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Archive for the ‘Heart-Lung Transplant’ Category


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MedTech (Cardiac Imaging) and Medical Devices for Cardiovascular Repair – Curations, Co-Curations and Reporting by Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN


MedTech (Cardiac Imaging) and Medical Devices for Cardiovascular Repair – Curations, Co-Curations and Reporting by Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Cardiac Imaging and Cardiovascular Medical Devices in use for

Cardiac Surgery, Cardiothoracic Surgical Procedures and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) / Coronary Angioplasty

List of Publications updated on 8/13/2018

 

Single-Author Curation by Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

42c       Experimental Therapy (Left inter-atrial shunt implant device) for Heart Failure: Expert Opinion on a Preliminary Study on Heart Failure with preserved Ejection Fraction

Article Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/05/09/experimental-therapy-left-inter-atrial-shunt-implant-device-for-heart-failure-expert-opinion-on-a-preliminary-study-on-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction/

 

41c       Spectranetics, a Technology Leader in Medical Devices for Coronary Intervention, Peripheral Intervention, Lead Management to be acquired by Philips for 1.9 Billion Euros

Reporter and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/06/28/spectranetics-a-technology-leader-in-medical-devices-for-coronary-intervention-peripheral-intervention-lead-management-to-be-acquired-by-philips-for-1-9-billion-euros/

 

40c       Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation: Outcomes of Surgical Treatment during CABG vs CABG without Mitral Valve Repair

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/04/04/moderate-ischemic-mitral-regurgitation-outcomes-of-surgical-treatment-during-cabg-vs-cabg-without-mitral-valve-repair/

 

39c       Patients with Heart Failure & Left Ventricular Dysfunction: Life Expectancy Increased by coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery: Medical Therapy alone and had Poor Outcomes

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/04/04/patients-with-heart-failure-left-ventricular-dysfunction-life-expectancy-increased-by-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-cabg-surgery/

 

38c       Mapping the Universe of Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence: The Model developed by LPBI and the Model of Best Practices LLC

Author and Curator of Model A: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN and Reporter on Model B: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/10/13/mapping-the-universe-of-pharmaceutical-business-intelligence-the-model-developed-by-lpbi-and-the-model-of-best-practices-llc/

 

37c     MedTech & Medical Devices for Cardiovascular Repair – Curations by

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/04/17/medtech-medical-devices-for-cardiovascular-repair-curation-by-aviva-lev-ari-phd-rn/

 

36c     Stem Cells and Cardiac Repair: Scientific Reporting by: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/04/17/stem-cells-and-cardiac-repair-content-curation-scientific-reporting-aviva-lev-ari-phd-rn/

 

35c       CVD Prevention and Evaluation of Cardiovascular Imaging Modalities: Coronary Calcium Score by CT Scan Screening to justify or not the Use of Statin

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/03/03/cvd-prevention-and-evaluation-of-cardiovascular-imaging-modalities-coronary-calcium-score-by-ct-scan-screening-to-justify-or-not-the-use-of-statin/

 

34c       “Sudden Cardiac Death,” SudD is in Ferrer inCode’s Suite of Cardiovascular Genetic Tests to be Commercialized in the US

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/02/10/sudden-cardiac-death-sudd-is-in-ferrer-incodes-suite-of-cardiovascular-genetic-tests-to-be-commercialized-in-the-us/

 

33c       Transcatheter Valve Competition in the United States: Medtronic CoreValve infringes on Edwards Lifesciences Corp. Transcatheter Device Patents

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/01/26/transcatheter-valve-competition-in-the-united-states-medtronic-corevalve-infringes-on-edwards-lifesciences-corp-transcatheter-device-patents/

 

32c       Developments on the Frontier of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) Devices

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/01/26/developments-on-the-frontier-of-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-tavr-devices/

 

31c       Market Impact on Global Suppliers of Renal Denervation Systems by Pivotal US Trial: Metronics’ Symplicity Renal Denervation System FAILURE at Efficacy Endpoint

Curator and Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/01/09/market-impact-on-global-suppliers-of-renal-denervation-systems-by-pivotal-us-trial-metronics-symplicity-renal-denervation-system-failure-at-efficacy-endpoint/

 

30c     Stenting for Proximal LAD Lesions

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/18/stenting-for-proximal-lad-lesions/

 

29c       Stent Design and Thrombosis:  Bifurcation Intervention, Drug Eluting Stents (DES) and Biodegrable Stents

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/06/stent-design-and-thrombosis-bifurcation-intervention-drug-eluting-stents-des-and-biodegrable-stents/

 

28c       Calcium Cycling (ATPase Pump) in Cardiac Gene Therapy: Inhalable Gene Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Percutaneous Intra-coronary Artery Infusion for Heart Failure: Contributions by Roger J. Hajjar, MD

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/01/calcium-molecule-in-cardiac-gene-therapy-inhalable-gene-therapy-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-and-percutaneous-intra-coronary-artery-infusion-for-heart-failure-contributions-by-roger-j-hajjar/

 

27c       Call for the abandonment of the Off-pump CABG surgery (OPCAB) in the On-pump / Off-pump Debate, +100 Research Studies

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/31/call-for-the-abandonment-of-the-off-pump-cabg-surgery-opcab-in-the-on-pump-off-pump-debate-100-research-studies/

 

26c       3D Cardiovascular Theater – Hybrid Cath Lab/OR Suite, Hybrid Surgery, Complications Post PCI and Repeat Sternotomy

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/19/3d-cardiovascular-theater-hybrid-cath-labor-suite-hybrid-surgery-complications-post-pci-and-repeat-sternotomy/

 

25c       Vascular Surgery: International, Multispecialty Position Statement on Carotid Stenting, 2013 and Contributions of a Vascular Surgeon at Peak Career – Richard Paul Cambria, MD

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/14/vascular-surgery-position-statement-in-2013-and-contributions-of-a-vascular-surgeon-at-peak-career-richard-paul-cambria-md-chief-division-of-vascular-and-endovascular-surgery-co-director-thoracic/

 

24c       Heart Transplant (HT) Indication for Heart Failure (HF): Procedure Outcomes and Research on HF, HT @ Two Nation’s Leading HF & HT Centers

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/09/research-programs-george-m-linda-h-kaufman-center-for-heart-failure-cleveland-clinic/

 

23c       Becoming a Cardiothoracic Surgeon: An Emerging Profile in the Surgery Theater and through Scientific Publications 

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/08/becoming-a-cardiothoracic-surgeon-an-emerging-profile-in-the-surgery-theater-and-through-scientific-publications/

 

22c       Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) & Instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR): An Evaluation of Catheterization Lab Tools (Software Validation) for Endovascular Lower-extremity Revascularization Effectiveness: Vascular Surgeons (VSs), Interventional Cardiologists (ICs) and Interventional Radiologists (IRs)

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/01/endovascular-lower-extremity-revascularization-effectiveness-vascular-surgeons-vss-interventional-cardiologists-ics-and-interventional-radiologists-irs/

 

21c       No Early Symptoms – An Aortic Aneurysm Before It Ruptures – Is There A Way To Know If I Have it?

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/10/no-early-symptoms-an-aortic-aneurysm-before-it-ruptures-is-there-a-way-to-know-if-i-have-it/

 

20c       Synthetic Biology: On Advanced Genome Interpretation for Gene Variants and Pathways: What is the Genetic Base of Atherosclerosis and Loss of Arterial Elasticity with Aging

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/17/synthetic-biology-on-advanced-genome-interpretation-for-gene-variants-and-pathways-what-is-the-genetic-base-of-atherosclerosis-and-loss-of-arterial-elasticity-with-aging/

 

19c       Revascularization: PCI, Prior History of PCI vs CABG

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/25/revascularization-pci-prior-history-of-pci-vs-cabg/

 

18c       Minimally Invasive Structural CVD Repairs: FDA grants 510(k) Clearance to Philips’ EchoNavigator – X-ray and 3-D Ultrasound Image Fused.

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/03/21/minimally-invasive-structural-cvd-repairs-fda-grants-510k-to-philips-echonavigator-x-ray-and-3-d-ultrasound-image-fused/

 

17c       Acute Chest Pain/ER Admission: Three Emerging Alternatives to Angiography and PCI

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/03/10/acute-chest-painer-admission-three-emerging-alternatives-to-angiography-and-pci/

 

16c       Clinical Trials on Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) to be conducted by American College of Cardiology and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/02/12/american-college-of-cardiologys-and-the-society-of-thoracic-surgeons-entrance-into-clinical-trials-is-noteworthy-read-more-two-medical-societies-jump-into-clinical-trial-effort-for-tavr-tech-f/

 

15c       FDA Pending 510(k) for The Latest Cardiovascular Imaging Technology

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/01/28/fda-pending-510k-for-the-latest-cardiovascular-imaging-technology/

 

14c       The ACUITY-PCI score: Will it Replace Four Established Risk Scores — TIMI, GRACE, SYNTAX, and Clinical SYNTAX

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN   https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/01/03/the-acuity-pci-score-will-it-replace-four-established-risk-scores-timi-grace-syntax-and-clinical-syntax/

13c       Renal Sympathetic Denervation: Updates on the State of Medicine

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/31/renal-sympathetic-denervation-updates-on-the-state-of-medicine/

 

12c       Coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients referred for coronary angiography: Predicted by Serum Protein Profiles

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/29/coronary-artery-disease-in-symptomatic-patients-referred-for-coronary-angiography-predicted-by-serum-protein-profiles/

 

11c       CABG or PCI: Patients with Diabetes – CABG Rein Supreme

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/05/cabg-or-pci-patients-with-diabetes-cabg-rein-supreme/

 

10c       Clinical Trials Results for Endothelin System: Pathophysiological role in Chronic Heart Failure, Acute Coronary Syndromes and MI – Marker of Disease Severity or Genetic Determination?

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/19/clinical-trials-results-for-endothelin-system-pathophysiological-role-in-chronic-heart-failure-acute-coronary-syndromes-and-mi-marker-of-disease-severity-or-genetic-determination/

 

9c         Imbalance of Autonomic Tone: The Promise of Intravascular Stimulation of Autonomics

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/02/imbalance-of-autonomic-tone-the-promise-of-intravascular-stimulation-of-autonomics/

 

8c         New Drug-Eluting Stent Works Well in STEMI

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/22/new-drug-eluting-stent-works-well-in-stemi/

 

7c         Coronary Artery Disease – Medical Devices Solutions: From First-In-Man Stent Implantation, via Medical Ethical Dilemmas to Drug Eluting Stents

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/13/coronary-artery-disease-medical-devices-solutions-from-first-in-man-stent-implantation-via-medical-ethical-dilemmas-to-drug-eluting-stents/

 

6c         DELETED, identical to 7r

 

5c         Percutaneous Endocardial Ablation of Scar-Related Ventricular Tachycardia

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/18/percutaneous-endocardial-ablation-of-scar-related-ventricular-tachycardia/

 

4c         Global Supplier Strategy for Market Penetration & Partnership Options (Niche Suppliers vs. National Leaders) in the Massachusetts Cardiology & Vascular Surgery Tools and Devices Market for Cardiac Operating Rooms and Angioplasty Suites

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/06/22/global-supplier-strategy-for-market-penetration-partnership-options-niche-suppliers-vs-national-leaders-in-the-massachusetts-cardiology-vascular-surgery-tools-and-devices-market-for-car/

 

3c         Competition in the Ecosystem of Medical Devices in Cardiac and Vascular Repair: Heart Valves, Stents, Catheterization Tools and Kits for Open Heart and Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS)

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/06/22/competition-in-the-ecosystem-of-medical-devices-in-cardiac-and-vascular-repair-heart-valves-stents-catheterization-tools-and-kits-for-open-heart-and-minimally-invasive-surgery-mis/

 

2c         Executive Compensation and Comparator Group Definition in the Cardiac and Vascular Medical Devices Sector: A Bright Future for Edwards Lifesciences Corporation in the Transcatheter Heart Valve Replacement Market

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/06/19/executive-compensation-and-comparator-group-definition-in-the-cardiac-and-vascular-medical-devices-sector-a-bright-future-for-edwards-lifesciences-corporation-in-the-transcatheter-heart-valve-replace/

 

1c         Treatment of Refractory Hypertension via Percutaneous Renal Denervation

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/06/13/treatment-of-refractory-hypertension-via-percutaneous-renal-denervation/

 

Lev-Ari, A. (2006b). First-In-Man Stent Implantation Clinical Trials & Medical Ethical Dilemmas.

Bouve College of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115

 

Co-Curation Articles on MedTech and Cardiac Medical Devices by LPBI Group’s Team Members and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

67co     ATP – the universal energy carrier in the living cell: Reflections on the discoveries and applications in Medicine

Curators: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/12/27/atp-the-universal-energy-carrier-in-the-living-cell-reflections-on-the-discoveries-and-applications-in-medicine/

66co     Eric Topol, M.D.

Curators: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/09/22/eric-topol-m-d/

 

65co     Summary of Translational Medicine – e-Series A: Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume Four – Part 1

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/04/28/summary-of-translational-medicine-cardiovascular-diseases-part-1/

 

64co     Introduction to e-Series A: Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume Four Part 2: Regenerative Medicine

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/04/27/larryhbernintroduction_to_cardiovascular_diseases-translational_medicine-part_2/

 

63co     Epilogue: Volume 4 – Translational, Post-Translational and Regenerative Medicine in Cardiology

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Author and Curator, Consultant for Series B,C,D,E

Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC, Content Consultant for Series A: Cardiovascular Diseases

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, Co-Editor and Editor-in-Chief, BioMed e-Series

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/05/12/epilogue-volume-4-post-translational-and-transformative-cardiology/

 

62co     Introduction to Translational Medicine (TM) – Part 1: Translational Medicine

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/04/25/introduction-to-translational-medicine-tm-part-1/

 

61co     Acute Myocardial Infarction: Curations of Cardiovascular Original Research A Bibliography

Curators: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN and Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/01/22/acute-myocardial-infarction-curations-of-cardiovascular-original-research-a-bibliography/

60co     Mitral Valve Repair: Who is a Patient Candidate for a Non-Ablative Fully Non-Invasive Procedure?

Author, and Content Consultant to e-SERIES A: Cardiovascular Diseases: Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Article Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/11/04/mitral-valve-repair-who-is-a-candidate-for-a-non-ablative-fully-non-invasive-procedure/

 

59co     Coronary Circulation Combined Assessment: Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) – Detection of Lipid-Rich Plaque and Prevention of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)

Author, and Content Consultant to e-SERIES A: Cardiovascular Diseases: Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Article Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/25/coronary-circulation-combined-assessment-optical-coherence-tomography-oct-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs-and-intravascular-ultrasound-ivus-detection-of-lipid-rich-plaque-and-prevention-of-a/

 

58co     Normal and Anomalous Coronary Arteries: Dual Source CT in Cardiothoracic Imaging

Reporters: Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/18/normal-and-anomalous-coronary-arteries-dual-source-ct-in-cardiothoracic-imaging/

 

57co     Alternative Designs for the Human Artificial Heart: Patients in Heart Failure –  Outcomes of Transplant (donor)/Implantation (artificial) and Monitoring Technologies for the Transplant/Implant Patient in the Community

Authors and Curators: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Article Curator and Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/05/alternative-designs-for-the-human-artificial-heart-the-patients-in-heart-failure-outcomes-of-transplant-donorimplantation-artificial-and-monitoring-technologies-for-the-transplantimplant-pat/

 

56co     Cardiovascular Complications: Death from Reoperative Sternotomy after prior CABG, MVR, AVR, or Radiation; Complications of PCI; Sepsis from Cardiovascular Interventions

Author, Introduction and Summary: Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC, and Article Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/23/cardiovascular-complications-of-multiple-etiologies-repeat-sternotomy-post-cabg-or-avr-post-pci-pad-endoscopy-andor-resultant-of-systemic-sepsis/

 

55co     The Cardiorenal Syndrome in Heart Failure: Cardiac? Renal? syndrome?

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/30/the-cardiorenal-syndrome-in-heart-failure/

 

54co     Mechanical Circulatory Assist Devices as a Bridge to Heart Transplantation or as “Destination Therapy“: Options for Patients in Advanced Heart Failure

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/30/advanced-heart-failure/

 

53co     Heart Transplantation: NHLBI’s Ten year Strategic Research Plan to Achieving Evidence-based Outcomes

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/30/heart-transplantation-research-in-the-next-decade-a-goal-to-achieving-evidence-based-outcomes/

 

52co     After Cardiac Transplantation: Sirolimus acts as immunosuppressant Attenuates Allograft Vasculopathy

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/30/sirolimus-as-primary-immunosuppression-attenuates-allograft-vasculopathy/

51co     Orthotropic Heart Transplant (OHT): Effects of Autonomic Innervation / Denervation on Atrial Fibrillation (AF) Genesis and Maintenance

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/30/decreased-postoperative-atrial-fibrillation-following-cardiac-transplantation/

 

50co     CABG Survival in Multivessel Disease Patients: Comparison of Arterial Bypass Grafts vs Saphenous Venous Grafts

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/30/multiple-arterial-grafts-improve-late-survival-of-patients-with-multivessel-disease/

49co     Coronary Reperfusion Therapies: CABG vs PCI – Mayo Clinic preprocedure Risk Score (MCRS) for Prediction of in-Hospital Mortality after CABG or PCI

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/30/mayo-risk-score-for-percutaneous-coronary-intervention/

 

48co     Pre-operative Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes Associated with Vasoplegia in Recipients of Orthotopic Heart Transplantation in the Contemporary Era

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/30/vasoplegia-in-orthotopic-heart-transplants/

 

47co     Carotid Endarterectomy (CEA) vs. Carotid Artery Stenting (CAS): Comparison of CMMS high-risk criteria on the Outcomes after Surgery:  Analysis of the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Vascular Registry Data

Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/28/effect-on-endovascular-carotid-artery-repair-outcomes-of-the-cmms-high-risk-criteria/

 

46co     Improved Results for Treatment of Persistent type 2 Endoleak after Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: Onyx Glue Embolization

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/28/onyx-glue-for-the-treatment-of-persistent-type-2-endoleak/

 

45co     DELETED, was identical to 47co

 

44co     Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) repair (OAR) vs. Endovascular AAA Repair (EVAR) in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Patients – Comparison of Surgery Outcomes

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/28/the-effect-of-chronic-kidney-disease-on-outcomes-after-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-repair/

 

43co     Effect of Hospital Characteristics on Outcomes of Endovascular Repair of Descending Aortic Aneurysms in US Medicare Population

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/27/effect-of-hospital-characteristics-on-outcomes-of-endovascular-repair-of-descending-aortic-aneurysms-in-us-medicare-population/

 

42co     First case in the US: Valve-in-Valve (Aortic and  Mitral) Replacements with Transapical Transcatheter Implants – The Use of Transfemoral Devices

Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/23/valve-in-valve-replacements-with-transapical-transcatheter-implants/

 

41co     Survivals Comparison of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) / Coronary Angioplasty

Curators: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/23/comparison-of-cardiothoracic-bypass-and-percutaneous-interventional-catheterization-survivals/

 

40co     Ventricular Assist Device (VAD): A Recommended Approach to the Treatment of Intractable Cardiogenic Shock

Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/18/a-recommended-approach-to-the-treatmnt-of-intractable-cardiogenic-shock/

39co     Trans-apical Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in a Patient with Severe and Complex Left Main Coronary Artery Disease (LMCAD)

Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/17/management-of-difficult-trans-apical-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-in-a-patient-with-severe-and-complex-arterial-disease/

 

38co     Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR): Postdilatation to Reduce Paravalvular Regurgitation During TAVR with a Balloon-expandable Valve

Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/17/postdilatation-to-reduce-paravalvular-regurgitation-during-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement/

 

37co     Acute and Chronic Myocardial Infarction: Quantification of Myocardial Perfusion Viability – FDG-PET/MRI vs. MRI or PET alone

Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/22/acute-and-chronic-myocardial-infarction-quantification-of-myocardial-viability-fdg-petmri-vs-mri-or-pet-alone/

 

36co     On Devices and On Algorithms: Arrhythmia after Cardiac SurgeryPrediction and ECG Prediction of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Onset

Author, and Content Consultant to e-SERIES A: Cardiovascular Diseases: Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Article Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/07/on-devices-and-on-algorithms-arrhythmia-after-cardiac-surgery-prediction-and-ecg-prediction-of-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-onset/

 

35co     Vascular Repair: Stents and Biologically Active Implants

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/04/stents-biologically-active-implants-and-vascular-repair/

 

34co     Drug Eluting Stents: On MIT‘s Edelman Lab’s Contributions to Vascular Biology and its Pioneering Research on DES

Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/25/contributions-to-vascular-biology/

 

33co     Mitral Valve Repair: Who is a Patient Candidate for a Non-Ablative Fully Non-Invasive Procedure?

Author, and Content Consultant to e-SERIES A: Cardiovascular Diseases: Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Article Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/11/04/mitral-valve-repair-who-is-a-candidate-for-a-non-ablative-fully-non-invasive-procedure/

 

32co     Source of Stem Cells to Ameliorate Damaged Myocardium (Part 2)

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/10/29/source-of-stem-cells-to-ameliorate-damaged-myocardium/

 

31co     State of Cardiology on Wall Stress, Ventricular Workload and Myocardial Contractile Reserve: Aspects of Translational Medicine (TM)

Curators: Justin D. Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/09/30/state-of-cardiology-on-wall-stress-ventricular-workload-and-myocardial-contractile-reserve-aspects-of-translational-medicine/

 

30co  DELETED identical to 58co

 

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26co     Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) to Arrhythmias: Pacemaker/Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) Insertion

Curators: Justin D. Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/22/cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-crt-to-arrhythmias-pacemakerimplantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-icd-insertion/

 

25co     Emerging Clinical Applications for Cardiac CT: Plaque Characterization, SPECT Functionality, Angiogram’s and Non-Invasive FFR

Curators: Justin D. Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/17/emerging-clinical-applications-for-cardiac-ct-plaque-characterization-spect-functionality-angiograms-and-non-invasive-ffr/

 

24co     Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) & Instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR): An Evaluation of Catheterization Lab Tools (Software Validation) for Ischemic Assessment (Diagnostics) – Change in Paradigm: The RIGHT vessel not ALL vessels

Reporters: Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/04/fractional-flow-reserve-ffr-instantaneous-wave-free-rario-ifr-an-evaluation-of-catheterization-lab-tools-for-ischemic-assessment/

 

23co  DELETED identical to 24co

 

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18co     Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) repair (OAR) vs. Endovascular AAA Repair (EVAR) in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Patients – Comparison of Surgery Outcomes

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/28/the-effect-of-chronic-kidney-disease-on-outcomes-after-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-repair/

 

17co     Improved Results for Treatment of Persistent type 2 Endoleak after Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: Onyx Glue Embolization

Author & Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/28/onyx-glue-for-the-treatment-of-persistent-type-2-endoleak/

16co     Effect of Hospital Characteristics on Outcomes of Endovascular Repair of Descending Aortic Aneurysms in US Medicare Population

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/27/effect-of-hospital-characteristics-on-outcomes-of-endovascular-repair-of-descending-aortic-aneurysms-in-us-medicare-population/

 

15co     Comparison of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) / Coronary Angioplasty

Curators: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/23/comparison-of-cardiothoracic-bypass-and-percutaneous-interventional-catheterization-survivals/

 

14co     First case in the US: Valve-in-Valve (Aortic and Mitral) Replacements with Transapical Transcatheter Implants – The Use of Transfemoral Devices.

Curators: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/23/valve-in-valve-replacements-with-transapical-transcatheter-implants/

 

13co     Phrenic Nerve Stimulation in Patients with Cheyne-Stokes Respiration and Congestive Heart Failure

Curators: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/20/phrenic-nerve-stimulation-in-patients-with-cheyne-stokes-respiration-and-congestive-heart-failure/

 

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9co       Imaging Biomarker for Arterial Stiffness: Pathways in Pharmacotherapy for Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia Management

Curators: Justin D. Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/24/imaging-biomarker-for-arterial-stiffness-pathways-in-pharmacotherapy-for-hypertension-and-hypercholesterolemia-management/

 

8co       DELETED identical to 37co

 

7co       Treatment, Prevention and Cost of Cardiovascular Disease: Current & Predicted Cost of Care and the Potential for Improved Individualized Care Using Clinical Decision Support Systems

Author, and Content Consultant to e-SERIES A: Cardiovascular Diseases: Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC, Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/15/diagnosis-of-cardiovascular-disease-treatment-and-prevention-current-predicted-cost-of-care-and-the-promise-of-individualized-medicine-using-clinical-decision-support-systems-2/

 

6co       Hypertension and Vascular Compliance: 2013 Thought Frontier – An Arterial Elasticity Focus

Curators: Justin D. Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/11/arterial-elasticity-in-quest-for-a-drug-stabilizer-isolated-systolic-hypertension-caused-by-arterial-stiffening-ineffectively-treated-by-vasodilatation-antihypertensives/

 

5co       DELETED identical to 36co

 

4co       Biomaterials Technology: Models of Tissue Engineering for Reperfusion and Implantable Devices for Revascularization

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/05/bioengineering-of-vascular-and-tissue-models/

 

3co       Cardiovascular Diseases: Decision Support Systems for Disease Management Decision Making

Curators: Justin D. Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/04/cardiovascular-diseases-decision-support-systems-for-disease-management-decision-making/

 

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Single-Author Reporting on MedTech and Cardiac Medical Devices by

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

162r Rhythm Management Device Hardware (Dual-chamber Pacemaker) coupled with BackBeat’s Cardiac Neuromodulation Therapy (CNT) bioelectronic therapy for Lowering Systolic Blood Pressure for patients with Pacemakers

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/10/03/rhythm-management-device-hardware-dual-chamber-pacemaker-coupled-with-backbeats-cardiac-neuromodulation-therapy-cnt-bioelectronic-therapy-for-lowering-systolic-blood-pressure-for-patients-w/

 

161r Pulmonary Valve Replacement and Repair: Valvuloplasty Device – Tissue (bioprosthetic) or mechanical valve;  Surgery type – Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Replacement (TPVR) vs Open Heart, Valve Repair – Commissurotomy, Valve-ring Annuloplasty

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/09/30/pulmonary-valve-replacement-and-repair-valvuloplasty-device-tissue-bioprosthetic-or-mechanical-valve-surgery-type-transcatheter-pulmonary-valve-replacement-tpvr-vs-open-heart-valve-re/

 

160r Are TAVR volume requirements limiting rural and minority access to this life-saving procedure, or are they still necessary for patient safety?

