H.-Erich Wichmann, MD, PhD, Sudha Seshadri, MD, Deborah N. Farlow, PhD, Jerome I. Rotter, MD, Elsayed Z. Soliman, MD, MSc, MS, Nicole L. Glazer, PhD, James G. Wilson, MD, Monique M.B. Breteler, MD, Nona Sotoodehnia, MD, MPH, Christopher Newton-Cheh, MD, MPH, Stefan Kääb, MD, PhD, Patrick T. Ellinor, MD, PhD*, Alvaro Alonso, MD*, Emelia J. Benjamin, MD, ScM*, Susan R. Heckbert, MD, PhD* and for the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) Atrial Fibrillation/Electrocardiography Working Group

Correspondence to Susan R. Heckbert, MD, PhD, Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Suite 1360, Seattle, WA 98101. E-mail heckbert@u.washington.edu; Emelia J. Benjamin, MD, ScM, Medicine and Epidemiology, Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health, The Framingham Heart Study, 73 Mount Wayte Ave, Framingham, MA 01702–5827. E-mail emelia@bu.edu; Renate B. Schnabel, MD, MSc, Department of Medicine 2, Cardiology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Langenbeckstr 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany. E-mail schnabelr@gmx.de

* These authors contributed equally to the manuscript.

Abstract

Background—The genetic background of atrial fibrillation (AF) in whites and African Americans is largely unknown. Genes in cardiovascular pathways have not been systematically investigated.

Methods and Results—We examined a panel of approximately 50 000 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2095 cardiovascular candidate genes and AF in 3 cohorts with participants of European (n=18 524; 2260 cases) or African American descent (n=3662; 263 cases) in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Candidate Gene Association Resource. Results in whites were followed up in the German Competence Network for AF (n=906, 468 cases). The top result was assessed in relation to incident ischemic stroke in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Stroke Consortium (n=19 602 whites, 1544 incident strokes). SNP rs4845625 in the IL6R gene was associated with AF (relative risk [RR] C allele, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85–0.95; P=0.0005) in whites but did not reach statistical significance in African Americans (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.72–1.03; P=0.09). The results were comparable in the German AF Network replication, (RR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57–0.89; P=0.003). No association between rs4845625 and stroke was observed in whites. The known chromosome 4 locus near PITX2 in whites also was associated with AF in African Americans (rs4611994; hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.16–1.69; P=0.0005).

Conclusions—In a community-based cohort meta-analysis, we identified genetic association in IL6R with AF in whites. Additionally, we demonstrated that the chromosome 4 locus known from recent genome-wide association studies in whites is associated with AF in African Americans.

 SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2011; 4: 557-564

Published online before print August 16, 2011,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.110.959197

PITX2c Is Expressed in the Adult Left Atrium, and Reducing Pitx2c Expression Promotes Atrial Fibrillation Inducibility and Complex Changes in Gene Expression

Paulus Kirchhof, MD*, Peter C. Kahr*, Sven Kaese, Ilaria Piccini, PhD, Ismail Vokshi, BSc, Hans-Heinrich Scheld, MD, Heinrich Rotering, MD, Lisa Fortmueller, MD (vet), Sandra Laakmann, MD (vet), Sander Verheule, PhD, Ulrich Schotten, MD, PhD, Larissa Fabritz, MD and Nigel A. Brown, PhD

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Cardiology and Angiology (P.K., P.C.K., S.K., I.P., L.F., S.L., L.F.) and the Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (H.-H.S., H.R.), University Hospital Muenster, Germany; Division of Biomedical Sciences (P.C.K., I.V., N.A.B.), St. George’s, University of London, United Kingdom; and the Department of Physiology (S.V., U.S.), Maastricht University, The Netherlands.

Correspondence to Nigel A. Brown, PhD, Division of Biomedical Sciences, St George’s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE, UK. E-mail nbrown@sgul.ac.uk

* Drs Kirchhof and Kahr contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Background— Intergenic variations on chromosome 4q25, close to the PITX2 transcription factor gene, are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). We therefore tested whether adult hearts express PITX2 and whether variation in expression affects cardiac function.

Methods and Results— mRNA for PITX2 isoform c was expressed in left atria of human and mouse, with levels in right atrium and left and right ventricles being 100-fold lower. In mice heterozygous for Pitx2c (Pitx2c+/), left atrial Pitx2c expression was 60% of wild-type and cardiac morphology and function were not altered, except for slightly elevated pulmonary flow velocity. Isolated Pitx2c+/ hearts were susceptible to AF during programmed stimulation. At short paced cycle lengths, atrial action potential durations were shorter in Pitx2c+/ than in wild-type. Perfusion with the β-receptor agonist orciprenaline abolished inducibility of AF and reduced the effect on action potential duration. Spontaneous heart rates, atrial conduction velocities, and activation patterns were not affected in Pitx2c+/ hearts, suggesting that action potential duration shortening caused wave length reduction and inducibility of AF. Expression array analyses comparing Pitx2c+/ with wild-type, for left atrial and right atrial tissue separately, identified genes related to calcium ion binding, gap and tight junctions, ion channels, and melanogenesis as being affected by the reduced expression of Pitx2c.

Conclusions— These findings demonstrate a physiological role for PITX2 in the adult heart and support the hypothesis that dysregulation of PITX2 expression can be responsible for susceptibility to AF.

 SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2011; 4: 123-133

Published online before print January 31, 2011,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.110.958058

 

Genetics of CVD and Hyperlipidemia, Hyper Cholesterolemia, Metabolic Syndrome

 

Genetic Loci Associated With Plasma Concentration of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Apolipoprotein A1, and Apolipoprotein B Among 6382 White Women in Genome-Wide Analysis With Replication

Daniel I. Chasman, PhD*, Guillaume Paré, MD, MS*, Robert Y.L. Zee, PhD, MPH, Alex N. Parker, PhD, Nancy R. Cook, ScD, Julie E. Buring, ScD, David J. Kwiatkowski, MD, PhD, Lynda M. Rose, MS, Joshua D. Smith, BS, Paul T. Williams, PhD, Mark J. Rieder, PhD, Jerome I. Rotter, MD, Deborah A. Nickerson, PhD, Ronald M. Krauss, MD, Joseph P. Miletich, MD and Paul M Ridker, MD, MPH

Author Affiliations

From the Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention (D.I.C., G.P., R.Y.L.Z., N.R.C., J.E.B., L.M.R., P.M.R.) and Donald W. Reynolds Center for Cardiovascular Research (D.I.C., G.P., R.Y.L.Z., N.R.C., D.J.K., P.M.R.), Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass; Amgen, Inc, Cambridge, Mass (A.N.P., J.M.P.); Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash (J.D.S., M.J.R., D.A.N.); Life Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif (P.T.W., R.M.K.); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, Calif (J.I.R.); and Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, Calif (R.M.K.).

Correspondence to Daniel I. Chasman, Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 900 Commonwealth Ave E, Boston, MA 02215. E-mail dchasman@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

Abstract

Background— Genome-wide genetic association analysis represents an opportunity for a comprehensive survey of the genes governing lipid metabolism, potentially revealing new insights or even therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular disease and related metabolic disorders.

Methods and Results— We have performed large-scale, genome-wide genetic analysis among 6382 white women with replication in 2 cohorts of 970 additional white men and women for associations between common single-nucleotide polymorphisms and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and ApoB. Genome-wide associations (P<5×108) were found at the PCSK9 gene, the APOB gene, the LPL gene, the APOA1-APOA5 locus, the LIPC gene, the CETP gene, the LDLR gene, and the APOE locus. In addition, genome-wide associations with triglycerides at the GCKR gene confirm and extend emerging links between glucose and lipid metabolism. Still other genome-wide associations at the 1p13.3 locus are consistent with emerging biological properties for a region of the genome, possibly related to the SORT1 gene. Below genome-wide significance, our study provides confirmatory evidence for associations at 5 novel loci with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglycerides reported recently in separate genome-wide association studies. The total proportion of variance explained by common variation at the genome-wide candidate loci ranges from 4.3% for triglycerides to 12.6% for ApoB.

Conclusion— Genome-wide associations at the GCKR gene and near the SORT1 gene, as well as confirmatory associations at 5 additional novel loci, suggest emerging biological pathways for lipid metabolism among white women.

 SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2008; 1: 21-30

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.108.773168

 

 

Integrated Computational and Experimental Analysis of the Neuroendocrine Transcriptome in Genetic Hypertension Identifies Novel Control Points for the Cardiometabolic Syndrome

Ryan S. Friese, PhD, Chun Ye, PhD, Caroline M. Nievergelt, PhD, Andrew J. Schork, BS, Nitish R. Mahapatra, PhD, Fangwen Rao, MD, Philip S. Napolitan, BS, Jill Waalen, MD, MPH, Georg B. Ehret, MD, Patricia B. Munroe, PhD, Geert W. Schmid-Schönbein, PhD, Eleazar Eskin, PhD and Daniel T. O’Connor, MD

Author Affiliations

From the Departments of Bioengineering (R.S.F., G.W.S.-S.), Medicine (R.S.F., A.J.S., F.R., P.S.N., D.T.O.), Pharmacology (D.T.O.), and Psychiatry (C.M.N.), the Bioinformatics Program (C.Y.), and the Institute for Genomic Medicine (D.T.O.), University of California at San Diego; the VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA (D.T.O.); the Departments of Computer Science & Human Genetics, University of California at Los Angeles (E.E.); the Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India (N.R.M.); Clinical Pharmacology and The Genome Centre, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom (P.B.M.); Center for Complex Disease Genomics, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (G.B.E.); and Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (J.W.).

Correspondence to Daniel T. O’Connor, MD, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego School of Medicine, VASDHS (0838), Skaggs (SSPPS) Room 4256, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0838. E-mail doconnor@ucsd.edu

Abstract

Background—Essential hypertension, a common complex disease, displays substantial genetic influence. Contemporary methods to dissect the genetic basis of complex diseases such as the genomewide association study are powerful, yet a large gap exists betweens the fraction of population trait variance explained by such associations and total disease heritability.

Methods and Results—We developed a novel, integrative method (combining animal models, transcriptomics, bioinformatics, molecular biology, and trait-extreme phenotypes) to identify candidate genes for essential hypertension and the metabolic syndrome. We first undertook transcriptome profiling on adrenal glands from blood pressure extreme mouse strains: the hypertensive BPH (blood pressure high) and hypotensive BPL (blood pressure low). Microarray data clustering revealed a striking pattern of global underexpression of intermediary metabolism transcripts in BPH. The MITRA algorithm identified a conserved motif in the transcriptional regulatory regions of the underexpressed metabolic genes, and we then hypothesized that regulation through this motif contributed to the global underexpression. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated transcriptional activity of the motif through transcription factors HOXA3, SRY, and YY1. We finally hypothesized that genetic variation at HOXA3, SRY, and YY1 might predict blood pressure and other metabolic syndrome traits in humans. Tagging variants for each locus were associated with blood pressure in a human population blood pressure extreme sample with the most extensive associations for YY1 tagging single nucleotide polymorphism rs11625658 on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, and fasting glucose. Meta-analysis extended the YY1 results into 2 additional large population samples with significant effects preserved on diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, and fasting glucose.

Conclusions—The results outline an innovative, systematic approach to the genetic pathogenesis of complex cardiovascular disease traits and point to transcription factor YY1 as a potential candidate gene involved in essential hypertension and the cardiometabolic syndrome.

 SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2012; 5: 430-440

Published online before print June 5, 2012,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.111.962415

 

Associations Between Incident Ischemic Stroke Events and Stroke and Cardiovascular Disease-Related Genome-Wide Association Studies Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Population Architecture Using Genomics and Epidemiology Study

Cara L. Carty, PhD, Petra Bůžková, PhD, Myriam Fornage, PhD, Nora Franceschini, MD, Shelley Cole, PhD, Gerardo Heiss, MD, PhD, Lucia A. Hindorff, PhD, MPH, Barbara V. Howard, PhD, Sue Mann, MPH, Lisa W. Martin, MD, Ying Zhang, PhD, Tara C. Matise, PhD, Ross Prentice, PhD, Alexander P. Reiner, MD, MS and Charles Kooperberg, PhD

Author Affiliations

From the Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (C.L.C., S.M., R.P., C.K.); Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (P.B.); Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Houston, Houston, TX (M.F.); Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Houston, TX (M.F.); Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (N.F., G.H.); Department of Genetics, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (S.C.); Office of Population Genomics, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (L.A.H.); Medstar Health Research Institute, Washington, DC (B.V.H.); George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC (B.V.H., L.W.M.); University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (Y.Z.); Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (T.C.M.); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (A.P.R.).

Correspondence to Dr Cara L. Carty, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N./M3-A410, Seattle, WA 98109. E-mail ccarty@fhcrc.org

Abstract

Background—Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified loci associated with ischemic stroke (IS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in European-descent individuals, but their replication in different populations has been largely unexplored.

Methods and Results—Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from GWAS and meta-analyses of stroke, and 86 SNPs previously associated with myocardial infarction and CVD risk factors, including blood lipids (high density lipoprotein [HDL], low density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides), type 2 diabetes, and body mass index (BMI), were investigated for associations with incident IS in European Americans (EA) N=26 276, African-Americans (AA) N=8970, and American Indians (AI) N=3570 from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology Study. Ancestry-specific fixed effects meta-analysis with inverse variance weighting was used to combine study-specific log hazard ratios from Cox proportional hazards models. Two of 9 stroke SNPs (rs783396 and rs1804689) were associated with increased IS hazard in AA; none were significant in this large EA cohort. Of 73 CVD risk factor SNPs tested in EA, 2 (HDL and triglycerides SNPs) were associated with IS. In AA, SNPs associated with LDL, HDL, and BMI were significantly associated with IS (3 of 86 SNPs tested). Out of 58 SNPs tested in AI, 1 LDL SNP was significantly associated with IS.

