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Posts Tagged ‘Monounsaturated fat’


  1. Lungs can supply blood stem cells and also produce platelets: Lungs, known primarily for breathing, play a previously unrecognized role in blood production, with more than half of the platelets in a mouse’s circulation produced there. Furthermore, a previously unknown pool of blood stem cells has been identified that is capable of restoring blood production when bone marrow stem cells are depleted.

 

  1. A new drug for multiple sclerosis: A new multiple sclerosis (MS) drug, which grew out of the work of UCSF (University of California, San Francisco) neurologist was approved by the FDA. Ocrelizumab, the first drug to reflect current scientific understanding of MS, was approved to treat both relapsing-remitting MS and primary progressive MS.

 

  1. Marijuana legalized – research needed on therapeutic possibilities and negative effects: Recreational marijuana will be legal in California starting in January, and that has brought a renewed urgency to seek out more information on the drug’s health effects, both positive and negative. UCSF scientists recognize marijuana’s contradictory status: the drug has proven therapeutic uses, but it can also lead to tremendous public health problems.

 

  1. Source of autism discovered: In a finding that could help unlock the fundamental mysteries about how events early in brain development lead to autism, researchers traced how distinct sets of genetic defects in a single neuronal protein can lead to either epilepsy in infancy or to autism spectrum disorders in predictable ways.

 

  1. Protein found in diet responsible for inflammation in brain: Ketogenic diets, characterized by extreme low-carbohydrate, high-fat regimens are known to benefit people with epilepsy and other neurological illnesses by lowering inflammation in the brain. UCSF researchers discovered the previously undiscovered mechanism by which a low-carbohydrate diet reduces inflammation in the brain. Importantly, the team identified a pivotal protein that links the diet to inflammatory genes, which, if blocked, could mirror the anti-inflammatory effects of ketogenic diets.

 

  1. Learning and memory failure due to brain injury is now restorable by drug: In a finding that holds promise for treating people with traumatic brain injury, an experimental drug, ISRIB (integrated stress response inhibitor), completely reversed severe learning and memory impairments caused by traumatic brain injury in mice. The groundbreaking finding revealed that the drug fully restored the ability to learn and remember in the brain-injured mice even when the animals were initially treated as long as a month after injury.

 

  1. Regulatory T cells induce stem cells for promoting hair growth: In a finding that could impact baldness, researchers found that regulatory T cells, a type of immune cell generally associated with controlling inflammation, directly trigger stem cells in the skin to promote healthy hair growth. An experiment with mice revealed that without these immune cells as partners, stem cells cannot regenerate hair follicles, leading to baldness.

 

  1. More intake of good fat is also bad: Liberal consumption of good fat (monounsaturated fat) – found in olive oil and avocados – may lead to fatty liver disease, a risk factor for metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Eating the fat in combination with high starch content was found to cause the most severe fatty liver disease in mice.

 

  1. Chemical toxicity in almost every daily use products: Unregulated chemicals are increasingly prevalent in products people use every day, and that rise matches a concurrent rise in health conditions like cancers and childhood diseases, Thus, researcher in UCSF is working to understand the environment’s role – including exposure to chemicals – in health conditions.

 

  1. Cytomegalovirus found as common factor for diabetes and heart disease in young women: Cytomegalovirus is associated with risk factors for type 2 diabetes and heart disease in women younger than 50. Women of normal weight who were infected with the typically asymptomatic cytomegalovirus, or CMV, were more likely to have metabolic syndrome. Surprisingly, the reverse was found in those with extreme obesity.

 

References:

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/12/409241/most-popular-science-stories-2017

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/03/406111/surprising-new-role-lungs-making-blood

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/03/406296/new-multiple-sclerosis-drug-ocrelizumab-could-halt-disease

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/06/407351/dazed-and-confused-marijuana-legalization-raises-need-more-research

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/01/405631/autism-researchers-discover-genetic-rosetta-stone

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/09/408366/how-ketogenic-diets-curb-inflammation-brain

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/07/407656/drug-reverses-memory-failure-caused-traumatic-brain-injury

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/05/407121/new-hair-growth-mechanism-discovered

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/06/407536/go-easy-avocado-toast-good-fat-can-still-be-bad-you-research-shows

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/06/407416/toxic-exposure-chemicals-are-our-water-food-air-and-furniture

 

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2017/02/405871/common-virus-tied-diabetes-heart-disease-women-under-50