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/09/20/are-tavr-volume-requirements-limiting-rural-and-minority-access-to-this-life-saving-procedure-or-are-they-still-necessary-for-patient-safety/

159r Top 100 of 415 articles published on PubMed in 2018 on TAVR

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/08/14/top-100-of-415-articles-published-on-pubmed-in-2018-on-tavr/

158r Aortic Stenosis (AS): Managed Surgically by Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) – Search Results for “TAVR” on NIH.GOV website, Top 16 pages

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/08/14/aortic-stenosis-as-managed-surgically-by-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-tavr-search-results-for-tavr-on-nih-gov-website-top-16-pages/

 

157r Comparison of four methods in diagnosing acute myocarditis: The diagnostic performance of native T1, T2, ECV to LLC

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/08/08/comparison-of-four-methods-in-diagnosing-acute-myocarditis-the-diagnostic-performance-of-native-t1-t2-ecv-to-llc/

 

156r   Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction (LVOTO): The Role of CT in TAVR and in TMVR

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/07/25/left-ventricular-outflow-tract-lvot-obstruction-lvoto-the-role-of-ct-in-tavr-and-in-tmvr/

 

155r   CABG: a Superior Revascularization Modality to PCI in Patients with poor LVF, Multivessel disease and Diabetes, Similar Risk of Stroke between 31 days and 5 years, post intervention

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/07/25/cabg-a-superior-revascularization-modality-to-pci-in-patients-with-poor-lvf-multivessel-disease-and-diabetes-similar-risk-of-stroke-between-31-days-and-5-years-post-intervention/

 

154r   Stanford University researchers have developed a scanner that unites optical, radioluminescence, and photoacoustic imaging to evaluate for Thin-Cap Fibro Atheroma (TCFA)

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/07/23/stanford-university-researchers-have-developed-a-scanner-that-unites-optical-radioluminescence-and-photoacoustic-imaging-to-evaluate-for-thin-cap-fibro-atheroma-tcfa/

 

153r   An Overview of the Heart Surgery Specialty: heart transplant, lung transplant, heart-lung transplantation, aortic valve surgery, bypass surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, heart valve surgery, removal of cardiac tumors, reoperation valve surgery

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/07/11/the-heart-surgery-specialty-heart-transplant-lung-transplant-heart-lung-transplantation-aortic-valve-surgery-bypass-surgery-minimally-invasive-cardiac-surgery-heart-valve-surgery-removal-of-ca/

 

152r   PCI, CABG, CHF, AMI – Two Payment Methods: Bundled payments (hospitalization costs, up to 90 days of post-acute care, nursing home care, complications, and rehospitalizations) vs Diagnosis-related groupings cover only what happens in the hospital.

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/07/10/pci-cabg-chf-ami-two-payment-methods-bundled-payments-hospitalization-costs-up-to-90-days-of-post-acute-care-nursing-home-care-complications-and-rehospitalizations-vs-diagnosis-related-gro/

 

151r   Expanded Stroke Thrombectomy Guidelines: FDA expands treatment window for use (Up to 24 Hours Post-Stroke) of clot retrieval devices (Stryker’s Trevo Stent) in certain stroke patients

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/02/27/expanded-stroke-thrombectomy-guidelines-fda-expands-treatment-window-for-use-up-to-24-hours-post-stroke-of-clot-retrieval-devices-strykers-trevo-stent-in-certain-stroke-patients/

 

150r   What is the Role of Noninvasive Diagnostic Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) CT vs Invasive FFR for PCI?

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/02/27/what-is-the-role-of-noninvasive-diagnostic-fractional-flow-reserve-ffr-ct-vs-invasive-ffr-for-pci/

 

149r   Renowned Electrophysiologist Dr. Arthur Moss Died on February 14, 2018 at 86

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2018/02/27/renowned-electrophysiologist-dr-arthur-moss-died-on-february-14-2018-at-86/

 

148r   Mitral Valve Repair Global Leader: Edwards LifeSciences acquired Harpoon Medical for $250 in 12/2017 followed by $690 million buyout of Valtech Cardio 1/2017 and $400 million acquisition of CardiAQ Valve Technologies in 8/2017

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/12/08/mitral-valve-repair-global-leader-edwards-lifesciences-acquired-harpoon-medical-for-250-in-12-2017-followed-by-690-million-buyout-of-valtech-cardio-1-2017-and-400-million-acquisitio/

 

147r   2017 American Heart Association Annual Meeting: Sunday’s Science at #AHA17 – Presidential Address

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/11/13/2017-american-heart-association-annual-meeting-sundays-science-at-aha17-presidential-address/

 

146r   Medical Devices Early Feasibility FDA’s Pathway – Accelerated Recruitment for Randomized Clinical Trials: Replacement and Repair of Mitral Valves

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/11/13/medical-devices-early-feasibility-fdas-pathway-accelerated-recruitment-for-randomized-clinical-trials-replacement-and-repair-of-mitral-valves/

 

145r   Arrhythmias Detection: Speeding Diagnosis and Treatment – New deep learning algorithm can diagnose 14 types of heart rhythm defects by sifting through hours of ECG data generated by some REMOTELY iRhythm’s wearable monitors

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/07/10/arrhythmias-detection-speeding-diagnosis-and-treatment-new-deep-learning-algorithm-can-diagnose-14-types-of-heart-rhythm-defects-by-sifting-through-hours-of-ecg-data-generated-by-some-remotely-irhy/

 

144r   Cleveland Clinic: Change at the Top, Tomislav “Tom” Mihaljevic, M.D., as its next CEO and President to succeed Toby Cosgrove, M.D., effective Jan. 1, 2018

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/09/01/cleveland-clinic-change-at-the-top-tomislay-tom-mihaljevic-m-d-as-its-next-ceo-and-president-to-succeed-toby-cosgrove-m-d-effective-jan-1-2018/

 

143r   Off-Label TAVR Procedures: 1 in 10 associated with higher in-hospital 30-day mortality, 1-year mortality was similar in the Off-Label and the On-Label groups

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/06/22/off-label-tavr-procedures-1-in-10-associated-with-higher-in-hospital-30-day-mortality-1-year-mortality-was-similar-in-the-off-lavel-and-the-on-label-groups/

 

142r   Right Internal Carotid Artery Clot Aspiration: 4.5 Minute Thrombectomy Using the ADAPT-FAST Technique and the ACE68 Catheter

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/05/17/right-internal-carotid-artery-clot-aspiration-4-5-minute-thrombectomy-using-the-adapt-fast-technique-and-the-ace68-catheter/

 

141r   Less is More: Minimalist Mitral Valve Repair: Expert Opinion of Prem S. Shekar, MD, Chief, Division of Cardiac Surgery, BWH – #7, 2017 Disruptive Dozen at #WMIF17

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/05/17/less-is-more-minimalist-mitral-valve-repair-expert-opinion-of-prem-s-shekar-md-chief-division-of-cardiac-surgery-bwh-7-2017-disruptive-dozen-at-wmif17/

140r   What is the history of STEMI? What is the current treatment for Cardiogenic Shock? The Case Study of Detroit Cardiogenic Shock Initiative

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/05/07/what-is-the-history-of-stemi-what-is-the-current-treatment-for-cardiogenic-shock-the-case-study-of-detroit-cardiogenic-shock-initiative/

 

139r   ACC 2017, 3/30/2017 – Poor Outcomes for Bioresorbable Stents in Small Coronary Arteries

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/04/02/acc-2017-3302017-poor-outcomes-for-bioresorbable-stents-in-small-coronary-arteries/

 

138r   Edwards Lifesciences closes $690m a buy of Valtech Cardio and most of the heart valve repair technologies it’s developing

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2017/01/25/edwards-lifesciences-closes-690m-a-buy-of-valtech-cardio-and-most-of-the-heart-valve-repair-technologies-its-developing/

 

137r   First U.S. TAVR Patients Treated With Temporary Pacing Lead (Tempo Lead)

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/12/21/first-u-s-tavr-patients-treated-with-temporary-pacing-lead-tempo-lead/

 

136r   2017 World Medical Innovation Forum: Cardiovascular, May 1-3, 2017, Partners HealthCare, Boston, at the Westin Hotel, Boston

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/12/14/2017-world-medical-innovation-forum-cardiovascular-may-1-3-2017-partners-healthcare-boston-at-the-westin-hotel-boston/

 

135r   Advanced Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): Axillary Artery PCI for Insertion and Removal of Impella Device

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/12/13/advanced-peripheral-artery-disease-pad-axillary-pci-for-insertion-and-removal-of-impella-device/

 

134r   CorPath robotic system for bifurcation lesions with placement of the Absorb GT1 Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold (BVS) (Abbott Vascular)

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/12/07/corpath-robotic-system-for-bifurcation-lesions-with-placement-of-the-absorb-gt1-bioresorbable-vascular-scaffold-bvs-abbott-vascular/

 

133r   Hadassah Opens Israel’s First Heart Valve Disease Clinic

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/12/06/hadassah-opens-israels-first-heart-valve-disease-clinic/

 

132r   Left Main Coronary Artery Disease (LMCAD): Stents vs CABG – The less-invasive option is Equally Safe and Effective

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/12/06/left-main-coronary-artery-disease-lmcad-stents-vs-cabg-the-less-invasive-option-is-equally-safe-and-effective/

 

131r   Advances and Future Directions for Transcatheter Valves – Mitral and tricuspid valve repair technologies now in development

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/12/06/advances-and-future-directions-for-transcatheter-valves-mitral-and-tricuspid-valve-repair-technologies-now-in-development/

 

130r   New method for performing Aortic Valve Replacement: Transmural catheter procedure developed at NIH, Minimally-invasive tissue-crossing – Transcaval access, abdominal aorta and the inferior vena cava

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/10/31/new-method-for-performing-aortic-valve-replacement-transmural-catheter-procedure-developed-at-nih-minimally-invasive-tissue-crossing-transcaval-access-abdominal-aorta-and-the-inferior-vena-cava/

 

129r   Robot-assisted coronary intervention program @MGH – The first CorPath Vascular Robotic System, lets Interventional Cardiologists position the right stent in the right place at reduces radiation exposure by 95%

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/10/17/robot-assisted-coronary-intervention-program-mgh-the-first-corpath-vascular-robotic-system-lets-interventional-cardiologists-position-the-right-stent-in-the-right-place-at-reduces-radiation-exposu/

 

128r   Second in the United States to implant Edwards Newly FDA-Approved Aortic Valve “Intuity Elite” Sutureless Valve at Northwestern Medicine

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/10/13/second-in-the-united-states-to-implant-edwards-newly-fda-approved-aortic-valve-intuity-elite-sutureless-valve-at-northwestern-medicine/

 

127r   First-in-Man Mitral Valve Repairs Device used for Tricuspid Valve Repair: Cardioband used by University Hospital Zurich Heart Team

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/10/13/first-in-man-mitral-valve-repairs-device-used-for-tricuspid-valve-repair-cardioband-used-by-university-hospital-zurich-heart-team/

 

126r   Inferior Vena Cava Filters: Device for Prevention of Pulmonary Embolism and Thrombosis

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/10/04/vena-caval-filters-device-for-prevention-of-pulmonary-embolism-and-thrombosis/

 

125r   Chest Radiation Therapy causes Collateral Damage to the Human Heart

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/08/28/chest-radiation-therapy-causes-collateral-damage-to-the-human-heart/

 

124r   Clinical Trials for Transcatheter Mitral Valves Annulus Repairs and TAVR: CT Structural Software for Procedural Planning and Anatomical Assessments

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/08/15/clinical-trials-for-transcatheter-mitral-valves-annulus-repairs-and-tavr-ct-structural-software-for-procedural-planning-and-anatomical-assessments/

 

123r   Lysyl Oxidase (LOX) gene missense mutation causes Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection (TAAD) in Humans because of inadequate cross-linking of collagen and elastin in the aortic wall

Mutation carriers may be predisposed to vascular diseases because of weakened vessel walls under stress conditions.

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/07/19/lysyl-oxidase-lox-gene-missense-mutation-causes-thoracic-aortic-aneurysm-and-dissection-taad-in-humans-because-of-inadequate-cross-linking-of-collagen-and-elastin-in-the-aortic-wall/

 

122r   SAPIEN 3 Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in High-Risk and Inoperable Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis: One-Year Clinical Outcomes

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/07/14/sapien-3-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-in-high-risk-and-inoperable-patients-with-severe-aortic-stenosis-one-year-clinical-outcomes/

 

121r   Entire Family of Impella Abiomed Impella® Therapy Left Side Heart Pumps: FDA Approved To Enable Heart Recovery

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/07/06/entire-family-of-impella-abiomed-impella-therapy-left-side-heart-pumps-fda-approved-to-enable-heart-recovery/

 

120r   DELETED identical to 121r

 

119r   FDA approved Absorb GT1 Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold System (BVS), Everolimus releasing and Absorbed by the body in 3 years

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/07/05/fda-approved-absorb-gt1-bioresorbable-vascular-scaffold-system-bvs-everolimus-releasing-and-absorbed-by-the-body-in-3-years/

 

118r   TAVR with Sapien 3: combined all-cause death & disabling stroke rate was 8.4% and 16.6% for the surgery arm

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/04/05/tavr-with-sapien-3-combined-all-cause-death-disabling-stroke-rate-was-8-4-and-16-6-for-the-surgery-arm/

 

117r   Boston Scientific implant designed to occlude the heart’s left atrial appendage implicated with embolization – Device Sales in Europe halts

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/04/05/boston-scientific-implant-designed-to-occlude-the-hearts-left-atrial-appendage-implicated-with-embolization-device-sales-in-europe-halts/

 

116r   Issue with Delivery System Deployment Process: MitraClip Clip Recalled by Abbott Vascular

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/03/21/issue-with-delivery-system-deployment-process-mitraclip-clip-recalled-by-abbott-vascular/

 

115r   Prospects for First-in-man Implantation of Transcatheter Mitral Valve by Direct Flow Medical

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/03/03/prospects-for-first-in-man-implantation-of-transcatheter-mitral-valve-by-direct-flow-medical/

 

114r   Steps to minimise replacement of cardiac implantable electronic devices

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2016/02/04/steps-to-minimise-replacement-of-cardiac-implantable-electronic-devices/

 

113r Atrial Fibrillation Surgery Market worth $1.73 Billion by 2020

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/12/15/atrial-fibrillation-surgery-market-worth-1-73-billion-by-2020/

 

112r   Abbott’s Bioabsorbable Stent met its Primary Endpoint in a U.S. Clinical Trial, applications for FDA Approval follows

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/10/13/abbotts-bioabsorbable-stent-met-its-primary-endpoint-in-a-u-s-clinical-trial-applications-for-fda-approval-follows/

 

111r   Low-dose and High-resolution Cardiac Imaging with Revolution™ CT

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/08/23/low-dose-and-high-resolution-cardiac-imaging-with-revolution-ct/

 

110r   Hybrid Imaging 3D Model of a Human Heart by Cardiac Imaging Techniques: CT and Echocardiography

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/08/03/hybrid-imaging-3d-model-of-a-human-heart-by-cardiac-imaging-techniques-ct-and-echocardiography/

 

109r   Premature Ventricular Contraction percentage predicts new Systolic Dysfunction and clinically diagnosed CHF and overall Mortality

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/07/14/premature-ventricular-contraction-percentage-predicts-new-systolic-dysfunction-and-clinically-diagnosed-chf-and-overall-mortality/

 

108r   ‘Mammogram for the heart’ can predict heart attack by Dr. James Min, Director of the Dalio Institute of Cardiovascular Imaging at New York-Presbyterian Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/07/07/mammogram-for-the-heart-can-predict-heart-attack-by-dr-james-min-director-of-the-dalio-institute-of-cardiovascular-imaging-at-new-york-presbyterian-hospital-and-weill-cornell-medic/

 

107r   Abbott’s percutaneous MitraClip mitral valve repair device SUPERIOR to Pacemaker or Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) for reduction of Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia (VT) episodes

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/05/19/abbotts-percutaneous-mitraclip-mitral-valve-repair-device-superior-to-pacemaker-or-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-for-reduction-of-ventricular-tachyarrhythmia-vt-episodes/

 

106r   No evidence to change current transfusion practices for adults undergoing complex cardiac surgery: RECESS evaluated 1,098 cardiac surgery patients received red blood cell units stored for short or long periods

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/04/08/no-evidence-to-change-current-transfusion-practices-for-adults-undergoing-complex-cardiac-surgery-recess-evaluated-1098-cardiac-surgery-patients-received-red-blood-cell-units-stored-for-short-or-lon/

 

105r   3-D BioPrinting in use to create Cardiac Living Tissue: Print Your Heart Out

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/03/16/3-d-bioprinting-in-use-to-create-cardiac-living-tissue-print-your-heart-out/

 

104r   Fractional Flow Reserve vs. Angiography in Non-ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/02/24/fractional-flow-reserve-vs-angiography-in-non-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction/

 

103r   Transradial PCI Bests Transfemoral PCI in UK Analysis, regardless of Patient’s Age

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/02/24/transradial-pci-bests-transfemoral-pci-in-uk-analysis-regardless-of-patients-age/

 

102r   DELETED, identical to 101r

 

101r   Protein Clue to Sudden Cardiac Death: Research @Oxford University

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/02/19/protein-clue-to-sudden-cardiac-death-research-oxford-university/

 

100r   Culprit-Lesion Over Multivessel PCI in STEMI Patients

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/11/07/culprit-lesion-over-multivessel-pci-in-stemi-patients/

 

99r     Convergent Procedure addresses the progressive nature of A-Fib

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/10/29/convergent-procedure-addresses-the-progressive-nature-of-a-fib/

 

98r     Paul Zoll, MD: Originator of Modern Electrocardiac Therapy – A Biography by Stafford Cohen, MD, BIDMC

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/10/16/paul-zoll-md-originator-of-modern-electrocardiac-therapy-a-biography-by-stafford-cohen-md-bidmc/

 

 

97r     Surgical Options for Left Atrial Appendage (LAA) Removal for A-Fib Patients without Indication for Anticoagulant Therapy

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/10/15/surgical-options-for-left-atrial-appendage-laa-removal-for-a-fib-patients-without-indication-for-anticoagulant-therapy/

 

96r     Intracranial Vascular Stenosis: Comparison of Clinical Trials: Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Stenting (PTAS) vs. Clot-inhibiting Drugs: Aspirin and Clopidogrel (dual antiplatelet therapy) – more Strokes if Stenting

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/10/15/intracranial-vascular-stenosis-comparison-of-clinical-trials-percutaneous-transluminal-angioplasty-and-stenting-ptas-vs-clot-inhibiting-drugs-aspirin-and-clopidogrel-dual-antiplatelet-therapy/

95r     New Era for PAD as FDA approval in the US of 1st Drug-coated Balloon (DCB) for PDA – CAD Indication for DCB will follow

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/10/15/new-era-for-pad-as-fda-approval-in-the-us-of-1st-drug-coated-balloon-dcb-for-pda-cad-indication-for-dcb-will-follow/

 

94r     Tethered–Liquid Perfluorocarbon surface (TLP): Biocoating Prevents Blood from Clotting on Implantables

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/10/13/tethered-liquid-perfluorocarbon-surface-tlp-biocoating-prevents-blood-from-clotting-on-implantables/

 

93r     Medtronic’s CoreValve System Sustains Positive Outcomes Through Two Years in Extreme Risk Patients

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/09/15/medtronics-corevalve-system-sustains-positive-outcomes-through-two-years-in-extreme-risk-patients/

 

92r     Thrombus Aspiration for Myocardial Infarction: What are the Outcomes One Year After

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/09/04/thrombus-aspiration-for-myocardial-infarction-what-are-the-outcomes-one-year-after/

 

91r     Fractional Flow Reserve–Guided PCI vs Drug Therapy for Stable Coronary Artery Disease

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/09/04/fractional-flow-reserve-guided-pci-vs-drug-therapy-for-stable-coronary-artery-disease/

90r     Capillaries: A Mapping Geometrical Method using Organ 3D Printing

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/22/capillaries-a-mapping-geometrical-method-using-organ-3d-printing/

 

89r     One year Post-Intervention Mortality Rate: TAVR and AVR – Aortic Valve Procedures 6.7% in AVR, 11.0% in AVR with CABG, 20.7 in Transvascular (TV-TAVT) and 28.0% in Transapical (TA-TAVR) Patients

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/08/04/one-year-post-intervention-mortality-rate-tavr-and-avr-aortic-valve-procedures-6-7-in-avr-11-0-in-avr-with-cabg-20-7-in-transvascular-tv-tavt-and-28-0-in-transapical-ta-tavr-patients/

 

88r     CEO of PolyNova: The Paradigm Shift in Heart Valve

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/06/16/ceo-of-polynova-the-paradigm-shift-in-heart-valve/

 

87r     An FDA advisory committee unanimously recommended approval of the Lutonix drug-coated balloon PTA catheter for the treatment of patients with femoropopliteal occlusive disease.

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/06/16/an-fda-advisory-committee-unanimously-recommended-approval-of-the-lutonix-drug-coated-balloon-pta-catheter-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-femoropopliteal-occlusive-disease/

 

86r     Patent Dispute over Heart Defect Repair Technology: Appeals court Upholds Gore win over St. Jude Medical – Helex septal occluder competes with the Amplatzer device made by AGA/St. Jude

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/06/12/patent-dispute-over-heart-defect-repair-technology-appeals-court-upholds-gore-win-over-st-jude-medical-helex-septal-occluder-competes-with-the-amplatzer-device-made-by-agast-jude/

85r     Chest Pain: Cardiac MRI provides the Picture of MI

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/06/03/chest-pain-cardiac-mri-provides-the-picture-of-mi/

 

84r     CardioMEMS sold to St. Jude Medical: Boston Millennia Partners announced that St. Jude Medical (NYSE: STJ) is acquiring the remaining 81 percent of CardioMEMS, Inc. it does not own for $375 million

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari,  PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/06/02/implantable-device-cardiomems-hf-system-for-heart-failure-patients-fda-approved/

 

83r     Cardiovascular Biology  – A Bibliography of Research @Technion

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/05/27/cardiovascular-biology-a-bibliography-of-research-technion/

 

82r     Asymptomatic Patients After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Low Yield of Stress Imaging – Population-Based Study

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/05/27/asymptomatic-patients-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-low-yield-of-stress-imaging-population-based-study/

 

 

81r     Transcatheter Mitral Valve (TMV) Procedures: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) proposes to cover Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair (TMVR)

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/05/19/transcatheter-mitral-valve-tmv-procedures-centers-for-medicare-medicaid-services-cms-proposes-to-cover-transcatheter-mitral-valve-repair-tmvr/

 

80r     Minimally Invasive Valve Therapy Programs: Recommendations by SCAI, AATS, ACC, STS

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/05/19/minimally-invasive-valve-therapy-programs-recommendations-by-scai-aats-acc-sts/

 

79r     Among those 26 exams deemed low-value, 12 involve medical imaging, in tests that range from preoperative chest radiography to carotid artery screening for asymptomatic patients, imaging for back pain, and CT for headache and rhinosinusitis (JAMA Internal Medicine, May 12, 2014)

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/05/13/among-26-exams-deemed-low-value-12-involve-medical-imaging-preoperative-chest-radiography-carotid-artery-screening-imaging-for-back-pain-and-ct-for-headache-and-rhinosinusitis-jama-im-may-12-2/

 

78r     FDA on Medical Devices: Part 1 – User Fee Act (MDUFA) III and Part 2 – Expedited Access Program for Medical Devices that Address Unmet Medical Needs

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/04/28/fda-on-medical-devices-part-1-user-fee-act-mdufa-iii-and-part-2-expedited-access-program-for-medical-devices-that-address-unmet-medical-needs/

 

77r     Settled Heart Valve Lawsuit: Medtronic to Pay Edwards: Edwards Lifesciences’ Sapien XT beat out Medtronic’s CoreValve

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/04/16/first-head-to-head-trial-finds-edwards-tavr-superior-to-medtronics/

 

76r     Replacement of the Mitral Valve: Using the Edwards’ Sapien Aortic Valve Device

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/04/10/replacement-of-the-mitral-valve-using-the-edwards-sapien-aortic-valve-device/

 

75r     Stem-Cell Therapy for Ischemic Heart Failure: Clinical Trial MSC Demonstrates Efficacy

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/04/08/stem-cell-therapy-for-ischemic-heart-failure-clinical-trial-msc-demonstrates-efficacy/

 

 

74r     ATVB (Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology) 2014 Conference  5/1 – 5/3/2014, Sheraton Centre Toronto – Toronto, Ontario

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/03/05/atvb-arteriosclerosis-thrombosis-and-vascular-biology-2014-conference-51-532014-sheraton-centre-toronto-toronto-ontario/

 

73r     Endovascular Aortic Repair: A New Tool for Procedure Planning

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/02/25/endovascular-aortic-repair-a-new-tool-for-procedure-planning/

 

72r     Females and Non-Atherosclerotic Plaque: Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection – New Insights from Research and DNA Ongoing Study

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/02/12/female-and-non-atherosclerotic-plaque-spontaneous-coronary-artery-dissection-new-insights-from-research-and-dna-ongoing-study/

71r     Of the Cardiac-specific Deaths, Deaths from Heart Attack and Sudden Heart Rhythm Disturbances declined steeply, no decline in Deaths from Heart Failure in a 20,000 PCI patients Study @ Mayo Clinic

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/02/12/of-the-cardiac-specific-deaths-deaths-from-heart-attack-and-sudden-heart-rhythm-disturbances-declined-steeply-but-there-was-no-decline-in-deaths-from-heart-failure-in-a-20000-pci-patients-study/

 

70r     Cardiac Perfusion Exam, Rapid Heart Scanner, CT, MRI and PET imaging – Innovations in Radiology @ Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/02/12/cardiac-perfusion-exam-rapid-heart-scanner-ct-mri-and-pet-imaging-innovations-in-radiology-beth-israel-deaconess-medical-center/

 

69r     Maladaptive Vascular Remodeling found by four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI: Outflow Patterns, Wall Shear Stress, and Expression of Aortopathy are caused by Congenital bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) Cusp Fusion

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/02/12/maladaptive-vascular-remodeling-found-by-four-dimensional-4d-flow-mri-outflow-patterns-wall-shear-stress-and-expression-of-aortopathy-are-caused-by-congenital-bicuspid-aortic-valve-bav-cusp-fus/

 

68r     “Medicine Meets Virtual Reality” – NextMed-MMVR21 Conference 2/19 – 2/22/2014, Manhattan Beach Marriott, Manhattan Beach, CA

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/02/09/medicine-meets-virtual-reality-nextmed-mmvr21-conference-219-2222014-manhattan-beach-marriott-manhattan-beach-ca/

 

67r     Preserved vs Reduced Ejection Fraction: Available and Needed Therapies

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/02/03/preserved-vs-reduced-ejection-fraction-available-and-needed-therapies/

 

66r     Developments on the Frontier of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) Devices

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/01/26/developments-on-the-frontier-of-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-tavr-devices/

 

65r     On-Hours vs Off-Hours: Presentation to ER with Acute Myocardial Infarction – Lower Survival Rate if Off-Hours

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/01/22/on-hours-vs-off-hours-presentation-to-er-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-lower-survival-rate-if-off-hours/

 

64r     Elastin Arteriopathy: The Genetics of Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/30/elastin-arteriopathy-the-genetics-of-supravalvular-aortic-stenosis/

 

63r     Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Genotype as a Potential Genetic Marker

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/30/abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-genotype-as-a-potential-genetic-marker/

 

62r     Genetics of Aortic and Carotid Calcification: The Role of Serum Lipids

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/12/genetics-of-aortic-and-carotid-calcification-the-role-of-serum-lipids/

 

61r     St. Jude’s CEO is still betting on EnligHTN IV Study Renal Denervation System, despite Medtronic’s setback related to SYMPLICITY Phase IV

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/10/renal-denervation-enlightn-iv-study-called-off-and-potential-novel-indications-diastolic-heart-failure/

 

60r     Ischemic Stable CAD: Medical Therapy and PCI no difference in End Point: Meta-Analysis of Contemporary Randomized Clinical Trials

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/03/ischemic-stable-cad-ffr-in-5000-patients-medical-therapy-and-pci-no-difference-in-end-point-meta-analysis-of-contemporary-randomized-clinical-trials/

 

59r     Resistance Hypertension: Renal Artery Intervention using Stenting

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/02/pad-and-resistance-hypertension-renal-artery-intervention-using-stenting/

 

58r   For Accomplishments in Cardiology and Cardiovascular Diseases: 2015 The Arrigo Recordati International Prize for Scientific Research

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/11/22/for-accomplishments-in-cardiology-and-cardiovascular-diseases-the-arrigo-recordati-international-prize-for-scientific-research/

 

57r   Dalio Institute of Cardiovascular Imaging @ NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/11/12/dalio-institute-of-cardiovascular-imaging-newyork-presbyterian-hospital-and-weill-cornell-medical-college/

 