Conclusions—Our analyses showing lack of replication in spite of reasonable power for many stroke SNPs and differing results by ancestry highlight the need to follow up on GWAS findings and conduct genetic association studies in diverse populations. We found modest IS associations with BMI and lipids SNPs, though these findings require confirmation.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2012; 5: 210-216

Published online before print March 8, 2012,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.111.962191

 

Common Variation in Fatty Acid Genes and Resuscitation From Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Catherine O. Johnson, PhD, MPH, Rozenn N. Lemaitre, PhD, MPH, Carol E. Fahrenbruch, MSPH, Stephanie Hesselson, PhD, Nona Sotoodehnia, MD, MPH, Barbara McKnight, PhD, Kenneth M. Rice, PhD, Pui-Yan Kwok, MD, PhD, David S. Siscovick, MD, MPH and Thomas D. Rea, MD, MPH

Author Affiliations

From the Departments of Medicine (C.O.J., R.N.L., N.S., D.S.S., T.D.R.), Biostatistics (B.M., K.M.R.), and Epidemiology (D.S.S), University of Washington, Seattle; King County Emergency Medical Services, Seattle, WA (C.E.F.); and Institute of Human Genetics, University of California San Francisco (S.H., P.-Y.K.).

Correspondence to Catherine O. Johnson, PhD, MPH, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, CHRU 1730 Minor Ave, Suite 1360, Seattle, WA 98101. E-mail johnsoco@uw.edu

Abstract

Background—Fatty acids provide energy and structural substrates for the heart and brain and may influence resuscitation from sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). We investigated whether genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism pathways was associated with SCA survival.

Methods and Results—Subjects (mean age, 67 years; 80% male, white) were out-of-hospital SCA patients found in ventricular fibrillation in King County, WA. We compared subjects who survived to hospital admission (n=664) with those who did not (n=689), and subjects who survived to hospital discharge (n=334) with those who did not (n=1019). Associations between survival and genetic variants were assessed using logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, location, time to arrival of paramedics, whether the event was witnessed, and receipt of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Within-gene permutation tests were used to correct for multiple comparisons. Variants in 5 genes were significantly associated with SCA survival. After correction for multiple comparisons, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ACSL1 and ACSL3 were significantly associated with survival to hospital admission. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ACSL3, AGPAT3, MLYCD, and SLC27A6 were significantly associated with survival to hospital discharge.

Conclusions—Our findings indicate that variants in genes important in fatty acid metabolism are associated with SCA survival in this population.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2012; 5: 422-429

Published online before print June 1, 2012,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.111.961912

 

Genome-Wide Association Study Pinpoints a New Functional Apolipoprotein B Variant Influencing Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Levels But Not Cardiovascular Events

AtheroRemo Consortium

Kari-Matti Mäkelä, BM, BSc, Ilkka Seppälä, MSc, Jussi A. Hernesniemi, MD, PhD, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, MD, Niku Oksala, MD, PhD, DSc, Marcus E. Kleber, PhD, Hubert Scharnagl, PhD, Tanja B. Grammer, MD, Jens Baumert, PhD, Barbara Thorand, PhD, Antti Jula, MD, PhD, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, MD, PhD, Markus Juonala, MD, PhD, Tomi Laitinen, MD, PhD, Reijo Laaksonen, MD, PhD, Pekka J. Karhunen, MD, PhD, Kjell C. Nikus, MD, PhD, Tuomo Nieminen, MD, PhD, MSc, Jari Laurikka, MD, PhD, Pekka Kuukasjärvi, MD, PhD, Matti Tarkka, MD, PhD, Jari Viik, PhD, Norman Klopp, PhD, Thomas Illig, PhD, Johannes Kettunen, PhD, Markku Ahotupa, PhD, Jorma S.A. Viikari, MD, PhD, Mika Kähönen, MD, PhD, Olli T. Raitakari, MD, PhD, Mahir Karakas, MD, Wolfgang Koenig, MD, PhD, Bernhard O. Boehm, MD, Bernhard R. Winkelmann, MD, Winfried März, MD and Terho Lehtimäki, MD, PhD

Correspondence to Kari-Matti Mäkelä, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Finn-Medi 2, PO Box 2000, FI-33521 Tampere, Finland. E-mail kari-matti.makela@uta.fi

Abstract

Background—Oxidized low-density lipoprotein may be a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. We performed a genome-wide association study on oxidized low-density lipoprotein and tested the impact of associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the risk factors of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events.

Methods and Results—A discovery genome-wide association study was performed on a population of young healthy white individuals (N=2080), and the SNPs associated with a P<5×10–8 were replicated in 2 independent samples (A: N=2912; B: N=1326). Associations with cardiovascular endpoints were also assessed with 2 additional clinical cohorts (C: N=1118; and D: N=808). We found 328 SNPs associated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein. The genetic variant rs676210 (Pro2739Leu) in apolipoprotein B was the proxy SNP behind all associations (P=4.3×10–136, effect size=13.2 U/L per allele). This association was replicated in the 2 independent samples (A and B, P=2.5×10–47 and 1.1×10–11, effect sizes=10.3 U/L and 7.8 U/L, respectively). In the meta-analyses of cohorts A, C, and D (excluding cohort B without angiographic data), the top SNP did not associate significantly with the age of onset of angiographically verified coronary artery disease (hazard ratio=1.00 [0.94–1.06] per allele), 3-vessel coronary artery disease (hazard ratio=1.03 [0.94–1.13]), or myocardial infarction (hazard ratio=1.04 [0.96–1.12]).

Conclusions—This novel genetic marker is an important factor regulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels but not a major genetic factor for the studied cardiovascular endpoints.

 SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2013; 6: 73-81

Published online before print December 17, 2012,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.112.964965

Genome-Wide Screen for Metabolic Syndrome Susceptibility Loci Reveals Strong Lipid Gene Contribution But No Evidence for Common Genetic Basis for Clustering of Metabolic Syndrome Traits

Kati Kristiansson, PhD, Markus Perola, MD, PhD, Emmi Tikkanen, MSc, Johannes Kettunen, PhD, Ida Surakka, MSc, Aki S. Havulinna, DSc (Tech.), Alena Stančáková, MD, PhD, Chris Barnes, PhD, Elisabeth Widen, MD, PhD, Eero Kajantie, MD, PhD, Johan G. Eriksson, MD, DMSc, Jorma Viikari, MD, PhD, Mika Kähönen, MD, PhD, Terho Lehtimäki, MD, PhD, Olli T. Raitakari, MD, PhD, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, MD, PhD, Aimo Ruokonen, MD, PhD, Anneli Pouta, MD, PhD, Antti Jula, MD, PhD, Antti J. Kangas, MSc, Pasi Soininen, PhD, Mika Ala-Korpela, PhD, Satu Männistö, PhD, Pekka Jousilahti, MD, PhD, Lori L. Bonnycastle, PhD, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, MD, PhD, Johanna Kuusisto, MD, PhD, Francis S. Collins, MD, PhD, Markku Laakso, MD, PhD, Matthew E. Hurles, PhD, Aarno Palotie, MD, PhD, Leena Peltonen, MD, PhD*, Samuli Ripatti, PhD and Veikko Salomaa, MD, PhD

Correspondence to Dr Kati Kristiansson, National Institute for Health and Welfare, University of Helsinki, Biomedicum, PL 104, FI-00251 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail kati.kristiansson@thl.fi

Abstract

Background—Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified several susceptibility loci for metabolic syndrome (MetS) component traits, but have had variable success in identifying susceptibility loci to the syndrome as an entity. We conducted a GWA study on MetS and its component traits in 4 Finnish cohorts consisting of 2637 MetS cases and 7927 controls, both free of diabetes, and followed the top loci in an independent sample with transcriptome and nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics data. Furthermore, we tested for loci associated with multiple MetS component traits using factor analysis, and built a genetic risk score for MetS.

Methods and Results—A previously known lipid locus, APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster region (SNP rs964184), was associated with MetS in all 4 study samples (P=7.23×109 in meta-analysis). The association was further supported by serum metabolite analysis, where rs964184 was associated with various very low density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein metabolites (P=0.024–1.88×105). Twenty-two previously identified susceptibility loci for individual MetS component traits were replicated in our GWA and factor analysis. Most of these were associated with lipid phenotypes, and none with 2 or more uncorrelated MetS components. A genetic risk score, calculated as the number of risk alleles in loci associated with individual MetS traits, was strongly associated with MetS status.

Conclusions—Our findings suggest that genes from lipid metabolism pathways have the key role in the genetic background of MetS. We found little evidence for pleiotropy linking dyslipidemia and obesity to the other MetS component traits, such as hypertension and glucose intolerance.

 SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2012; 5: 242-249

Published online before print March 7, 2012,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.111.961482

 

Genetics and Vascular Pathologies and Platelet Aggregation, Cardiac Troponin T in Serum

 

 

TGFβRIIb Mutations Trigger Aortic Aneurysm Pathogenesis by Altering Transforming Growth Factor β2 Signal Transduction

Katharine J. Bee, PhD, David C. Wilkes, PhD, Richard B. Devereux, MD, Craig T. Basson, MD, PhD and Cathy J. Hatcher, PhD

Author Affiliations

From the Center for Molecular Cardiology, Greenberg Division of Cardiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY.

Correspondence to Cathy J. Hatcher, PhD, Greenberg Division of Cardiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 525 E. 68th St, New York, NY 10065. E-mail cjhatche@med.cornell.edu

Abstract

Background—Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a common progressive disorder involving gradual dilation of the ascending and/or descending thoracic aorta that eventually leads to dissection or rupture. Nonsydromic TAA can occur as a genetically triggered, familial disorder that is usually transmitted in a monogenic autosomal dominant fashion and is known as familial TAA. Genetic analyses of families affected with TAA have identified several chromosomal loci, and further mapping of familial TAA genes has highlighted disease-causing mutations in at least 4 genes: myosin heavy chain 11 (MYH11), α-smooth muscle actin (ACTA2), and transforming growth factor β receptors I and II (TGFβRI and TGFβRII).

Methods and Results—We evaluated 100 probands to determine the mutation frequency in MYH11, ACTA2, TGFβRI, and TGFβRII in an unbiased population of individuals with genetically mediated TAA. In this study, 9% of patients had a mutation in one of the genes analyzed, 3% of patients had mutations in ACTA2, 3% in MYH11, 1% in TGFβRII, and no mutations were found in TGFβRI. Additionally, we identified mutations in a 75 base pair alternatively spliced TGFβRII exon, exon 1a that produces the TGFβRIIb isoform and accounted for 2% of patients with mutations. Our in vitro analyses indicate that the TGFβRIIb activating mutations alter receptor function on TGFβ2 signaling.

Conclusions—We propose that TGFβRIIb expression is a regulatory mechanism for TGFβ2 signal transduction. Dysregulation of the TGFβ2 signaling pathway, as a consequence of TGFβRIIb mutations, results in aortic aneurysm pathogenesis.

SOURCE: 

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2012; 5: 621-629

Published online before print October 24, 2012,doi: 10.1161/​CIRCGENETICS.112.964064

Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Genotype as a Potential Genetic Marker for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

Tyler Duellman, BS, Christopher L. Warren, PhD, Peggy Peissig, PhD, Martha Wynn, MD and Jay Yang, MD, PhD

Author Affiliations

From the Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology Graduate Program (T.D., J.Y.) and Department of Anesthesiology (M.W., J.Y.), University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison; Illumavista Biosciences LLC, Madison, WI (C.L.W.); and Biomedical Informatics Research Center, Marshfield Clinics Research Foundation, Marshfield, WI (P.P.).

Correspondence to Jay Yang, MD, PhD, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Wisconsin SMPH, SMI 301, 1300 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706. E-mail Jyang75@wisc.edu

Abstract

Background—Degradation of extracellular matrix support in the large abdominal arteries contribute to abnormal dilation of aorta, leading to abdominal aortic aneurysms, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is the predominant enzyme targeting elastin and collagen present in the walls of the abdominal aorta. Previous studies have suggested a potential association between MMP-9 genotype and abdominal aortic aneurysm, but these studies have been limited only to the p-1562 and (CA) dinucleotide repeat microsatellite polymorphisms in the promoter region of the MMP-9 gene. We determined the functional alterations caused by 15 MMP-9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported to be relatively abundant in the human genome through Western blots, gelatinase, and promoter–reporter assays and incorporated this information to perform a logistic-regression analysis of MMP-9 SNPs in 336 human abdominal aortic aneurysm cases and controls.

Methods and Results—Significant functional alterations were observed for 6 exon SNPs and 4 promoter SNPs. Genotype analysis of frequency-matched (age, sex, history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) cases and controls revealed significant genetic heterogeneity exceeding 20% observed for 6 SNPs in our population of mostly white subjects from Northern Wisconsin. A step-wise logistic-regression analysis with 6 functional SNPs, where weakly contributing confounds were eliminated using Akaike information criteria, gave a final 2 SNP (D165N and p-2502) model with an overall odds ratio of 2.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–5.70).