 

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Compilation of References in Leaders in Pharmaceutical Intelligence about proteomics, metabolomics, signaling pathways, and cell regulation


Compilation of References in Leaders in Pharmaceutical Intelligence about
proteomics, metabolomics, signaling pathways, and cell regulation

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

 

Proteomics

  1. The Human Proteome Map Completed
    Reporter and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/28/the-human-proteome-map-completed/
  1. Proteomics – The Pathway to Understanding and Decision-making in Medicine
    Author and Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/06/24/proteomics-the-pathway-to-understanding-and-decision-making-in-medicine/
  1. Advances in Separations Technology for the “OMICs” and Clarification of Therapeutic Targets
    Author and Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/22/advances-in-separations-technology-for-the-omics-and-clarification-of-therapeutic-targets/
  1. Expanding the Genetic Alphabet and Linking the Genome to the Metabolome
    Author and Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/24/expanding-the-genetic-alphabet-and-linking-the-genome-to-the-metabolome/
  1. Synthesizing Synthetic Biology: PLOS Collections
    Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/17/synthesizing-synthetic-biology-plos-collections/

 

Metabolomics

  1. Extracellular evaluation of intracellular flux in yeast cells
    Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and Curator
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/25/extracellular-evaluation-of-intracellular-flux-in-yeast-cells/ 
  2. Metabolomic analysis of two leukemia cell lines. I.
    Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and Curator
    http://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/23/metabolomic-analysis-of-two-leukemia-cell-lines-_i/ 
  3. Metabolomic analysis of two leukemia cell lines. II.
    Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and Curator
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/24/metabolomic-analysis-of-two-leukemia-cell-lines-ii/ 
  4. Metabolomics, Metabonomics and Functional Nutrition: the next step in nutritional metabolism and biotherapeutics
    Reviewer and Curator, Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/22/metabolomics-metabonomics-and-functional-nutrition-the-next-step-in-nutritional-metabolism-and-biotherapeutics/ 
  5. Buffering of genetic modules involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism provides homeomeostatic regulation
    Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and curator
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/27/buffering-of-genetic-modules-involved-in-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-metabolism-provides-homeomeostatic-regulation/

 