56r   ACC/AHA Guidelines for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/11/05/accaha-guidelines-for-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery/

 

55r     Risks for Patients’ and Physician’s Health in the Cath Lab

Reporter and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/10/17/risks-for-patients-contrast-induced-nephropathy-and-physicians-health-radiation-exposure-in-the-cath-lab/

 

54r     Myocardial Infarction: The New Definition After Revascularization

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/10/15/myocardial-infarction-the-new-definition-after-revascularization/

53r     Echocardiogram Quantification: Quest for Reproducibility and Dependability

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/10/12/echocardiogram-quantification-quest-for-reproducibility-and-dependability/

52r     Myocardial Strain and Segmental Synchrony: Age and Gender in Speckle-tracking-based Echocardiographic Study

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/05/myocardial-strain-and-segmental-synchrony-age-and-gender-in-speckle-tracking-based-echocardiographic-study/

51r   Hybrid Cath Lab/OR Suite’s da Vinci Surgical Robot of Intuitive Surgical gets FDA Warning Letter on Robot Track Record

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/19/hybrid-cath-labor-suites-da-vinci-surgical-robot-of-intuitive-surgical-gets-fda-warning-letter-on-robot-track-record/

 

50r     Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA): Albert Einstein’s Operation by Dr. Nissen

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/11/abdominal-aortic-aneurysms-aaa-albert-einsteins-operation-by-dr-nissen/

49r     Transposon-mediated Gene Therapy improves Pulmonary Hemodynamics and attenuates Right Ventricular Hypertrophy: eNOS gene therapy reduces Pulmonary vascular remodeling and Arterial wall hyperplasia

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/31/transposon-mediated-gene-therapy-improves-pulmonary-hemodynamics-and-attenuates-right-ventricular-hypertrophy-enos-gene-therapy-reduces-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-and-arterial-wall-hyperplasia/

 

48r   First-of-Its-Kind FDA Approval for ‘AUI’ Device with Endurant II AAA Stent Graft: Medtronic Expands in Endovascular Aortic Repair in the United States

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/30/first-of-its-kind-fda-approval-for-aui-device-with-endurant-ii-aaa-stent-graft-medtronic-expands-in-endovascular-aortic-repair-in-the-united-states/

 

47r     Bioabsorbable Drug Coating Scaffolds, Stents and Dual Antiplatelet Therapy

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/29/bioabsorbable-drug-coating-scaffolds-stents-and-dual-antiplatelet-therapy/

 

46r     Svelte Medical Systems’ Drug-Eluting Stent: 0% Clinically-Driven Events Through 12-Months in First-In-Man Study

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/28/svelte-medical-systems-drug-eluting-stent-0-clinically-driven-events-through-12-months-in-first-in-man-study/

 

45r   Echo vs Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMRI): CMRI may be a useful adjunct in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) family screening in higher risk

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/20/echo-vs-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-cmri-cmri-may-be-a-useful-adjunct-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-hcm-family-screening-in-higher-risk/

 

44r   iElastance: Calculates Ventricular Elastance, Arterial Elastance and Ventricular-Arterial Coupling using Echocardiographic derived values in a single beat determination

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/19/ielastance-calculates-ventricular-elastance-arterial-elastance-and-ventricular-arterial-coupling-using-echocardiographic-derived-values-in-a-single-beat-determination/

 

43r   CT Angiography (CCTA) Reduced Medical Resource Utilization compared to Standard Care reported in JACC

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/16/ct-angiography-ccta-reduced-medical-resource-utilization-compared-to-standard-care-reported-in-jacc/

 

42r   Texas Heart Institute: 50 Years of Accomplishments

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/04/texas-heart-institute-50-years-of-accomplishments/

 

41r   Economic Toll of Heart Failure in the US: Forecasting the Impact of Heart Failure in the United States – A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/25/economic-toll-of-heart-failure-in-the-us-forecasting-the-impact-of-heart-failure-in-the-united-states-a-policy-statement-from-the-american-heart-association/

 

40r   Sudden Cardiac Death invisible at Autopsy: Forensic Power of Postmortem MRI

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/18/sudden-cardiac-death-invisible-at-autopsy-forensic-power-of-postmortem-mri/

 

39r   Advanced CT Reconstruction: Plaque Estimation Algorithm for Fewer Errors and Semiautomation

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/18/advanced-ct-reconstruction-plaque-estimation-algorithm-for-fewer-errors-and-semiautomation/

 

38r     Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Decisions on implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) using left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and Midwall Fibrosis: Decisions on Replacement using late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular MR (LGE-CMR)

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/03/10/dilated-cardiomyopathy-decisions-on-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillators-icds-using-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-lvef-and-midwall-fibrosis-decisions-on-replacement-using-late-gadolinium/

 

37r     Clinical Trials on transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) to be conducted by American College of Cardiology and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/02/12/american-college-of-cardiologys-and-the-society-of-thoracic-surgeons-entrance-into-clinical-trials-is-noteworthy-read-more-two-medical-societies-jump-into-clinical-trial-effort-for-tavr-tech-f/

 

36r     Direct Flow Medical Wins European Clearance for Catheter Delivered Aortic Valve

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/01/29/direct-flow-medical-wins-european-clearance-for-catheter-delivered-aortic-valve/

 

35r     DELETED, identical to 15c

 

34r     PCI Outcomes, Increased Ischemic Risk associated with Elevated Plasma Fibrinogen not Platelet Reactivity

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/01/10/pci-outcomes-increased-ischemic-risk-associated-with-elevated-plasma-fibrinogen-not-platelet-reactivity/

 

33r     Cardiac Surgery Theatre in China vs. in the US: Cardiac Repair Procedures, Medical Devices in Use, Technology in Hospitals, Surgeons’ Training and Cardiac Disease Severity

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/01/08/cardiac-surgery-theatre-in-china-vs-in-the-us-cardiac-repair-procedures-medical-devices-in-use-technology-in-hospitals-surgeons-training-and-cardiac-disease-severity/

 

32r     DELETED, identical to 14c

31r     DELETED, identical to 12c

 

30r     Heart Renewal by pre-existing Cardiomyocytes: Source of New Heart Cell Growth Discovered

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/23/heart-renewal-by-pre-existing-cardiomyocytes-source-of-new-heart-cell-growth-discovered/

 

29r     Ablation Devices Market to 2016 – Global Market Forecast and Trends Analysis by Technology, Devices & Applications

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/23/ablation-devices-market-to-2016-global-market-forecast-and-trends-analysis-by-technology-devices-applications/

 

28r     Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Endovascular repair and open repair resulted in similar long-term survival

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/03/abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-endovascular-repair-and-open-repair-resulted-in-similar-long-term-survival/

 

27r     Renal Denervation Technology of Vessix Vascular, Inc. been acquired by Boston Scientific Corporation (BSX) to pay up to $425 Million

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/08/renal-denervation-technology-of-vessix-vascular-inc-been-acquired-by-boston-scientific-corporation-bsx-to-pay-up-to-425-million/

 

26r     DELETED, identical to 11c

 

25r     To Stent or Not? A Critical Decision

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/23/to-stent-or-not-a-critical-decision/

 

24r     FDA Approval for Under-Skin Defibrillator goes to Boston Scientific Corporation

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/01/fda-approval-for-under-skin-defibrillator-goes-to-boston-scientific-corporation/

 

23r     Absorb™ Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold: An International Launch by Abbott Laboratories

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/29/absorb-bioresorbable-vascular-scaffold-an-international-launch-by-abbott-laboratories/

 

22r     Carotid Stenting: Vascular surgeons have pointed to more minor strokes in the stenting group and cardiologists to more myocardial infarctions in the CEA cohort.

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/21/carotid-stenting-vascular-surgeons-have-pointed-to-more-minor-strokes-in-the-stenting-group-and-cardiologists-to-more-myocardial-infarctions-in-the-cea-cohort/

 

21r     FDA: Strengthening Our National System for Medical Device Post-market Surveillance

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/07/fda-strengthening-our-national-system-for-medical-device-post-market-surveillance/

 

20r     Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Replacement for Inoperable Severe Aortic Stenosis

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/03/transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-for-inoperable-severe-aortic-stenosis/

 

19r     Evidence for Overturning the Guidelines in Cardiogenic Shock

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/03/evidence-for-overturning-the-guidelines-in-cardiogenic-shock/

 

18r     Imbalance of Autonomic Tone: The Promise of Intravascular Stimulation of Autonomics

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/02/imbalance-of-autonomic-tone-the-promise-of-intravascular-stimulation-of-autonomics/

17r     Intravascular Stimulation of Autonomics: A Letter from Dr. Michael Scherlag

Letter received by Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN on September 1, 2012

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/09/02/intravascular-stimulation-of-autonomics-a-letter-from-dr-michael-scherlag/

 

16r     New Definition of MI Unveiled, Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR)CT for Tagging Ischemia

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/27/new-definition-of-mi-unveiled-fractional-flow-reserve-ffrct-for-tagging-ischemia/

 

15r     DELETED, identical to 8c

 

14r     Expected New Trends in Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medical Devices

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/17/expected-new-trends-in-cardiology-and-cardiovascular-medical-devices/

 

13r     Patient Access to Medical Devices — A Comparison of U.S. and European Review Processes

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/09/patient-access-to-medical-devices-a-comparison-of-u-s-and-european-review-processes/

 

12r   Coronary CT Angiography versus Standard Evaluation in Acute Chest Pain

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/09/coronary-ct-angiography-versus-standard-evaluation-in-acute-chest-pain/

 

11r     Updated Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI): risk for stroke and suitability for surgery

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/07/transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-tavi-risky-and-costly-2/

 

10r     Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI): FDA approves expanded indication for two transcatheter heart valves for patients at intermediate risk for death or complications associated with open-heart surgery

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/02/transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-tavi-risky-and-costly/

 

9r      Early Surgery May Benefit Some With Heart Infection

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/02/early-surgery-may-benefit-some-with-heart-infection/

 

8r      Gaps, Tensions, and Conflicts in the FDA Approval Process: Implications for Clinical Practice

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/31/gaps-tensions-and-conflicts-in-the-fda-approval-process-implications-for-clinical-practice/

 

7r      Heart Remodeling by Design – Implantable Synchronized Cardiac Assist Device: Abiomed’s Symphony

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/23/heart-remodeling-by-design-implantable-synchronized-cardiac-assist-device-abiomeds-symphony/

 

6r      Percutaneous Endocardial Ablation of Scar-Related Ventricular Tachycardia

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/18/percutaneous-endocardial-ablation-of-scar-related-ventricular-tachycardia/

 

5r      Implantable Synchronized Cardiac Assist Device Designed for Heart Remodeling: Abiomed’s Symphony

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/11/implantable-synchronized-cardiac-assist-device-designed-for-heart-remodeling-abiomeds-symphony/

 

4r      Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Stenting (PTAS) – Stenting versus Aggressive Medical Therapy for Intracranial Arterial Stenosis

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/05/percutaneous-transluminal-angioplasty-and-stenting-ptas-stenting-versus-aggressive-medical-therapy-for-intracranial-arterial-stenosis/

 

3r      The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) covers transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) under Coverage with Evidence Development (CED)

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/06/19/the-centers-for-medicare-medicaid-services-cms-covers-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-tavr-under-coverage-with-evidence-development-ced/

 

2r     Investigational Devices: Edwards Sapien Transcatheter Aortic Heart Valve Replacement Transfemoral Deployment

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/06/10/investigational-devices-edwards-sapien-transcatheter-aortic-heart-valve-replacement-transfemoral-deployment/

 

1r     Investigational Devices: Edwards Sapien Transcatheter Aortic Valve Transapical Deployment

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/06/04/investigational-devices-edwards-sapien-transcatheter-heart-valve/

 

 

 

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Heart Metabolism or Metabolic Cardiology: The Role of Ribose (D-ribose) for the Ischemic Heart -The Work of John St. Cyr, M.D., Ph.D.

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

REVIEW

An interview with John St. Cyr, M.D., Ph.D. on Ribose : A Key to Heart Health and Energy

By Richard A. Passwater, Ph.D.

 

© Whole Foods Magazine

January 2005

Ribose : A Key to Heart Health and Energy

An interview with John St. Cyr, M.D., Ph.D.

By Richard A. Passwater, Ph.D.

SOURCE

http://www.drpasswater.com/nutrition_library/John_St_Cyr.html

 

John St. Cyr, M.D., Ph.D. — PATENTS:

Issued:

Suture removal device, USP5250052

Double layer prophylactic incorporating pharmacological fluid and spiral barrier layer, USP5623945

Compositions for increasing energy in vivo, USP6159942

Method for determining viability of a myocardial segment, USP6339716

Method for raising the hypoxic threshold, USP6218366

Use of ribose to prevent cramping and soreness in muscles, USP6159943

Compositions for increasing athletic performance in mammals, USP6429198

Dual lumen adjustable length cannulae for liquid perfusion or lavage, USP6692473

Method for treating acute mountain sickness, USP6511964

Compositions for increasing energy in vivo, USP6534480

Compositions for the storage of platelets, USP6790603

Compositions for enhancing the immune response, USP6663859

Composition methods for improving cardiovascular function, USP7553817

Rejuvenation of stored blood, USP7687468

 

John St. Cyr, M.D., Ph.D. — Pending applications:

Method for improving ventilatory efficiency, SN20050277598

Storage of blood SN20070111191

Ventilatory benefits of ribose in COPD, smoking, SN

Use of ribose in recovery from anesthesia, SN20070105787

Use of ribose to alleviate rhabdomyolysis and the side effects of statin drugs, SN20060135440

Use of ribose in first response to acute myocardial infarction, SN20100055206

Compositions and methods for improving cardiovascular function, SN20100009924

Use of ribose in lessening the clinical symptoms of aberrant firing of neurons, SN20090286750

Compositions for indoor tanning, SN20090232750

Compositions for improving and repairing skin, SN20090197819

Use of ribose for recovery from anesthesia, SN20090197818

Cosmetic use of D-ribose, SN20080312169

Method for improving ventilator efficiency SN20100099630

Method and compositions for improving pulmonary hypertension, SN20080146514

Storage of blood, SN20070111191

Compositions and methods for feeding poultry, SN201100221446

Use of D-ribose for fatigued subjects, SN20100189785

Fibrin sealants and platelet concentrates applied to effect hemostasis in the interface of an implantable medical device with body tissue, SN20060190017

Compositions for reducing the deleterious effects of stress and aging, SN20120045426

 

John St. Cyr, M.D., Ph.D. — Provisional patents:

Use of ribose in pre-slaughtering of animals

Rescue therapy for acute decompensated heart failure

Combination of D-ribose plus caffeine

Role of ribose in reducing joint swelling in mammals

Role of D-ribose in cardiac remodeling

Role of D-ribose in cachexia

Use of ribose in stem cells

Use of ribose in cardioplegia

Use of ribose for doping blood for cardioplegia

Surgical adhesive for bleeding situations

Metabolic approach with EECP

Role of ribose in mitral regurgitation

Compositions for the preservation of morphology in stored blood

Methods and nutritional supplements for improving the quality of meat

 

John St. Cyr, M.D., Ph.D. — Publications 2011 to 2013

This list does not include Publication #1 to #219

220. Shecterle LM, Wagner S, St.Cyr JA.  A sugar for congestive heart failure patients.  Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis 5(2):95-97, 2011.

221. Perkowski D, Wagner S, Schneider JR, St.Cyr JA.  A targeted metabolic protocol with D-ribose for off pump coronary artery bypass procedures: A retrospective analysis.  Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis 5(4):185-192, 2011.

222. Foker J, Berry J, Harvey B, Befera N, Tveter K, St.Cyr J, Bianco R.  Heart failure is initiated by and progresses because of normal responses of energy metabolism to stress.  Circ Res   , 2011.

223. Rakow N, Barka N, Gerhart R, Rothstein P, Green M, Schu C, Grassl E, St.Cyr JA, Kopcak MW, Jr.  Chronic aortic root pressure-loading assessment model.  J Invest Surg 25(2):137, 2012.

224. Shecterle LM, St.Cyr JA.  Chapter 11; Myocardial Ischemia: Alterations in myocardial cellular energy and diastolic function, a potential role for D-ribose. In: Novel Strategies in Ischemia Heart Disease. Lakshmanadoss U(Ed). InTech, Croatia.  219-228, 2012.

225. Addis P, Shecterle LM, St.Cyr JA.  Cellular protection during oxidative stress: a potential role for D-ribose and antioxidants.  Journal of Dietary Supplements 9(3):178-182, 2012.

226. Holsworth R, Shecterle L, St.Cyr J, Sloop G.  Letter to the Editor.  Importance of monitoring blood viscosity during cardiopulmonary bypass.  Perfusion 28(1):91-2, 2013.

227. Seifert JG, Frost J, ST.Cyr JA.  Recovery benefits of a heat and moisture exchange mask when performing sprint exercise in cold temperature environments.  Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine.    , 2013.

228. Seifert JG, McNair M, DeClercq P, St.Cyr JA.  A heat and moisture mask attenuates cardiovascular stress during cold air exposure.  Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis 7(3):123-129, 2013.

229. Holsworth R, Cho Y, Weldman J, Sloop G, St.Cyr, J.  Cardiovascular benefits of phlebotomy: Relationship to changes in hemorheological variables.  Perfusion,   2013.

 

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Myocardial Infarction: The New Definition After Revascularization

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

UPDATED on 7/31/2014

Myocardial Ischemia Symptoms

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/07/29/myocardial-ischemia-symptoms/

 

VIEW VIDEO

Gregg Stone, MD

Co-DIrector, Medical Research & Education Division Cardiovascular Research Foundation

http://www.medpagetoday.com/Cardiology/MyocardialInfarction/42256?xid=nl_mpt_DHE_2013-10-15&goback=%2Egmr_4346921%2Egde_4346921_member_5795830612724035588#%21

Primary source: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Source reference: Moussa I, et al “Consideration of a new definition of clinically relevant myocardial infarction after coronary revascularization: an expert consensus document from the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI)” J Am Coll Cardiol2013; 62: 1563-1570.

Additional source: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Source reference:White H “Avatar of the universal definition of periprocedural myocardial infarction” J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; 62: 1571-1574.

Moussa reported that he had no conflicts of interest.

Stone is a consultant for Boston Scientific, Eli Lilly, Daiichi Sankyo, and AstraZeneca. The other authors reported relationships with Guerbet, The Medicines Company, Bristol-Myers Squibb/Sanofi, Merck, Maya Medical, AstraZeneca, Abbott Vascular, Regado Biosciences, Janssen Pharma, Lilly/Daiichi Sankyo, St. Jude Medical, Medtronic, Terumo, Bridgepoint/Boston Scientific, Gilead, Boston Scientific, Eli Lilly, and Daiichi Sankyo.

White is co-chairman for the Task Force for the Universal Definiton of Myocardial Infarction; has received research grants from sanofi-aventis, Eli Lilly, The Medicines Company, the NIH, Pfizer, Roche, Johnson & Johnson, Schering-Plough, Merck Sharpe & Dohme, AstraZeneca, GlaxoSmithKline, Daiichi Sankyo Pharma Development, and Bristol-Myers Squibb; and has served on advisory boards for AstraZeneca, Merck Sharpe & Dohme, Roche, and Regado Biosciences.

WASHINGTON, DC — A “clinically meaningful” definition of MI following PCI or CABG is urgently needed to replace the arbitrarily chosen “universal definition” proposed in recent years that has no relevance to patients and may be muddying clinical-trial results. Those are the conclusions of a new expert consensus document released Monday by the Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI)[1].

The notion of a “universal definition of MI” was first proposed in 2000 and updated in 2007 and 2012. The 2012 document defines a PCI-related MI as an increase in cardiac troponin (cTn) of more than five times the upper limit of normal (ULN) during the first 48 hours postprocedure plus specific clinical or ECG features. Post-CABG, the definition is a cTn increase of >10 times the ULN, plus different clinical or ECG features.

The problem, lead author Dr Issam Moussa (Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL) told heartwire , is that these cutoffs were arbitrarily chosen and not based on any hard evidence that these biomarker levels spelled a poor prognosis. Moreover, “overnight, the rate of MI went from 5% following these procedures to 20% to 30%!” he said.

The SCAI committee, in its new document, focuses on post-PCI procedures and highlights the importance of acquiring baseline cardiac biomarkers and differentiating between patients with elevated baseline CK-MB (or cTn) in whom biomarker levels are stable or falling, as well as those in whom it hasn’t been established whether biomarkers are changing.

SCAI’s Proposed Clinically Meaningful MI Definitions

Group Definition
Normal baseline CK-MB CK-MB rise of >10x ULN or >5x ULN with new pathologic Q-waves in at least 2 contiguous leads or new persistent left bundle branch block
OR
In the absence of baseline CK-MB, a cTn rise of >70x ULN or a rise of>35 ULN plus new pathologic Q-waves in at least 2 contiguous leads or new persistent left bundle branch block
Elevated baseline biomarkers that are stable or falling A CK-MB or cTn rise that is equal (by an absolute increment) to the definitions described for patients with normal CK-MB at baseline.
Elevated baseline biomarkers that have not been shown to be stable or falling A CK-MB or cTn rise that is equal (by an absolute increment) to the definitions described for patients with normal CK-MB at baseline
Plus
New ST-segment elevation or depression
Plus
New-onset or worsening heart failure or sustained hypotension or other signs of a clinically relevant MI.

Moussa is quick to emphasize that these new clinically meaningful definitions have limited evidence to support them—and most of what exists supports CK-MB definitions, not cTn—but that the new document is based on the best scientific evidence available.

“We don’t want to come out with a definitive statement” saying this is the final word on MI definitions,” he stressed. “There is more science that needs to be done and there remains more uncertainty. We framed this to be inclusive and also to open the field for discussion.”

His hope is that this will lead to important changes in how patients are managed and money is spent. Currently, patients with clinically meaningless biomarker elevations may become unnecessarily panicked over news that they’ve had a “heart attack,” while hospital stays may be extended and further tests ordered on the basis of these results.

Moussa et al’s proposal also has important implications for clinical trials, he continued. Currently, for studies that include periprocedural MIs as an individual end point or as part of a composite end point, the very high number of biomarker-defined “MIs” collected in the trial could potentially overwhelm the true impact of any given therapy. “You are really using an end point that is truly not relevant to patients. . . . This could really affect the whole hypothesis.”

He’s expecting some push-back from cardiologists and academics, particularly those who championed the need for the universal definition in the first place, but believes most people will welcome a clinically meaningful definition.

“I think many in the medical community will accept this because they have not really been using the universal definition in their day-to-day practice anyhow.” What’s more, the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) does not include the reporting of MI postangiography, in part because of concerns that the universal definition of MI overestimates the true incidence of this problem. “I think many in the community will look at this definition as more reflective of the true incidence of MI after angioplasty, and if it’s accepted, they are more likely to report it to databases like NCDR and use it to reflect quality-of-care processes.”

http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/812533?nlid=35983_2105&src=wnl_edit_medp_card&uac=93761AJ&spon=2

  • ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF Expert Consensus Document

Circulation.2012; 126: 2020-2035  Published online before print August 24, 2012,doi: 10.1161/​CIR.0b013e31826e1058

Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction

  1. Kristian Thygesen;
  2. Joseph S. Alpert;
  3. Allan S. Jaffe;
  4. Maarten L. Simoons;
  5. Bernard R. Chaitman;
  6. Harvey D. White
  7. the Writing Group on behalf of the Joint ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF Task Force for the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction
  1. *Corresponding authors/co-chairpersons: Professor Kristian Thygesen, Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Tage-Hansens Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Tel: +45 7846-7614; fax: +45 7846-7619: E-mail: kristhyg@rm.dk. Professor Joseph S. Alpert, Department of Medicine, Univ. of Arizona College of Medicine, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., P.O. Box 245037, Tucson AZ 85724, USA, Tel: +1 520 626 2763, Fax: +1 520 626 0967, E-mail: jalpert@email.arizona.edu. Professor Harvey D. White, Green Lane Cardiovascular Service, Auckland City Hospital, Private Bag 92024, 1030 Auckland, New Zealand. Tel: +64 9 630 9992, Fax: +64 9 630 9915, E-mail: harveyw@adhb.govt.nz.

Table of Contents

  • Abbreviations and Acronyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2021

  • Definition of Myocardial Infarction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2022

  • Criteria for Acute Myocardial Infarction. . . . . . . . . . . .2022

  • Criteria for Prior Myocardial Infarction. . . . . . . . . . . .2022

  • Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2022

  • Pathological Characteristics of Myocardial Ischaemia and Infarction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2023

  • Biomarker Detection of Myocardial Injury With Necrosis. . .2023

  • Clinical Features of Myocardial Ischaemia and Infarction. . .2024

  • Clinical Classification of Myocardial Infarction. . . .2024
    • Spontaneous Myocardial Infarction (MI Type 1). . . .2024

    • Myocardial Infarction Secondary to an Ischaemic Imbalance (MI Type 2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2024

    • Cardiac Death Due to Myocardial Infarction (MI Type 3). .2025

    • Myocardial Infarction Associated With Revascularization Procedures (MI Types 4 and 5). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …

New Definition for MI After Revascularization

Published: Oct 14, 2013 | Updated: Oct 15, 2013

By Todd Neale, Senior Staff Writer, MedPage Today
Reviewed by Zalman S. Agus, MD; Emeritus Professor, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and Dorothy Caputo, MA, BSN, RN, Nurse Planner

The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) has released a new definition for myocardial infarction (MI) following coronary revascularization aimed at identifying only those events likely to be related to poorer patient outcomes.

In the new criteria — published as an expert consensus document inCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions and the Journal of the American College of Cardiology — creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) is the preferred cardiac biomarker over troponin, and much greater elevations are required to define a clinically relevant MI compared with the universal definition of MI proposed in 2007 and revised in 2012.

Also, the new definition uses the same biomarker elevation thresholds to identify MIs following both percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), whereas the universal definition has different thresholds for events following the two procedures.

“What we’ve really tried to emphasize in this classification scheme is the primary link between biomarker elevations and prognosis,” according to Gregg Stone, MD, of Columbia University Medical Center and the Cardiovascular Research Foundation in New York City, one of the authors of the document.

“In the universal definition of MI, they even acknowledged that their criteria were arbitrary,” Stone said in an interview. “We’ve tried to reduce the arbitrariness of the cutoff values that we selected so that the researcher, academician, clinician, hospital administrator, etc., can be confident that these levels that we’re recommending are the ones that are associated with a worse prognosis for patients suffering periprocedural complications.”

The Change

The existing universal definition for MI defines events following PCI according to an increase in cardiac troponin to greater than five times the 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL) within 48 hours when baseline levels are normal, with confirmation by electrocardiogram (ECG), imaging, or symptoms.

For CABG-related MI, the increase must be more than 10 times the 99th percentile URL within 48 hours when baseline levels are normal, with confirmation by ECG, angiography, or imaging.

But, Stone and colleagues wrote, the relationship between that degree of troponin elevation after a revascularization procedure and prognosis is not as strong as the association between a CK-MB elevation and patient outcomes.

Using a small elevation in troponin to define a post-procedure MI could find myocardial necrosis that is unlikely to be associated with poor clinical outcomes, which could have far-reaching implications, they wrote.

“Widespread adoption of an MI definition not clearly linked to subsequent adverse events such as mortality or heart failure may have serious consequences for the appropriate assessment of devices and therapies, may affect clinical care pathways, and may result in misinterpretation of physician competence,” they wrote.

To address that issue, the expert panel convened by SCAI sought to define clinically relevant MI after PCI or CABG.

A clinically relevant MI is defined in the new document based on an increase of at least 10 times the upper limit of normal in the level of CK-MB within 48 hours after a revascularization procedure when baseline levels are normal.