Conclusions—The combined approach of direct experimental confirmation of the functional alterations of MMP-9 SNPs and logistic-regression analysis revealed significant association between MMP-9 genotype and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2012; 5: 529-537

Published online before print August 31, 2012,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.112.963082

Common Genetic Variation in the 3BCL11B Gene Desert Is Associated With Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity and Excess Cardiovascular Disease Risk

The AortaGen Consortium

Gary F. Mitchell, MD*, Germaine C. Verwoert, MSc*, Kirill V. Tarasov, MD, PhD*, Aaron Isaacs, PhD, Albert V. Smith, PhD, Yasmin, BSc, MA, PhD, Ernst R. Rietzschel, MD, PhD, Toshiko Tanaka, PhD, Yongmei Liu, MD, PhD, Afshin Parsa, MD, MPH, Samer S. Najjar, MD, Kevin M. O’Shaughnessy, MA, BM, DPhil, FRCP, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, MSc, Marc L. De Buyzere, MSc, Martin G. Larson, ScD, Mark P.S. Sie, MD, PhD, Jeanette S. Andrews, MS, Wendy S. Post, MD, MS, Francesco U.S. Mattace-Raso, MD, PhD, Carmel M. McEniery, BSc, PhD, Gudny Eiriksdottir, MSc, Patrick Segers, PhD, Ramachandran S. Vasan, MD, Marie Josee E. van Rijn, MD, PhD, Timothy D. Howard, PhD, Patrick F. McArdle, PhD, Abbas Dehghan, MD, PhD, Elizabeth S. Jewell, MS, Stephen J. Newhouse, MSc, PhD, Sofie Bekaert, PhD, Naomi M. Hamburg, MD, Anne B. Newman, MD, MPH, Albert Hofman, MD, PhD, Angelo Scuteri, MD, PhD, Dirk De Bacquer, PhD, Mohammad Arfan Ikram, MD, PhD†, Bruce M. Psaty, MD, PhD†, Christian Fuchsberger, PhD‡, Matthias Olden, PhD‡, Louise V. Wain, PhD§, Paul Elliott, MB, PhD§, Nicholas L. Smith, PhD‖, Janine F. Felix, MD, PhD‖, Jeanette Erdmann, PhD¶, Joseph A. Vita, MD, Kim Sutton-Tyrrell, PhD, Eric J.G. Sijbrands, MD, PhD, Serena Sanna, PhD, Lenore J. Launer, MS, PhD, Tim De Meyer, PhD, Andrew D. Johnson, MD, Anna F.C. Schut, MD, PhD, David M. Herrington, MD, MHS, Fernando Rivadeneira, MD, PhD, Manuela Uda, PhD, Ian B. Wilkinson, MA, BM, FRCP, Thor Aspelund, PhD, Thierry C. Gillebert, MD, PhD, Luc Van Bortel, MD, PhD, Emelia J. Benjamin, MD, MSc, Ben A. Oostra, PhD, Jingzhong Ding, MD, PhD, Quince Gibson, MBA, André G. Uitterlinden, PhD, Gonçalo R. Abecasis, PhD, John R. Cockcroft, BSc, MB, ChB, FRCP, Vilmundur Gudnason, MD, PhD, Guy G. De Backer, MD, PhD, Luigi Ferrucci, MD, Tamara B. Harris, MD, MS, Alan R. Shuldiner, MD, Cornelia M. van Duijn, PhD, Daniel Levy, MD*, Edward G. Lakatta, MD* and Jacqueline C.M. Witteman, PhD*

Correspondence to Gary F. Mitchell, MD, Cardiovascular Engineering, Inc, 1 Edgewater Dr, Suite 201A, Norwood, MA 02062. E-mail GaryFMitchell@mindspring.com

* These authors contributed equally.

Abstract

Background—Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV) is a heritable measure of aortic stiffness that is strongly associated with increased risk for major cardiovascular disease events.

Methods and Results—We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 9 community-based European ancestry cohorts consisting of 20 634 participants. Results were replicated in 2 additional European ancestry cohorts involving 5306 participants. Based on a preliminary analysis of 6 cohorts, we identified a locus on chromosome 14 in the 3′-BCL11B gene desert that is associated with CFPWV (rs7152623, minor allele frequency=0.42, β=−0.075±0.012 SD/allele, P=2.8×1010; replication β=−0.086±0.020 SD/allele, P=1.4×106). Combined results for rs7152623 from 11 cohorts gave β=−0.076±0.010 SD/allele, P=3.1×1015. The association persisted when adjusted for mean arterial pressure (β=−0.060±0.009 SD/allele, P=1.0×1011). Results were consistent in younger (<55 years, 6 cohorts, n=13 914, β=−0.081±0.014 SD/allele, P=2.3×109) and older (9 cohorts, n=12 026, β=−0.061±0.014 SD/allele, P=9.4×106) participants. In separate meta-analyses, the locus was associated with increased risk for coronary artery disease (hazard ratio=1.05; confidence interval=1.02–1.08; P=0.0013) and heart failure (hazard ratio=1.10, CI=1.03–1.16, P=0.004).

Conclusions—Common genetic variation in a locus in the BCL11B gene desert that is thought to harbor 1 or more gene enhancers is associated with higher CFPWV and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Elucidation of the role this novel locus plays in aortic stiffness may facilitate development of therapeutic interventions that limit aortic stiffening and related cardiovascular disease events.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2012; 5: 81-90

Published online before print November 8, 2011,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.111.959817

Genetic Variation in PEAR1 is Associated with Platelet Aggregation and Cardiovascular Outcomes

Joshua P. Lewis1, Kathleen Ryan1, Jeffrey R. O’Connell1, Richard B. Horenstein1, Coleen M. Damcott1, Quince Gibson1, Toni I. Pollin1, Braxton D. Mitchell1, Amber L. Beitelshees1, Ruth Pakzy1, Keith Tanner1, Afshin Parsa1, Udaya S. Tantry2, Kevin P. Bliden2, Wendy S. Post3, Nauder Faraday3, William Herzog4, Yan Gong5, Carl J. Pepine6, Julie A. Johnson5, Paul A. Gurbel2 and Alan R. Shuldiner7*

Author Affiliations

1University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD

2Sinai Hospital of Baltimore, Baltimore, MD

3Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD

4Sinai Hospital of Baltimore & Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD

5University of Florida College of Pharmacy, Gainesville, FL

6University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL

7University of Maryland School of Medicine & Veterans Administration Medical Center, Baltimore, MD

* University of Maryland School of Medicine & Veterans Administration Medical Center, Baltimore, MD ashuldin@medicine.umaryland.edu

Abstract

Background-Aspirin or dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel is standard therapy for patients at increased risk for cardiovascular events. However, the genetic determinants of variable response to aspirin (alone and in combination with clopidogrel) are not known.

Methods and Results-We measured ex-vivo platelet aggregation before and after DAPT in individuals (n=565) from the Pharmacogenomics of Antiplatelet Intervention (PAPI) Study and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of drug response. Significant findings were extended by examining genotype and cardiovascular outcomes in two independent aspirin-treated cohorts: 227 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients, and 1,000 patients of the International VErapamil SR/trandolapril Study (INVEST) GENEtic Substudy (INVEST-GENES). GWAS revealed a strong association between single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 1q23 and post-DAPT platelet aggregation. Further genotyping revealed rs12041331 in the platelet endothelial aggregation receptor-1 (PEAR1) gene to be most strongly associated with DAPT response (P=7.66×10-9). In Caucasian and African American patients undergoing PCI, A-allele carriers of rs12041331 were more likely to experience a cardiovascular event or death compared to GG homozygotes (hazard ratio = 2.62, 95%CI 0.96-7.10, P=0.059 and hazard ratio = 3.97, 95%CI 1.10-14.31, P=0.035 respectively). In aspirin-treated INVEST-GENES patients, rs12041331 A-allele carriers had significantly increased risk of myocardial infarction compared to GG homozygotes (OR=2.03, 95%CI 1.01-4.09, P=0.048).

Conclusions-Common genetic variation in PEAR1 may be a determinant of platelet response and cardiovascular events in patients on aspirin, alone and in combination with clopidogrel.

Clinical Trial Registration Information-clinicaltrials.gov; Identifiers: NCT00799396 and NCT00370045

SOURCE:

CIRCGENETICS.112.964627

Published online before print February 7, 2013,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.111.964627

Association of Genome-Wide Variation With Highly Sensitive Cardiac Troponin-T Levels in European Americans and Blacks

A Meta-Analysis From Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities and Cardiovascular Health Studies

Bing Yu, MD, MSc, Maja Barbalic, PhD, Ariel Brautbar, MD, Vijay Nambi, MD, Ron C. Hoogeveen, PhD, Weihong Tang, PhD, Thomas H. Mosley, PhD, Jerome I. Rotter, MD, Christopher R. deFilippi, MD, Christopher J. O’Donnell, MD, Sekar Kathiresan, MD, Ken Rice, PhD, Susan R. Heckbert, MD, PhD, Christie M. Ballantyne, MD, Bruce M. Psaty, MD, PhD and Eric Boerwinkle, PhD on behalf of the CARDIoGRAM Consortium

Author Affiliations

From the Human Genetic Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX (B.Y., M.B., E.B.); Deptartment of Medicine (A.B., V.N., R.C.H., C.M.B.), and Human Genome Sequencing Center (E.B.), Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Department of Epidemiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (W.T.); Division of Geriatrics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (T.H.M.); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (J.I.R.); School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (C.R.D.); National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Framingham Heart Study, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (C.J.O.D.); Center for Human Genetic Research & Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (S.K.); Department of Biostatistics (K.R.), and Cardiovascular Health Research Unit & Department of Epidemiology (S.R.H.), University of Washington, Seattle, WA; and Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Services, University of Washington & Group Health Research Institute, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA (B.M.P.).

Correspondence to Eric Boerwinkle, PhD, Human Genetic Center, University of Texas School of Public Health, 1200 Herman Pressler E-447, Houston, TX 77030. E-mail Eric.Boerwinkle@uth.tmc.edu

Abstract

Background—High levels of cardiac troponin T, measured by a highly sensitive assay (hs-cTnT), are strongly associated with incident coronary heart disease and heart failure. To date, no large-scale genome-wide association study of hs-cTnT has been reported. We sought to identify novel genetic variants that are associated with hs-cTnT levels.

Methods and Results—We performed a genome-wide association in 9491 European Americans and 2053 blacks free of coronary heart disease and heart failure from 2 prospective cohorts: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and the Cardiovascular Health Study. Genome-wide association studies were conducted in each study and race stratum. Fixed-effect meta-analyses combined the results of linear regression from 2 cohorts within each race stratum and then across race strata to produce overall estimates and probability values. The meta-analysis identified a significant association at chromosome 8q13 (rs10091374; P=9.06×109) near the nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NCOA2) gene. Overexpression of NCOA2 can be detected in myoblasts. An additional analysis using logistic regression and the clinically motivated 99th percentile cut point detected a significant association at 1q32 (rs12564445; P=4.73×108) in the gene TNNT2, which encodes the cardiac troponin T protein itself. The hs-cTnT-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms were not associated with coronary heart disease in a large case-control study, but rs12564445 was significantly associated with incident heart failure in Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study European Americans (hazard ratio=1.16; P=0.004).

Conclusions—We identified 2 loci, near NCOA2 and in the TNNT2 gene, at which variation was significantly associated with hs-cTnT levels. Further use of the new assay should enable replication of these results.

 SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2013; 6: 82-88

Published online before print December 16, 2012,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.112.963058

 

Genomics and Valvular Disease

 

Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis Elastin Arteriopathy

 

Giuseppe Merla, PhD, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, MD, Pasquale Piccolo, PhD, Lucia Micale, PhD and Maria Nicla Loviglio, PhD, MSc

Author Affiliations

From the Medical Genetics Unit, IRCCS Casa Sollievo Della Sofferenza Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy (G.M., L.M., M.N.L.); Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Napoli, Italy (N.B-P., P.P.); Department of Pediatrics, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy (N.B-P.); and CIG Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland (M.N.L.).

Correspondence to Giuseppe Merla, PhD, Medical Genetics Unit, IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, viale Cappuccini, 71013 San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy. E-mail g.merla@operapadrepio.it

Abstract

Supravalvular aortic stenosis is a systemic elastin (ELN) arteriopathy that disproportionately affects the supravalvular aorta. ELN arteriopathy may be present in a nonsyndromic condition or in syndromic conditions such as Williams–Beuren syndrome. The anatomic findings include congenital narrowing of the lumen of the aorta and other arteries, such as branches of pulmonary or coronary arteries. Given the systemic nature of the disease, accurate evaluation is recommended to establish the degree and extent of vascular involvement and to plan appropriate interventions, which are indicated whenever hemodynamically significant stenoses occur. ELN arteriopathy is genetically heterogeneous and occurs as a consequence of haploinsufficiency of the ELN gene on chromosome 7q11.23, owing to either microdeletion of the entire chromosomal region or ELN point mutations. Interestingly, there is a prevalence of premature termination mutations resulting in null alleles among ELN point mutations. The identification of the genetic defect in patients with supravalvular aortic stenosis is essential for a definitive diagnosis, prognosis, and genetic counseling.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2012; 5: 692-696

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.112.962860

Genetic Loci for Coronary Calcification and Serum Lipids Relate to Aortic and Carotid Calcification

Daniel Bos, MD, M. Arfan Ikram, MD, PhD, Aaron Isaacs, PhD, Benjamin F.J. Verhaaren, MD, Albert Hofman, MD, PhD, Cornelia M. van Duijn, PhD, Jacqueline C.M. Witteman, PhD, Aad van der Lugt, MD, PhD and Meike W. Vernooij, MD, PhD

Author Affiliations

From the Departments of Radiology (D.B., M.A.I., B.F.J.V., A.v.d.L., M.W.V), Epidemiology (D.B., M.A.I., A.I., B.F.J.V., A.H., C.M.v.D., J.C.M.W., M.W.V.), and Genetic Epidemiology Unit (A.I., C.M.v.D.), Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Correspondence to Meike W. Vernooij, MD, PhD, Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, Gravendijkwal 230, PO Box 2040, 3000CA Rotterdam, the Netherlands. E-mail m.vernooij@erasmusmc.nl

Abstract

Background—Atherosclerosis in different vessel beds shares lifestyle and environmental risk factors. It is unclear whether this holds for genetic risk factors. Hence, for the current study genetic loci for coronary artery calcification and serum lipid levels, one of the strongest risk factors for atherosclerosis, were used to assess their relation with atherosclerosis in different vessel beds.