Metabolic Pathways

  1. Pentose Shunt, Electron Transfer, Galactose, more Lipids in brief
    Reviewer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/21/pentose-shunt-electron-transfer-galactose-more-lipids-in-brief/
  2. Mitochondria: More than just the “powerhouse of the cell”
    Reviewer and Curator: Ritu Saxena
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/09/mitochondria-more-than-just-the-powerhouse-of-the-cell/
  3. Mitochondrial fission and fusion: potential therapeutic targets?
    Reviewer and Curator: Ritu saxena
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/31/mitochondrial-fission-and-fusion-potential-therapeutic-target/ 
  4. Mitochondrial mutation analysis might be “1-step” away
    Reviewer and Curator: Ritu Saxena
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/14/mitochondrial-mutation-analysis-might-be-1-step-away/
  5. Selected References to Signaling and Metabolic Pathways in PharmaceuticalIntelligence.com
    Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/14/selected-references-to-signaling-and-metabolic-pathways-in-leaders-in-pharmaceutical-intelligence/
  6. Metabolic drivers in aggressive brain tumors
    Prabodh Kandal, PhD
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/11/metabolic-drivers-in-aggressive-brain-tumors/ 
  7. Metabolite Identification Combining Genetic and Metabolic Information: Genetic association links unknown metabolites to functionally related genes
    Author and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RD
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/22/metabolite-identification-combining-genetic-and-metabolic-information-genetic-association-links-unknown-metabolites-to-functionally-related-genes/
  8. Mitochondria: Origin from oxygen free environment, role in aerobic glycolysis, metabolic adaptation
    Author and curator:Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/26/mitochondria-origin-from-oxygen-free-environment-role-in-aerobic-glycolysis-metabolic-adaptation/
  9. Therapeutic Targets for Diabetes and Related Metabolic Disorders
    Reporter, Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RD
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/20/therapeutic-targets-for-diabetes-and-related-metabolic-disorders/
  10. Buffering of genetic modules involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism provides homeomeostatic regulation
    Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and curator
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/27/buffering-of-genetic-modules-involved-in-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-metabolism-provides-homeomeostatic-regulation/
  11. The multi-step transfer of phosphate bond and hydrogen exchange energy
    Curator:Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP,
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/19/the-multi-step-transfer-of-phosphate-bond-and-hydrogen-exchange-energy/
  12. Studies of Respiration Lead to Acetyl CoA
    Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/18/studies-of-respiration-lead-to-acetyl-coa/
  13. Lipid Metabolism
    Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/15/lipid-metabolism/
  14. Carbohydrate Metabolism
    Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/13/carbohydrate-metabolism/
  15. Prologue to Cancer – e-book Volume One – Where are we in this journey?
    Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/04/13/prologue-to-cancer-ebook-4-where-are-we-in-this-journey/
  16. Introduction – The Evolution of Cancer Therapy and Cancer Research: How We Got Here?
    Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/04/04/introduction-the-evolution-of-cancer-therapy-and-cancer-research-how-we-got-here/
  17. Inhibition of the Cardiomyocyte-Specific Kinase TNNI3K
    Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/11/01/inhibition-of-the-cardiomyocyte-specific-kinase-tnni3k/
  18. The Binding of Oligonucleotides in DNA and 3-D Lattice Structures
    Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/15/the-binding-of-oligonucleotides-in-dna-and-3-d-lattice-structures/
  19. Mitochondrial Metabolism and Cardiac Function
    Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/14/mitochondrial-metabolism-and-cardiac-function/
  20. How Methionine Imbalance with Sulfur-Insufficiency Leads to Hyperhomocysteinemia
    Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/04/sulfur-deficiency-leads_to_hyperhomocysteinemia/
  21. AMPK Is a Negative Regulator of the Warburg Effect and Suppresses Tumor Growth In Vivo
    Author and Curator: SJ. Williams
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/03/12/ampk-is-a-negative-regulator-of-the-warburg-effect-and-suppresses-tumor-growth-in-vivo/
  22. A Second Look at the Transthyretin Nutrition Inflammatory Conundrum
    Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/03/a-second-look-at-the-transthyretin-nutrition-inflammatory-conundrum/
  23. Overview of Posttranslational Modification (PTM)
    Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/29/overview-of-posttranslational-modification-ptm/
  24. Malnutrition in India, high newborn death rate and stunting of children age under five years
    Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/15/malnutrition-in-india-high-newborn-death-rate-and-stunting-of-children-age-under-five-years/
  25. Update on mitochondrial function, respiration, and associated disorders
    Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/08/update-on-mitochondrial-function-respiration-and-associated-disorders/
  26. Omega-3 fatty acids, depleting the source, and protein insufficiency in renal disease
    Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/06/omega-3-fatty-acids-depleting-the-source-and-protein-insufficiency-in-renal-disease/ 
  27. Late Onset of Alzheimer’s Disease and One-carbon Metabolism
    Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/06/alzheimers-disease-and-one-carbon-metabolism/
  28. Problems of vegetarianism
    Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/22/problems-of-vegetarianism/

 