When the CK-MB level is not available, then an increase in troponin I or T of at least 70 times the upper limit of normal can be used to define a clinically relevant MI, according to the authors.

However, if an ECG shows new pathologic Q-waves in at least two contiguous leads or a new persistent left bundle branch block, then the thresholds can be lowered to at least five times and at least 35 times the upper limit of normal for CK-MB and troponin, respectively.

Further guidance is provided for identifying clinically relevant post-procedure MIs when the cardiac biomarker levels are elevated at baseline.

Dueling Definitions

Co-chairman of the Task Force for the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction, Harvey White, DSc, of Auckland City Hospital in Auckland, New Zealand, noted some limitations of the new definition, including the lack of a requirement for ischemic symptoms.

“Ischemic symptoms have always been a basic tenet of the diagnosis of MI, and it should be no different for a [PCI-related] MI,” he wrote in an accompanying editorial.

In addition, with the use of such large elevations in biomarker levels in the new definition, “there will be very few PCI-related events identified, and an opportunity to improve patient outcomes may be lost,” he wrote.

Troponin should remain the preferred biomarker over CK-MB, White argued, pointing to variability in and analytical issues with CK-MB assays, the need for sex-specific cutoffs for CK-MB levels, the need for higher thresholds of CK-MB to determine abnormalities because all individuals have circulating levels of the biomarker, and the reduced sensitivity and specificity of CK-MB.

Also, he said, CK-MB is becoming increasingly unavailable at medical centers.

“With CK-MB becoming obsolete, troponin will become the gold standard, and CK-MB will no longer have a role in defining PCI injury and infarction in clinical practice,” White wrote.

Stone admitted that troponin ultimately might be preferable to CK-MB because of its greater specificity, although the evidence does not yet support it.

“I think there’s a general desirability to move to troponins, although when you look at the data that’s out there it’s much stronger correlating CK-MB elevations to subsequent prognosis,” he said. “I think a lot of the troponin elevations are just noise or troponins are just too sensitive.”

Room for Both?

White noted in his editorial that “the rationale for the SCAI definition has been well articulated by its authors and may be appropriate in an individual trial, but it should not supplant the universal definition of MI,” he wrote.

When asked whether the new definition would replace the universal definition, Stone said there is a place for both sets of criteria.

“We would propose the clinically relevant definition be the one that is used to make most substantial decisions right now, [such as] trade-offs between efficacy and safety for new drugs and devices, in judging hospital systems and physicians, etc.,” he said. “But I do think there’s value in both, and they will both continue to evolve over time as new data becomes evident.”

http://www.medpagetoday.com/Cardiology/MyocardialInfarction/42256?xid=nl_mpt_DHE_2013-10-15&goback=%2Egmr_4346921%2Egde_4346921_member_5795830612724035588#%21 

Articles citing 

Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction

  • Improved long-term clinical outcomes in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing remote ischaemic conditioning as an adjunct to primary percutaneous coronary interventionEur Heart J. 2013;0:eht369v1-eht369

  • The role of myeloperoxidase (MPO) for prognostic evaluation in sensitive cardiac troponin I negative chest pain patients in the emergency departmentEuropean Heart Journal: Acute Cardiovascular Care. 2013;2:203-210,
  • Coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous revascularization in acute myocardial infarction?Interact CardioVasc Thorac Surg. 2013;0:ivt381v1-ivt381,
  • Ischemic Conditioning as an Adjunct to Percutaneous Coronary InterventionCirc Cardiovasc Interv. 2013;6:484-492,
  • High sensitivity cardiac troponin in patients with chest painBMJ. 2013;347:f4222,
  • Chest Pain and Palpitations: Taking a Closer LookCirculation. 2013;128:271-277,
  • An Updated Definition of Stroke for the 21st Century: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke AssociationStroke. 2013;44:2064-2089,
  • Factors Influencing the 99th Percentile of Cardiac Troponin I Evaluated in Community-Dwelling Individuals at 70 and 75 Years of AgeClin. Chem.. 2013;59:1068-1073,
  • Detection and management of asymptomatic myocardial injury after noncardiac surgeryEuropean Journal of Preventive Cardiology.2013;0:2047487313494294v1-2047487313494294,
  • Postoperative Troponin Screening: A Cardiac Cassandra?Circulation. 2013;127:2253-2256,
  • Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Improves Outcome at 6 Years After Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The CRISP Stent Trial Long-term Follow-upCirc Cardiovasc Interv. 2013;6:246-251,
  • Outcomes for Clinical Studies Assessing Drug and Revascularization Therapies for Claudication and Critical Limb Ischemia in Peripheral Artery DiseaseCirculation. 2013;127:1241-1250,
  • Prevalence, Incidence, and Implications of Silent Myocardial Infarctions in Patients With Diabetes MellitusCirculation. 2013;127:965-967,
  • 2013 ACCF/AHA Key Data Elements and Definitions for Measuring the Clinical Management and Outcomes of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes and Coronary Artery Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Data Standards (Writing Committee to Develop Acute Coronary Syndromes and Coronary Artery Disease Clinical Data Standards)Circulation. 2013;127:1052-1089,
  • Clin. Chem.. 2013;59:574-576,
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Versus Optimal Medical Therapy for Prevention of Spontaneous Myocardial Infarction in Subjects With Stable Ischemic Heart DiseaseCirculation. 2013;127:769-781,
  • Frequency of Myocardial Infarction and Its Relationship to Angiographic Collateral Flow in Territories Supplied by Chronically Occluded Coronary ArteriesCirculation. 2013;127:703-709,
  • The Power of More Than OneCirculation. 2013;127:665-667,
  • The curious life of the biomarkerJournal of the American Dental Association. 2013;144:126-128,
  • Persistent Increases in Cardiac Troponin Concentrations As Measured with High-Sensitivity Assays after Acute Myocardial InfarctionClin. Chem.. 2013;59:443-445,
  • 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice GuidelinesCirculation. 2013;127:e362-e425,

Read Full Post »


Cardiovascular Complications: Death from Reoperative Sternotomy after prior CABG, MVR, AVR, or Radiation; Complications of PCI; Sepsis from Cardiovascular Interventions

Author, Introduction and Summary: Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC

and

Article Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

The Curator recommends the e-Reader to read the following book on Surgical Complications:

Complications
“Essential Reading For Anyone Involved In Medicine”–Amazon.com –  2002

Cardiovascular Complications:

I. Reoperative Sternotomy after prior CABG, MVR, AVR, or radiation therapy

IIa. PCI, and

IIb. PAD Endovascular Interventions: Carotid Artery Endarterectomy

III. Incidence of Sepsis (circulation infection with serious consequences)

UPDATED 11/2/2013

As minimally interventional techniques improve, patients are offered a choice of invasive surgical remedies or less invasive procedures (video assisted, robotic, or percutaneous). The decision should not rest on the size of the scar or even the up front risk and discomfort, but rather should weigh all aspects of the risks and benefits. In addition to the risks and benefits for the current problem, one should also consider why the problem occurred and its likelihood of recurrence. Open chest surgery has a clear disadvantage when it comes to recurrences, as the scars from first surgery interfere with second surgery. Opening the chest (sternotomy) for a second or third time poses elevated risks analyzed herein. This article reviews data from major centers addressing the risks from repeat sternotomy and from minimally invasive cardiovascular surgeries. Any invasion of the body elevates risk of infection, which can lead to sepsis and possible death, so that risk is also addressed.

I. Risk of Injury During Repeat Sternotomy for CABG or Aortic Valve Replacement, Open Heart Surgery

II. Complications After Percutaneous Coronary intervention (PCI) and endovascular surgery for Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

  • (a) Post PCIand 
  • (b) PAD Endovascular Interventions: Carotid Artery Endarterectomy

III. Cardiac Failure During Systemic Sepsis

This article addresses specific reports of complications but does not cover numerous other complications that may occur, such as lung collapse, cardiogenic shock, blood loss, local infection, emboli, thrombus, stroke.

I. Risk of Injury During Open Heart Surgery after prior Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG), Aortic Valve Replacement, Mitral Valve Replacement, or Radiation Therapy 

Conclusions of a Study conducted @Mayo Clinic on Reoperative (Repeat) Sternotomy (opening of the chest through the sternum):

Chan B. Park, MD,a,b Rakesh M. Suri, MD,a Harold M. Burkhart, MD,a Kevin L. Greason, MD,a

Joseph A. Dearani, MD,a Hartzell V. Schaff, MD,a and Thoralf M. Sundt III, MDa

Identifying patients at particular risk of injury during repeat sternotomy: Analysis of 2555 cardiac reoperations

Authors Affiliations: From the Division of Cardiovascular Surgery,

a Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn; and the Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery,

b St. Paul’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Disclosures: None.

Read at the 90th Annual Meeting of The American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 1–5, 2010. Received for publication April 6, 2010; revisions received July 19, 2010; accepted for publication July 30, 2010.

doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.07.086

Particular attention to protective strategies should be considered during reoperative sternotomy among patients with multiple previous sternotomies, previous mediastinal radiotherapy, and those with patent internal thoracic artery grafts. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010;140:1028-35)

Of the 2555 patients,

  • 1537 (60%) had undergone previous coronary artery bypass grafting,
  • 700 (27%) previous mitral valve surgery, and
  • 643 (25%) previous aortic valve replacement (AVR).
  • 61 (2%) had prior mediastinal radiotherapy, and
  • 424 (17%) had more than one previous sternotomy.

 Injury Analysis – 9% events in 231 Patient in the study

In 231 patients, 267 injuries (9.0%) occurred.

Injury occurred

  • during sternotomy in 87 patients (33%) and
  • during prepump dissection in 135 (51%).

Hospital mortality rate was

6.5% among those without injury and

18.5% among those with injury (P < .001);

25% when injury occurred during sternal division

Injuries were more common

1. after previous coronary artery bypass grafting

  • 11% with previous coronary artery bypass grafting vs
  • 7% without, (P = .0012)

but not

  • previous aortic valve surgery,
  • previous mitral valve surgery, or
  • previous aorta surgery.

2.  Injury was also more common when the current operation was aortic valve replacement (AVR)

  • 10% with AVR vs
  • 8% without, (P = .04) or

3.  aorta surgery

  • 14% vs
  • 8% (P = .004).

Predicted injury by multivariate analysis –

Injury was an independent risk factor of hospital death (odds ratio, 2.6).

4.   previous radiotherapy (odds ratio, 4.9)

5.  a greater number of previous sternotomies (odds ratio 1.7), and

6.  a patent internal thoracic artery (odds ratio, 1.8)

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010 Nov;140(5):1028-35. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.07.086.

Identifying patients at particular risk of injury during repeat sternotomy: analysis of 2555 cardiac reoperations.

Source

Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

A variety of protective strategies during repeat sternotomy been proposed; however, it remains unclear for which patients they are warranted.

METHODS:

We identified adults undergoing repeat median sternotomy for routine cardiac surgery at our institution between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2007. The operative notes and perioperative outcomes were reviewed.

RESULTS:

Of the 2555 patients, 1537 (60%) had undergone previous coronary artery bypass grafting, 700 (27%) previous mitral valve surgery, and 643 (25%) previous aortic valve replacement (AVR). Sixty-one patients (2%) had prior mediastinal radiotherapy, and 424 (17%) had more than one previous sternotomy. In 231 patients, 267 injuries (9.0%) occurred. Injury occurred during sternotomy in 87 patients (33%) and during prepump dissection in 135 (51%). The hospital mortality rate was 6.5% among those without injury and 18.5% among those with injury (P < .001); when injury occurred during sternal division, the mortality rate was 25%. Injuries were more common after previous coronary artery bypass grafting (11% with previous coronary artery bypass grafting vs 7% without, P = .0012) but not previous AVR, mitral valve surgery, or aortic surgery. Injury was also more common when the current operation was AVR (10% with AVR vs 8% without, P = .04) or aortic surgery (14% vs 8%, P = .004). On multivariate analysis, previous radiotherapy (odds ratio, 4.9), a greater number of previous sternotomies (odds ratio 1.7), and a patent internal thoracic artery (odds ratio, 1.8) predicted injury. Injury was an independent risk factor of hospital death (odds ratio, 2.6).

CONCLUSIONS:

Particular attention to protective strategies should be considered during reoperative sternotomy among patients with multiple previous sternotomies, previous mediastinal radiotherapy, and those with patent internal thoracic artery grafts.

Copyright © 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

Comment in

TABLE 2. Hospital mortality according to Timing of Injury

Timing Mortality rate with injury P value

  • Re-entry 19/76 (25.0%) <.001
  • Prepump 20/121 (16.5%) <.001
  • Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)  3/14 (21.4%) .05
  • Aortic CrossClamp (ACC 1/11) (9.1%) .85
  • Closing 5/17 (29.4%) <.001

TABLE 1. Preoperative patient characteristics

Characteristic No injury (n 1/4 2324) Injury (n 1/4 231) P value

Age (y) 66.9  12.4 67.7  11.5 .509

Men 1583 (68.1%) 167 (72.3%) .192

Diabetes mellitus 499 (21.5%) 61 (26.4%) .084

Hypertension 1536 (66.2%) 158 (68.4%) .490

Hypercholesterolemia 1656 (71.4%) 171 (74.0%) .395

Myocardial infarction 633 (27.3%) 68 (29.4%) .480

Congestive heart failure 758 (32.6%) 89 (38.5%) .069

NYHA .064

I-II 492 (21.2%) 37 (16.0%)

III-IV 1830 (78.8%) 184 (84.0%)

Previous operation No injury (n 1/4 2324) Injury (n 1/4 231) P value

CABG 1375 (59.2%) 162 (70.1%) .001

Aortic valve surgery 586 (25.2%) 57 (24.7%) .857

Mitral valve surgery 645 (27.8%) 55 (23.8%) .200

Tricuspid valve surgery 64 (2.8%) 9 (3.9%) .320

Aorta surgery 167 (7.2%) 20 (8.7%) .413

Current operation No injury (n 1/4 2324) Injury (n 1/4 231) P value

CABG 897 (38.6%) 104 (45.0%) .056

Aortic valve surgery 1020 (43.9%) 118 (51.1%) .036

Mitral valve surgery 821 (35.3%) 80 (34.6%) .833

Tricuspid valve surgery 414 (17.8%) 52 (22.5%) .078

Aortic surgery 232 (10.0%) 37 (16.0%) .004

DISCUSSION

The results of the present study have confirmed the significant risk of cardiovascular injury during reoperative cardiac surgery. The death rate from such injury can be 10-30%, particularly  when occurring during division of the sternum. These risks are greatest among patients with multiple previous sternotomies or prior chest radiotherapy.

Current PROTOCOL at Virginia University, now suggested to be considered for adoption @Mayo Clinic:

The Mayo Clinic’s Authors write: Our findings are more consistent with those reported by Roselli and colleagues.2 The explanation of these institutional differences is unclear, although a number of practice differences are likely present between these institutions in terms of both patient substrate and surgical practice. Compared with the series from the University of Virginia, the Mayo series we have reported represents a greater percentage of total cases performed at the institution (13.5% vs 7.8%), with a somewhat greater percentage of those reoperations being for CABG (41% vs 60%). In the Mayo series, a lower percentage were first-time repeat sternotomies (83% vs 90%) and a greater percentage were the fourth time or more (2.7% vs 1.1%).

The incidence of previous radiotherapy in the University of Virginia series was not reported.

It is also unclear to what degree the differences in surgical practice, including the role of the assistant surgeons in performing the repeat sternotomy, could account for these differences. In the present retrospective study, we were unable to demonstrate an effect of experience or expertise in either the occurrence of injury or the outcome. However, it is clear to all practicing surgeons that, when injury occurs, the judgment and expertise of the operating surgeon is critical to expeditious institution of CPB or other ‘‘rescue’’ maneuvers.

Perhaps of more practical value and broad applicability, however, is the standardized approach to repeat sternotomy advocated by the group at the University of Virginia, including routine preoperative CT scanning if the procedure is the third or fourth sternotomy and insertion of a femoral arterial line by which emergent percutaneous arterial inflow cannulation can be accomplished, if necessary. In their series, emergent institution of CPB using the femoral route was instituted in 1.8% of reoperative patients, constituting 19% of the patients with injury. Most notably, in their series, no deaths occurred among these patients. Serious consideration should be given to adopting such protocols.

Our high mortality rate associated with SVG injury during sternotomy, however, supports the  recommendation by others to carefully assess the course of bypass grafts by preoperative angiography. Routine preoperative CT imaging of all patients with more than one previous sternotomy has been advocated by Morishita and colleagues,3 with a demonstrable reduction in operative complications. Roselli and colleagues2 identified a lack of preparative imaging as the most common ‘‘lapse’’ in the preventive strategy among patients with injury. Our data suggest that CT scanning might be particularly helpful in the subset of patients with multiple previous sternotomies or radiotherapy and would support the institution of a policy of routine scanning for these patients.

FIGURE 1. Hospital mortality according to emergent cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery c November 2010, pp. 1032

TABLE 5. Postoperative results

No injury (n 1/4 2324) —  Injury (n 1/4 231) — P value

Postoperative transfusion (U)

PRCs 4.5  7.2 6.5  8.9 .046

ICU stay (h) 102.3  228.6 146.3 +/- 346.9 <.001

Reoperation for bleeding 127 (5.5%) 21 (9.1%) .024

Sepsis 86 (3.7%) 16 (6.9%) .017

Stroke 56 (2.4%) 11 (4.8%) .033

Prolonged ventilation 505 (21.7%) 97 (42.0%) <.001

Pneumonia 123 (5.3%) 25 (10.8%) <.001

ARDS 32 (1.4%) 8 (3.5%) .015

Postoperative renal failure 237 (10.2%) 51 (22.1%) <.001

Multisystem failure 45 (1.9%) 13 (5.6%) <.001

Perioperative MI 9 (0.4%) 2 (0.9%) .289

Hospital death 151 (6.5%) 43 (18.6%) <.001

Abbreviations:

IABP, intra-aortic balloon pump; ICU, intensive care unit; ARDS, acute respiratory

distress syndrome; MI, myocardial infarction.

SOURCE
The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery c November 2010, pp. 1032

Independent predictors for injury during repeat median sternotomy

The structures injured and the timing of injury in our study were similar to those reported by Roselli and colleagues.2  Bypass grafts were the most commonly injured and, perhaps in contrast to expectations, most injuries occurred during dissection, not during sternal division. Unlike their study, however, we found injury during sternal division to carry a greater mortality risk. We observed a remarkably high mortality rate associated with injury to the right ventricle, as did Roselli and colleagues.2  This may be particularly true in the presence of pulmonary hypertension, when attempts to repair the injury are hampered by inadequate access, progressive tearing of the ventricle secondary to traction injury, and what can be a relatively thin and friable free wall. The incidence of injury to the Internal thoracic artery (ITA) in our series (4.9%) was comparable to the 4.4%–5.3% reported by other investigators.11-14 Because the ITA was damaged more often during prepump dissection (20.7%) than during re-entry (11.5%), these data support the trend to avoid dissecting and isolating the ITA during AVR after previous CABG.12,13

FOUR CONCLUSIONS

1. On the basis of these data, we would advocate preoperative axial CT imaging to define the proximity of cardiovascular structures to the sternum of patients who have undergone more than one previous sternotomy and those who have undergone radiotherapy because these patients statistically have the greatest risk of injury.

2. We would also advocate considering percutaneous or open access of the femoral vessels, if not the institution of CPB, before sternotomy in these same patients, as well as those with significant pulmonary hypertension.

3. Because injury is common during prepump dissection, we support a philosophy of leaving patent ITA grafts undisturbed by attempts to gain control during AVR after previous CABG.

4. Finally, given the mortality rate associated with graft injury, patients with previous CABG should be considered for graft angiography or high-resolution CT.

Summary 

This is a very important study  on the Outcomes and the Complications involved in Cardiac Surgery @Mayo Clinic.

Study’s Objectives: A variety of protective strategies during repeat sternotomy been proposed; however, it remains unclear for which patients they are warranted.

Authors @Mayo Clinic reported:

We were unable to definitively assess the effect of any specific protective strategies on the incidence of injury. Because we do not have standardized or uniform prospective institutional policies in this regard, it was not possible to account for the confounding factor of the clinician’s judgment in the decision to use these strategies in particularly highrisk patients.

Our high mortality rate associated with saphenous vein graft (SVG) injury during sternotomy, however, supports the  recommendation by others to carefully assess the course of bypass grafts by preoperative angiography. Routine preoperative CT imaging of all patients with more than one previous sternotomy has been advocated by Morishita and colleagues,3 with a demonstrable reduction in operative complications.

The reader is advised to review another article Co-Curated by us on the following related study by Mayo Clinic researches, This article examines 10-year to 15-year survivals from arterial bypass grafts using arterial vs saphenous venous grafts.

CABG Survival in Multivessel Disease Patients: Comparison of Arterial Bypass Grafts vs Saphenous Venous Grafts

The conclusions in this article are:

In patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery with LIMA to left anterior descending artery,

  • arterial grafting of the non-left anterior descending vessels conferred a survival advantage at 15 years compared with Saphenous Venous grafting (SVG).

It is still unproven whether these results apply to higher-risk subgroups of patients.

Related study

Coronary Artery Disease – Medical Devices Solutions: From First-In-Man Stent Implantation, via Medical Ethical Dilemmas to Drug Eluting Stents,

REFERENCES

1. Sabik JF III, Blackstone EH, Houghtaling PL,Walts PA, LytleBW. Is reoperation

still a risk factor in coronary artery bypass surgery? Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80:

1719-27.

2. Roselli EE, Pettersson GB, Blackstone EH, Brizzio ME, Houghtaling PL,

Lauck R, et al. Adverse events during reoperative cardiac surgery: Frequency,

characterization, and rescue. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008;135:316-23.

3. Morishita K, Kawaharada N, Fukada J, Yamada A, Masaru T, Kuwaki K, et al.

Three or more median sternotomies for patients with valve disease: Role of computed

tomography. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;75:1476-81.

4. Luciani N, Anselmi A, De Geest R, Martinelli L, Perisano M, Possati G. Extracorporeal

circulation by peripheral cannulation before redo sternotomy: Indications

and results. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008;136:572-7.

5. Potter DD, Sundt TM III, Zehr KJ, Dearani JA, Daly RC, Mullany CJ, et al. Risk

of repeat mitral valve replacement for failed mitral valve prostheses. Ann Thorac

Surg. 2004;78:67-72.

6. Potter DD, Sundt TM III, Zehr KJ, Dearani JA, Daly RC, Mullany CJ, et al. Operative

risk of reoperative aortic valve replacement. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg.

2005;129:94-103.

7. Sundt TM III, Murphy SF, Barzilai B, Schuessler RB, Mendeloff EN,

Huddleston CB, et al. Previous coronary artery bypass grafting is not a risk factor

for aortic valve replacement. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997;64:651-7.

8. Ellman PI, Smith RL, Girotti ME, Thompson PW, Peeler BB, Kern JA, et al. Cardiac

injury during resternotomy does not affect perioperative mortality. JAm Coll

Surg. 2008;206:993-9.

9. Chang ASY, Smedira NG, Chang CL, Benavides MM, Myhre U, Feng J, et al.

Cardiac surgery after mediastinal radiation: Extent of exposure influences outcome.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007;133:404-13.

10. Schmuziger M, Christenson JT, Maurice J, Mosimann E, Simonet F, Velebit V.

Reoperative myocardial revascularization: An analysis of 458 reoperations and

2645 single operations. Cardiovasc Surg. 1994;2:623-9.

11. Gillinov AM, Casselman FP, Lytle BW, Blackstone EH, Parsons EM, Loop FD,

et al. Injury to a patent left internal thoracic artery graft at coronary reoperation.

Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;67:382-6.

12. Byrne JG, Karavas AN, Filsoufi F, Mihaljevic T, Aklog L, Adams DH, et al. Aortic

valve surgery after previous coronary artery bypass grafting with functioning

internal mammary artery grafts. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;73:779-84.

13. Smith RL, Ellman PI, Thompson PW, Girotti ME, Mettler BA, Ailawadi G, et al.

Do you need to clamp a patent left internal thoracic artery—Left anterior descending

graft in reoperative cardiac surgery? Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;87:742-7.

14. Coltharp WH, Decker MD, Lea JWIV, Petracek MR, Glassford DM,

Thormas CS, et al. Internal mammary artery graft at reoperation: Risks, benefits,

and methods of preservation. Ann Thorac Surg. 1991;52:225-9.

15. O’Brien MF, Harrocks S, Clarke A, Garlick B, Barnett AG. How to do safe sternal

reentry and the risk factors of redo cardiac surgery: A 21-year review with

zero major cardiac injury. J Cardiac Surg. 2002;17:4-13.

16. Klein G. Naturalistic decision making. Human Factors. 2008;50:456-60.

II. Complications After Percutaneous Coronary intervention (PCI) and endovascular surgery for Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

(a) after prior PCI, and

(b) after prior PAD Endovascular Interventions: Carotid Artery Endarterectomy

II(a)  PCI  After Prior PCI – Major occurring Complications include the following:

 

  • Hematoma (a firm collection of blood greater than 2 cm around or in the proximity of the access site).
  • Pseudoaneurysm / dissection,
  • A-V fistula and ischemic leg were also considered along with
  • Retroperitoneal bleed. Retroperitoneal bleeding was defined by any amount of bleeding in the retroperitoneum diagnosed by computer tomography.
  • Inflammation of the Lower extremity on the side of the access site to the femoral artery

UPDATED 11/2/2013

VIEW VIDEO

Impact of Intra-procedural Stent Thrombosis during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Insights from the CHAMPION PHOENIX Trial ONLINE FIRST

Philippe Généreux, MD1; Gregg W. Stone, MD1; Robert A. Harrington, MD4; C. Michael Gibson, MD5; Ph. Gabriel Steg, MD6; Sorin J. Brener, MD10; Dominick J. Angiolillo, MD, PhD11; Matthew J. Price, MD12; Jayne Prats, PhD13; Laura LaSalle, MPH2; Tiepu Liu, MD, PhD12; Meredith Todd, B.Sc12; Simona Skerjanec, Pharm.D12; Christian W. Hamm, MD14; Kenneth W. Mahaffey, MD4; Harvey D. White, DSc15; Deepak L. Bhatt, MD, MPH16
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;():. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.10.022

Abstract

Objective  We sought to evaluate the clinical impact of intra-procedural stent thrombosis (IPST), a relatively new endpoint.

Background  In the prospective, double-blind, active-controlled CHAMPION PHOENIX trial, cangrelor significantly reduced periprocedural and 30-day ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), including IPST.

Methods  An independent core laboratory blinded to treatment assignment performed a frame-by-frame angiographic analysis in 10,939 patients for the development of IPST, defined as new or worsening thrombus related to stent deployment anytime during the procedure. Adverse events were adjudicated by an independent, blinded clinical events committee.

Results  IPST developed in 89 patients (0.8%), including 35/5470 (0.6%) and 54/5469 (1.0%) in the cangrelor and clopidogrel arms, respectively (OR [95%CI] = 0.65 [0.42,0.99], p=0.04). Compared to patients without IPST, IPST was associated with a marked increase in composite ischemia (death, myocardial infarction [MI], ischemia-driven revascularization, or new onset out-of-lab stent thrombosis [ARC]) at 48 hours and at 30 days (29.2% vs. 4.5% and 31.5% vs. 5.7%, P<0.0001 for both). After controlling for potential confounders, IPST remained a strong predictor of all adverse ischemic events at both time points.

Conclusion  In the large-scale CHAMPION PHOENIX trial, the occurrence of IPST was strongly predictive of subsequent adverse cardiovascular events. The potent intravenous ADP antagonist cangrelor substantially reduced IPST, contributing to its beneficial effects at 48 hours and 30 days.