Methods and Results—From 1987 persons of the population-based Rotterdam Study, 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for coronary artery calcification and 132 SNPs for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides were used. To quantify atherosclerotic calcification as a marker of atherosclerosis, all participants underwent nonenhanced computed tomography of the aortic arch and carotid arteries. Associations between genetic risk scores of the joint effect of the SNPs and of all calcification were investigated. The joint effect of coronary artery calcification–SNPs was associated with larger calcification volumes in all vessel beds (difference in calcification volume per SD increase in genetic risk score: 0.15 [95% confidence interval, 0.11–0.20] in aorta, 0.14 [95% confidence interval, 0.10–0.18] in extracranial carotids, and 0.11 [95% confidence interval, 0.07–0.16] in intracranial carotids). The joint effect of total cholesterol SNPs, low-density lipoprotein SNPs, and of all lipid SNPs together was associated with larger calcification volumes in both the aortic arch and the carotid arteries but attenuated after adjusting for the lipid fraction and lipid-lowering medication.

Conclusions—The genetic basis for aortic arch and carotid artery calcification overlaps with the most important loci of coronary artery calcification. Furthermore, serum lipids share a genetic predisposition with both calcification in the aortic arch and the carotid arteries, providing novel insights into the cause of atherosclerosis.

 SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2013; 6: 47-53

Published online before print December 16, 2012,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.112.963934

 

Joint Associations of 61 Genetic Variants in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Genes with Subclinical Atherosclerosis in American Indians

A Gene-Family Analysis

Jingyun Yang, PhD*, Yun Zhu, MS*, Elisa T. Lee, PhD, Ying Zhang, PhD, Shelley A. Cole, PhD, Karin Haack, PhD, Lyle G. Best, BS MD, Richard B. Devereux, MD, Mary J. Roman, MD, Barbara V. Howard, PhD and Jinying Zhao, MD, PhD

Author Affiliations

From the Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA (J.Y., Y. Zhu, J.Z.); Center for American Indian Health Research, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (E.T.L., Y. Zhang); Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (S.A.C., K.H.); Missouri Breaks Industries Research Inc, Timber Lake, SD (L.G.B.); The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY (R.B.D., M.J.R.); MedStar Health Research Institute, Hyattsville, MD (B.V.H.); and Georgetown and Howard Universities Centers for Translational Sciences, Washington, DC (B.V.H.).

Correspondence to Jinying Zhao, MD, PhD, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, 1440 Canal St, SL18, New Orleans, LA 70112. E-mail jzhao5@tulane.edu

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Background—Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in all American populations, including American Indians. Genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may explain only a small portion of variability in disease, the joint effect of multiple variants in a pathway on disease susceptibility could be large.

Methods and Results—Using a gene-family analysis, we investigated the joint associations of 61 tag SNPs in 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes with subclinical atherosclerosis, as measured by carotid intima-media thickness and plaque score, in 3665 American Indians from 94 families recruited by the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). Although multiple SNPs showed marginal association with intima-media thickness and plaque score individually, only a few survived adjustments for multiple testing. However, simultaneously modeling of the joint effect of all 61 SNPs in 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes revealed significant association of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family with both intima-media thickness and plaque score independent of known coronary risk factors.

Conclusions—Genetic variants in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family jointly contribute to subclinical atherosclerosis in American Indians who participated in the SHFS. These variants may influence the susceptibility of atherosclerosis through pathways other than cigarette smoking per se.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2013; 6: 89-96

Published online before print December 22, 2012,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.112.963967

 

 

Heredity of Cardiovascular Disorders Inheritance

 

A Clinical Approach to Common Cardiovascular Disorders When There Is a Family History

The Implications of Inheritance for Clinical Management

Srijita Sen-Chowdhry, MBBS, MD, FESC, Daniel Jacoby, MD and William J. McKenna, MD, DSc, FESC

Author Affiliations

From the Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom (S.S-C., W.J.M.); Department of Epidemiology, Imperial College, London, London, United Kingdom (S.S-C.); Division of Cardiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (D.J., W.J.M.).

Correspondence to Professor William J. McKenna, MD, DSc, FESC, Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, The Heart Hospital, 16-18 Westmoreland Street, London, E-mail william.mckenna@uclh.nhs.uk

Introduction

Since the advent of genotyping, recognition of heritable disease has been perceived as an opportunity for genetic diagnosis or new gene identification studies to advance understanding of pathogenesis. Until recently, however, clinical application of DNA-based testing was confined largely to Mendelian disorders. Even within this remit, predictive testing of relatives is cost-effective only in diseases in which the majority of families harbor mutations in known causal genes, such as adult polycystic kidney disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but not dilated cardiomyopathy. Confirmatory genetic testing of index cases with borderline clinical features may be economic in the still smaller subset of diseases with limited locus heterogeneity, such as Marfan syndrome. Furthermore, Mendelian diseases account for ≈5% of total disease burden.1 Genome-wide association studies have made headway in elucidating the genetic contribution to the more common, complex diseases, and high throughput techniques promise to facilitate integration of genetic analysis into clinical practice. Nevertheless, many genes remain to be identified and implementation of genomic profiling as a population screening tool would not be cost-effective at present. The implications of heredity, however, extend beyond serving as a platform for genetic analysis, influencing diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment of both index cases and relatives, and enabling rational targeting of genotyping resources. This review covers acquisition of a family history, evaluation of heritability and inheritance patterns, and the impact of inheritance on subsequent components of the clinical pathway.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2012; 5: 467-476

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.110.959361

Clinical Considerations of Heritable Factors in Common Heart Failure

Thomas P. Cappola, MD, ScM and Gerald W. Dorn II, MD

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (T.P.C.), and Center for Pharmacogenomics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (G.W.D.II.).

Correspondence to Gerald W. Dorn II, MD, Center for Pharmacogenomics, Washington University, 660 S Euclid Ave, Campus Box 8220, St Louis, MO 63110. E-mail gdorn@dom.wustl.edu

 

Introduction

Heart failure is a common condition responsible for at least 290 000 deaths each year in the United States alone.1 A small minority of heart failure cases are attributed to Mendelian or familial cardiomyopathies. The majority of systolic heart failure cases are not familial but represent the end result of 1 or many conditions that primarily injure the myocardium sufficiently to diminish cardiac output in the absence of compensatory mechanisms. Paradoxically, because they also injure the myocardium, it is the chronic actions of the compensatory mechanisms that in many instances contribute to the progression from simple cardiac injury to dilated cardiomyopathy and overt heart failure. Thus, the epidemiology of common heart failure appears to be just as sporadic as its major antecedent conditions (atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension, and viral myocarditis).

Familial trends in preclinical cardiac remodeling2 and risk of developing heart failure3 reveal an important role for genetic modifiers in addition to clinical and environmental factors. Candidate gene studies performed over the past 10 years have identified a few polymorphic gene variants that modify risk or progression of common heart failure.4 Whole-genome sequencing will lead to the discovery of other genetic modifiers that were not candidates.5 The imminent availability of individual whole-genome sequences at a cost competitive with available genetic tests for familial cardiomyopathy will no doubt further expand the list of putative genetic heart failure modifiers. Heart failure risk alleles along with traditional clinical factors will need to be considered by clinical cardiologists in their design of optimal disease surveillance and prevention programs and in individually tailoring heart failure management.

The use of individual genetic make-up is likely to have the earliest and greatest impact on managing patients with heart failure by tailoring available pharmacotherapeutics to optimize patient response and minimize adverse effects (ie, the area of pharmacogenetics). Modern heart failure management has been derived and directed by the results of large, randomized, multicenter clinical trials. When standard therapies are applied according to the selection criteria used in these trials, they prolong average survival across affected populations or decrease the incidence of heart failure in populations at risk.6 For this reason, standardized treatment guidelines prescribe heart failure therapies according to trial designs, aiming for the same target doses and general treatment approaches,7 and largely ignore individual characteristics. In this article, we review established and emerging knowledge of genetic influence on common heart failure and try to anticipate how these genetic factors may be best used to eschew the cookie-cutter approach to heart failure management and move toward implementing a personalized medicine approach for the treatment and prevention of this important and prevalent disease.

The Concept of Genotype-Directed Personal Medical Management in Heart Failure

Variation in clinical heart failure progression and therapeutic response (either benefits or side effects) supports the need for a more individualized approach to disease management. On the basis of clinical stratification (eg, by etiology of heart failure as ischemic versus nonischemic, functional status, comorbid disease), physicians try to match each patient’s specific heart failure syndrome with a therapeutic regime devised to provide the most benefit. Standard heart failure pharmacotherapy currently comprises a minimum of 3 medications (angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors, β-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists), with consideration of additional medications (hydralazine/isosorbide, angiotensin receptor blockers) and diuretics. The recommended target dosages for these agents, derived from their respective clinical trials, is rarely achieved,8 partly because of untoward clinical side effects such as low blood pressure or renal dysfunction. Accordingly, the published guidelines most often are applied in each individual patient using ad hoc approaches derived from personal experience and the “art of medicine.”

Technological advances in human genomics promise a different approach and are bringing cardiology into an era of clinically applied pharmacogenetics9 (whether we want to or not). As sequencing costs decline, it is not hard to envision that patients will present having had their entire genome already sequenced. The imperative to apply genome information in clinical settings will increase, as demonstrated by recent proof-of-concept studies.10 Our field seems poorly prepared for this type of evolution in care; Roden et al9 identified 3 major barriers: First is the absence of rapidly available genotype information in the clinical workflow. This barrier is being overcome with whole-genome sequencing, which (with proper analysis) promises a permanent and largely immutable genetic roadmap for individual disease risk and drug response at a cost comparable to many other clinical tests.11 Second, we must have the knowledge to properly apply information on genetic variants for the diseases we are managing and the drugs we are using. As we describe, this knowledge is accumulating for heart failure and for other cardiac conditions, and the rate at which we are gaining additional information and developing further expertise appears to be accelerating.

The third and perhaps most formidable barrier is the lack of clinical evidence showing how real-time application of genetic information can best benefit patients. As has been broadly communicated to the medical community and lay public, common functional gene variants in CYP2C19 can impair the transformation of clopidogrel into its active metabolite, leading to increased risk of stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary intervention.12 The relevant question thus becomes the following: If physicians have this information at the time of clinical care and reacted by adjusting clopidogrel dose or substituting prasugrel, which is unaffected by CYP2C19 genotype,13 would there be any improvement in clinical outcome? It is also important to consider whether any observed benefits justify the additional costs of genetic testing and for the alternate drug. Studies are currently examining these questions, and similar clinical trials will prospectively examine whether a genotype-guided strategy of warfarin dosing will be superior to the standard genotype-blinded approach in reaching target anticoagulation goals. At this time, there are no similar prospective, randomized, blinded trials of genotype-guided care for common heart failure.

Emerging Variants

The variants described here are established, but new ones are emerging. Although findings in heart failure genome-wide association studies have been limited, we can expect additional common heart failure variants to emerge as sample sizes increase.65 The CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) consortium published a genome-wide association study of incident heart failure that tested for associations between >2.4 million HapMap-imputed polymorphisms in >20 000 subjects.7 They identified 2 loci associated with heart failure, rs10519210 (15q22, containing USP3 encoding a ubiquitin-specific protease) in subjects of European ancestry and rs11172782 (12q14, containing LRIG3 encoding a leucine-rich, immunoglobulin-like domain-containing protein of uncertain function) in subjects of African ancestry.66 In a companion study using the same population and genotyping results, mortality analysis of the subgroup of individuals who developed heart failure implicated an intronic SNP in CMTM7 (CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing 7).67 These genetic associations require independent replication and further study to identify the underlying biological mechanisms.

A recently published genome-wide association study by a European consortium on dilated cardiomyopathy identified common variants in BAG3 (BCL2-associated athanogene 3) associated with heart failure57 and identified rare BAG3 missense and truncation mutations that segregate with familial cardiomyopathy. These findings were consistent with an earlier exome-sequencing study that identified BAG3 as a familial dilated cardiomyopathy gene and showed recapitulation of cardiomyopathy with BAG3 morpholino knockdown in zebra fish.68 Together, these studies convincingly support variation in BAG3 as a genetic risk factor of cardiomyopathy and heart failure. It is noteworthy that both common and rare functional variations were identified at this locus. A unifying hypothesis for these findings, which needs to be formally tested, is that common variants in BAG3 serve as proxies for rare functional BAG3 mutations with large effects. In this situation, the underlying genetic lesion is a rare variant with a large functional effect. This has recently been described for common variants in MYH6 that correlated with rare functional MYH6 variants to cause sick sinus syndrome.69 It is premature to speculate on the clinical applications of these newer findings.

Moving Knowledge to Practice

A small number of genomic variants have been identified that modify heart failure by affecting well-understood physiological systems. The principal barrier preventing their adoption in practice may be lack of evidence showing how application of this information can best be used for clinical benefit. Trials testing genotype targeting of antiplatelet therapy and anticoagulation will be completed in the coming years. The findings from these studies will likely determine the level of enthusiasm for conducting genotype-guided trials of β-blockers and RAAS antagonists in heart failure. Given that the lifetime risk of heart failure in the United States is estimated at 1 in 5, even a small favorable effect on heart failure prevention or outcome through use of genome-guided therapy has the potential for a large public health impact. We therefore believe that a near-term goal should be to conduct pharmacogenomic trials in heart failure based on our current understanding of heart failure variants.