Signaling Pathways

  1. Introduction to e-Series A: Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume Four Part 2: Regenerative Medicine
    Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, writer, and Aviva Lev- Ari, PhD, RN  https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/04/27/larryhbernintroduction_to_cardiovascular_diseases-translational_medicine-part_2/
  2. Epilogue: Envisioning New Insights in Cancer Translational Biology
    Series C: e-Books on Cancer & Oncology
    Author & Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Series C Content Consultant
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/03/29/epilogue-envisioning-new-insights/
  3. Ca2+-Stimulated Exocytosis:  The Role of Calmodulin and Protein Kinase C in Ca2+ Regulation of Hormone and Neurotransmitter  Writer and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator and Content Editor: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/23/calmodulin-and-protein-kinase-c-drive-the-ca2-regulation-of-hormone-and-neurotransmitter-release-that-triggers-ca2-stimulated-exocy
  4. Cardiac Contractility & Myocardial Performance: Therapeutic Implications of Ryanopathy (Calcium Release-related Contractile Dysfunction) and Catecholamine Responses
    Author, and Content Consultant to e-SERIES A: Cardiovascular Diseases: Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC
    Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Article Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/28/cardiac-contractility-myocardium-performance-ventricular-arrhythmias-and-non-ischemic-heart-failure-therapeutic-implications-for-cardiomyocyte-ryanopathy-calcium-release-related-contractile/
  5. Role of Calcium, the Actin Skeleton, and Lipid Structures in Signaling and Cell Motility
    Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP Author: Stephen Williams, PhD, and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/26/role-of-calcium-the-actin-skeleton-and-lipid-structures-in-signaling-and-cell-motility/
  6. Identification of Biomarkers that are Related to the Actin Cytoskeleton
    Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Author and Curator
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/10/identification-of-biomarkers-that-are-related-to-the-actin-cytoskeleton/
  7. Advanced Topics in Sepsis and the Cardiovascular System at its End Stage
    Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/18/advanced-topics-in-Sepsis-and-the-Cardiovascular-System-at-its-End-Stage/
  8. The Delicate Connection: IDO (Indolamine 2, 3 dehydrogenase) and Cancer Immunology
    Demet Sag, PhD, Author and Curator
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/04/the-delicate-connection-ido-indolamine-2-3-dehydrogenase-and-immunology/
  9. IDO for Commitment of a Life Time: The Origins and Mechanisms of IDO, indolamine 2, 3-dioxygenase
    Demet Sag, PhD, Author and Curator
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/04/ido-for-commitment-of-a-life-time-the-origins-and-mechanisms-of-ido-indolamine-2-3-dioxygenase/
  10. Confined Indolamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO) Controls the Homeostasis of Immune Responses for Good and Bad
    Author and Curator: Demet Sag, PhD, CRA, GCP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/31/confined-indolamine-2-3-dehydrogenase-controls-the-hemostasis-of-immune-responses-for-good-and-bad/
  11. Signaling Pathway that Makes Young Neurons Connect was discovered @ Scripps Research Institute
    Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/26/signaling-pathway-that-makes-young-neurons-connect-was-discovered-scripps-research-institute/
  12. Naked Mole Rats Cancer-Free
    Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/20/naked-mole-rats-cancer-free/
  13. Amyloidosis with Cardiomyopathy
    Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/03/31/amyloidosis-with-cardiomyopathy/
  14. Liver endoplasmic reticulum stress and hepatosteatosis
    Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/03/10/liver-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-hepatosteatosis/
  15. The Molecular Biology of Renal Disorders: Nitric Oxide – Part III
    Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/26/the-molecular-biology-of-renal-disorders/
  16. Nitric Oxide Function in Coagulation – Part II
    Curator and Author: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/26/nitric-oxide-function-in-coagulation/
  17. Nitric Oxide, Platelets, Endothelium and Hemostasis
    Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/08/nitric-oxide-platelets-endothelium-and-hemostasis/
  18. Interaction of Nitric Oxide and Prostacyclin in Vascular Endothelium
    Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/14/interaction-of-nitric-oxide-and-prostacyclin-in-vascular-endothelium/
  19. Nitric Oxide and Immune Responses: Part 1
    Curator and Author:  Aviral Vatsa PhD, MBBS
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/18/nitric-oxide-and-immune-responses-part-1/
  20. Nitric Oxide and Immune Responses: Part 2
    Curator and Author:  Aviral Vatsa PhD, MBBS
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/28/nitric-oxide-and-immune-responses-part-2/
  21. Nitric Oxide and iNOS have Key Roles in Kidney Diseases – Part II
    Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/26/nitric-oxide-and-inos-have-key-roles-in-kidney-diseases/
  22. New Insights on Nitric Oxide donors – Part IV
    Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/26/new-insights-on-no-donors/
  23. Crucial role of Nitric Oxide in Cancer
    Curator and Author: Ritu Saxena, Ph.D.
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/16/crucial-role-of-nitric-oxide-in-cancer/
  24. Nitric Oxide has a ubiquitous role in the regulation of glycolysis -with a concomitant influence on mitochondrial function
    Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/16/nitric-oxide-has-a-ubiquitous-role-in-the-regulation-of-glycolysis-with-a-concomitant-influence-on-mitochondrial-function/
  25. Nitric Oxide and Immune Responses: Part 2
    Author and Curator: Aviral Vatsa, PhD, MBBS
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/28/nitric-oxide-and-immune-responses-part-2/
  26. Mitochondrial Damage and Repair under Oxidative Stress
    Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/28/mitochondrial-damage-and-repair-under-oxidative-stress/
  27. Is the Warburg Effect the cause or the effect of cancer: A 21st Century View?
    Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/17/is-the-warburg-effect-the-cause-or-the-effect-of-cancer-a-21st-century-view/
  28. Targeting Mitochondrial-bound Hexokinase for Cancer Therapy
    Curator and Author: Ziv Raviv, PhD, RN 04/06/2013
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/06/targeting-mitochondrial-bound-hexokinase-for-cancer-therapy/
  29. Ubiquinin-Proteosome pathway, autophagy, the mitochondrion, proteolysis and cell apoptosis
    Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/30/ubiquinin-proteosome-pathway-autophagy-the-mitochondrion-proteolysis-and-cell-apoptosis/
  30. Ubiquitin-Proteosome pathway, Autophagy, the Mitochondrion, Proteolysis and Cell Apoptosis: Part III
    Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/02/14/ubiquinin-proteosome-pathway-autophagy-the-mitochondrion-proteolysis-and-cell-apoptosis-reconsidered/
  31. Biochemistry of the Coagulation Cascade and Platelet Aggregation – Part I
    Curator and Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/26/biochemistry-of-the-coagulation-cascade-and-platelet-aggregation/