Clinical trial info  CHAMPION PHOENIX; NCT01156571

Bleeding and Vascular Complications at the Femoral Access Site Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI): An Evaluation of Hemostasis Strategies

Author(s):

Dale R. Tavris, MD, MPH1, Yongfei Wang, MS2, Samantha Jacobs, BS1, Beverly Gallauresi, MPH, RN1, Jeptha Curtis, MD2, John Messenger, MD3, Frederic S. Resnic, MD, MSc4, Susan Fitzgerald, MS, RN5

Authors Affiliation

From the 1US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Silver Spring, Maryland, 2Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, 3University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 4Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, and 5the American College of Cardiology, Bethesda, Maryland.

Abstract: Background. Previous research found at least one vascular closure device (VCD) to be associated with excess vascular complications, compared to manual compression (MC) controls, following cardiac catheterization. Since that time, several more VCDs have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This research evaluates the safety profiles of current frequently used VCDs and other hemostasis strategies. Methods. Of 1089 sites that submitted data to the CathPCI Registry from 2005 through the second quarter of 2009, a total of 1,819,611 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures performed via femoral access site were analyzed. Assessed outcomes included bleeding, femoral artery occlusion, embolization, artery dissection, pseudoaneurysm, and arteriovenous fistula. Seven types of hemostasis strategy were evaluated for rate of “any bleeding or vascular complication” compared to MC controls, using hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for demographic factors, type of hemostasis, several indices of co-morbidity, and other potential confounding variables. Rates for different types of hemostasis strategy were plotted over time, using linear regression analysis.Results. Four of the VCDs and hemostasis patches demonstrated significantly lower bleeding or vascular complication rates than MC controls: Angio-Seal (odds ratio [OR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-0.70); Perclose (OR, 0.54; CI, 0.51-0.57); StarClose (OR, 0.77; CI, 0.72-0.82); Boomerang Closure Wire (OR, 0.63; CI, 0.53-0.75); and hemostasis patches (OR, 0.70; CI, 0.67-0.74). All types of hemostasis strategy, including MC, exhibited reduced complication rates over time. All trends were statistically significant except one. Conclusions. This large, nationally representative observational study demonstrated better safety profiles for most of the frequently used VCDs, compared to MC controls.

J INVASIVE CARDIOL 2012;24(7):328-334

Key words: hemostasis patch, mechanical compression, vascular closure device

Problems and Complications of the Transradial Approach for Coronary Interventions: A Review

The Journal of invasive Cardiology

Elizabeth Bazemore, BS and J. Tift Mann, III, MD

The benefits of the transradial approach have clearly been documented in numerous studies in the past ten years.1–9 Access site bleeding complication rates are lower and early ambulation results in a significant reduction in patient morbidity and a lower total procedure cost.3,4 Both patients undergoing the procedure and staff caring for these patients overwhelmingly prefer the transradial approach.10
As a result of these benefits, there has been an increase in the use of the radial artery for interventional procedures worldwide in the past several years. This experience has led to an understanding of the problems and complications that can result from the transradial approach. The purpose of the present manuscript is to review these issues.
Radial artery occlusion. Although this complication is a major concern, the consequences of radial artery occlusion are usually benign. The dual blood supply to the hand is an extremely protective mechanism (Figure 1). Hand ischemia with necrosis has occurred following prolonged cannulation of the radial artery for hemodynamic monitoring in critically ill patients; however, this complication has not been reported thus far after transradial coronary procedures.
The absence of ischemic complications is largely the result of the original recommendation by Kiemeneij that the transradial procedure be performed only in patients with a documented patent ulnar artery and palmar arch.1 This has traditionally been evaluated using the Allen’s test, but ultrasound, Doppler, and plethysmography prior to the procedure are more accurate methods.11
Plethysmography is probably the simplest and most effective method. A pulse oximetry test is performed with the probe placed on the patient’s thumb (Figure 2). The persistence of waveform and high oximetry readings after digital occlusion of the radial artery is very strong evidence that the patient will have sufficient collateral flow to prevent hand ischemia if the radial artery should become occluded as a result of the procedure. Barbeau has demonstrated the reappearance of the waveform and a high oximetry reading two minutes after initial negative results.11 This delayed recruitment of collaterals may be an additional explanation for the absence of hand ischemia with radial occlusion.
Several variables influence the incidence of radial artery occlusion. Adequate anticoagulation is extremely important. This is usually not an issue in patients undergoing interventional procedures, but the incidence of radial occlusion was as high as 30% in patients receiving only 1,000 units of heparin during diagnostic catheterization.12 The incidence of radial occlusion is reduced significantly by administering at least 5,000 units of heparin during the procedure.12,13 Due to this risk of radial occlusion, we tend to reserve the use of the radial artery for interventional procedures and “look-see” diagnostic catheterization. Elective diagnostic catheterizations are performed transradially only when there is an increased risk of femoral complications.
Catheter size has been shown to be an important predictor of post-procedure radial artery occlusion. Saito has studied the ratio of the radial artery internal diameter to the external diameter of the arterial sheath.14 The incidence of occlusion was 4% in patients with a ratio of greater than 1, as compared to 13% in those with a ratio of less than 1. Radial procedures have traditionally been performed using 6 Fr catheters, and most patients have an internal radial artery diameter larger than the 2.52 mm external 6 Fr sheath diameter.14 The incidence of radial occlusion following 6 Fr procedures is less than 5%, but the rate increases with larger sheath sizes.4,13 Virtually all interventional procedures can now be performed through large-bore, 6 Fr guide catheters, and larger-sized catheters are rarely necessary. For straightforward procedures, 5 Fr guide catheters may be utilized and are particularly useful in smaller women.
When the radial artery is utilized for hemodynamic monitoring in critically ill patients, the incidence of radial occlusion is significantly higher in patients with cannulation times greater than 24 hours, as compared to those under 20 hours.15 Since catheters are virtually always removed at the conclusion of a catheterization or interventional procedure, the time of cannulation may not be a factor. However, prolonged post-procedure compression times, particularly with high pressure using a mechanical device, may be a factor. We use sufficient pressure only to achieve hemostasis and try to remove the device as quickly as possible. Even in patients with intensive anticoagulation, it is rarely necessary to maintain mechanical compression for longer than one to two hours. A compression dressing using non-occlusive pressures can then be applied.
In summary, post-procedure radial occlusion occurs only in a small percentage of patients and is virtually always asymptomatic because of the dual blood supply to the hand. Patients with generalized vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and those undergoing repeat procedures are more susceptible. The incidence can be minimized with appropriate anticoagulation, proper sheath selection, and avoiding prolonged high-pressure compression following the procedure.
Non-occlusive radial artery injury. Recent studies have demonstrated that permanent radial artery injury without occlusion may occur following transradial intervention in some patients. Mean radial artery internal diameter as measured by ultrasound was smaller in patients undergoing repeat transradial interventional procedures as compared to the initial procedure.16 This smaller diameter was not present on the day following the procedure, but developed during a mean follow up of 4.5 months. Wakeyama et al. demonstrated with intravascular ultrasound that this progressive narrowing is due to intimal hyperplasia, presumably induced by trauma from the cannulation sheath or catheter.17 The studies in our laboratory show that this hyperplasia is usually segmental rather than diffuse and is not present in all patients with a previous transradial procedure (Figure 3). The incidence of subsequent intimal hyperplasia in patients undergoing radial procedures is yet to be determined.
The ramifications of this injury are important not only in patients undergoing repeat interventional procedures, but also in patients in whom the radial artery may be used as a conduit for coronary artery bypass surgery. At our center, this is not an issue as most procedures are performed from the right radial artery and surgeons use the left radial artery for bypass graft purposes. At present, it would seem prudent not to use a radial artery that previously has been used for a catheterization as a bypass graft.
Radial artery spasm. Much of the morbidity of the transradial procedure is related to vasospasm induced by the introduction of a sheath or catheter into the radial artery. The vessel has a prominent medial layer that is largely dominated by alpha-1 adenoreceptor function.18 Thus, increased levels of circulating catecholamines are a cause of radial artery spasm. Local anesthesia and adequate sedation to control anxiety during catheter insertion are important preventative measures.
It has been demonstrated in isolated radial artery ring segments that nitroglycerin and verapamil are effective agents in preventing arterial spasm.19 Indeed, a vasodilator cocktail consisting of 3–6 mg of verapamil injected intra-arterially prior to sheath insertion is extremely effective in preventing radial artery spasm. The effect of the drug is immediate and significant arterial dilatation can be seen within minutes of its administration (Figure 4).
Intra-arterial verapamil and nitroglycerin have virtually eliminated vasospasm as a cause of significant morbidity of the procedure. It is now possible to perform transradial procedures using short sheaths and arm discomfort generally occurs only in patients with very small or tortuous radial arteries, particularly if guide catheter manipulation is excessive.
Spasm distal to the access site may be a cause of access failure. Occasionally, guide wire or guide catheter induced focal spasm may occur in a tortuous segment. Angiographic visualization of these areas is important as they generally respond to repeat verapamil administration and can be traversed with an angled hydrophilic coated guide wire. A soft-tipped coronary guide wire may also be used to cross these areas (Figure 5).
Sheath-induced spasm is also minimized by the use of sheaths with hydrophilic coating. Kiemeneij has documented that both patient discomfort and the force required to remove a sheath as measured by an automatic pull-back device was significantly less with hydrophilic coated sheaths as opposed to non-coated sheaths.20
Local access bleeding. The most important benefit of transradial procedures is the elimination of access site bleeding complications.1–4 The radial artery puncture site is located over bone and can easily be compressed with minimal pressure. Thus, bleeding from the radial access site can virtually always be prevented. Although manual pressure from an experienced operator is the ideal method to obtain hemostasis, several compression devices have been developed in an attempt to maximize operator and staff efficiency. Local hematomas may occur as a result of improper device application or device failure. It is important to emphasize that compression of the radial artery both proximally and distally to the puncture site must be performed because of retrograde flow from the palmar arch collaterals.
Forearm hematoma. Bleeding may occur from a site in the radial artery remote from the access site. The most common cause is perforation of a small side branch by the guide wire in patients receiving a platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (Figure 6). Avulsion of a small radial recurrent artery arising from a radial loop is another important cause of this syndrome.21,22 Hydrophilic guidewires preferentially select this small arterial remnant in patients with a radial loop and forceful advancement of the guide catheter can result in avulsion of the vessel. Radial artery perforation has been described in 1% of patients although in our experience the incidence is substantially lower. A low threshold to perform a radial artery arteriogram when any resistance to guide wire or catheter insertion is encountered will help prevent this complication.
Recognition of this bleeding remote from the access site is important as hemostatic pressure must be applied to an area other than the access site. Hemostasis is usually easily accomplished by the application of an Ace bandage to the forearm. A blood pressure sphygmomanometer may also be utilized. The latter is inflated to systolic pressure and then gradually released over a period of one to two hours. Sealing of a perforation with a long sheath is also an option, but this is rarely necessary.22
Compartment syndrome is the most dreaded complication of radial artery hemorrhage. A large hematoma causes hand ischemia due to pressure-induced occlusion of both the radial and ulnar arteries. Fasciotomy with hematoma evacuation must be performed as an emergency procedure to prevent chronic ischemic injury. This complication is rare, occurring only once in our early experience; it should always be preventable.

Access failure. Failure to cannulate the radial artery using a 20 gauge needle and a 0.025 mm straight Terumo guide wire occurs in less than 5% of patients with an experienced operator. The importance of adequate patient sedation and local anesthesia in the prevention of radial artery spasm has previously been emphasized. In addition, meticulous attention to detail is important as the probability of failure increases as the number of unsuccessful attempts to puncture the artery increases. It should be emphasized that the puncture site is proximal to the styloid process of the radius bone. The radial artery distally usually bifurcates and becomes less superficial and attempting to puncture the vessel too distally is a common cause of access failure (Figure 7).
The radial loop is the most common congenital anomaly of the radial artery and may be a cause of access failure. It occurs in 1–2% of patients and may be unilateral or bilateral.21 Wide loops can occasionally be traversed with hydrophilic guidewires and 5 Fr catheters without excessive patient discomfort.23 However, in most cases, it is preferable to consider an alternative access site.
Radial arteries that are smaller than 2 mm in diameter are difficult to access. These are generally seen in smaller women and patients with previous radial procedures. The use of a 5 Fr guide in this situation may be an option. However, complex or difficult procedures cannot be performed through a 5 Fr guide catheter.
Miscellaneous complications. Pseudoaneurysm formation may rarely occur at the radial artery access site. This is usually easily managed with thrombin injection and/or mechanical compression. However, surgery may be required. Radial artery avulsion due to intense spasm has been described but this complication should virtually never occur using contemporary techniques. Sterile abscesses rarely occur with the use of hydrophilic coated sheaths.24
Conclusion. The radial artery is an excellent access site for coronary interventions. Although technically more challenging with a definite learning curve, there are significant advantages to this approach. Complications are infrequent and many are preventable with careful technique.

 http://www.invasivecardiology.com/article/3821

J Invasive Cardiol. 2010 Apr;22(4):175-8.

Vascular complications after percutaneous coronary intervention following hemostasis with the Mynx vascular closure device versus the AngioSeal vascular closure device.

Source

Department Cardiology, New York Medical College, Macy Pavilion, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA.

Abstract

We investigated the prevalence of vascular complications after PCI following hemostasis in 190 patients (67% men and 33% women, mean age 64 years) treated with the AngioSeal vascular closure device (St. Jude Medical, Austin, Texas) versus 238 patients (67% men and 33% women, mean age 64 years) treated with the Mynx vascular closure device (AccessClosure, Mountain View, California).

RESULTS:

Death, myocardial infarction or stroke occurred in none of the 190 patients (0%) treated with the AngioSeal versus none of 238 patients (0%) treated with the Mynx. Major vascular complications occurred in 4 of 190 patients (2.1%) treated with the AngioSeal versus 5 of 238 patients (2.1%) treated with the Mynx (p not significant). Major vascular complications in patients treated with the AngioSeal included removal of a malfunctioning device (1.1%), hemorrhage requiring intervention (0.5%) and hemorrhage with a loss of > 3g Hgb (0.5%). The major vascular complications in patients treated with the Mynx included retroperitoneal bleeding requiring surgical intervention (0.8%), pseudoaneurysm with surgical repair (0.8%) and hemorrhage with a loss of > 3g Hgb (0.4%). These complications were not significantly different between the two vascular closure devices (p = 0.77). Minor complications included hematoma > 5 cm (0.5%, n = 1) within the AngioSeal group, as well as procedure failure requiring > 30 minutes of manual compression after device deployment, which occurred in 7 out of 190 patients (3.7%) treated with the AngioSeal versus 22 of 238 patients with the Mynx (9.2%) (p = 0.033).

CONCLUSIONS:

Major vascular complications after PCI following hemostasis with vascular closure devices occurred in 2.1% of 190 patients treated with the AngioSeal vascular closure device versus 2.1% of 238 patients treated with the Mynx vascular closure device (p not significant). The Mynx vascular closure device appears to have a higher rate of device failure.

Comment in

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20351388

Z Kardiol. 2005 Jun;94(6):392-8.

Incications and complications of invasive diagnostic procedures and percutaneous coronary interventions in the year 2003. Results of the quality control registry of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Leitende Kardiologische Krankenhausarzte (ALKK).

Source

Herzzentrum Ludwigshafen, Bremserstrasse 79, 67063 Ludwigshafen, Germany. Uwe.Zeymer@t-online.de

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The ALKK registry contains about 20% of the invasive and interventional cardiological procedures performed in Germany.

METHODS:

In 2003 a total of 82,282 consecutive diagnostic invasive and 30,689 interventional procedures from 75 hospitals were centrally collected and analyzed.

RESULTS:

The main indication for an invasive diagnostic procedure was coronary artery disease in 92.5% of cases, myocardial disease in 1.6%, impaired left ventricular function in 4.0%, valve disease in 4% and other indications in 1.9%. An acute coronary syndrome was present in 25% of the patients. The rate of severe complications in patients with a lone diagnostic invasive procedure was low (<0.5%). The indication for percutaneous coronary intervention (n=30,689) was stable angina in 44.1%, ST elevation myocardial infarction in 22.3%, non ST elevation myocardial infarction in 14.8%, unstable angina in 10.0%, silent ischemia in 2.2%, prognostic in 5.2% of patients. The majority of interventions were performed directly after the diagnostic procedure (n=23,887=78.6%). The intervention was successful in 94.6% of cases. Stent implantation was performed in 77.2%, with 1 stent in 88.4%, two stents in 7.6% and 3 or more stents in 3.3%. A drug-eluting stent was implanted in 3.6% of the cases. The complication rate after PCI was influenced by the indication for the intervention. The in-hospital mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock was 33%, while in patients with stable angina, silent ischemia and prognostic indication only 0.2% died.

CONCLUSION:

There is an increase of invasive diagnostic and interventional procedures in patients with acute coronary syndromes, with 47% of PCIs performed in these patient. PCIs were performed in 75% of the cases directly after the diagnostic procedure. The rate of stent implantation seems to have reached a plateau at around 80%, while drug-eluting stents were implanted only in a minority of cases. The complication rate is mainly dependent on the clinical presentation of the patients and the indication for PCI.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15940439

Coronary arterial complications after percutaneous coronary intervention in Behçet’s disease

Authors: Kinoshita T, Fujimoto S, Ishikawa Y, Yuzawa H, Fukunaga S, Toda M, Wagatsuma K, Akasaka Y, Ishii T, Ikeda T

Published Date February 2013 Volume 2013:4 Pages 9 – 12

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RRCC.S41240,

Published: 05 February 2013
Toshio Kinoshita,1 Shinichiro Fujimoto,Yukio Ishikawa,2 Hitomi Yuzawa,1 Shunji Fukunaga,1Mikihito Toda,3 Kenji Wagatsuma,3 Yoshikiyo Akasaka,2 Toshiharu Ishii,2 Takanori Ikeda1
1Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, 2Department of Pathology, 3Division of Interventional Cardiology, Toho University Faculty of Medicine, Ohta City, Tokyo, Japan

Abstract: Behçet’s disease is a multisystemic vascular inflammatory disease, but concurrent cardiac diseases, such as acute myocardial infarction, are rare. Several complications may arise after coronary intervention for coronary lesions that interfere with treatment, and the incidence of coronary arterial complications due to invasive therapy remains unclear. Further, the long-term outcomes in patients with Behçet’s disease after stenting for acute myocardial infarction have not been described. The present report describes a 35-year-old Japanese man with Behçet’s disease who developed acute myocardial infarction. A coronary aneurysm developed at the stenting site of the left anterior descending coronary artery, along with stenosis in the left anterior descending segment proximal to the site. Although invasive therapy was considered, medication including immunosuppressants was selected because of the high risk of vascular complications after invasive therapy. The coronary artery disease has remained asymptomatic for the 4 years since the patient started medication. This case underscores the importance of considering the incidence of coronary arterial complications and of conservative treatment when possible.

Keywords: Behçet’s disease, myocardial infarction, coronary arterial complications, percutaneous coronary intervention, immunosuppressants

http://www.dovepress.com/coronary-arterial-complications-after-percutaneous-coronary-interventi-peer-reviewed-article-RRCC-recommendation1

REFERENCES

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Frequency and Costs of Ischemic and Bleeding Complications After Percutaneous Coronary Interventions: Rationale for New Antithrombotic Therapy

Journal of Invasive Cardiology

http://www.invasivecardiology.com/article/2489

Author(s):

Mauro Moscucci, MD

Recent advances in catheter technology and antithrombotic therapy have led to a continuous improvement in outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). These improved outcomes have been associated with broadening of the indications for PCI, with an exponential growth in number of procedures performed, but they have also been paralleled by incremental procedure costs. The estimated costs of PCI currently range from $8,000–$13,000.1 With over 800,000 cases performed each year in the United States (US) alone, this represents over $10 billion annually for the US Healthcare System.2 Roughly half of these costs are incurred by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS, formerly known as the Health Care Financing Administration).3 Total costs of PCI include disposable equipment used during the procedure (balloons, catheters, stents, etc.), cardiac catheterization laboratory overhead and depreciation, nursing and pharmacy costs, laboratory costs and physician services. In addition, factors that have been found to be associated with increased PCI costs include the use of special devices such as atherectomy or vascular closure devices, the use of multiple stents, the use of platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors, and the presence of certain patient demographic characteristics including advanced age, gender and other comorbidities.1,4,5 Finally, complications related to the procedure have been identified in several studies as the single most significant contributor to increased costs of PC.5–7

Methods to reduce the cost of PCI include re-use of balloon catheters,8 percutaneous revascularization performed at the same time as diagnostic catheterization,9 reduced anticoagulation, the use of new devices or pharmacological interventions to reduce restenosis and complications, and the use of competitive bidding for cardiac cath lab supplies.10 For example, the evolution of anticoagulation therapy in stented patients from a regime of post-procedural heparin and warfarin to one of thienopyridines and aspirin,11 and the subsequent reduction of length of stay from 4 days in 1995 to 2 days in 2000, have helped keep total procedure costs down.12 In addition, a reduction in complication rates appears to be a key target for cost reduction efforts. In support of this statement, in the economic assessment of the Evaluation of 7E3 for the Prevention of Ischemic Complications (EPIC) trial in high-risk patients, Mark et al. identified bleeding complications, urgent and non-urgent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), and urgent and non-urgent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) as important correlates of incremental costs.7 Unfortunately, standard aggressive antithrombotic therapy aimed toward a reduction of ischemic complications is often associated with an increase in bleeding complications. In the analysis of the EPIC trial, the benefits of abciximab in decreasing procedure costs through a reduction of ischemic complications were offset by drug acquisition costs and by an increase in bleeding complications.7 Thus, with ischemic complications becoming more rare as a result of improvement in PCI technology and more aggressive antithrombotic therapy, bleeding has become a rather common and costly complication of PCI, with a blood transfusion estimated to add up to $8,000 to the cost of care for the PCI patient.13

Based on these premises, it appears that the next challenge in the care of PCI patients will be to determine how to continue to prevent ischemic complications without increasing the risk of bleeding. This paper examines the frequency of PCI complications in both recent clinical trials and actual practice, discusses the costs of complications, and explores improvements in patient management and particularly changes in anticoagulation therapy that might impact total costs of PCI.

Complication rates in clinical trials

Ischemic complications in clinical trials. Despite advances in PCI technology and adjunctive pharmacotherapy, data from clinical trials indicate that ischemic complications still occur in 5–15% of patients.14–19 Typically, clinical trials define ischemic complications as a combination of death, myocardial infarction (MI; both Q-wave and non-Q wave) and either urgent or any target vessel revascularization (TVR). Different definitions of MI or revascularization can make comparisons across trials difficult. However, comparisons may still be possible through the application of strict meta-analysis methodology. A recent meta-analysis combined data from 6 double-blind PCI trials conducted predominantly in North America between 1993 and 1998.20 A total of 16,546 patients were enrolled in these trials (Table 1). Protocols and case report forms for trials included in the analysis were compared to ensure reasonable consistency of study methods, patient management, data reporting and data structure. Integration of the databases from the trials enabled a direct comparison of key event rates at 7 days, using standard classifications and criteria for severity. The meta-analysis showed that the use of high-dose heparin (175 U/kg) was associated with significantly less frequent clinical ischemic events (8.1%) than lower doses of heparin (100 U/kg; 10.3%). In this same meta-analysis, event rates in patients treated with low-dose heparin (70 U/kg) plus a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor was 6.5%.20 Although not included in this meta-analysis, it is worth noting that the incidence of death, MI and revascularization in the ESPRIT trial was 9.3% in patients treated with low-dose heparin alone (60 U/kg).21

Bleeding complications in clinical trials. In clinical trials of antiplatelet and anti-thrombotic therapy in PCI, bleeding complications are generally defined using either thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI)22 or global utilization of streptokinase or tPA outcomes (GUSTO)23 criteria (Table 2). Rates of major bleeding in clinical trials using these criteria are generally less than 2% (Table 3).14–19,21,24,25 However, these restrictive definitions may not capture all clinically significant bleeding. For example, neither the TIMI nor the GUSTO major bleeding definition includes the need for a blood transfusion as part of the criteria. Thus, a broader measure of bleeding using a combination of both major and minor bleeding defined by TIMI or GUSTO criteria appears more likely to be representative of bleeding rates in clinical practice.

In the meta-analysis of contemporary PCI trials, TIMI criteria were used to classify hemorrhagic events, permitting direct comparisons between trials. In the high-dose heparin group, the combination of TIMI major and minor bleeding occurred in 10.5% of patients compared with a rate of 10.7% in the low-dose heparin group, while the bleeding rate was 14.3% in patients receiving a combination of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors and low-dose heparin.

As shown in Table 3, when both TIMI major and minor bleeding are combined in contemporary PCI trials, bleeding complications average 4–14%, depending on patient characteristics and the drug regime used. In addition, when transfusions are included in the definition, the frequency of bleeding complications increases substantially. For example, in NICE-3, bleeding complications were 10.5% when transfusions were included in the criteria, but only 2% of the patients experienced TIMI major bleeding.26

Notably, the only adjunctive anti-thrombotic agent shown to reduce both ischemic and bleeding complications in PCI is bivalirudin. In the Bivalirudin Angioplasty Trial,27 the risk of bleeding was decreased 62% in the bivalirudin group compared with high-dose heparin. The combined rate of TIMI major and TIMI minor bleeding in bivalirudin patients (n = 2,161) was found to be 4.3% in the meta-analysis of contemporary PCI trials with a corresponding ischemic event rate of 6.6%.20

Complications in practice

Ischemic complications in practice. Rates of ischemic complications in clinical practice are difficult to determine. Although several investigators have published data from multicenter databases, these data tend to be 3–5 years old by the time manuscripts are in print. Since trends in the published literature do show continued reduction in PCI complications over time, the frequency of complications noted in these publications may overestimate the actual rate of complications in clinical practice today. In addition, rates of complications can vary widely across institutions due to differences in practice patterns, definitions, operator skills and resource utilization. For example, in the Society for Cardiac Angiography and Interventions (SCA&I) registry, stent use among laboratories varied from 29–95%.28 Others have found lower complication rates in patients whose procedure was performed by a high-volume operator or in a high-volume institution.29 We identified 6 published reports of PCI complications in clinical practice reporting a variety of ischemic outcomes.1,28–31

Saucedo et al. prospectively collected data on 900 patients undergoing successful elective stent placement in native coronary arteries between January 1994 and December 1995.30 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and long-term clinical consequences of patients with creatine kinase (CK) myocardial isoenzyme band (CK-MB) elevations after stenting. By design, all patients in this observational study had a successful procedure defined as an increase of > 20% in luminal diameter with final percent diameter stenosis of < 50%, without the occurrence of any major complications (death, Q-wave MI and CABG). Nevertheless, 26.4% of patients had CK-MB elevations 1–5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) and 8.5% had CK-MB elevations > 5 times ULN. In total, 3.9% of patients required a repeat diagnostic catheterization for recurrent ischemia and 1.2% required urgent target vessel revascularization. In this study, patients requiring the use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors were excluded.

The Northern New England group (NNE) collected data on 14,498 patients undergoing PCI between 1994 and 1996.29 In this study, outcomes included the in-hospital occurrence of death; emergency CABG (eCABG) or non-eCABG; or new MI (defined as chest pain, diaphoresis, dyspnea or hypotension associated with the development of new Q-waves or ST-T wave changes and a rise in CK to at least twice normal with a positive CK-MB). Overall, death occurred in 1.2% of patients, CABG in 2.6% (0.8% eCABG and 1.8% non-eCABG), and MI in 2%. Stents were used in 22% of patients enrolled in this registry.