Looking ahead, unbiased approaches will continue to reveal a large number heart failure-modifying variants (both common and rare). Based on experience in other complex phenotypes, such has height70 and plasma lipid levels,71 the underlying genetic mechanisms for many new heart failure variants will be completely unknown, and their sheer number will preclude detailed experimentation using murine models to figure them out. Leveraging these variants for clinical application is a challenge that we will be forced to confront.

As our ability to identify rare, disease-causing variants improves through personal genome sequencing, we will be faced with the additional problem of how best to estimate the disease risk conferred by a sequence variant for which there has been no biological validation. In probabilistic terms, because there are 3 billion nucleotides in the human genome and over twice that many humans on the planet, it is likely that a nucleotide substitution for every position is represented in someone. Obviously, it will be impossible to recombinantly express and functionally characterize every DNA variant that is going to be implicated in heart failure. Bioinformatics filters have been used to try and separate functionally significant from insignificant variants based on the likelihood of changing transcript expression or protein function. These tools are limited but will improve if we tailor their results to the known characteristics of each gene product. For example, current approaches to categorize amino acid substitutions as conservative or nonconservative based only on charge or side chains can be improved by molecular modeling that incorporates protein-specific structure-function information. This approach has been used to estimate the pathogenicity of myosin heavy chain (MHC) mutations in an effort to determine which mutations are likely to cause familial cardiomyopathy when linkage analysis is not feasible.72 In concept, this approach can be applied to any protein for which structure-function activities have been finely mapped to distinct domains.

A promising extension of this approach may be to use evolutionary genetics to infer disease causality. Again, using the MHC genes as examples, human genome data show a greater prevalence of nonsynonymous gene variants in MYH6, which encodes the minor cardiac α-MHC isoform, compared with the adjacent MYH7, which encodes the major β-MHC isoform. This disparity suggests a greater tolerance for protein changes in the α-MHC isoform and negative selection against these in β-MHC. We can infer, therefore, that amino acid changes are more likely to have adverse impacts in MYH7-encoded β-MHC. If this paradigm survives prospective testing, then the forthcoming explosion of individual genetic data not only will present a massive problem in interpretation, but also will provide the genetic information by which analyses of rare sequence variants across large unaffected populations can help to differentiate the tolerable variants from those that are more likely to alter disease risk.

Each Reference above is found in:

http://circgenetics.ahajournals.org/content/4/6/701.full

SOURCE: 

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2011; 4: 701-709

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.110.959379

 

Pharmacogenomics

 

Hypertension Susceptibility Loci and Blood Pressure Response to Antihypertensives

Results From the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses Study

Yan Gong, PhD, Caitrin W. McDonough, PhD, Zhiying Wang, MS, Wei Hou, PhD, Rhonda M. Cooper-DeHoff, PharmD, MS, Taimour Y. Langaee, PhD, Amber L. Beitelshees, PharmD, MPH, Arlene B. Chapman, MD, John G. Gums, PharmD, Kent R. Bailey, PhD, Eric Boerwinkle, PhD, Stephen T. Turner, MD and Julie A. Johnson, PharmD

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research (Y.G., C.W.M., R.M.C.-D., T.Y.L., J.G.G., J.A.J.), Department of Biostatistics, College of Medicine (W.H.), Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, College of Medicine (R.M.C.-D., J.A.J.), and Department of Community Health and Family Medicine (J.G.G.), University of Florida, Gainesville, FL; Division of Epidemiology, University of Texas at Houston, Houston, TX (Z.W., E.B.); Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (A.L.B.); Renal Division, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.B.C.); and Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (S.T.T.).

Correspondence to Yan Gong, PhD, Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, University of Florida, PO Box 100486, 1600 SW Archer Rd, Gainesville, FL 32610. E-mail gong@cop.ufl.edu.

Abstract

Background—To date, 39 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with blood pressure (BP) or hypertension in genome-wide association studies in whites. Our hypothesis is that the loci/SNPs associated with BP/hypertension are also associated with BP response to antihypertensive drugs.

Methods and Results—We assessed the association of these loci with BP response to atenolol or hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy in 768 hypertensive participants in the Pharmacogenomics Responses of Antihypertensive Responses study. Linear regression analysis was performed on whites for each SNP in an additive model adjusting for baseline BP, age, sex, and principal components for ancestry. Genetic scores were constructed to include SNPs with nominal associations, and empirical P values were determined by permutation test. Genotypes of 37 loci were obtained from Illumina 50K cardiovascular or Omni1M genome-wide association study chips. In whites, no SNPs reached Bonferroni-corrected α of 0.0014, 6 reached nominal significance (P<0.05), and 3 were associated with atenolol BP response at P<0.01. The genetic score of the atenolol BP-lowering alleles was associated with response to atenolol (P=3.3×10–6 for systolic BP; P=1.6×10–6 for diastolic BP). The genetic score of the hydrochlorothiazide BP-lowering alleles was associated with response to hydrochlorothiazide (P=0.0006 for systolic BP; P=0.0003 for diastolic BP). Both risk score P values were <0.01 based on the empirical distribution from the permutation test.

Conclusions—These findings suggest that selected signals from hypertension genome-wide association studies may predict BP response to atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide when assessed through risk scoring.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2012; 5: 686-691

Published online before print October 19, 2012,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.112.964080

 

Genetic Determinants of Statin-Induced Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Reduction

The Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) Trial

Daniel I. Chasman, PhD, Franco Giulianini, PhD, Jean MacFadyen, BA, Bryan J. Barratt, PhD, Fredrik Nyberg, MD, PhD, MPH and Paul M Ridker, MD, MPH

Author Affiliations

From the Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention (D.I.C., F.G., J.M., P.M.R.), JUPITER Trial Coordinating Center (D.I.C., F.G., J.M., P.M.R.), Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School (D.I.C., P.M.R.), Boston, MA; Personalised Healthcare and Biomarkers, AstraZeneca Research and Development, Alderley Park, United Kingdom (B.J.B.); AstraZeneca Research and Development, Mölndal, Sweden (F.N.); and Unit of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden (F.N.).

Correspondence to Daniel I. Chasman, PhD, Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 900 Commonwealth Ave E, Boston, MA 02215. E-mail dchasman@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

Abstract

Background—In statin trials, each 20 mg/dL reduction in cholesterol results in a 10–15% reduction of annual incidence rates for vascular events. However, interindividual variation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) response to statins is wide and may partially be determined on a genetic basis.

Methods and Results—A genome-wide association study of LDL-C response was performed among a total of 6989 men and women of European ancestry who were randomly allocated to either rosuvastatin 20 mg daily or placebo. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genome-wide association (P<5×108) with LDL-C reduction on rosuvastatin were identified at ABCG2, LPA, and APOE, and a further association at PCSK9 was genome-wide significant for baseline LDL-C and locus-wide significant for LDL-C reduction. Median LDL-C reductions on rosuvastatin were 40, 48, 51, 55, 60, and 64 mg/dL, respectively, among those inheriting increasing numbers of LDL-lowering alleles for SNPs at these 4 loci (P trend=6.2×1020), such that each allele approximately doubled the odds of percent LDL-C reduction greater than the trial median (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.8–2.1; P=5.0×1041). An intriguing additional association with sub–genome-wide significance (P<1×10-6) was identified for statin related LDL-C reduction at IDOL, which mediates posttranscriptional regulation of the LDL receptor in response to intracellular cholesterol levels. In candidate analysis, SNPs in SLCO1B1 and LDLR were confirmed as associated with LDL-C lowering, and a significant interaction was observed between SNPs in PCSK9 and LDLR.

Conclusions—Inherited polymorphisms that predominantly relate to statin pharmacokinetics and endocytosis of LDL particles by the LDL receptor are common in the general population and influence individual patient response to statin therapy.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2012; 5: 257-264

Published online before print February 13, 2012,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.111.961144

Genetic Variation in the β2 Subunit of the Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel and Pharmacogenetic Association With Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes in the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy GENEtic Substudy (INVEST-GENES)

Yuxin Niu, PhD*, Yan Gong, PhD*, Taimour Y. Langaee, PhD, Heather M. Davis, PharmD, Hazem Elewa, PhD, Amber L. Beitelshees, PharmD, MPH, James I. Moss, PhD, Rhonda M. Cooper-DeHoff, PharmD, Carl J. Pepine, MD and Julie A. Johnson, PharmD

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics (Y.N., Y.G., T.Y.L., H.M.D., H.E., J.I.M., R.M.C.-D., J.A.J.), College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla; Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition (A.L.B.), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md; and Division of Cardiovascular Medicine (R.M.C.-D., C.J.P., J.A.J.), University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Fla.

Correspondence to Julie A. Johnson, PharmD, Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, PO Box 100486, Gainesville, FL 32610. E-mail Johnson@cop.ufl.edu

* Drs Niu and Gong contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Background— Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the regulatory β2 subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel (CACNB2) may contribute to variable treatment response to antihypertensive drugs and adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

Methods and Results— SNPs in CACNB2 from 60 ethnically diverse individuals were identified and characterized. Three common SNPs (rs2357928, rs7069292, and rs61839258) and a genome-wide association study-identified intronic SNP (rs11014166) were genotyped for a clinical association study in 5598 hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease randomized to a β-blocker (BB) or a calcium channel blocker (CCB) treatment strategy in the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy GENEtic Substudy (INVEST-GENES). Reporter gene assays were conducted on the promoter SNP, showing association with clinical outcomes. Twenty-one novel SNPs were identified. A promoter A>G SNP (rs2357928) was found to have significant interaction with treatment strategy for adverse cardiovascular outcomes (P for interaction, 0.002). In whites, rs2357928 GG patients randomized to CCB were more likely to experience an adverse outcome than those randomized to BB treatment strategy, with adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (CCB versus BB) of 2.35 (95% CI, 1.19 to 4.66; P=0.014). There was no evidence for such treatment difference in AG (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.79; P=0.69) and AA (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.36 to 1.11; P=0.11) patients. This finding was consistent in Hispanics and blacks. CACNB2 rs11014166 showed similar pharmacogenetic effect in Hispanics, but not in whites or blacks. Reporter assay analysis of rs2357928 showed a significant increase in promoter activity for the G allele compared to the A allele.

Conclusions— These data suggest that genetic variation within CACNB2 may influence treatment-related outcomes in high-risk patients with hypertension.

Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00133692.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2010; 3: 548-555

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.110.957654

 

Hepatic Metabolism and Transporter Gene Variants Enhance Response to Rosuvastatin in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction

The GEOSTAT-1 Study

Kristian M. Bailey, MBChB, Simon P.R. Romaine, BSc, Beryl M. Jackson, RGN, Amanda J. Farrin, MSc, Maria Efthymiou, MSc, Julian H. Barth, MD, Joanne Copeland, BSc, Terry McCormack, MBBS, Andrew Whitehead, MSc, Marcus D. Flather, MBBS, Nilesh J. Samani, MD, FMedSci, Jane Nixon, PhD, Alistair S. Hall, MD, PhD, Anthony J. Balmforth, PhD and on behalf of the SPACE ROCKET Trial Group

Author Affiliations

From the Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research (K.M.B., S.P.R.R., B.M.J., A.J.B.), and Division of Cardiovascular and Neuronal Remodelling (A.S.H.), Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; Clinical Trials Research Unit (A.J.F., M.E., J.C., J.N.), University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; Clinical Biochemistry (J.H.B.), Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, United Kingdom; Whitby Group Practice (T.M.), Spring Vale Medical Centre, Whitby, North Yorkshire, United Kingdom; Pharmacy Department (A.W.), Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, United Kingdom; Clinical Trials and Evaluation Unit (M.D.F.), Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust and Imperial College, London, United Kingdom; and Department of Cardiovascular Sciences (N.J.S.), University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Correspondence to Alistair S. Hall, Clinical Cardiology, Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre (MCRC), G Floor, Jubilee Building, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, LS1 3EX, United Kingdom. E-mail A.S.Hall@leeds.ac.uk

* Dr Bailey, Mr Romaine, Dr Hall, and Dr Balmforth contributed equally to this study.

Abstract

Background— Pharmacogenetics aims to maximize benefits and minimize risks of drug treatment. Our objectives were to examine the influence of common variants of hepatic metabolism and transporter genes on the lipid-lowering response to statin therapy.

Methods and Results— The Genetic Effects On STATins (GEOSTAT-1) Study was a genetic substudy of Secondary Prevention of Acute Coronary Events—Reduction of Cholesterol to Key European Targets (SPACE ROCKET) (a randomized, controlled trial comparing 40 mg of simvastatin and 10 mg of rosuvastatin) that recruited 601 patients after myocardial infarction. We genotyped the following functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes coding for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic enzymes, CYP2C9*2 (430C>T), CYP2C9*3 (1075A>C), CYP2C19*2 (681G>A), CYP3A5*1 (6986A>G), and hepatic influx and efflux transporters SLCO1B1 (521T>C) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; 421C>A). We assessed 3-month LDL cholesterol levels and the proportion of patients reaching the current LDL cholesterol target of <70 mg/dL (<1.81 mmol/L). An enhanced response to rosuvastatin was seen for patients with variant genotypes of either CYP3A5 (P=0.006) or BCRP (P=0.010). Furthermore, multivariate logistic-regression analysis revealed that patients with at least 1 variant CYP3A5 and/or BCRP allele (n=186) were more likely to achieve the LDL cholesterol target (odds ratio: 2.289; 95% CI: 1.157, 4.527; P=0.017; rosuvastatin 54.0% to target vs simvastatin 33.7%). There were no differences for patients with variants of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, or SLCO1B1 in comparison with their respective wild types, nor were differential effects on statin response seen for patients with the most common genotypes for CYP3A5 and BCRP (n=415; odds ratio: 1.207; 95% CI: 0.768, 1.899; P=0.415).