 

Genomics, Transcriptomics, and Epigenetics

  1. What is the meaning of so many RNAs?
    Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/06/what-is-the-meaning-of-so-many-rnas/
  2. RNA and the transcription the genetic code
    Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Writer and Curator
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/02/rna-and-the-transcription-of-the-genetic-code/
  3. A Primer on DNA and DNA Replication
    Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/29/a_primer_on_dna_and_dna_replication/
  4. Pathology Emergence in the 21st Century
    Author and Curator: Larry Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/03/pathology-emergence-in-the-21st-century/
  5. RNA and the transcription the genetic code
    Writer and Curator, Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/02/rna-and-the-transcription-of-the-genetic-code/
  6. Commentary on Biomarkers for Genetics and Genomics of Cardiovascular Disease: Views by Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/16/commentary-on-biomarkers-for-genetics-and-genomics-of-cardiovascular-disease-views-by-larry-h-bernstein-md-fcap/
  7. Observations on Finding the Genetic Links in Common Disease: Whole Genomic Sequencing Studies
    Author an Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/18/observations-on-finding-the-genetic-links/
  8. Silencing Cancers with Synthetic siRNAs
    Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and Curator
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/09/silencing-cancers-with-synthetic-sirnas/
  9. Cardiometabolic Syndrome and the Genetics of Hypertension: The Neuroendocrine Transcriptome Control Points
    Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/12/cardiometabolic-syndrome-and-the-genetics-of-hypertension-the-neuroendocrine-transcriptome-control-points/
  10. Developments in the Genomics and Proteomics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Treatment Targets
    Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Reviewer and Curator
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/08/developments-in-the-genomics-and-proteomics-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-treatment-targets/
  11. CT Angiography & TrueVision™ Metabolomics (Genomic Phenotyping) for new Therapeutic Targets to Atherosclerosis
    Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/11/15/ct-angiography-truevision-metabolomics-genomic-phenotyping-for-new-therapeutic-targets-to-atherosclerosis/
  12. CRACKING THE CODE OF HUMAN LIFE: The Birth of BioInformatics & Computational Genomics
    Genomics Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/30/cracking-the-code-of-human-life-the-birth-of-bioinformatics-computational-genomics/
  13. Big Data in Genomic Medicine
    Author and Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/17/big-data-in-genomic-medicine/
  14.  From Genomics of Microorganisms to Translational Medicine
    Author and Curator: Demet Sag, PhD
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/03/20/without-the-past-no-future-but-learn-and-move-genomics-of-microorganisms-to-translational-medicine/
  15.  Summary of Genomics and Medicine: Role in Cardiovascular Diseases
    Author and Curator, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/01/06/summary-of-genomics-and-medicine-role-in-cardiovascular-diseases/

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Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

What’s Up with the Mediterranean Diet?

Why Heart Doctors Love It

 

Most of us have heard about the Mediterranean diet, which has generated interest from both the media and the medical community as the gold standard in healthy eating. But what’s all the fuss about – is this diet really worth all the attention?

The answer is yes, according toMurray Mittleman, MD, DrPH, a physician in the CardioVascular Institute at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Director of the Master’s in Public Health program at Harvard Medical School, and Director of cardiovascular epidemiological research at BIDMC.

“The Mediterranean diet is a very healthy eating style that has been shown to improve cardiovascular risk factors – even for patients with established heart disorders,” Mittleman says.

What is the Mediterranean Diet?

While most healthy diets include produce, whole grains, and fish, the Mediterranean diet and lifestyle offer subtle differences that may reduce the risk for heart disease, while making it easier to stick to healthy eating habits.