In the National Cardiovascular Network database (NCN), Batchelor et al. reported complications of PCI in 109,708 patients who underwent PCI between 1994 and 1997.31 In this observational study, in-hospital mortality was defined as the occurrence of death after the procedure, MI was defined as the appearance of new Q-waves in 2 contiguous leads on a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) for up to 30 days post-PCI, and repeat revascularization was defined as the need for CABG or additional PCI prior to discharge. In this study, death occurred in 1.3% of patients, Q-wave MI in 1.4% and repeat revascularization in 4.5%. Half of the patients underwent stenting in this study. Notably, this database did not record myocardial enzymes or the use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors.

Aronow and colleagues observed outcomes in a cohort of consecutive registry patients undergoing coronary stent placement between 1995 and 1997.32 A total of 373 patients underwent PCI during this time period, with death occurring in 9 patients (2.4%), CABG in 3 (0.8%) and MI in 19 (5.1%, including both QWMI and NQWMI). Repeat diagnostic catheterization was performed in 3.2% of patients and repeat PCI in 0.8%.

The SCA&I registry evaluated outcomes in 16,811 patients undergoing either balloon angioplasty (n = 6,121) or stenting (n = 10,690) between July 1996 and December 1998.28 In this observational analysis, 12.9% of patients received a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor, 87% of patients enrolled in the database underwent PCI between 1997 and 1998, and 60% of the stent patients were enrolled in 1998. Outcomes reported included in-hospital death (occurring at any time during the hospitalization) and eCABG, defined as CABG occurring immediately after PCI. Death occurred in 0.4% of patients and eCABG in 0.5%.

Finally, Cohen and others recorded in-laboratory complications in 26,421 patients at 70 different centers undergoing PCI in 1998.1 In-laboratory complications were rare, with death occurring in 0.17%, cardiac arrest in 0.32%, stroke in 0.03%, ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia in 0.94%, abrupt closure in 0.71%, and eCABG in 0.53%. Overall, 72% of patients received stents and 20% received GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors.

In addition to published reports of PCI complications, data from unpublished sources can be used to determine outcomes in a more contemporary cohort of patients undergoing PCI.33 The MQ-Profile (MQ-Pro) Database [Cardinal Information Corporation (CIC), Marlborough, Massachusetts] is maintained by CIC, which sells and distributes software to US acute-care hospitals for the collection of detailed clinical and administrative data. Data from 5,373 PCI procedures performed between July 1, 1998 and June 30, 1999 were obtained from the database using International Classification of Diseases 9th Edition (ICD-9) procedure codes for PCI (36.01, 36.02, 36.05). Demographic, clinical and economic data were collected on each patient using a combination of database retrieval and chart review. In this analysis, death was defined as discharge disposition of “deceased”, MI as the presence of ECG changes consistent with MI (new Q-waves or ST-segment changes) or an increase in CK-MB of at least 2 times the testing facility’s ULN. CABG was identified by the presence of ICD-9 procedure code 36.1 and repeat PCI by either code 36.01, 36.02, or 36.05. Failed PCI was defined by the term “failed PTCA” in chart notes (for patients without a previous history of PCI) and recurrent ischemia documented by ECG changes. Death occurred in 2.0% of patients, MI in 3.1%, CABG in 1.3% and repeat PCI in 5.5%. Translated into a combined endpoint similar to those used in clinical trials, the rate of death/MI/revascularization was 11.9%.

Data from these published and unpublished observations of contemporary PCI practice indicate that while in-laboratory ischemic complications are exceedingly rare, in-hospital ischemic complications still occur in a substantial number of patients. Using an approximation of outcomes from these published and unpublished reports, mortality averages 1%, Q-wave MI occurs in 2% of patients, NQWMI in 6%, CABG in 2% and repeat PCI occurs in 3–5% of patients. It is important to underscore that although most deaths following PCI are due to underlying comorbidities (i.e., acute MI, cardiogenic shock, etc.) rather than to the procedure itself, few deaths still occur as a complication of the procedure.34,35 Extrapolated to the estimated PCI population of 800,000 cases per year, then 8,000 people will die and 64,000 will experience an MI. In addition, approximately 16,000 will require CABG and as many as 40,000 will need a repeat PCI before hospital discharge.

II(b) PAD Endovascular Interventions: Carotid Artery Endarterectomy

  • Original Contributions

Medical Complications Associated With Carotid Endarterectomy

Stroke.1999; 30: 1759-1763  doi: 10.1161/​01.STR.30.9.1759

  1. Maurizio Paciaroni, MD;
  2. Michael Eliasziw, PhD;
  3. L. Jaap Kappelle, MD;
  4. Jane W. Finan, BScN;
  5. Gary G. Ferguson, MD;
  6. Henry J. M. Barnett, MD;
  7. for the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) Collaborators

+Author Affiliations


  1. From the John P. Robarts Research Institute (M.P., M.E., L.J.K., J.W.F., H.J.M.B) and the Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (M.E.) and Clinical Neurological Sciences (M.E., G.G.F., H.J.M.B.), University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
  1. Correspondence to Dr H.J.M. Barnett, John P. Robarts Research Institute, PO Box 5015, 100 Perth Dr, London, ON N6A 5K8, Canada. E-mail barnett@rri.on.ca

Abstract

Background and Purpose—Carotid endarterectomy (CE) has been shown to be beneficial in patients with symptomatic high-grade (70% to 99%) internal carotid artery stenosis. To achieve this benefit, complications must be kept to a minimum. Complications not associated with the procedure itself, but related to medical conditions, have received little attention.

Methods—Medical complications that occurred within 30 days after CE were recorded in 1415 patients with symptomatic stenosis (30% to 99%) of the internal carotid artery. They were compared with 1433 patients who received medical care alone. All patients were in the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET).

Results—One hundred fifteen patients (8.1%) had 142 medical complications: 14 (1%) myocardial infarctions, 101 (7.1%) other cardiovascular disorders, 11 (0.8%) respiratory complications, 6 (0.4%) transient confusions, and 10 (0.7%) other complications. Of the 142 complications, 69.7% were of short duration, and only 26.8% prolonged hospitalization. Five patients died: 3 from myocardial infarction and 2 suddenly. Medically treated patients experienced similar complications with one third the frequency. Endarterectomy was ≈1.5 times more likely to trigger medical complications in patients with a history of myocardial infarction, angina, or hypertension (P<0.05).

Conclusions—Perioperative medical complications were observed in slightly fewer than 1 of every 10 patients who underwent CE. The majority of these complications completely resolved. Most complications were cardiovascular and occurred in patients with 1 or more cardiovascular risk factors. In this selected population, the occurrence of perioperative myocardial infarction was uncommon.

Key Words:

The North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) and the European Carotid Endarterectomy Trial showed unequivocal benefit of carotid endarterectomy (CE) in symptomatic patients with high-grade internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis (70% to 99%).1 2 The parallel study dealing with symptomatic patients with moderate-grade stenosis (30% to 69%) showed benefits of CE only in a carefully selected group of patients.3 Currently, CE is the most common elective peripheral vascular procedure, which in 1997 was performed in ≈130 000 patients in the United States.4

Despite benefit in the long term, CE may cause complications either by the operation itself or by concomitant medical conditions. The challenge for the future is to reduce the perioperative risk as much as possible. The incidence and type of complications that are directly related to the surgical procedure have been the subject of many reports,5 6 7 8 910 whereas medical complications that are not directly caused by the procedure have received less attention. The aim of the present study is to describe the incidence and type of medical complications that occurred in patients randomized into NASCET and to determine their association with baseline risk factors.

Subjects and Methods

The methods of the NASCET have been described in detail elsewhere.1 11 Briefly, NASCET was a randomized clinical trial designed to compare the benefit of best medical therapy alone with best medical therapy plus CE in patients with recent transient or nondisabling neurological deficit caused by cerebral or retinal ischemia in the territory of the ICA. Among the exclusions were patients with recent history (6 months) of myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, atrial fibrillation, recent congestive heart failure, and valvular heart disease. For inclusion, the ICA had to have a 30% to 99% stenosis as assessed by selective carotid angiography and to be technically suitable for CE. Baseline evaluations included a detailed medical history and complete physical and neurological examination.

Surgeons were invited to join NASCET if the center had a documented CE stroke and death rate of ≤6% in a minimum of 50 consecutive cases over a 2-year period. Surgery was completed at the earliest opportunity after randomization, and patients underwent a second complete physical and neurological examination 30 days after surgery. All medical and surgical complications that caused transient or permanent disability within the 30-day period were recorded.

Medical complications consisted of myocardial infarction (based on ECG and cardiac enzyme changes), arrhythmia (requiring antiarrhythmic medication), congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, hypertension (diastolic blood pressure >100 mm Hg requiring intravenous medication), hypotension (systolic pressure <90 mm Hg requiring administration of vasopressor agent), sudden death, respiratory problems (pneumonia, atelectasis, pulmonary edema, or exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), renal failure (doubling of preoperative urea and/or creatinine), depression, and confusion (requiring restraint). Complications were considered mild if they were transient and did not prolong hospital stay, moderate if they were transient but caused delay in hospital discharge, and severe if they were associated with permanent disability or death.

In the present study, patients were excluded from the analyses if they had serious complications that were directly attributable to the surgical procedure, such as those due to anesthesia, thrombosis at the operative site, wound hematomas requiring surgical intervention, or deficits from a vagus nerve injury interfering with swallowing. These surgical complications are described in detail elsewhere.12 For comparative purposes, a list of complications that occurred in the medically treated arm of NASCET was compiled for the 32-day period after randomization (ie, the 30-day period plus the average 2 days that lapsed from randomization to CE in the surgical arm). In both the surgical and medical arms, patients were censored at the time of a stroke, since the subsequent medical complications are commonly the result of the stroke.

Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to identify baseline factors that increased the risk of perioperative medical complications. Adjusted hazard rates and adjusted hazard ratios were used to summarize the results. The estimated hazard ratio (or relative hazard) is a measure of association that can be interpreted as a relative risk. Hazard ratios with corresponding probability value of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Adjusted hazard rates were obtained from the regression model by using the mean value for a factor being adjusted.

The modeling strategy consisted of initially fitting a “full” model, which included all factors. A “final” model was determined by eliminating all factors that were not significantly predictive of the medical complications, using a backward selection approach. The “change-in-estimate” strategy was used to determine whether the remaining factors in the final model were independent risk factors. A factor was considered an independent risk factor if the change in hazard ratios between the full and final models was <10%.

Results

A total of 1436 eligible patients were randomized to the surgical arm and 1449 to the medical arm of the NASCET. In the surgical arm, 21 patients were not operated on for various reasons.12 In the medical arm 16 patients crossed over to surgical therapy within 30 days, leaving 1433 patients for analysis. CE was performed in 1415 patients (328 patients with severe stenosis and 1087 with moderate stenosis). Of the 1415, 59 (4.2%) patients had serious surgical complications that excluded them from further analyses, and 115 (8.1%) had medical complications (Table 1). Of the 142 complications, 69.7% were mild, 26.8% were moderate, and 3.5% were severe. Twenty patients had ≥2 complications. No patient had pulmonary embolus, renal failure, or depression requiring medication. Cardiovascular disorders were >4 times as common as all other conditions combined. All 5 severe complications were fatal and were caused by cardiovascular disorders: 3 patients had fatal myocardial infarction, and 2 patients died suddenly. Of the patients with fatal myocardial infarction, 2 patients had massive myocardial infarctions on the day of surgery. In the other patient, CE was prolonged (7 hours) because of intraoperative occlusion of the ICA. Twenty-four hours after CE, the patient had a myocardial infarction followed by cardiac arrest, leaving the patient in a vegetative state. The patient died 2 months later. Two patients died suddenly on days 3 and 6 after CE, and both had a history of previous myocardial infarction. All patients with fatal medical complications were male, and all had multiple cardiovascular risk factors.

http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/30/9/1759.full

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Intraoperative use of dextran is associated with cardiac complications after carotid endarterectomy.

J Vasc Surg. 2013 Mar;57(3):635-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2012.09.017. Epub 2013 Jan 18.

Source

Section of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA. Alik.Farber@bmc.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Although dextran has been theorized to diminish the risk of stroke associated with carotid endarterectomy (CEA), variation exists in its use. We evaluated outcomes of dextran use in patients undergoing CEA to clarify its utility.

METHODS:

We studied all primary CEAs performed by 89 surgeons within the Vascular Study Group of New England database (2003-2010). Patients were stratified by intraoperative dextran use. Outcomes included perioperative death, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and congestive heart failure (CHF). Group and propensity score matching was performed for risk-adjusted comparisons, and multivariable logistic and gamma regressions were used to examine associations between dextran use and outcomes.

RESULTS:

There were 6641 CEAs performed, with dextran used in 334 procedures (5%). Dextran-treated and untreated patients were similar in age (70 years) and symptomatic status (25%). Clinical differences between the cohorts were eliminated by statistical adjustment. In crude, group-matched, and propensity-matched analyses, the stroke/death rate was similar for the two cohorts (1.2%). Dextran-treated patients were more likely to suffer postoperative MI (crude: 2.4% vs 1.0%; P = .03; group-matched: 2.4% vs 0.6%; P = .01; propensity-matched: 2.4% vs 0.5%; P = .003) and CHF (2.1% vs 0.6%; P = .01; 2.1% vs 0.5%; P = .01; 2.1% vs 0.2%; P < .001). In multivariable analysis of the crude sample, dextran was associated with a higher risk of postoperative MI (odds ratio, 3.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.62-7.64) and CHF (odds ratio, 5.71; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-13.89).

CONCLUSIONS:

Dextran use was not associated with lower perioperative stroke but was associated with higher rates of MI and CHF. Taken together, our findings suggest limited clinical utility for routine use of intraoperative dextran during CEA.

J Vasc Surg. 2008 Nov;48(5):1139-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2008.05.013. Epub 2008 Jun 30.

Factors associated with stroke or death after carotid endarterectomy in Northern New England.

Source

Section of Vascular Surgery Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH 03765, USA. philip.goodney@hitchcock.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study investigated risk factors for stroke or death after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) among hospitals of varying type and size participating in a regional quality improvement effort.

METHODS:

We reviewed 2714 patients undergoing 3092 primary CEAs (excluding combined procedures or redo CEA) at 11 hospitals in Northern New England from January 2003 through December 2007. Hospitals varied in size (25 to 615 beds) and comprised community and teaching hospitals. Fifty surgeons reported results to the database. Trained research personnel prospectively collected >70 demographic and clinical variables for each patient. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to generate odds ratios (ORs) and prediction models for the 30-day postoperative stroke or death rate.

RESULTS:

Across 3092 CEAs, there were 38 minor strokes, 14 major strokes, and eight deaths (5 stroke-related) < or =30 days of the index procedure (30-day stroke or death rate, 1.8%). In multivariate analyses, emergency CEA (OR, 7.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-26.9; P = .004), contralateral internal carotid artery occlusion (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3-6.2; P = .009), preoperative ipsilateral cortical stroke (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.1; P = .02), congestive heart failure (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4, P = .03), and age >70 (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.8-2.3; P = .315) were associated with postoperative stroke or death. Preoperative antiplatelet therapy was protective (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9; P = .02). Risk of stroke or death varied from <1% in patients with no risk factors to nearly 5% with patients with > or =3 risk factors. Our risk prediction model had excellent correlation with observed results (r = 0.96) and reasonable discriminative ability (area under receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.71). Risks varied from <1% in asymptomatic patients with no risk factors to nearly 4% in patients with contralateral internal carotid artery occlusion (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3-8.1; P = .01) and age >70 (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.0-4.9, P = .05). Two hospitals performed significantly better than expected. These differences were not attributable to surgeon or hospital volume.

CONCLUSION:

Surgeons can “risk-stratify” preoperative patients by considering the variables (emergency procedure, contralateral internal carotid artery occlusion, preoperative ipsilateral cortical stroke, congestive heart failure, and age), reducing risk with antiplatelet agents, and informing patients more precisely about their risk of stroke or death after CEA. Risk prediction models can also be used to compare risk-adjusted outcomes between centers, identify best practices, and hopefully, improve overall results.

III. Cardiac Failure During Systemic Sepsis

CHANGES IN HEART FUNCTION DURING SEPSIS

The patient with sepsis has severely altered physiology in a number of ways, which can influence cardiac function. Firstly, there is a

  • Loss of intravascular volume due to excessive third space loss that results in a decrease in preload. Systemic vascular resistance is decreased which results in a fall in afterload. In addition,
  • end diastolic volumes often increase and
  • ejection fraction falls. However, many of these changes are overcome by an
  • increase in heart rate that may result in an increase in cardiac output. However, it should be remembered that even in the presence of high cardiac outputs it is usually always possible to demonstrate
  • ventricular dysfunction in patients with sepsis. Echocardiographic studies consistently confirm that there is decreased left ventricular systolic function in humans with sepsis.

In addition, there have been many studies in animals and a few in humans which have confirmed the presence of

  • diastolic dysfunction – particularly in those patients that go on to die from sepsis.

In the presence of adequate fluid resuscitation there is an increase in end diastolic volume and this is probably a normal response to a decrease in contractility. However, in the non-survivors of sepsis there is a normal or low end diastolic volume that is the result of a decrease in ventricular diastolic compliance. Thus, there is a decreased end diastolic volume at the same filling pressure.

During sepsis, a

  • decrease in contractility results in a shift to the right of the end-systolic pressure / volume curve and if this is not compensated for results in a
  • decrease in stroke volume and cardiac output.

When patients with sepsis are appropriately fluid resuscitated there is an

  • increase in end diastolic pressure that increases stroke volume. In addition, the
  • decrease in afterload will also increase stroke volume and will prevent a decrease in ejection fraction.

Alas, because there is a decrease in systolic contractility it would be expected that there would also be a decrease in diastolic stiffness which would allow cardiac output to be maintained despite the relatively low filling pressures. However, if this diastolic compliance change does not occur (as in the nonsurvivors of sepsis) then it is apparent  that the ability of the ventricle to generate a stroke volume is impaired at both ends of the curve.

The cause of the altered cardiac function in sepsis remains unknown although there are many theoretical explanations. Clearly, one of the most important mechanisms which can be readily corrected is hypovolaemia.

  • Myocardial oedema may contribute to a decrease in contractility.
  • Increased circulating catecholamines can result in a decrease in diastolic compliance, particularly important since these agents are often used to improve myocardial contractility.
  • Increased intrathoracic pressure caused by positive pressure ventilation can also result in decreased diastolic compliance. In addition, many of the
  • mediators of the inflammatory response, including products of activated endothelial cells and polymorphonuclear leucocytes (e.g. nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor and interleukins 1 and 2) have all been postulated as negative inotropes and negative lusitropes.

Another, as yet, unidentified agent which is believed to be released from the splanchnic bed –

  • myocardial depressant factor – is postulated to play a role.

Treatments aimed at correcting the effects of these various inflammatory mediators may be eventually found but until these approaches have been proven to be beneficial the septic patient will continue to be managed according to the physiological principles outlined by Starling.

http://www.rcsed.ac.uk/RCSEDBackIssues/journal/vol46_1/4610005.htm

Sepsis and the Heart – Cardiovascular Involvement in General Medical Conditions

  1. M.W. Merx, MD;
  2. C. Weber, MD

+Author Affiliations


  1. From the Department of Medicine (M.W.M.), Division of Cardiology, Pulmonary Diseases and Vascular Medicine and the Institute of Molecular Cardiovascular Research (IMCAR) at the University Hospital (C.W.), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
  1. Correspondence to Marc W. Merx, MD, Medizinische Klinik I, Universitätsklinikum der RWTH Aachen, Pauwelstraße 30, 52057 Aachen, Germany (e-mailmmerx@ukaachen.de), or Christian Weber, MD, Institut für Kardiovaskuläre Molekularbiologie, Universitätsklinikum der RWTH Aachen, Pauwelstraße 30, 52057 Aachen, Germany (e-mail cweber@ukaachen.de).
Circulation.2007; 116: 793-802doi: 10.1161/​CIRCULATIONAHA.106.678359

Abstract

Sepsis is generally viewed as a disease aggravated by an inappropriate immune response encountered in the afflicted individual. As an important organ system frequently compromised by sepsis and always affected by septic shock, the cardiovascular system and its dysfunction during sepsis have been studied in clinical and basic research for more than 5 decades. Although a number of mediators and pathways have been shown to be associated with myocardial depression in sepsis, the precise cause remains unclear to date. There is currently no evidence supporting global ischemia as an underlying cause of myocardial dysfunction in sepsis; however, in septic patients with coexistent and possibly undiagnosed coronary artery disease, regional myocardial ischemia or infarction secondary to coronary artery disease may certainly occur.

A circulating myocardial depressant factor in septic shock has long been proposed, and potential candidates for a myocardial depressant factor include

  • cytokines,
  • prostanoids, and
  • nitric oxide, among others.
  • Endothelial activation and
  • induction of the coagulatory system also contribute to the pathophysiology in sepsis.

Prompt and adequate antibiotic therapy accompanied by surgical removal of the infectious focus, if indicated and feasible, is the mainstay and also the only strictly causal line of therapy. In the presence of severe sepsis and septic shock, supportive treatment in addition to causal therapy is mandatory. The purpose of this review is to delineate some characteristics of septic myocardial dysfunction, to assess the most commonly cited and reported underlying mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction in sepsis, and to briefly outline current therapeutic strategies and possible future approaches.

Key Words:

Sepsis, defined by consensus conference as “the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that occurs during infection,”1 is generally viewed as a disease aggravated by the inappropriate immune response encountered in the affected individual (for review, see Hotchkiss and Karl2 and Riedemann et al,3). The Table gives the current criteria for the establishment of the diagnosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, and septic shock.1,4 Morbidity and mortality are high, resulting in sepsis and septic shock being the 10th most common cause of death in the United States.5 The incidence of sepsis and sepsis-related deaths appears to be increasing by 1.5% per year.6 In a recent study,6 the total national hospital cost invoked by severe sepsis in the United States was estimated at approximately $16.7 billion on the basis of an estimated severe sepsis rate of 751 000 cases per year with 215 000 associated deaths annually. A recent study from Britain documented a 46% in-hospital mortality rate for patients presenting with severe sepsis on admission to the intensive care unit.7

Current Criteria for Establishment of the Diagnosis of SIRS, Sepsis, and Septic Shock1,4

As an important organ system frequently affected by sepsis and always affected by septic shock, the cardiovascular system and its dysfunction during sepsis have been studied in clinical and basic research for more than 5 decades. In 1951, Waisbren was the first to describe cardiovascular dysfunction due to sepsis.8 He recognized a hyperdynamic state with full bounding pulses, flushing, fever, oliguria, and hypotension. In addition, he described a second, smaller patient group who presented clammy, pale, and hypotensive with low volume pulses and who appeared more severely ill. With hindsight, the latter group might well have been volume underresuscitated, and indeed, timely and adequate volume therapy has been demonstrated to be one of the most effective supportive measures in sepsis therapy.9

Under conditions of adequate volume resuscitation, the profoundly reduced systemic vascular resistance typically encountered in sepsis10 leads to a concomitant elevation in cardiac index that obscures the myocardial dysfunction that also occurs. However, as early as the mid-1980s, significant reductions in both stroke volume and ejection fraction in septic patients were observed despite normal total cardiac output.11 Importantly, the presence of cardiovascular dysfunction in sepsis is associated with a significantly increased mortality rate of 70% to 90% compared with 20% in septic patients without cardiovascular impairment.12 Thus, myocardial dysfunction in sepsis has been the focus of intense research activity. Although a number of mediators and pathways have been shown to be associated with myocardial depression in sepsis, the precise cause remains unclear.

The purpose of the present review is to delineate some characteristics of septic myocardial dysfunction, to assess the most commonly cited and reported underlying mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction in sepsis, and to briefly outline current therapeutic strategies and possible future approaches. This review is not intended to be all inclusive.

Characteristics of Myocardial Dysfunction in Sepsis

Using portable radionuclide cineangiography, Calvin et al13 were the first to demonstrate myocardial dysfunction in adequately volume-resuscitated septic patients with decreased ejection fraction and increased end-diastolic volume index. Adding pulmonary artery catheters to serial radionuclide cineangiography, Parker and colleagues11 extended these observations with the 2 major findings that (1) survivors of septic shock were characterized by increased end-diastolic volume index and decreased ejection fraction, whereas nonsurvivors typically maintained normal cardiac volumes, and (2) these acute changes in end-diastolic volume index and ejection fraction, although sustained for several days, were reversible. More recently, echocardiographic studies have demonstrated impaired left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in septic patients.14–16 These human studies, in conjunction with experimental studies ranging from the cellular level17 to isolated heart studies18,19 and to in vivo animal models,20–22 have clearly established decreased contractility and impaired myocardial compliance as major factors that cause myocardial dysfunction in sepsis.

Notwithstanding the functional and structural differences between the left and right ventricle, similar functional alterations, as discussed above, have been observed for the right ventricle, which suggests that right ventricular dysfunction in sepsis closely parallels left ventricular dysfunction.23–26 However, the relative contribution of the right ventricle to septic cardiomyopathy remains unknown.

Myocardial dysfunction in sepsis has also been analyzed with respect to its prognostic value. Parker et al,27 reviewing septic patients on initial presentation and at 24 hours to determine prognostic indicators, found a heart rate of <106 bpm to be the only cardiac parameter on presentation that predicted a favorable outcome. At 24 hours after presentation, a systemic vascular resistance index >1529 dyne · s−1 · cm−5 · m−2, a heart rate <95 bpm or a reduction in heart rate >18 bpm, and a cardiac index >0.5 L · min−1 · m−2 suggested survival.27 In a prospective study, Rhodes et al28 demonstrated the feasibility of a dobutamine stress test for outcome stratification, with nonsurvivors being characterized by an attenuated inotropic response. The well-established biomarkers in myocardial ischemia and heart failure, cardiac troponin I and T, as well as B-type natriuretic peptide, have also been evaluated with regard to sepsis-associated myocardial dysfunction. Although B-type natriuretic peptide studies have delivered conflicting results in septic patients (for review, see Maeder et al29), several small studies have reported a relationship between elevated cardiac troponin T and I and left ventricular dysfunction in sepsis, as assessed by echocardiographic ejection fraction30–33 or pulmonary artery catheter–derived left ventricular stroke work index.34 Cardiac troponin levels also correlated with the duration of hypotension35 and the intensity of vasopressor therapy.34In addition, increased sepsis severity, measured by global scores such as the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) or the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II score (APACHE II), was associated with increased cardiac troponin levels,31,33 as was poor short-term prognosis.32,33,35,36 Despite the heterogeneity of study populations and type of troponin studied, the mentioned studies were univocal in concluding that elevated troponin levels in septic patients reflect higher disease severity, myocardial dysfunction, and worse prognosis. In a recent meta-analysis of 23 observational studies, Lim et al37 found cardiac troponin levels to be increased in a large percentage of critically ill patients. Furthermore, in a subset of studies that permitted adjusted analysis and comprised 1706 patients, this troponin elevation was associated with an increased risk of death (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.9 to 3.4, P<0.001)37; however, the underlying mechanisms clearly require further research.

Thus, it appears reasonable to recommend inclusion of cardiac troponins in the monitoring of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock to facilitate prognostic stratification and to increase alertness to the presence of cardiac dysfunction in individual patients. However, it remains to be shown whether risk stratification based on cardiac troponins can identify patients in whom aggressive therapeutic regimens might reap the greatest benefit and so translate into a survival benefit.