Conclusion— The LDL cholesterol target was achieved more frequently for the 1 in 3 patients with CYP3A5 and/or BCRP variant genotypes when prescribed rosuvastatin 10 mg, compared with simvastatin 40 mg.

Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://isrctn.org. Unique identifier: ISRCTN 89508434.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2010; 3: 276-285

Published online before print March 5, 2010,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.109.898502

 

Comprehensive Whole-Genome and Candidate Gene Analysis for Response to Statin Therapy in the Treating to New Targets (TNT) Cohort

John F. Thompson, PhD, Craig L. Hyde, PhD, Linda S. Wood, MS, Sara A. Paciga, MA, David A. Hinds, PhD, David R. Cox, MD, PhD, G. Kees Hovingh, MD, PhD and John J.P. Kastelein, MD, PhD

Author Affiliations

From the Helicos BioSciences (J.F.T.), Cambridge, Mass; Molecular Medicine (J.F.T., L.S.W., S.A.P.) and Statistical Applications (C.L.H.), Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Conn; Perlegen Sciences (D.A.H., D.R.C.), Mountain View, Calif; and Department of Vascular Medicine (G.K.H., J.J.P.K.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Correspondence to John J.P. Kastelein, MD, PhD, Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, Room F4-159.2, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. E-mail j.j.kastelein@amc.uva.nl or j.s.jansen@amc.uva.nl

Abstract

Background— Statins are effective at lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reducing risk of cardiovascular disease, but variability in response is not well understood. To address this, 5745 individuals from the Treating to New Targets (TNT) trial were genotyped in a combination of a whole-genome and candidate gene approach to identify associations with response to atorvastatin treatment.

Methods and Results— A total of 291 988 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 1984 individuals were analyzed for association with statin response, followed by genotyping top hits in 3761 additional individuals. None was significant at the whole-genome level in either the initial or follow-up test sets for association with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglyceride response. In addition to the whole-genome platform, 23 candidate genes previously associated with statin response were analyzed in these 5745 individuals. Three SNPs in apoE were most highly associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response, followed by 1 in PCSK9 with a similar effect size. At the candidate gene level, SNPs in HMGCR were also significant though the effect was less than with those in apoE and PCSK9. rs7412/apoE had the most significant association (P=6×1030), and its high significance in the whole-genome study (P=4×109) confirmed the suitability of this population for detecting effects. Age and gender were found to influence low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to a similar extent as the most pronounced genetic effects.

Conclusions— Among SNPs tested with an allele frequency of at least 5%, only SNPs in apoE are found to influence statin response significantly. Less frequent variants in PCSK9 and smaller effect sizes in SNPs in HMGCR were also revealed.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2009; 2: 173-181

Published online before print February 12, 2009,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.108.818062

Summary

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

This review has examined a compendium of well regarded documents drawn from 248 articles in Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics from March 2010 to March 2013. The large amount of evidence obtained from large population studies identifying Genome Wide Analysis Studies (GWAS) examines a host of cardiac and vascular diseases in which there is association between specific single nucleotide peptides (SNPs), and gene loci, that may play or have no significant role in developing heart disease. It certainly is evidence of the role that the American Heart Association has is in supporting the leading research today for tomorrow’s patients.   It is too early to sort them out, but it speaks to a large volume of discovery in this area.

It raises another issue that we have been confronted with mostly since the second half of the 20th century.  What is that issue?  The issue, it appears to me, is the vast improvements in analytical technology so that “imprecision” is far less likely to be a confounder in biological measurements and this lends access to far better accuracy?  But from that question arises another! Accuracy only refers to what is measured, but does it give us better ability to explain a complex and dynamic process?  In other words, what is what we are looking at representative of in manageable events?   I think that this is the most important idea that should come out of the recent criticism of the trajectory that molecular genetics been on in the last 5 years.

It was still in an era that “BIG’ science was not the normal.  One could spend an enormous effort at stepwise purification of a protein or enzyme, or other biomolecule starting with a slurry made from 100 lbs of “chicken heart”, for example.  These separations were based on negative charges on the molecules and positive charges on the column, and the molecules of no interest were eluted by gradient elution.  Much was learned about large scale preparation from small scale trials.  But this work was not undertaken without the intent to carry out a number of investigations to understand the “functionality” of a link in a metabolic pathway.  The studies that followed the purification required kinetic investigation with a coenzyme, or with a synthetically modified coenzyme, amino acid sequencing, NMR studies, etc.  You could not put together a “mechanism” without having the minimum amount of necessary information for a reliable account.  It is probably this requirement that led to today’s “BIG” science, that is founded upon multiple methods, now large data bases, and teams of investigators across institutions and continents.  The acquisition of knowledge has been astounding, but the integration of knowledge has not caught up.

However, let’s see if we can sort out the most meaningful signals from what I too am beginning to call the “noisy channel”.  As often happens, important areas of research are opened up that are followed by significant discovery and, in the long run, many other dead end publications that have no lasting significance.  In order to do justice to the work, I’ll pick through documents I find interesting, keeping in mind there is a hidden layer of complexity of which only sufficient information leads to a better understanding.  As much literature calls attention to, much of what ails us has nothing to do with classical Mendelian genetics, and has a postgenomic component.

The most fascinating aspect of this is the withering “dark matter” of the genome. While that component may be silent or expressed, the understanding comes at a higher observed order.  The dark became light! The expression became subtle, like weak bond interactions. The underlying organization is a component of the adaptive ability of an organism or individual in an environment with plants and animals in a changing climate, at particular altitudes, with given water supplies, with disease vectors, and with endogenous sources of essential nutrients.  This brings into focus the regulatory role of the genome as just as important a factor as transmission of the genetic code, especially in somatic cell populations.

The remainder of this discussion deals specifically with my observations on cardiovascular genomics. The following conclusion is appropriate, if incomplete, at this time on circulating miRNAs, particularly miR-133a:

  • elevated levels of circulating miR-133a in patients with cardiovascular diseases originate mainly from the injured myocardium.
  • Circulating miR-133a can be used as a marker for cardiomyocyte death, and

A number of articles that cite this article suggest that it may be useful for following disease progression:
Plasma microRNAs serve as biomarkers of therapeutic efficacy and disease progression in hypertension-induced heart failure  Eur J Heart Fail  2013

MicroRNAs Within the Continuum of Postgenomics Biomarker Discovery Arterio. Thromb. Vasc. Bio. 2013;33:206-214

“Need for Rigor in Design, Reporting, and Interpretation of Transcriptomic Biomarker Studies”  J. Clin. Microbiol.. 2012;50:4192-4193

Circulating microRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.. 2012;303:H1085-H1095,

Circulating MicroRNAs: Novel Biomarkers and Extracellular Communicators in Cardiovascular Disease? Circ. Res.. 2012;110:483-495

Circulating MicroRNAs: Biomarkers or Mediators of Cardiovascular Diseases?  Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Bio. 2011;31:2383-2390,

Circulating MicroRNA-208b and MicroRNA-499 Reflect Myocardial Damage in Cardiovascular Disease MF Corsten, R Dennert, S Jochem, T Kuznetsova,  et al.

The finding refers to an association that is related to the appearance of a miRNA in the circulation of patients with acute cardiac ischemia, and particular released into the circulation of patients from injured myocardium.  This finding has to be distinguished from a finding of another miRNA released with acute injury.  In the case of miR499 (and miR208b), there is a comparison with plasma cTnT, and an ROC curve is produced.

The List of this follows:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics 2010; 3: 499-506

Strikingly, in plasma from

  • acute myocardial infarction patients, cardiac myocyte–associated miR-208b and -499 were highly elevated, 1600-fold (P<0.005) and 100-fold (P<0.0005), respectively, as compared with control subjects. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.94 (P<10−10) for miR-208b and 0.92 (P<10−9) for miR-499. Both microRNAs correlated with plasma troponin T, indicating release of microRNAs from injured cardiomyocytes.
  • In patients with acute heart failure, only miR-499 was significantly elevated (2-fold), whereas
  • no significant changes in microRNAs studied could be observed in diastolic dysfunction.

Remarkably, plasma microRNA levels were not affected by a wide range of clinical confounders, including

  • age,
  • sex,
  • body mass index,
  • kidney function,
  • systolic blood pressure, and
  • white blood cell count.

This is miRNA with a different twist.  It appears that there are 3 types found in AMI (133a, 208b, 409).  But type 499 alone is increased with acute heart failure (no mention of chronic cardiomyopathy and no effect of estimated GFR, or of age).

If the problem was just of AMI, then we have to know what this brings to the table.  As it is the hs-troponins have yet to be shown to effectively not only increase the high sensitivity of the tests, but to decrease the confusion generated by the elevation.  The enormous improvement of a test that may be superior to the hs-ctn’s is for the patient with very indeterminiate shortness of breath, a nondefinitive ECG, and in a prodromal phase of AMI.  This happened in the past, and it may happen now, and it may account for many cases of silent MI that were found at autopsy.

Cited by
Plasma microRNAs serve as biomarkers of therapeutic efficacy and disease progression in hypertension-induced heart failure Eur J Heart Fail. 2013;0:hft018v1-hft018,
Circulating microRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.. 2012;303:H1085-H1095,

Circulation Editors’ Picks: Most Read Articles in Cardiovascular Genetics Circulation. 2012;126:e163-e169,
MicroRNAs in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis (MINOS Study) CJASN. 2012;7:619-623,

Novel techniques and targets in cardiovascular microRNA research Cardiovasc Res. 2012;93:545-554,

Microparticles: major transport vehicles for distinct microRNAs in circulation Cardiovasc Res. 2012;93:633-644,

Profiling of circulating microRNAs: from single biomarkers to re-wired networks Cardiovasc Res. 2012;93:555-562,

Small but smart–microRNAs in the centre of inflammatory processes during cardiovascular diseases, the metabolic syndrome, and ageing   Cardiovasc Res. 2012;93:605-613,

Circulation: Heart Failure Editors’ Picks: Most Important Papers in Pathophysiology and Genetics Circ Heart Fail. 2012;5:e32-e49

Use of Circulating MicroRNAs to Diagnose Acute Myocardial Infarction   Clin. Chem. 2012;58:559-567,

Circulating microRNAs to identify human heart failure   Eur J Heart Fail. 2012;14:118-119,

Next Steps in Cardiovascular Disease Genomic Research–Sequencing, Epigenetics, and Transcriptomics  Clin. Chem. 2012;58:113-126,

Most Read in Cardiovascular Genetics on Biomarkers, Inherited Cardiomyopathies and Arrhythmias, Metabolomics, and Genomics Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2011;4:e24-e30,

MicroRNA-126 modulates endothelial SDF-1 expression and mobilization of Sca-1+/Lin- progenitor cells in ischaemia  Cardiovasc Res. 2011;92:449-455,

The use of genomics for treatment is another matter, and has several factors, e.g., age, residual function after AMI, comorbidities

This is a lot of interesting work that opens as many questions as it answers. The observations are real, and they lead to questions relating to the heart and the circulation.  Maybe it will generate answers to very tough issues concerning hypertension, renal disease and the heart.  It is far too early to tell.  It appears that we are about to hear a cacophony of miR’s in a symphony on cardiac and circulatory diseases not be be pieced together soon. But we have many more tools at our disposal than we did when Karmen discovered and made a distinction between

  • Aspartate and Alanine aminotransferases in the late 1950s, followed in the 1960s by
  • Creatine phosphokinase, the
  • MB-isoenzyme of CK by Sobel, Shell and Kjeckshus,
  • isoenzyme-1 of lactate dehydrogenase, and later the
  • Troponins,

leading to the programs to “reduce the extent of infarct damage”.  Then came the

  • a- and b-type natriuretic peptides,

which are still not fully understood in their role in congestive heart failure and in renal disease.

One item strikes the imagination as a fruitful area of further study.   Genetic Determinants of Potassium Sensitivity and Hypertension.    Integrated Computational and Experimental Analysis of the Neuroendocrine Transcriptome in Genetic Hypertension Identifies Novel Control Points for the Cardiometabolic Syndrome

Essential hypertension, a common complex disease, displays substantial genetic influence. Contemporary methods to dissect the genetic basis of complex diseases such as the genomewide association study are powerful, yet a large gap exists betweens the fraction of population trait variance explained by such associations and total disease heritability.

The researchers

  • developed a novel, integrative method (combining animal models, transcriptomics, bioinformatics, molecular biology, and trait-extreme phenotypes)
  • to identify candidate genes for essential hypertension and the metabolic syndrome.

Method  …  transcriptome profiling on adrenal glands from blood pressure extreme mouse strains:

  1. the hypertensive BPH (blood pressure high) and
  2. hypotensive BPL (blood pressure low).

Results….   Microarray data clustering revealed

  • underexpression of intermediary metabolism transcripts in HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE.
  • The MITRA algorithm identified a conserved motif in the transcriptional regulatory regions of the underexpressed metabolic genes,
  • They decide that regulation through this motif contributed to the global underexpression.
  • Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated transcriptional activity of the motif through transcription factors
    • HOXA3,
    • SRY, and
    •  YY1.

They finally hypothesized that genetic variation at HOXA3, SRY, and YY1 might predict blood pressure and other metabolic syndrome traits in humans. Tagging variants for each locus were associated with

  • blood pressure in a human population blood pressure extreme sample with
  • the most extensive associations for YY1 tagging single nucleotide polymorphism rs11625658 on
  1. systolic blood pressure,
  2. diastolic blood pressure,
  3. body mass index, and
  4. fasting glucose.