According to the American Heart Association, traditional Mediterranean diets have the following characteristics in common:

  • High consumption of fruits, vegetables, beans, nuts and grains
  • Use of olive oil rather than saturated fats like butter, lard, and cottonseed, palm and coconut oils
  • Low to moderate consumption of dairy, eggs, fish and poultry
  • Very little red meat
  • Wine in low-to-moderate amounts

The Diet’s “Discovery”

Originating from the culture and traditional foods found in the area bordering the Mediterranean Sea, this diet first drew the attention of the American scientist Ancel Keys, who was stationed in Italy during World War II. Keys became convinced that middle-aged American men were experiencing heart attacks due to their diets and lifestyles. After conducting studies in the U.S., he began to work with researchers overseas in the first cross-cultural comparison of males and heart attack risk in what is known as the Seven Countries Study.

Starting in 1958, the Seven Countries Study followed 11,579 men, 40 to 59 years of age, in four regions of the world (United States, Northern Europe, Southern Europe and Japan). This study found that men in Southern Europe were far less likely to experience coronary deaths than those in the U.S. and Northern Europe. The study also began to identify the eating pattern known as the Mediterranean diet and its protective benefits.

Since then, “additional research has continued to show the beneficial effects of the diet,” says Mittleman. “The Lyon Diet Heart Study, conducted in the 1990s in France, showed that those who followed the Mediterranean Diet for three years had significantly fewer additional heart attacks and a 76 percent reduction in cardiovascular deaths compared to the control group.”

How Does it Work?

Murray A. Mittleman, MD, DrPH

The Mediterranean diet is a combination of many healthy choices that work together to promote good health, according to Mittleman.

“There is a low intake of refined carbs and very little processed food, which is an important distinction that also lowers fat and salt content,” he explains. “There is more variety in fruit and vegetable consumption, and portions are smaller than those commonly found in the U.S.”

Understanding how and why the Mediterranean diet works involves looking at each of the components that make up this particular style of eating.

Healthy Fats

The Mediterranean diet does not focus on limiting total fat consumption, but it does avoid the use of saturated fats and hydrogenated oils (trans fats), which both contribute to heart disease.

Most of the fat calories in a Mediterranean diet come from “good” or monounsaturated fats, mainly from olive oil and also from nuts.

“These plant-based fats don’t raise blood cholesterol levels the way saturated fat does,” says Mittleman. “In fact, monounsaturated fats actually help reduce LDL cholesterol levels when used in place of saturated or trans fats.”

Monounsaturated fats such as olive, canola, sesame, sunflower and corn oils contain alpha-linolenic acid, a type of omega-3 fatty acid from plant sources. Omega-3 fatty acids lower triglycerides, moderate blood pressure, decrease blood clotting and improve the health of your blood vessels.

Light Protein Sources

Fish is frequently on the menu of the Mediterranean diet, and red meat is rarely served. Light in calories, fish is a beneficial substitute for meat-heavy Western cuisine, which is higher in unhealthy saturated fat. In addition, fish such as mackerel, lake trout, herring, sardines, albacore tuna and salmon are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids.

Other plant-based protein sources, such as beans and nuts, also predominate in this style of eating. These vegetable protein sources are also light on saturated fat, helping to keep cholesterol and blood pressure in check.

Plenty of Produce

A wide variety of fruits and vegetables play an important role in the Mediterranean diet, and include fresh salads, greens sautéed in garlic and olive oil, soups, and vegetarian pasta dishes.

Fruits, such as melon, often serve as dessert, rather than the sweetened, high-fat concoctions that Western-style dining offers. Baked sweets are generally reserved for holidays or special occasions. Fresh produce provides phytonutrients that prevent and repair damage to cells and protect blood vessels. In addition, the added fiber in the diet slows the release of glucose in the blood stream, which is an important way to help prevent or control diabetes.

A Little Wine

Kenneth J. Mukamal, MD, MPH

The Mediterranean diet typically includes a small amount of wine. While red wine has antioxidant properties, the amount, frequency and style of enjoying wine is what makes this an important part of Mediterranean dining, according toDr. Kenneth J. Mukamal, an internist and cardiovascular researcher at BIDMC.

Mukamel served as lead researcher in a BIDMC study that linked the heart benefits of alcohol to the frequency of drinking. The study, which investigated 38,000 men over a 12-year period, was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in January 2003.