Mechanisms Underlying Myocardial Dysfunction in Sepsis

Cardiac depression during sepsis is probably multifactorial (Figure). Nevertheless, it is important to identify individual contributing factors and mechanisms to generate worthwhile therapeutic targets. As a consequence, a vast array of mechanisms, pathways, and disruptions in cellular homeostasis have been examined in septic myocardium.

Figure

View larger version:

Synopsis of potential underlying mechanisms in septic myocardial dysfunction. MDS indicates myocardial depressant substance.

Global Ischemia

An early theory of myocardial depression in sepsis was based on the hypothesis of global myocardial ischemia; however, septic patients have been shown to have high coronary blood flow and diminished coronary artery–coronary sinus oxygen difference.38 As in the peripheral circulation, these alterations can be attributed to disturbed flow autoregulation or disturbed oxygen utilization.39,40 Coronary sinus blood studies in patients with septic shock have also demonstrated complex metabolic alterations in septic myocardium, including increased lactate extraction, decreased free fatty acid extraction, and decreased glucose uptake.41 Furthermore, several magnetic resonance studies in animal models of sepsis have demonstrated the presence of normal high-energy phosphate levels in the myocardium.42,43 It has also been proposed that myocardial dysfunction in sepsis may reflect hibernating myocardium.44 To reach this conclusion, Levy et al44 studied a murine cecal ligation and double-puncture model and observed diminished cardiac performance, increased myocardial glucose uptake, and deposits of glycogen in a setting of preserved arterial oxygen tension and myocardial perfusion. Although all of the above-mentioned findings reflect important alterations in coronary flow and myocardial metabolism, mirroring effects observed in peripheral circulation during sepsis, there is no evidence supporting global ischemia as an underlying cause of myocardial dysfunction in sepsis. However, in septic patients with coexistent and possibly undiagnosed coronary artery disease (CAD), regional myocardial ischemia or infarction secondary to CAD may certainly occur. The manifestation of myocardial ischemia due to CAD might even be facilitated by the volatile hemodynamics in sepsis, as well as by the generalized microvascular dysfunction so frequently observed in sepsis.45 Additional CAD-aggravating factors encountered in sepsis encompass generalized inflammation and the activated coagulatory system. Furthermore, the endothelium plays a prominent role in sepsis (see below), but little is known of the impact of preexisting, CAD-associated endothelial dysfunction in this context. In a postmortem study of 21 fatal cases of septic shock, previously undiagnosed myocardial ischemia at least contributed to death in 7 of the 21 cases (all 21 patients were males, with a mean age of 60.4 years).46 It certainly appears prudent to remain wary of CAD complications while treating sepsis, especially in patients with identifiable risk factors and in view of the ever-increasing mean age of intensive care unit patients and including septic patients.

Myocardial Depressant Substance

A circulating myocardial depressant factor in septic shock was first proposed more than 50 years ago.47 Parrillo et al48 quantitatively linked the clinical degree of septic myocardial dysfunction with the effect the serum, taken from respective patients, had on rat cardiac myocytes, with clinical severity correlating well with the decrease in extent and velocity of myocyte shortening. These effects were not seen when serum from convalescent patients whose cardiac function had returned to normal was applied or when serum was obtained from other critically ill, nonseptic patients.48 In extension of these findings, ultrafiltrates from patients with severe sepsis and simultaneously reduced left ventricular stroke work index (<30 g · m−1 · m−2) displayed cardiotoxic effects and contained significantly increased concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-8, and C3a.49Recently, Mink et al50 demonstrated that lysozyme c, a bacteriolytic agent believed to originate mainly from disintegrating neutrophilic granulocytes and monocytes, mediates cardiodepressive effects during Escherichia coli sepsis and, importantly, that competitive inhibition of lysozyme c can prevent myocardial depression in the respective experimental sepsis model. Additional potential candidates for myocardial depressant substance include other cytokines, prostanoids, and nitric oxide (NO). Some of these will be discussed below.

Cytokines

Infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an obligatory component of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls) into both animals and humans51 partially mimics the hemodynamic effects of septic shock.51,52 However, only a minority of patients with septic shock have detectable LPS levels, and the prolonged time course of septic myocardial dysfunction and the chemical characteristics of LPS are not consistent with LPS representing the sole myocardial depressant substance.48,53 Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an important early mediator of endotoxin-induced shock.54 TNF-α is derived from activated macrophages, but recent studies have shown that TNF-α is also secreted by cardiac myocytes in response to sepsis.55 Although application of anti-TNF-α antibodies improved left ventricular function in patients with septic shock,56 subsequent studies using monoclonal antibodies directed against TNF-α or soluble TNF-α receptors failed to improve survival in septic patients.57–59 IL-1 is synthesized by monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils in response to TNF-α and plays a crucial role in the systemic immune response. IL-1 depresses cardiac contractility by stimulating NO synthase (NOS).60 Transcription of IL-1 is followed by delayed transcription of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1-ra), which functions as an endogenous inhibitor of IL-1. Recombinant IL-1-ra was evaluated in phase III clinical trials, which showed a tendency toward improved survival61 and increased survival time in a retrospective analysis of the patient subgroup with the most severe sepsis62; however, to date, this initially promising therapy has failed to deliver a statistically significant survival benefit. IL-6, another proinflammatory cytokine, has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis and is considered a more consistent predictor of sepsis than TNF-α because of its prolonged elevation in the circulation.63 Although cytokines may very well play a key role in the early decrease in contractility, they cannot explain the prolonged duration of myocardial dysfunction in sepsis, unless they result in the induction or release of additional factors that in turn alter myocardial function, such as prostanoids or NO.64,65

Prostanoids

Prostanoids are produced by the cyclooxygenase enzyme from arachidonic acid. The expression of cyclooxygenase enzyme-2 is induced, among other stimuli, by LPS and cytokines (cyclooxygenase enzyme-1 is expressed constitutively).66 Elevated levels of prostanoids such as thromboxane and prostacyclin, which have the potential to alter coronary autoregulation, coronary endothelial function, and intracoronary leukocyte activation, have been demonstrated in septic patients.67 Early animal studies with cyclooxygenase inhibitors such as indomethacin yielded very promising results.68,69Along with other positive results, these led to an important clinical study involving 455 septic patients who were randomized to receive intravenous ibuprofen or placebo.70Unfortunately, that study did not demonstrate improved survival for the treatment arm. Similarly, a more recent, smaller study on the effects of lornoxicam failed to provide evidence for a survival benefit through cyclooxygenase inhibition in sepsis.71 Animal studies aimed at elucidating possible benefits of isotype-selective cyclooxygenase inhibition have so far produced conflicting results.72,73

Endothelin-1

Endothelin-1 (ET-1; for an in-depth review of endothelin in sepsis, see Gupta et al74) upregulation has been demonstrated within 6 hours of LPS-induced septic shock.75Cardiac overexpression of ET-1 triggers an increase in inflammatory cytokines (among others, TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6), interstitial inflammatory infiltration, and an inflammatory cardiomyopathy that results in heart failure and death.76 The involvement of ET-1 in septic myocardial dysfunction is supported by the observation that tezosentan, a dual endothelin-A and endothelin-B receptor antagonist, improved cardiac index, stroke volume index, and left ventricular stroke work index in endotoxemic shock.77 However, higher doses of tezosentan exhibited cardiotoxic effects and led to increased mortality.77Although ET-1 has been demonstrated to be of pathophysiological importance in a wide array of cardiac diseases through autocrine, endocrine, or paracrine effects, its biosynthesis, receptor-mediated signaling, and functional consequences in septic myocardial dysfunction warrant further investigation to assess the therapeutic potential of ET-1 receptor antagonists.

Nitric Oxide

NO exerts a plethora of biological effects in the cardiovascular system.78 It has been shown to modulate cardiac function under physiological and a multitude of pathophysiological conditions. In healthy volunteers, low-dose NO increases LV function, whereas inhibition of endogenous NO release by intravenous infusion of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine reduced the stroke volume index.79 Higher doses of NO have been shown to induce contractile dysfunction by depressing myocardial energy generation.80 The absence of the important NO scavenger myoglobin (Mb) in Mb knockout mice results in impaired cardiac function that is partially reversible by NOS inhibition.81 Endogenous NO contributes to hibernation in response to myocardial ischemia by reducing oxygen consumption and preserving calcium sensitivity and contractile function.82 NO also represents a potent modulator of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, as in sepsis-related NO research, the reported effects of NO on ischemia/reperfusion injury are inconsistent owing to a multitude of confounding experimental factors.83

Sepsis leads to the expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) in the myocardium,84,85 followed by high-level NO production, which in turn importantly contributes to myocardial dysfunction, in part through the generation of cytotoxic peroxynitrite, a product of NO and superoxide (for an excellent review, see Pacher et al86). In iNOS-deficient mice, cardiac function is preserved after endotoxin challenge.87 Nonspecific NOS inhibition restores cardiac output and stroke volume after LPS injection.88 Strikingly, in septic patients, infusion of methylene blue, a nonspecific NOS inhibitor, improves mean arterial pressure, stroke volume, and left ventricular stroke work and decreases the requirement for inotropic support but, unfortunately, does not alter outcome.89 An interesting study comparing the inhibition of NO superoxide and peroxynitrite in cytokine-induced myocardial contractile failure found peroxynitrite to indeed be the most promising therapeutic target.90 It has also been proposed that the constitutively expressed mitochondrial isoform of NOS (mtNOS), the expression of which can be augmented by induction, controls rates of oxidative phosphorylation by inhibiting various steps of the respiratory chain.91 Although this hypothesis would provide a plausible explanation for the reduced coronary oxygen extraction observed during sepsis (see above), the effects of sepsis on expression of mtNOS and NO generation remain to be explored. Furthermore, the constitutively expressed endothelial NOS (eNOS), previously neglected in the context of sepsis, has been shown to be an important regulator of iNOS expression, resulting in a more stable hemodynamic status in eNOS-deficient mice after endotoxemia.92 Very recently, a functional NOS in red blood cells (rbcNOS) was identified that regulates deformability of erythrocyte membranes and inhibits activation of platelets.93 With both effect targets thus far demonstrated for rbcNOS lying at the core of microvascular dysfunction in sepsis, this discovery opens a whole new window to NO-related sepsis research. Given the existence of different NOS isoforms and their various modulating interactions, dose-dependent NO effects, and the precise balance of NO, superoxide, and thus peroxynitrite generated in subcellular compartments, further advances in our understanding of the complex NO biology and its derived reactive nitrogen species hold the promise of revealing new, more specific and effective therapeutic targets.

Adhesion Molecules

Surface-expression upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 has been demonstrated in murine coronary endothelium and cardiomyocytes after LPS and TNF-α stimulation.94 After cecal ligation and double puncture, myocardial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression increases in rats.95Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 blockade with antibodies has been shown to prevent myocardial dysfunction and decrease myocardial neutrophil accumulation,94,96 whereas both knockout and antibody blockade of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ameliorate myocardial dysfunction in endotoxemia without affecting neutrophil accumulation.94 In addition, neutrophil depletion does not protect against septic cardiomyopathy, which suggests that the cardiotoxic potential of neutrophils infiltrating the myocardium is of lesser importance in this context.94 Other aspects of adhesion molecules are discussed in conjunction with possible statin effects below.

The e-Reader is advised to consider the following expansion on the subject matter carrying the discussion to additional related clinical issues:

Advanced Topics in Sepsis and the Cardiovascular System at its End Stage

Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/18/advanced-topics-in-sepsis-and-the-cardiovascular-system-at-its-end-stage/

Therapeutic Approaches: The Present and the Future

A detailed discussion of therapeutic options in septic patients would clearly be beyond the scope of this review, and readers are kindly referred to the multiple excellent reviews published on the subject (eg, Hotchkiss and Karl,2 Annane et al,4 and Dellinger et al97). Although a number of preventive measures, such as prophylactic antibiotics, maintenance of normoglycemia, selective digestive tract decontamination, vaccines, and intravenous immunoglobulin, have shown benefit in distinct patient populations, preventive strategies with a broader aim remain elusive. Once sepsis is manifest (see the Table for criteria), prompt and adequate antibiotic therapy accompanied by surgical removal of the infectious focus, if indicated and feasible, is the mainstay and also the only strictly causal line of therapy. In the presence of severe sepsis and septic shock, supportive treatment in addition to causal therapy is mandatory. Supportive therapy encompasses early and goal-directed fluid resuscitation,9 vasopressor and inotropic therapy, red blood cell transfusion, mechanical ventilation, and renal support when indicated. It is very likely beneficial to monitor cardiac performance in these patients. A wide array of techniques are available for this purpose, ranging from echocardiography to pulmonary catheters, thermodilution techniques, and pulse pressure analysis.98 Because none of these techniques have demonstrated superiority, physicians should use the method with which they are most familiar. Whichever method is chosen, it should be applied frequently to tailor supportive therapy to the individual patient and to achieve the “gold standard” of early goal-directed therapy. In recent years, several attempts have been made to therapeutically address myocardial dysfunction in sepsis. Although the combination of norepinephrine as vasopressor and dobutamine as inotropic agent is probably the most frequently applied in septic shock, there is currently no evidence to recommend one catecholamine over the other.97 In human endotoxemia, epinephrine has been demonstrated to inhibit proinflammatory pathways and coagulation activation, as well as to augment antiinflammatory pathways,99,100 whereas no immunomodulatory or coagulant effects could be demonstrated for dobutamine in a similar setting.101 Isoproterenol has recently been applied successfully in a small group of patients with septic shock, no known history of CAD, and inappropriate mixed venous oxygen concentration despite correction of hypoxemia and anemia.102 In a cecal ligation and double-puncture model of sepsis, the β-blocker esmolol given continuously after sepsis induction improved myocardial oxygen utilization and attenuated myocardial dysfunction,103 which suggests that therapeutic strategies proven in ischemic heart failure might also hold promise in septic cardiomyopathy. However, the optimal mode of β-receptor stimulation (or indeed inhibition) to limit myocardial dysfunction remains a wide-open field for inspired investigation.

Given the generally accepted view of sepsis as a disease largely propelled by an inappropriate immune response, numerous basic research and clinical trials have been undertaken to curb the lethal toll of sepsis through modulation of this uncontrolled immune response.2,3 To date, activated protein C104 and low-dose hydrocortisone105 have emerged as the only inflammation-modulating substances that have been confirmed to be of benefit in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Over the past years, increasing evidence has accumulated that suggests that inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, or statins, have therapeutic benefits independent of cholesterol lowering, termed “pleiotropic” effects. These have added a wide scope of potential targets for statin therapy that range from decreasing renal function loss106 and lowering mortality in patients with diastolic heart failure107 to prevention and treatment of stroke,108 to name just a few. These pleiotropic effects include antiinflammatory and antioxidative properties, improvement of endothelial function, and increased NO bioavailability and thus might contribute to the benefit observed with statin therapy. Notably, these important immunomodulatory effects of statins have been demonstrated to be independent of lipid lowering109 and appear to be mediated via interference with the synthesis of mevalonate metabolites (nonsteroidal isoprenoid products). Blockade of the mevalonate pathway has been shown to suppress T-cell responses,110 reduce expression of class II major histocompatibility complexes on antigen presenting cells,109 and inhibit chemokine synthesis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.111 Furthermore, CD11b integrin expression and CD11b-dependent adhesion of monocytes have been found to be attenuated by the initiation of statin treatment in hypercholesterolemic patients.112 In this context, Yoshida et al113 have reported that statins reduce the expression of both monocytic and endothelial adhesion molecules, eg, the integrin leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), via an inhibition of Rho GTPases, in particular their membrane anchoring by geranylation. In addition, mechanisms for antiinflammatory actions of statins have been revealed that are not related to the isoprenoid metabolism. For instance, Weitz-Schmidt et al114 have identified that some statins act as direct antagonists of LFA-1 owing to their capacity to bind to the regulatory site in the LFA-1 i-domain. In addition to these multifaceted antiinflammatory effects, statins may interfere with activation of the coagulation cascade, as illustrated by the suppression of LPS-induced monocyte tissue factor in vitro.115 Beyond their immunomodulatory functions, statins have been shown to exert direct antichlamydial effects during pulmonary infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae in mice,116 and a recent report suggests the benefit of statins may also extend to viral pathogens.117

Given the strong impact of statins on inflammation, statins might represent a welcome enforcement in the battle against severe infectious diseases such as sepsis. Consequently, several investigators have evaluated the role of statins in the prevention and treatment of sepsis. In a retrospective analysis, Liappis et al118 demonstrated a reduced overall and attributable mortality in patients with bacteremia who were treated concomitantly with statins. Pretreatment with simvastatin has been shown to profoundly improve survival in a polymicrobial murine model of sepsis by preservation of cardiovascular function and inhibition of inflammatory alterations.19 Encouraged by these findings, the same model was used to successfully treat sepsis in a clinically feasible fashion, ie, treatment was initiated several hours after the onset of sepsis. With different statins (atorvastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin) being effective, the therapeutic potential of statins in sepsis appears to be a class effect.22 Recently, Steiner et al119observed that pretreatment with simvastatin can suppress the inflammatory response induced by LPS in healthy human volunteers. Furthermore, in a prospective observational cohort study in patients with acute bacterial infections performed by Almog et al,120previous treatment with statins was associated with a considerably reduced rate of severe sepsis and intensive care unit admissions. A total of 361 patients were enrolled in that study, and 82 of these patients had been treated with statins for at least 4 weeks before their admission. Severe sepsis developed in 19% of patients in the no-statin group compared with only 2.4% in patients who were taking statins. The intensive care unit admission rates were 12.2% for the no-statin group and 3.7% for the statin group. Because of the number of patients enrolled, the study was not powered to detect differences in mortality, although the large effect on sepsis rate and intensive care unit admission were at least suggestive. As the most recent development in this field, Hackam et al121 have produced an impressive observational study by initial evaluation of 141 487 cardiovascular patients, which resulted in a well-paired and homogenous study cohort of 69 168 patients after propensity-based matching. Drawing from this solid base, Hackam and coauthors were able to support the conclusion that statin therapy is associated with a considerably decreased rate of sepsis (hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.90), severe sepsis (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.97), and fatal sepsis (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.93). This protective effect prevailed at both high and low statin doses and for several clinically important subpopulations, such as diabetic and heart failure patients.

As has been suggested previously,122 statins might provide cumulative benefit by reducing mortality from cardiovascular and infectious diseases such as sepsis. However, statins may have detrimental effects in distinct subsets of patients. Therefore, caution should prevail, and the use of statins in patients with sepsis must be accompanied by meticulous monitoring of unexpected side effects and well-designed randomized, controlled clinical trials.

Beyond an apparent rationale for randomized trials on statins in sepsis, it is notable that the results with other immunomodulatory approaches in sepsis have yielded rather limited success. For instance, use of the anti-TNF antibody F(ab′)2 fragment afelimomab led to a significant but rather modest reduction in risk of death and to improved organ-failure scores in patients with severe sepsis and elevated IL-6 levels.123 Moreover, a selective inhibitor of group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 failed to improve clinical outcome for patients with severe sepsis, with a negative trend most pronounced among patients with cardiovascular failure.124 Hence, because none of the available strategies proven to be effective in sepsis are designed specifically to target myocardial dysfunction, one might conclude that strategies that preferentially address cardiac morbidity in sepsis may be a promising area for investigation. For instance, lipoteichoic acid, a major virulence factor in Gram-positive sepsis, causes cardiac depression by activating myocardial TNF-α synthesis via CD14 and induces coronary vascular disturbances by activating thromboxane 2 synthesis. It thus contributes to cardiac depression and may therefore be a worthwhile and cardiac-specific target.125 The implications of intensified efforts in the search for successful novel approaches to the treatment of myocardial dysfunction in sepsis may be considerable with regard to improved patient care that results in reduced mortality. This is of major significance in view of the substantial economic consequences of increasing sepsis morbidity in an aging population.

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Circulation.2007; 116: 793-802doi: 10.1161/​CIRCULATIONAHA.106.678359

Other articles on Sepsis published on this Open Access Online Scientific Journal, include the following:

Advanced Topics in Sepsis and the Cardiovascular System at its End Stage

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/18/advanced-topics-in-sepsis-and-the-cardiovascular-system-at-its-end-stage/

Nitric Oxide and Sepsis, Hemodynamic Collapse, and the Search for Therapeutic Options

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/20/nitric-oxide-and-sepsis-hemodynamic-collapse-and-the-search-for-therapeutic-options/

Sepsis, Multi-organ Dysfunction Syndrome, and Septic Shock: A Conundrum of Signaling Pathways Cascading Out of Control

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/13/sepsis-multi-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-and-septic-shock-a-conundrum-of-signaling-pathways-cascading-out-of-control/

Automated Inferential Diagnosis of SIRS, sepsis, septic shock

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/01/automated-inferential-diagnosis-of-sirs-sepsis-septic-shock/

The role of biomarkers in the diagnosis of sepsis and patient management

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/28/the-role-of-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-of-sepsis-and-patient-management/

Bernstein, HL, Pearlman, JD and A. Lev-Ari  Alternative Designs for the Human Artificial Heart: The Patients in Heart Failure – Outcomes of Transplant (donor)/Implantation (artificial) and Monitoring Technologies for the Transplant/Implant Patient in the Community

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/05/alternative-designs-for-the-human-artificial-heart-the-patients-in-heart-failure-outcomes-of-transplant-donorimplantation-artificial-and-monitoring-technologies-for-the-transplantimplant-pat/

Pearlman, JD and A. Lev-Ari 7/22/2013 Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) to Arrhythmias: Pacemaker/Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) Insertion

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/22/cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-crt-to-arrhythmias-pacemakerimplantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-icd-insertion/

Lev-Ari, A. 7/19/2013 3D Cardiovascular Theater – Hybrid Cath Lab/OR Suite, Hybrid Surgery, Complications Post PCI and Repeat Sternotomy

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/19/3d-cardiovascular-theater-hybrid-cath-labor-suite-hybrid-surgery-complications-post-pci-and-repeat-sternotomy/

Pearlman, JD and A. Lev-Ari 7/17/2013 Emerging Clinical Applications for Cardiac CT: Plaque Characterization, SPECT Functionality, Angiogram’s and Non-Invasive FFR

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/17/emerging-clinical-applications-for-cardiac-ct-plaque-characterization-spect-functionality-angiograms-and-non-invasive-ffr/

Lev-Ari, A. 7/14/2013 Vascular Surgery: International, Multispecialty Position Statement on Carotid Stenting, 2013 and Contributions of a Vascular Surgeon at Peak Career – Richard Paul Cambria, MD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/14/vascular-surgery-position-statement-in-2013-and-contributions-of-a-vascular-surgeon-at-peak-career-richard-paul-cambria-md-chief-division-of-vascular-and-endovascular-surgery-co-director-thoracic/

Lev-Ari, A. 7/9/2013 Heart Transplant (HT) Indication for Heart Failure (HF): Procedure Outcomes and Research on HF, HT @ Two Nation’s Leading HF & HT Centers

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/09/research-programs-george-m-linda-h-kaufman-center-for-heart-failure-cleveland-clinic/

Lev-Ari, A. 7/8/2013 Becoming a Cardiothoracic Surgeon: An Emerging Profile in the Surgery Theater and through Scientific Publications 

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/08/becoming-a-cardiothoracic-surgeon-an-emerging-profile-in-the-surgery-theater-and-through-scientific-publications/

Pearlman, JD and A. Lev-Ari  7/4/2013 Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) & Instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR): An Evaluation of Catheterization Lab Tools (Software Validation) for Ischemic Assessment (Diagnostics) – Change in Paradigm: The RIGHT vessel not ALL vessels

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/04/fractional-flow-reserve-ffr-instantaneous-wave-free-rario-ifr-an-evaluation-of-catheterization-lab-tools-for-ischemic-assessment/

Lev-Ari, A. 7/1/22013 Endovascular Lower-extremity Revascularization Effectiveness: Vascular Surgeons (VSs), Interventional Cardiologists (ICs) and Interventional Radiologists (IRs)

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/01/endovascular-lower-extremity-revascularization-effectiveness-vascular-surgeons-vss-interventional-cardiologists-ics-and-interventional-radiologists-irs/

Lev-Ari, A. 6/10/2013 No Early Symptoms – An Aortic Aneurysm Before It Ruptures – Is There A Way To Know If I Have it?

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/10/no-early-symptoms-an-aortic-aneurysm-before-it-ruptures-is-there-a-way-to-know-if-i-have-it/

Lev-Ari, A. 6/9/2013 Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) at Birth and into Adulthood: The Role of Spontaneous Mutations

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/09/congenital-heart-disease-at-birth-and-into-adulthood-the-role-of-spontaneous-mutations-the-genes-and-the-pathways/

Lev-Ari, A. 6/3/2013 Clinical Indications for Use of Inhaled Nitric Oxide (iNO) in the Adult Patient Market: Clinical Outcomes after Use, Therapy Demand and Cost of Care

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/03/clinical-indications-for-use-of-inhaled-nitric-oxide-ino-in-the-adult-patient-market-clinical-outcomes-after-use-therapy-demand-and-cost-of-care/

Lev-Ari, A. 6/2/2013 Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Adults: Clinical Trials and Meta Analysis Studies – Recent Findings

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/02/inhaled-nitric-oxide-in-adults-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome/

Pearlman, JD and A. Lev-Ari 5/24/2013 Imaging Biomarker for Arterial Stiffness: Pathways in Pharmacotherapy for Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia Management

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/24/imaging-biomarker-for-arterial-stiffness-pathways-in-pharmacotherapy-for-hypertension-and-hypercholesterolemia-management/

Pearlman, JD and A. Lev-Ari 5/22/2013 Acute and Chronic Myocardial Infarction: Quantification of Myocardial Perfusion Viability – FDG-PET/MRI vs. MRI or PET alone

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/22/acute-and-chronic-myocardial-infarction-quantification-of-myocardial-viability-fdg-petmri-vs-mri-or-pet-alone/

Lev-Ari, A. 5/17/2013 Synthetic Biology: On Advanced Genome Interpretation for Gene Variants and Pathways: What is the Genetic Base of Atherosclerosis and Loss of Arterial Elasticity with Aging

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/17/synthetic-biology-on-advanced-genome-interpretation-for-gene-variants-and-pathways-what-is-the-genetic-base-of-atherosclerosis-and-loss-of-arterial-elasticity-with-aging/

Justin D Pearlman, HL Bernstein and A. Lev-Ari 5/15/2013 Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Disease, Treatment and Prevention: Current & Predicted Cost of Care and the Promise of Individualized Medicine Using Clinical Decision Support Systems

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/15/diagnosis-of-cardiovascular-disease-treatment-and-prevention-current-predicted-cost-of-care-and-the-promise-of-individualized-medicine-using-clinical-decision-support-systems-2/

Pearlman, JD and A. Lev-Ari 5/11/2013 Hypertension and Vascular Compliance: 2013 Thought Frontier – An Arterial Elasticity Focus

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/11/arterial-elasticity-in-quest-for-a-drug-stabilizer-isolated-systolic-hypertension-caused-by-arterial-stiffening-ineffectively-treated-by-vasodilatation-antihypertensives/

Pearlman, JD and A. Lev-Ari 5/7/2013 On Devices and On Algorithms: Arrhythmia after Cardiac Surgery Prediction and ECG Prediction of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Onset

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/07/on-devices-and-on-algorithms-arrhythmia-after-cardiac-surgery-prediction-and-ecg-prediction-of-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-onset/

Pearlman, JD and A. Lev-Ari 5/4/2013 Cardiovascular Diseases: Decision Support Systems for Disease Management Decision Making

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/04/cardiovascular-diseases-decision-support-systems-for-disease-management-decision-making/

Lev-Ari, A. 5/3/2013 Gene, Meis1, Regulates the Heart’s Ability to Regenerate after Injuries.