Meta-analysis extended the YY1 results into 2 additional large population samples with significant effects preserved on diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, and fasting glucose.

It will take much more of this beautiful integrative work to open up our imagination as to what physiological processes are occurring.

Read Full Post »


Author: Tilda Barliya PhD

In response to the previous post:

Paclitaxel vs Abraxane (albumin-bound paclitaxel)

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/17/paclitaxel-vs-abraxane-albumin-bound-paclitaxel/

Pharmacogenomics properties are presented, below.

Paclitaxel is a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy. It was discovered in a U.S. National Cancer Institute program at the Research Triangle Institute (North Carolina)  in 1967 when Monroe E.Wall and Mansukh C.Wani  isolated it from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, Taxus brevifolia and named it taxol. Later it was discovered that endophytic fungi in the bark synthesize paclitaxel.

Paclitaxel is currently being indicated to lung, breast and ovarian cancer as well as  head and neck cancer, and advanced forms of Kaposi’s sarcoma. 

The administration of paclitaxel (Taxol®) through intravenous infusions was achieved by using Cremophor® EL as a vehicle to entrap the drug in micelles and keep it in solution, which affects the disposition of paclitaxel and is responsible for the nonlinear pharmacokinetics of the drug, especially at higher dose levels. (http://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/pdf/10.2217/pgs.10.32)

Although Nonlinear pharmacokinetics (dose-dependented kinetics) may occur in all aspects of pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, and/or elimination), it focus on the in the metabolism or MichaelisMenten (MM) kinetics of the drug. http://archive.ajpe.org/legacy/pdfs/aj650212.pdf

Briefly, it is known that some of these adverse effects such as hypersensitivity reactions were diminished with the administration of corticosteroids and H1 and H2 antihistamine premedication, and by reducing the incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenia with the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) and shortening paclitaxel infusion time from 24 to 3 h. However, the neurotoxicity, which was believed to be caused by either paclitaxel or Cremophor EL, could not be controlled and became the dose-limiting toxicity of the drug. It was later on found that paclitaxel itself was responsible to the neurotoxicity effects (http://annonc.oxfordjournals.org/content/6/7/699.abstract)

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

The selection of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameter end points and basic model types for exposure-toxicity relationships of paclitaxel is usually based on tradition rather than physiological relevance.

pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) relationships for paclitaxel are still most commonly described with empirically-designed threshold models, which have little or no mechanistic basis and lack usefulness when applied to conditions (eg, schedules, vehicles, or routes of administration) different from those from which they were originally derived. (http://jco.ascopubs.org/content/21/14/2803.long). As such, the AUC of the unbound paclitaxel is highly important as a pharmacokinetic parameter to describe exposure-neutropenia relationships (the unbound ptx was not evaluated yet). (http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org.rproxy.tau.ac.il/content/1/6/599.full.pdf+html)

The clearance of Cremophor EL in patients was found to be time-dependent, resulting in disproportional increases in systemic exposure being associated with shortening of infusion from 3 hours to 1 hour.

One study (http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/1/6/599), compare the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PD) of paclitaxel between Phase I trials of 3- and 24-h infusions and to determine the most informative pharmacokinetic parameter to describe the PD. The study had 3 main goals

  • (a) to compare the PK and PD of paclitaxel between Phase I studies of 3- and 24-h infusion,
  • (b) to examine the relationship between PK and PD
  • (c) to determine the most informative pharmacokinetic parameter to describe the PD.

Note: Although this study was conducted in ~1993-1995, is has been cited extensively and paved the was to other clinical trials with similar results.

27 patients were treated in a Phase I study of paclitaxel by a 3-h infusion at one of six doses: 105, 135, 180, 210, 240, and 270 mg/m2. Pharmacokinetic data were obtained from all patients. Paclitaxel concentrations were measured in the plasma and urine using HPLC. Similar eligibility criteria were designed for the 24-hr infusion with these doses were 49.5, 75, 105, 135, and 180 mg/m2 . Plasma and urine samples for pharmacokinetic evaluation of paclitaxel were collected.

Pharmacokinetic Analysis: Pharmacokinetic parameters, Cmax, AUC, t112, and MRT were obtained by a noncompartmental moment method. Cmax was actually observed peak concentration. AUC and MRT were computed by trapezoidal integration with extrapolation to infinite time.

Pharmacodynamic Analysis: The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships were modeled with the sigmoid maximum effect

Results:

Pharmacokinetic analysis:

The drug plasma concentration increased throughout the 3-h infusion period and began to decrease immediately upon cessation of the infusion with t112 of 9.9-16.0 h and MRT of 6.47-10.24 h (Fig. 1). Both Cmax and AUC increased with increasing doses (r = 0.865, P <0.001 for Cmax r 0.870, P < 0.001 for AUC), although the pharmacokinetic behavior appeared to be nonlinear (Fig. 2). The mean Cmax and AUC at a dose of 270 mg/m2 were more than 3-fold greater than those at a dose of 135 mg/m2. CL and V, decreased with increasing doses (Table 1). The urinary excretion of paclitaxel over 75 h was less than 15% of the dose administered, which indicated that non-renal excretion is the primary route of drug elimination.

The urinary excretion of paclitaxel over 75 h was less than 15% of the dose administered, which indicated that non-renal excretion is the primary route of drug elimination.

Comparison of PD between 3-h and 24-h Infusion

Groups. AUC and duration of plasma concentration (h) above (7>) 0.05-0.1 LM correlated with the % D in granulocytes with p values less than 0.05. The best parameter predicting granulocytopenia was T> 0.09 pM with the minimum of the Akaike Information Criterion. In the 24-h schedule, dose, AUC, and T > 0.04-0.07 pM were demonstrated to correlate with the % D in granulocytes. The best parameter predicting granulocytopenia in the 24-h schedule was T > 0.05 p.M.

Nonhematological toxicities such as peripheral neuropathy, hypotension, and arthralgialmyalgia mainly observed in the 3-h infusion group had no relationship with Cm or AUC which are much higher in the 3-h infusion group, although peripheral neuropathy and musculoskeletal toxicity have been suggested to be associated with AUC on a 6- (12) or 24-h (29) schedule.

Pharmacogenomics:

In the past, the major adverse effects encountered with Taxol were severe hypersensitivity reactions, mainly attributed to Cremophor EL; hematologic toxicity, primarily appearing in the form of severe neutropenia; and neurotoxicity, mainly seen as cumulative sensory peripheral neuropathy. The mechanism for the neurotoxicity has been demonstrated to involve ganglioneuropathy and axonopathy caused by dysfunctional microtubules in dorsal root ganglia, axons and Schwann cells.

Variability in paclitaxel pharmacokinetics has  been associated with the adverse effects of the  drug. Thus, polymorphisms in genes encoding  paclitaxel-metabolizing enzymes, transporters and therapeutic targets have been suggested  to contribute to the interindividual variability in toxicity and response.

Further characterization of  genes involved in paclitaxel elimination and drug  response was performed, including the identification of their most relevant genetic variants. The organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)  1B3 was identified as a key protein for paclitaxel hepatic uptake and polymorphisms in the genes encoding for paclitaxel metabolizing enzymes and transporters (CYP2C8, CYP3A4) CYP3A5, P-glycoprotein and OATP1B3) (http://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/pdf/10.2217/pgs.10.32)

***It is important to note that  the allele frequencies for many of these polymorphisms are subject to important ethnicity  specific differences, with some alleles exclusively present in specific populations (e.g., the Caucasian CYP2C8*3).

For the CYP2C8 gene, two alleles common in Caucasians that result in amino acid changes CYP2C8*3 (R139K; K399R) and CYP2C8*4 (I264M), were described. The former has been shown to possess an altered activity, while the latter does not seem to have functional
consequences. In addition, two CYP2C8 haplotypes were recently shown to confer an increased and reduced metabolizing activity, respectively.

CYP3A5 was found to be highly polymorphic owing to CYP3A5*3, CYP3A5*6 and CYP3A5*7 , with the latter two being African-specific polymorphisms.

Pharmacogenetic studies comparing the most relevant polymorphisms in these genes and paclitaxel pharmacokinetics have rendered contradictory results, with some studies finding no associations while others reported an effect for ABCB1, CYP3A4 or CYP2C8 polymorphisms on specific pharmacokinetic parameters.

Again, with respect to paclitaxel neurotoxicity risk, some studies have rendered positive results for ABCB1 , CYP2C8  and CYP3A5  polymorphisms, while others found no significant associations.

Note: These differences might be caused by underpowered studies and by differences in the patients under study.

Changes affecting microtubule  structure and/or composition have been shown to affect paclitaxel efficacy, probably by reducing drug–target affinity. Mainly, resistance to tubulin-binding agents has been associated with an overexpression of b-tubulin isotype III,
which seems to be caused by a deregulation of the microRNA family 200.

However, the clinical utility of these findings remains to be established; furthermore, the identification of biomarkers that could be used to individualize paclitaxel treatment remains a challenge.

In summary,

  1. Pharmacokinetics: Paclitaxel seems to have a non-linear (=dose-dependent) PK parameters.
  2. Pharmcokinetics- Pharmacodynamics: Previous clinical trials did NOT take into account the unbound concentrations of Ptx and therefore in the PK analysis, therefore newly designed clinical trials should take that into consideration. This is very important since the neurotoxicity is attributed to ptx and not its vehicle Cremophor (as shown in the PD analysis)
  3. Difficult to compare between the 3hr and 24hr infusion schedule as most clinical trials did NOT used similar dose-regime making the comparison very hard.
  4. Pharmacogenetics: Different polymorphisms seems to attribute to the been suggested  to contribute to the interindividual variability in toxicity and response.
  5. Prospective pharmacogenetic-guided clinical trials will be required in order to accurately establish the utility of the identified markers/strategies for patients and healthcare systems.

 

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Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Combinatorial Pharmacogenetic Interactions of Bucindolol and β1, α2C Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphisms

 

UPDATED ON 9/4/2019

Beta-Blockers Increase Survival for HF Patients With Renal Impairment

Call for use of the agents in those with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

 

Christopher M. O’Connor1*, Mona Fiuzat1, Peter E. Carson2, Inder S. Anand3, Jonathan F. Plehn4, Stephen S. Gottlieb5, Marc A. Silver6, JoAnn Lindenfeld7, Alan B. Miller8, Michel White9, Ryan Walsh7, Penny Nelson7, Allen Medway7, Gordon Davis10, Alastair D. Robertson7, J. David Port7,10, James Carr10, Guinevere A. Murphy10,Laura C. Lazzeroni11, William T. Abraham12, Stephen B. Liggett13, Michael R. Bristow7,10

1 Division of Cardiology, Duke University Medical Center/Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America,2 Division of Cardiology, Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America, 3 Division of Cardiology, Department of Veterans Affairs, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America, 4 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America, 5 Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, 6 Heart and Vascular Institute, Advocate Christ Medical Center, Oak Lawn, Illinois, United States of America, 7 Division of Cardiology/Cardiovascular Institute, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, United States of America, 8 Division of Cardiology, University of Florida Health Sciences Center, Jacksonville, Florida, United States of America, 9 Research Center, Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 10 ARCA biopharma, Broomfield, Colorado, United States of America, 11 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral United States of America, Sciences and of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America, 12 Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America, 13 Center for Personalized Medicine and Genomics, University of South Florida, Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida, United States of America

Competing interests: Drs Bristow, Carr, Murphy, and Port and Mr Davis are employees of and own stock or stock options in ARCA biopharma, Inc., which owns the rights to bucindolol. Drs Fiuzat, Liggett, Lindenfeld, and Robertson are consultants of ARCA biopharma. Also, Drs Fiuzat and Liggett own stock or stock options in ARCA biopharma. Drs O’Connor, Carson, Anand, Plehn, Gottlieb, Silver, Miller, White, Lazzeroni, and Abraham and Mr Walsh, Ms Nelson, and Mr Medway have no conflicts to report. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.* E-mail: christophe.oconnor@duke.edu

Background

Pharmacogenetics involves complex interactions of gene products affecting pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, but there is little information on the interaction of multiple genetic modifiers of drug response. Bucindolol is a β-blocker/sympatholytic agent whose efficacy is modulated by polymorphisms in the primary target (β1 adrenergic receptor [AR] Arg389 Gly on cardiac myocytes) and a secondary target modifier (α2C AR Ins [wild-type (Wt)] 322–325 deletion [Del] on cardiac adrenergic neurons). The major allele homozygotes and minor allele carriers of each polymorphism are respectively associated with efficacy enhancement and loss, creating the possibility for genotype combination interactions that can be measured by clinical trial methodology.

Methodology

In a 1,040 patient substudy of a bucindolol vs. placebo heart failure clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that combinations of β1389 and α2C322–325 polymorphisms are additive for both efficacy enhancement and loss. Additionally, norepinephrine (NE) affinity for β1389 AR variants was measured in human explanted left ventricles.

Principal Findings

The combination of β1389 Arg+α2C322–325 Wt major allele homozygotes (47% of the trial population) was non-additive for efficacy enhancement across six clinical endpoints, with an average efficacy increase of 1.70-fold vs. 2.32-fold in β1389 Arg homozygotes+α2C322–325 Del minor allele carriers. In contrast, the minor allele carrier combination (13% subset) exhibited additive efficacy loss. These disparate effects are likely due to the higher proportion (42% vs. 8.7%, P = 0.009) of high-affinity NE binding sites in β1389 Arg vs. Gly ARs, which converts α2CDel minor allele-associated NE lowering from a therapeutic liability to a benefit.