“The study confirmed that people who have one drink a day have the lowest rate of heart disease compared with non-drinkers or heavy drinkers,” says Mukamal. “It doesn’t seem to be the type of alcohol that matters; it’s the frequency. Individuals who drink a little bit three to-seven days a week are at lowest risk. There’s also evidence that alcohol consumed with meals — which is typical in the Mediterranean diet — is safest, providing a more gradual increase in blood alcohol levels.”

How much alcohol is appropriate? The American Heart Association recommends up to one drink a day for women and one to two drinks a day for men. Examples of one drink include 4 ounces of wine, 12 ounces of beer, or 1.5 ounces of distilled spirits (80 proof).

Mukamal cautions that for some people, such as those who have or are at risk for breast cancer or hepatitis C, regular consumption of alcohol may not be advisable.

“It’s a complex mixture of potential risks and benefits, so it’s always worth a discussion with your doctor to be sure that drinking small amounts of alcohol is right for your situation,” he says.

Taking the Mediterranean Route

The incidence of heart disease and deaths in Mediterranean countries is lower than in the United States, but such statistics may not be entirely dependent upon diet. The Mediterranean diet is part of a lifestyle in which exercise, such as walking, is frequent. Families and friends gather to enjoy meals and each other’s company. And the pace of living seems less frenetic than elsewhere.

But you don’t have to go to Rome to live as the Romans do. With some planning and attention to diet and lifestyle, you can bring the flavor and health benefits of the Mediterranean into your own life.

The changes aren’t as severe as you might think. Here are some steps that can get you moving in the right direction:

  • Take a half-hour walk each day.
  • Use olive oil instead of butter or margarine.
  • Increase servings of fresh veggies and fruits – aim for at least seven per day.
  • Eat fish and poultry and minimize or eliminate red meat.
  • Aim for several meatless meals each week, incorporating legumes as a protein source when possible.
  • Use fresh herbs and spices to flavor food instead of salt.
  • Avoid foods that are processed, high in fat, or contain trans or saturated fat.
  • Have a small glass of wine with dinner, if your doctor agrees.
  • Invite your family and friends to join you!

“The Mediterranean diet is very sustainable and livable,” says Mittleman. “There’s a lot of variety for your palate and it’s easy to maintain. The heart-health benefits will pay you back for a lifetime.”

Above content provided by the CardioVascular Institute at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. For advice about your medical care, consult your doctor.

Posted October 2012

http://bidmc.org/CentersandDepartments/Departments/CardiovascularInstitute/CVINewsletter/MediterraneanDiet.aspx

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Reported by: Dr. Venkat S. Karra, Ph.D.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition caused by a build-up of fatty deposits on the inner walls of the blood vessels that supply the heart, causing the affected person to experience pain, usually on exertion (angina). A complete occlusion of the vessel by deposits causes a heart attack (myocardial infarction).

Lifestyle factors, such as diet (particularly one high in fat), contribute to causing CHD.

There are different types of fat, some of which are thought to increase risk of CHD, such as saturated fat, typically found in meat and dairy foods. However, others, such as unsaturated fats (polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats) found in foods such as vegetable oils, fish, and nuts, may actually help prevent this condition.

Fatty Acids

Although there have been many studies investigating the role of different types of dietary fat in coronary heart disease, it is still not clear whether coronary heart disease can be prevented by changing the type of dietary fat consumed from saturated to unsaturated fats or by lowering all types of dietary fat. Furthermore, many of these studies have relied on participants recalling their dietary intake in questionnaires, which is an unreliable method for different fats.

So in this study, the researchers used an established UK cohort to measure the levels of different types of fatty acids in blood to investigate whether a diet high in saturated fatty acids and low in unsaturated fatty acids increases CHD risk.

These findings suggest that plasma concentrations of saturated fatty acids are associated with increased risk of CHD and that concentrations of omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acids are associated with decreased risk of CHD.

These findings are consistent with other studies and with current dietary advice for preventing CHD, which encourages substituting foods high in saturated fat with n-6 polyunsaturated fats. The results also suggest that different fatty acids may relate differently to CHD risk and that the overall balance between different fatty acids is important. However, there are limitations to this study, such as that factors other than diet (genetic differences in metabolism, for example) may cause changes to blood fatty acid levels so a major question is to identify what factors influence blood fatty acid concentrations.

Nevertheless, these findings suggest that individual fatty acids play a role in increasing or decreasing risks of CHD.

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