Conclusions

On combination, the two sets of AR polymorphisms

1) influenced bucindolol efficacy seemingly unpredictably but consistent with their pharmacologic interactions, and

2) identified subpopulations with enhanced (β1389 Arg homozygotes), intermediate (β1389 Gly carriers+α2C322–325 Wt homozygotes), and no (β1389 Gly carriers+α2C322–325 Del carriers) efficacy.

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Figure 1:

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0044324

Limitations

There are some limitations to this study. First, although the substudy was prospectively designed and hypothesis-driven, the pharmacogenetic data were generated and analyzed after the trial’s main results were analyzed and published [5]. However, the investigators generating the pharmacogenetic data remained blinded to the treatment code and to clinical outcomes throughout. Second, approximately two-thirds of the patients were enrolled into the DNA substudy after being randomized into the parent trial. This “late entry” phenomenon has been extensively analyzed, by both L-truncation [12] and, most recently, propensity score statistical methods (unpublished observations). The effect of late entry into the DNA substudy is only to lower event rates for all clinical endpoints, without affecting genotype-specific treatment effects.

Conclusions

The combinatorial interaction of two sets of AR polymorphisms that influence bucindolol’s drug action resulted in unanticipated effects on HF clinical responses, non-additivity in efficacy enhancement for the major allele homozygotes, and additive effects for minor allele carrier-associated efficacy loss. An explanation for these disparate results was provided by the effects of the α2C322–325 minor (Del) allele on facilitating bucindolol’s NE-lowering properties, where excessive NE lowering abolished efficacy when the β1389 Gly minor allele and low NE affinity AR were present but did not alter or even enhance efficacy in the presence of the major allele homozygous β1389 Arg genotype, which encodes ARs with a NE affinity of ~100-fold more than 389 Gly ARs.

Combinatorial genotyping led to improvement in pharmacogenetic differentiation of drug response compared with monotype genotyping. The use of β1389 Arg/Gly and α2C322–325 Wt/Del genotype combinations accomplishes the goal of pharmacogenetics to identify response outliers from both ends of the therapeutic spectrum. Compared with the use of β1389 Arg/Gly or α2C322–325 Wt/Del monotypes, the differential efficacy gained by the use of genotype combinations was increased by respective amounts of 54% and 94%. The new identification of a completely unresponsive genotype, supported by biologic plausibility and bolstered by data consistency across multiple clinical endpoints, is especially important inasmuch as a major goal of pharmacogenetics is to identify patients with no likelihood of benefit who can then be spared drug side effects [21]. Other β-blockers that have been used to treat HF do not have these pharmacogenetic interactions [22][23], but rather exhibit response heterogeneity through other, unknown mechanisms[8]. Thus, the ability to predict drug response through pre-treatment pharmacogenetic testing should improve therapeutic response to this drug class but will need to be confirmed by prospective studies.

Finally, the unexpected results of this study, (i.e., the additive loss of efficacy by minor allele combinations in the absence of additive gain of efficacy by major allele homozygotes) emphasizes that combinations of response-altering polymorphisms may behave in unpredictable ways and in-silico predictions of combinatorial genetic effects will need to be supported by empirical data.

References

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  2. Flather MD, Shibata MC, Coats AJ, Van Veldhuisen DJ, Parkhomenko A, et al. (2005) Randomized trial to determine the effect of nebivolol on mortality and cardiovascular hospital admission in elderly patients with heart failure (SENIORS). Eur Heart J 26: 215–225. FIND THIS ARTICLE ONLINE
  3. [No authors listed] (1999) Effect of metoprolol CR/XL in chronic heart failure: Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure (MERIT-HF). Lancet 353: 2001–2007.FIND THIS ARTICLE ONLINE
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  5. The Beta Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial Investigators (2001) A trial of the beta-blocker bucindolol in patients with advanced chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 344: 1659–1667. FIND THIS ARTICLE ONLINE
  6. Domanski MJ, Krause-Steinrauf H, Massie BM, Deedwania P, Follmann D, et al. (2003) A comparative analysis of the results from 4 trials of beta-blocker therapy for heart failure: BEST, CIBIS-II, MERIT-HF, and COPERNICUS. J Card Fail 9: 354–363. FIND THIS ARTICLE ONLINE
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  13. Mason DA, Moore JD, Green SA, Liggett SB (1999) A gain-of-function polymorphism in a G-protein coupling domain of the human beta1-adrenergic receptor. J Biol Chem 274: 12670–12674. FIND THIS ARTICLE ONLINE
  14. Sandilands AJ, O’Shaughnessy KM, Brown MJ (2003) Greater inotropic and cyclic AMP responses evoked by noradrenaline through Arg389 β1-adrenoceptors versus Gly389 β1-adrenoceptors in isolated human atrial myocardium. Br J Pharmacol 138: 386–392. FIND THIS ARTICLE ONLINE
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  20. Bristow MR, Krause-Steinrauf H, Nuzzo R, Liang CS, Lindenfeld J, et al. (2004) Effect of baseline or changes in adrenergic activity on clinical outcomes in the beta-blocker evaluation of survival trial (BEST). Circulation 110: 1437–1442. FIND THIS ARTICLE ONLINE
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Source:

BROOMFIELD, Colo. (TheStreet) — Wacky, inexplicable things sometimes happen to biotech stocks. Like Friday, when ARCA Biopharma (ABIO) shares more than tripled after the small drug company was granted a new U.S. patent for its experimental heart failure drug.

Arca shares rose an astonishing $5.57, or 210%, to close Friday at $8.22. Calculated another way, one U.S. patent for Arca added $40 million in market value.

Not bad, especially considering Friday’s announcement wasn’t particularly new. Arca issued a press release in January announcing the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office had informed the company that the patent was coming. Friday’s press release simply confirmed that the patent had been issued.

In case you’re wondering, Arca shares rose just 17 cents as a result of the January press release.

So, what’s made Arca rocket Friday when it barely budged in January on the same patent news?

Like I said, some things in biotech defy logic. Fundamentals had nothing to do it, clearly. Instead, Friday’s move was more likely a function of momentum traders finding an easy plaything in Arca, which sports a tiny float of just 4.4 million shares.

More than 49 million Arca shares traded hands Friday, or seven times the number of shares outstanding.

It was little noticed Friday, but Arca actually disclosed some bad news regarding the development of its heart failure drug bucindolol. Arca and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have still not come to agreement on a Special Protocol Assessment for a proposed phase III study of bucindolol. Arca said Friday it had to submit revisions to the design of the study, which will now enroll 3,200 heart failure patients, up from 3,000 patients previously.

Arca needs FDA sign off on the bucindolol trial design, after which the company needs to raise money to conduct the trial. Arca says it can likely start the pivotal bucindolol study one year after both those things happen. The company expects the study to take two years to complete once fully enrolled.

As of December 31, Arca had $7.8 million in its coffers.

http://www.thestreet.com/story/10712682/1/arca-biopharma-patent-deja-vu-biobuzz.html

In a study sponsored by ARCA Biopharma ($ABIO) and carried out by a number of U.S. universities, a pharmacogenetic test predicted which patients would respond to the company’s beta blocker and vasodilator bucindolol (Gencaro), in development for the treatment of chronic heart failure. The level of clinical activity of this oral drug depends on two changes in two genes.

The researchers screened more than a thousand of the patients with congestive heart failure who took part in the Beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST) and were given either bucindolol or dummy pills. Based on the patients’ clinical results and genetic profile, the team created a “genetic scorecard.” The results were published in PLoS ONE.

A biomarker for bucindolol will not only speed it through development but could also be used to point out those patients who will (and won’t) respond to which drug, sparing those patients who won’t respond the risk of potential side effects.

According to Stephen B. Liggett of the University of South Florida and founder of ARCA Biopharma, the researchers were able to use the two-gene test to “identify individuals with heart failure who will not respond to bucindolol and those who have an especially favorable treatment response. We also identified those who will have an intermediate level of response. The results showed that the choice of the best drug for a given patient, made the first time without a trial-and-error period, can be accomplished using this two-gene test.”

Bucindolol has been designated as a fast track development program for the reduction of cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular hospitalizations in a genotype-defined heart failure population.

http://www.fiercebiomarkers.com/press-releases/two-gene-test-predicts-which-patients-heart-failure-respond-best-beta-block?utm_medium=nl&utm_source=internal

October 17, 2012

Two-gene test predicts which patients with heart failure respond best to beta-blocker drug, study finds
Personalized medicine research at University of South Florida strikes early for heart genes

Tampa, FL – A landmark paper identifying genetic signatures that predict which patients will respond to a life-saving drug for treating congestive heart failure has been published by a research team co-led by Stephen B. Liggett, MD, of the University of South Florida.

The study, drawing upon a randomized placebo-controlled trial for the beta blocker bucindolol, appears this month in the  international online journal PLoS ONE.  In addition to Dr. Liggett, whose laboratory discovered and characterized the two genetic variations, Christopher O’Connor, MD, of Duke University Medical Center, and Michael Bristow, MD, PhD, of ARCA biopharma and the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, were leading members of the research team.
The analysis led to a “genetic scorecard” for patients with congestive heart failure, a serious condition in which the heart can’t pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs, said Dr. Liggett, the study’s co-principal investigator and the new vice dean for research and vice dean for personalized medicine and genomics at the USF Morsani College of Medicine.
“We have been studying the molecular basis of heart failure in the laboratory with a goal of finding genetic variations in a patient’s DNA that alter how drugs work,” Dr. Liggett said.  “We took this knowledge from the lab to patients and found that we can indeed, using a two-gene test, identify individuals with heart failure who will not respond to bucindolol and those who have an especially favorable treatment response. We also identified those who will have an intermediate level of response.” The research has implications for clinical practice, because the genetic test could theoretically be used to target the beta blocker to patients the drug is likely to help. Equally important, its use could be avoided in patients with no likelihood of benefit, who could then be spared potential drug side effects.  Prospective studies are needed to confirm that bucindolol would be a better treatment than other classes of beta blockers for a subset of patients with health failure.

Dr. Liggett collaborated with medical centers across the United States, including the NASDAq-listed biotech company ARCA biopharma, which he co-founded in Denver, CO.   This genetic sub-study involved 1,040 patients who participated in the Beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST).  The researchers analyzed mortality, hospital admissions for heart failure exacerbations and other clinical outcome indicators of drug performance.

“The results showed that the choice of the best drug for a given patient, made the first time without a trial-and-error period, can be accomplished using this two-gene test,” Dr. Liggett said.

The genetic test discovered by the Liggett team requires less than 1/100th of a teaspoon of blood drawn from a patient, from which DNA is isolated.  DNA is highly stable when frozen, so a single blood draw will suffice for many decades, Dr. Liggett said. And since a patient’s DNA does not change over their lifetime, as new discoveries are made and other tests need to be run, it would not be necessary to give another blood sample, he added.

This is part of the strategy for the USF Center for Personalized Medicine and Genomics. The discovery of genetic variations in diseases can be targeted to predict three new types of information: who will get a disease, how the disease will progress, and the best drug to use for treatment.

“In the not too distant future, such tests will become routine, and patient outcomes, and the efficiency and cost of medical care will be impacted in positive ways.  We also will move toward an era where we embrace the fact that one drug does not fit all,” Dr. Liggett said.  “If we can identify by straightforward tests which drug is best for which patient, drugs that work with certain smaller populations can be brought to the market, filling a somewhat empty pipeline of new drugs.”

This approach is applicable to most diseases, Dr. Liggett said, but the USF Center has initially concentrated on heart disease, because it is a leading cause of deaths, hospitalizations and lost productivity in the Tampa Bay region and Florida.  Dr. Liggett is a recent recruit to the USF Health Morsani College of Medicine, coming from the University of Maryland School of Medicine.  His work at USF has been supported by several National Institutes of Health grants and $2 million in funding from Hillsborough County.

Heart failure is characterized by an inability of the heart muscle to pump blood, resulting in dysfunction of multiple organs caused by poor blood and oxygen flow throughout the body.  An estimated 6 million Americans are living with heart failure, and more than half a million new cases are diagnosed each year.  About 50 percent of patients diagnosed with heart failure die within five years.  The economic burden of heart failure in the United States is estimated at $40 billion a year.

Article citation:
Christopher M. O’Connor, Mona Fiuzat, Peter E. Carson, Inder S. Anand, Jonathan F. Plehn, Stephen S. Gottlieb, Marc A. Silver, JoAnn Lindenfeld, Alan B. Miller, Michel White, Ryan Walsh, Penny Nelson, Allen Medway, Gordon Davis, Alastair D. Robertson, J. David Port, James Carr, Guinevere A. Murphy, Laura C. Lazzeroni, William T. Abraham, Stephen B. Liggett and Michael Bristow, “Combinatorial Pharmacogenetic Interactions of Bucindolol and β1, α2C Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphisms,” PLoS ONE   7(10): e44324. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044324

-USF Health-

USF Health’s mission is to envision and implement the future of health. It is the partnership of the USF Health Morsani College of Medicine, the College of Nursing, the College of Public Health, the College of Pharmacy, the School of Biomedical Sciences and the School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Sciences; and the USF Physician’s Group. The University of South Florida is a global research university ranked 50th in the nation by the National Science Foundation for both federal and total research expenditures among all U.S. universities.

Media contact:
Anne DeLotto Baier, USF Health Communications
(813) 974-3303 or abaier@health.usf.edu

Read more: Two-gene test predicts which patients with heart failure respond best to beta-blocker drug, study finds – FierceBiomarkers http://www.fiercebiomarkers.com/press-releases/two-gene-test-predicts-which-patients-heart-failure-respond-best-beta-block#ixzz29ZLX92k6
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