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/05/03/gene-meis1-regulates-the-hearts-ability-to-regenerate-after-injuries/

Lev-Ari, A. 4/30/2013 Prostacyclin and Nitric Oxide: Adventures in Vascular Biology – A Tale of Two Mediators

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/30/prostacyclin-and-nitric-oxide-adventures-in-vascular-biology-a-tale-of-two-mediators/

Lev-Ari, A. 4/28/2013 Genetics of Conduction Disease: Atrioventricular (AV) Conduction Disease (block): Gene Mutations – Transcription, Excitability, and Energy Homeostasis

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/28/genetics-of-conduction-disease-atrioventricular-av-conduction-disease-block-gene-mutations-transcription-excitability-and-energy-homeostasis/

Lev-Ari, A. 4/25/2013 Economic Toll of Heart Failure in the US: Forecasting the Impact of Heart Failure in the United States – A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/25/economic-toll-of-heart-failure-in-the-us-forecasting-the-impact-of-heart-failure-in-the-united-states-a-policy-statement-from-the-american-heart-association/

Lev-Ari, A. 4/24/2013 Harnessing New Players in Atherosclerosis to Treat Heart Disease

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/25/harnessing-new-players-in-atherosclerosis-to-treat-heart-disease/

Lev-Ari, A. 4/25/2013 Revascularization: PCI, Prior History of PCI vs CABG

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/25/revascularization-pci-prior-history-of-pci-vs-cabg/

Lev-Ari, A. 4/7/2013 Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) Inhibitor: Potential of Anacetrapib to treat Atherosclerosis and CAD

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/07/cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-cetp-inhibitor-potential-of-anacetrapib-to-treat-atherosclerosis-and-cad/

Lev-Ari, A. 4/4/2013 Hypertriglyceridemia concurrent Hyperlipidemia: Vertical Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation a Better Test to Prevent Undertreatment of High-Risk Cardiac Patients

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/04/hypertriglyceridemia-concurrent-hyperlipidemia-vertical-density-gradient-ultracentrifugation-a-better-test-to-prevent-undertreatment-of-high-risk-cardiac-patients/

Lev-Ari, A. 4/3/2013 Fight against Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: A Biologics not a Small Molecule – Recombinant Human lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (rhLCAT) attracted AstraZeneca to acquire AlphaCore

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/04/03/fight-against-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-a-biologics-not-a-small-molecule-recombinant-human-lecithin-cholesterol-acyltransferase-rhlcat-attracted-astrazeneca-to-acquire-alphacore/

Lev-Ari, A. 3/31/2013 High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL): An Independent Predictor of Endothelial Function & Atherosclerosis, A Modulator, An Agonist, A Biomarker for Cardiovascular Risk

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/03/31/high-density-lipoprotein-hdl-an-independent-predictor-of-endothelial-function-artherosclerosis-a-modulator-an-agonist-a-biomarker-for-cardiovascular-risk/

Lev-Ari, A. 3/10/2013 Acute Chest Pain/ER Admission: Three Emerging Alternatives to Angiography and PCI

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/03/10/acute-chest-painer-admission-three-emerging-alternatives-to-angiography-and-pci/

Lev-Ari, A. and L H Bernstein 3/7/2013 Genomics & Genetics of Cardiovascular Disease Diagnoses: A Literature Survey of AHA’s Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics, 3/2010 – 3/2013

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/03/07/genomics-genetics-of-cardiovascular-disease-diagnoses-a-literature-survey-of-ahas-circulation-cardiovascular-genetics-32010-32013/

Lev-Ari, A. 2/28/2013 The Heart: Vasculature Protection – A Concept-based Pharmacological Therapy including THYMOSIN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/02/28/the-heart-vasculature-protection-a-concept-based-pharmacological-therapy-including-thymosin/

Lev-Ari, A. 2/27/2013 Arteriogenesis and Cardiac Repair: Two Biomaterials – Injectable Thymosin beta4 and Myocardial Matrix Hydrogel

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/02/27/arteriogenesis-and-cardiac-repair-two-biomaterials-injectable-thymosin-beta4-and-myocardial-matrix-hydrogel/

Lev-Ari, A. 12/29/2012. Coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients referred for coronary angiography: Predicted by Serum Protein Profiles

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/29/coronary-artery-disease-in-symptomatic-patients-referred-for-coronary-angiography-predicted-by-serum-protein-profiles/

Bernstein, HL and Lev-Ari, A. 11/28/2012. Special Considerations in Blood Lipoproteins, Viscosity, Assessment and Treatment

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/28/special-considerations-in-blood-lipoproteins-viscosity-assessment-and-treatment/

Lev-Ari, A. 11/13/2012 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-gamma) Receptors Activation: PPARγ transrepression for Angiogenesis in Cardiovascular Disease and PPARγ transactivation for Treatment of Diabetes

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/13/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-ppar-gamma-receptors-activation-pparγ-transrepression-for-angiogenesis-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-pparγ-transactivation-for-treatment-of-dia/

Lev-Ari, A. 10/19/2012 Clinical Trials Results for Endothelin System: Pathophysiological role in Chronic Heart Failure, Acute Coronary Syndromes and MI – Marker of Disease Severity or Genetic Determination?

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/19/clinical-trials-results-for-endothelin-system-pathophysiological-role-in-chronic-heart-failure-acute-coronary-syndromes-and-mi-marker-of-disease-severity-or-genetic-determination/

Lev-Ari, A. 10/4/2012 Endothelin Receptors in Cardiovascular Diseases: The Role of eNOS Stimulation

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/04/endothelin-receptors-in-cardiovascular-diseases-the-role-of-enos-stimulation/

Lev-Ari, A. 10/4/2012 Inhibition of ET-1, ETA and ETA-ETB, Induction of NO production, stimulation of eNOS and Treatment Regime with PPAR-gamma agonists (TZD): cEPCs Endogenous Augmentation for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction – A Bibliography

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/04/inhibition-of-et-1-eta-and-eta-etb-induction-of-no-production-and-stimulation-of-enos-and-treatment-regime-with-ppar-gamma-agonists-tzd-cepcs-endogenous-augmentation-for-cardiovascular-risk-reduc/

Lev-Ari, A. 8/29/2012 Positioning a Therapeutic Concept for Endogenous Augmentation of cEPCs — Therapeutic Indications for Macrovascular Disease: Coronary, Cerebrovascular and Peripheral

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/29/positioning-a-therapeutic-concept-for-endogenous-augmentation-of-cepcs-therapeutic-indications-for-macrovascular-disease-coronary-cerebrovascular-and-peripheral/

Lev-Ari, A. 8/28/2012 Cardiovascular Outcomes: Function of circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells (cEPCs): Exploring Pharmaco-therapy targeted at Endogenous Augmentation of cEPCs

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/28/cardiovascular-outcomes-function-of-circulating-endothelial-progenitor-cells-cepcs-exploring-pharmaco-therapy-targeted-at-endogenous-augmentation-of-cepcs/

Lev-Ari, A. 8/27/2012 Endothelial Dysfunction, Diminished Availability of cEPCs, Increasing CVD Risk for Macrovascular Disease – Therapeutic Potential of cEPCs

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/27/endothelial-dysfunction-diminished-availability-of-cepcs-increasing-cvd-risk-for-macrovascular-disease-therapeutic-potential-of-cepcs/

Lev-Ari, A. 8/24/2012 Vascular Medicine and Biology: CLASSIFICATION OF FAST ACTING THERAPY FOR PATIENTS AT HIGH RISK FOR MACROVASCULAR EVENTS Macrovascular Disease – Therapeutic Potential of cEPCs

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/24/vascular-medicine-and-biology-classification-of-fast-acting-therapy-for-patients-at-high-risk-for-macrovascular-events-macrovascular-disease-therapeutic-potential-of-cepcs/

Lev-Ari, A. 7/19/2012 Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and the Role of agent alternatives in endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) Activation and Nitric Oxide Production

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/19/cardiovascular-disease-cvd-and-the-role-of-agent-alternatives-in-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-enos-activation-and-nitric-oxide-production/

Lev-Ari, A. 4/30/2012 Resident-cell-based Therapy in Human Ischaemic Heart Disease: Evolution in the PROMISE of Thymosin beta4 for Cardiac Repair

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/04/30/93/

Lev-Ari, A. 5/29/2012 Triple Antihypertensive Combination Therapy Significantly Lowers Blood Pressure in Hard-to-Treat Patients with Hypertension and Diabetes

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/05/29/445/

Lev-Ari, A. 7/2/2012 Macrovascular Disease – Therapeutic Potential of cEPCs: Reduction Methods for CV Risk

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/02/macrovascular-disease-therapeutic-potential-of-cepcs-reduction-methods-for-cv-risk/

 

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Heart Transplant (HT) Indication for Heart Failure (HF): Procedure Outcomes and Research on HF, HT @ Two Nation’s Leading HF & HT Centers


Heart Transplant (HT) Indication for Heart Failure (HF) – Procedure Outcomes and Research on HF, HT @ Two Nation’s Leading HF & HT Centers:

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

UPDATED on 10/15/2013

http://archive.is/5kQgj

Practice Guideline | October 2013

2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart FailureA Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines

Clyde W. Yancy, MD, MSc, FACC, FAHA; Mariell Jessup, MD, FACC, FAHA; Biykem Bozkurt, MD, PhD, FACC, FAHA; Javed Butler, MBBS, FACC, FAHA; Donald E. Casey, MD, MPH, MBA, FACP, FAHA; Mark H. Drazner, MD, MSc, FACC, FAHA; Gregg C. Fonarow, MD, FACC, FAHA; Stephen A. Geraci, MD, FACC, FAHA, FCCP; Tamara Horwich, MD, FACC; James L. Januzzi, MD, FACC; Maryl R. Johnson, MD, FACC, FAHA; Edward K. Kasper, MD, FACC, FAHA; Wayne C. Levy, MD, FACC; Frederick A. Masoudi, MD, MSPH, FACC, FAHA; Patrick E. McBride, MD, MPH, FACC; John J.V. McMurray, MD, FACC; Judith E. Mitchell, MD, FACC, FAHA; Pamela N. Peterson, MD, MSPH, FACC, FAHA; Barbara Riegel, DNSc, RN, FAHA; Flora Sam, MD, FACC, FAHA; Lynne W. Stevenson, MD, FACC; W.H. Wilson Tang, MD, FACC; Emily J. Tsai, MD, FACC; Bruce L. Wilkoff, MD, FACC, FHRS

 

This article has THREE Parts:

Part One: National Organizations Addressing the Heart Transplant (HT) Indication for Heart Failure (HF)

Part Two: Procedure Outcomes of Heart Transplant (HT) Indication for Heart Failure (HF)

  • Center for Heart Failure @Cleveland Clinic, and
  • Transplant Center @Mayo Clinic

Part Three: Research  on Heart Transplant (HT) and Alternative Solutions Indicated for Heart Failure (HF)

  • Center for Heart Failure @Cleveland Clinic, and
  • Transplant Center @Mayo Clinic

Part One

National Organizations Addressing the 

Heart Transplant (HT) Indication for Heart Failure (HF)

The Clinical Deliberation of the Heart Failure Diagnosis and the Heart Transplant Treatment Decision

have taken central stage as it is related to

  • patient safety
  • prolongation of life
  • quality of life post procedure
  • procedure outcomes, and
  • cost of care for the patient diagnosed with Heart  Failure

VIEW VIDEO –  Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure

http://theheart.medscape.org/viewarticle/803124

We present below four National institutions with pubic mandate to promote all Healthcare aspects of Cardiovascular Diseases.

A.            2020 Vision of the Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA)

Special Communication: The Heart Failure Society of America in 2020: A Vision for the Future

Journal of Cardiac Failure Vol. 18 No. 2 2012 written by BARRY H. GREENBERG, MD,1,3 INDER S. ANAND, MD, PhD,2 JOHN C. BURNETT JR, MD,2,3 JOHN CHIN, MD,2,3 KATHLEEN A. DRACUP, RN, DNSc,3 ARTHUR M. FELDMAN, MD, PhD,3 THOMAS FORCE, MD,2,3 GARY S. FRANCIS, MD,3 STEVEN R. HOUSER, PhD,2 SHARON A. HUNT, MD,2 MARVIN A. KONSTAM, MD,3 JOANN LINDENFELD, MD,2,3 DOUGLAS L. MANN, MD,2,3 MANDEEP R. MEHRA, MD,2,3 SARA C. PAUL, RN, DNP, FNP,2,3 MARIANN R. PIANO, RN, PhD,2 HEATHER J. ROSS, MD,2 HANI N. SABBAH, PhD,2 RANDALL C. STARLING, MD, MPH,2 JAMES E. UDELSON, MD,2 CLYDE W. YANCY, MD, MSc,3 MICHAEL R. ZILE, MD,2 AND BARRY M. MASSIE, MD2,3

From the 1Chair, ad hoc Committee for Strategic Development, Heart Failure Society of America; 2Member of Executive Council, Heart Failure Society of America and 3Member, ad hoc Committee for Strategic Development, Heart Failure Society of America.

They write:

The preceding 2 decades had been marked by unprecedented insights into the underlying pathophysiology of cardiac dysfunction that were paralleled by therapeutic advances that, for the first time, were shown to clearly improve outcomes in heart failure patients. At the same time, heart failure prevalence was rapidly increasing throughout the world because of the aging of the population, improved survival of patients with myocardial infarction and other cardiac conditions, and inadequate treatment of common risk factors such as hypertension.

More recently the Heart Failure Society successfully promoted establishment of Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Cardiology as an American Board of Internal Medicine recognized secondary subspecialty of cardiology developed a board review course to help physicians prepare for the certification examination for the new subspecialty and created a national heart failure review course.

The Society has Advocacy goals, membership goals – to increase by 10% per year for 3 years from all disciplines of Heart Failure.

Education Goals:

The Heart Failure Society of America will be recognized for its innovative approaches to educating and content dissemination on heart failure targeting

  • healthcare professionals and patients
  • Grow and enhance the annual meeting through innovative approaches
  • Continue board review course
  • Increase web-based programs for patients and health care providers
  • Enhance the website as a portal for information dissemination for health care professionals and patients
  • Grow and enhance the relevance and value of the Journal of Cardiac Failure

Journal of Cardiac Failure Vol. 18 No. 2 2012

B.            American Heart Association Research on the National Cost of Care of Heart Failure

Conceptual analysis of projection done by the AHA regarding the increase in the Cost of Care for the the American Patient in Heart Failure were developed in the following two articles:

Economic Toll of Heart Failure in the US: Forecasting the Impact of Heart Failure in the United States -A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association (Aviva Lev-Ari)

Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Disease, Treatment and Prevention: Current & Predicted Cost of Care and the Promise of Individualized Medicine Using Clinical Decision Support Systems (Justin Pearlman, Larry H Bernstein and Aviva Lev-Ari)

C. National Heart, Lung, And Blood Institute  (NHLBI)’s Ten year Strategic Research Plan

Heart Transplantation: NHLBI’s Ten year Strategic Research Plan to Achieving Evidence-based Outcomes (Larry H Bernstein and Aviva Lev-Ari)

National Heart, Lung, And Blood Institute Working Group identified the most urgent knowledge gaps in Heart Transplantation Research. These gaps require to address the following 4 specific research directions:

  • enhanced phenotypic characterization of the pre-transplant population
  • donor-recipient optimization strategies
  • individualized immunosuppression therapy, and
  • investigations of immune and non-immune factors affecting late cardiac allograft outcomes.

D. Donor-Recipient Optimization Strategies – 33,640 Cases in the United Network for Organ Sharing database – Organ Donor’s Age is BEST predictor for survival after Heart Transplant

IF the donor age is in the 0- to 19-year-old group the median survival of 11.4 years follows the Heart Transplant.

The effect of ischemic time on survival after heart transplantation varies by donor age: An analysis of the United Network for Organ Sharing database

The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ● February 2007

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007;133:554-9

Mark J. Russo, MD, MS,a,b Jonathan M. Chen, MD,a Robert A. Sorabella, BA,a Timothy P. Martens, MD,a

Mauricio Garrido, MD,a Ryan R. Davies, MD,a Isaac George, MD,a Faisal H. Cheema, MD,a Ralph S. Mosca, MD,a Seema Mital, MD,c Deborah D. Ascheim, MD,b,d Michael Argenziano, MD,a Allan S. Stewart, MD,a Mehmet C. Oz, MD,a and Yoshifumi Naka, MD, PhDa

Objectives:

(1) To examine the interaction of donor age with ischemic time and their effect on survival and

(2) to define ranges of ischemic time associated with differences in survival.

Methods: The United Network for Organ Sharing provided de-identified patientlevel data. The study population included 33,640 recipients undergoing heart transplantation between October 1, 1987, and December 31, 2004. Recipients were divided by donor age into terciles: 0 to 19 years (n  10,814; 32.1%), 20 to 33 years (11,410, 33.9%), and 34 years or more (11,416, 33.9%). Kaplan-Meier survival functions and Cox regression were used for time-to-event analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves and stratum-specific likelihood ratios were generated to compare 5-year survival at various thresholds for ischemic time.

Results: In univariate Cox proportional hazards regression, the effect of ischemic time on survival varied by donor age tercile: 0 to 19 years (P .141), 20 to 33 years (P .001), and 34 years or more (P .001). These relationships persisted in multivariable regression. Threshold analysis generated a single stratum (0.37-12.00 hours) in the 0- to 19-year-old group with a median survival of 11.4 years. However, in the 20- to 33-year-old-group, 3 strata were generated: 0.00 to 3.49 hours (limited), 3.50 to 6.24 hours (prolonged), and 6.25 hours or more (extended), with median survivals of 10.6, 9.9, and 7.3 years, respectively. Likewise, 3 strata were generated in the group aged 34 years or more: 0.00 to 3.49 (limited), 3.50 to 5.49 (prolonged), and 5.50 or more (extended), with median survivals of 9.1, 8.5, and 6.3 years, respectively.

Conclusions: The effect of ischemic time on survival after heart transplantation is dependent on donor age, with greater tolerance for prolonged ischemic times among grafts from younger donors. Both donor age and anticipated ischemic time must be considered when assessing a potential donor.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007;133:554-9

Part Two

Procedures Outcomes of Heart Transplant (HT) Indication for Heart Failure (HF)

  • Center for Heart Failure @Cleveland Clinic, and

  • Transplant Center @Mayo Clinic

 

Center for Heart Failure @Cleveland Clinic: Institution Profile

Heart failure (sometimes called congestive heart failure or ventricular dysfunction) means your heart muscle is not functioning as well as it should. Either the left ventricle (lower chamber of the heart) is not contracting with enough force (systolic heart failure), or the ventricles are stiff and do not relax and fill properly (diastolic heart failure). The treatment of heart failure requires a specialized multidisciplinary approach to manage the overall patient care plan.

The George M and Linda H Kaufman Center for Heart Failure is one of the premier facilities in the United States for the care of people with heart failure.

  • The Kaufman Center Heart Failure Intensive Care was the recipient of the Beacon Award of Excellence for continuing improvements in providing the highest quality of care for patients. With over 6,000 ICUs in the Unites States, the Center joins a distinguished group of just 300 to receive this honor that recognizes the highest level of standards in patient safety and quality in acute and critical care.
  • In 2011, Cleveland Clinic received the American Heart Association’s Get With The Guidelines Heart Failure GOLD Plus Certification for improving the quality of care for heart failure patients. Gold Plus distinction recognizes hospitals for their success in using Get With The Guidelines treatment interventions. This quality improvement program provides tools that follow proven, evidence-based guidelines and procedures in caring for heart failure patients to prevent future hospitalizations.

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/heart/departments-centers/heart-failure.aspx

The Kaufman Center for Heart Failure Team brings together clinicians that specialize in cardiomyopathies and ischemic heart failure. The team includes physicians and nurses from Cardiovascular Medicine, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Radiology, Infectious Disease, Immunology, Pathology, Pharmacy, Biothetics and Social Work with expertise in diagnostic testing, medical and lifestyle management, surgical procedures, and psychosocial support for patients with:

Please note Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is treated by our Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Center.

Patients at Cleveland Clinic Kaufman Center for Heart Failure have available to them the full array of diagnostic testing, treatments and specialized programs.

»Services Provided for Heart Failure Patients
»Specialized Programs for Heart Failure
http://my.clevelandclinic.org/heart/departments-centers/heart-failure.aspx

Outcomes of Heart Failure and Heart Transplant @Cleveland Clinic

1,570 Number of heart transplants performed at Cleveland Clinic since inception of the Cardiac Transplant Program in 1984.

The survival rates among patients who have heart transplants at Cleveland Clinic exceeds the expected rates. Of the 150 transplant centers in the United States, Cleveland Clinic is one of only three that had better-than-expected one-year survival rates in 2011.

Ventricular Assist Device Volume 2007 – 2011

2007 – N = 23

2008 – N = 48

2009 – N = 76

2010 – N = 51

2011 – N = 56

Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices are used in patients with heart failure to preserve heart function until transplantation (bridge-to-transplant) or as a final treatment option (destination therapy). Cleveland Clinic has more than 20 years of experience with MCS devices for both types of therapy.

LVAD In-Hospital Mortality 2007 – 2011

Cleveland Clinic continues to make improvements to reduce mortality rates among patients who are placed on mechanical circulatory support. The mortality rate among patients who have a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has been drastically reduced over the past five years.5% in 2011

VAD Mortality 2011

The mortality rate among Cleveland Clinic patients placed on ventricular assist devices (VADs) was much lower than expected in 2011. Observed 10%, Expected 17.5%

Heart Failure – National Hospital Quality Measures

This composite metric, based on four heart failure hospital quality process measures developed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), shows the percentage of patients who received all the recommended care for which they were eligible. Cleveland Clinic has set a target of UHC’s 90th percentile.

Cleveland Clinic, 2010 (N = 1,194) 93.9%

Cleveland Clinic, 2011 (N = 1,163) 96.9%

UHC Top Decile, 2011 99.2%

SOURCE

University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) Comparative Database, January through November 2011 discharges.

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) calculates two heart failure outcome measures: all-cause mortality and all-cause readmission rates, each based on Medicare claims and enrollment information. Cleveland Clinic’s performance appears below.

Heart Failure All-Cause 30-Day Mortality (N = 762)  July 2008 – June 2011

Cleveland Clinic 9.2%

National Average 11.6%

Heart Failure All-Cause 30-Day Readmission (N = 1,029)  July 2008 – June 2011

Cleveland Clinic 27.3%

National Average 24.7%

SOURCE:

hospitalcompare.hhs.gov

Cleveland Clinic’s heart failure risk-adjusted 30-day mortality rate is below the national average; the difference is statistically significant. Our heart failure risk-adjusted readmission rate is higher than the national average; that difference is also statistically significant. To further reduce this rate, a multidisciplinary team was tasked with improving transitions from hospital to home or post-acute care facility. Specific initiatives have been implemented in each of these focus areas: communication, education and follow-up.

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/Documents/outcomes/2011/outcomes-hvi-2011.pdf

Lung and Heart-Lung Transplant

In 2011, 51% of lung transplant patients were from outside the state of Ohio.

Cleveland Clinic surgeons transplanted 111 lungs in 2011. Our Lung and Heart-Lung Transplant

Program is the leader in Ohio and among the best programs in the country.

July 2010 – June 2011

160 Performed in 2009

Liver-Lung

Heart-Lung

Double Lung

Single Lung

53.5% Idiopathic

Primary Disease of Lung Transplant Recipients (N = 101)

Source: Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. March 2011. Ohio, Lung Centers, Cleveland Clinic. Table 7

Cleveland Clinic surgeons transplanted 111 lungs in 2011. Our Lung and Heart-Lung Transplant Program is the leader in Ohio and among the best programs in the country.

July 2010 – June 2011

53.5% Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (N = 54)

26.7% Emphysema/Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (N = 27)

9.9% Cystic Fibrosis (N = 10)

6.9% Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (N = 7)

3.0% Other (N = 3)

Peripheral Vascular Diseases

Lower Extremity Interventional

Procedure Volume

2011

Angioplasty 451

Atherectomy 74

Stenting 260

Thrombolysis 91

Lower Extremity Surgery Volume and Mortality (N = 303)

A total of 229 lower extremity bypass surgeries were performed in 2011. The 30-day

mortality rate was 0 percent. Cleveland Clinic’s vascular surgeons have expertise in this area

and strive to use autologous vein grafts.

2011 Volume

Bypass 229

Thrombectomy 74

2011 30-Day Mortality (%)

Bypass 0%

Noninvasive Vascular Lab Ultrasound Study Distribution (N = 36,775)

2011

The Noninvasive Vascular Laboratory provides service seven days a week to diagnose arterial and

venous disorders throughout the vascular tree and for follow-up after revascularization procedures,

such as bypass grafts and stents. In 2011, 36,775 vascular lab studies were performed.

47% Venous Duplex (N = 17,284)

36% Arterial Duplex (N = 13,239)

17% Physiologic Testing (N = 6,252)

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/Documents/outcomes/2011/outcomes-hvi-2011.pdf

Transplant Center @Mayo Clinic: Heart Transplant Procedures Outcomes

Mayo Clinic History

Dr. W.W. Mayo with a horse and carriage.

Dr. W.W. Mayo

Portrait of the two Mayo brothers.

Drs. William (left) and Charles Mayo

Mayo Clinic developed gradually from the medical practice of a pioneer doctor, Dr. William Worrall Mayo, who settled in Rochester, Minn., in 1863. His dedication to medicine became a family tradition when his sons, Drs. William James Mayo and Charles Horace Mayo, joined his practice in 1883 and 1888, respectively.

From the beginning, innovation was their standard and they shared a pioneering zeal for medicine. As the demand for their services increased, they asked other doctors and basic science researchers to join them in the world’s first private integrated group practice.

Although the Mayo doctors were initially viewed as unconventional for practicing medicine through this teamwork approach, the benefits of a private group practice were undeniable.

As the success of their method of practice became evident, so did its acceptance. Patients discovered the advantages to a “pooled resource” of knowledge and skills among doctors. In fact, the group practice concept that the Mayo family originated has influenced the structure and function of medical practice throughout the world.

Along with its recognition as a model for integrated group practice, “the Mayos’ Clinic” developed a reputation for excellence in individual patient care. Doctors and students came from around the world to learn new techniques from the Mayo doctors, and patients came from around the world for diagnosis and treatment. What attracted them was not only technologically advanced medicine, but also the caring attitude of the doctors.

Through the years, Mayo Clinic has nurtured and developed its founders’ style of working together as a team. Shared responsibility and consensus still provide the framework for decision making at Mayo.

That teamwork in medicine is carried out today by more than 55,000 doctors, nurses, scientists, students and allied health staff at Mayo Clinic locations in the Midwest, Arizona and Florida.

http://www.mayoclinic.org/history/

http://www.mayoclinic.org/tradition-heritage-artifacts/2-1.html

2013 – Transplant Center @ Mayo Clinic:

Alternative Solutions to Treatment of Heart Failure

Mayo Clinic, with transplant services in Arizona, Florida and Minnesota, performs more transplants than any other medical center in the world. Mayo Clinic has pre-eminent adult and pediatric transplant programs, offering cardiac, liver, kidney, pancreas and bone marrow transplant services. Since performing the first clinical transplant in 1963, Mayo’s efforts to continually improve and expand organ transplantation have placed Mayo at the leading edge of clinical and basic transplant research worldwide. Research activities in the Transplant Center at Mayo Clinic have contributed significantly to the current successful outcomes of organ transplantation.

Transplant research articles

  1. Innovation in transplant surgical techniques
  2. Intestinal transplantation
  3. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy
  4. Living-donor transplantation
  5. Mayo Clinic launches hand transplant program
  6. Multidisciplinary team approach
  7. Multiorgan transplants
  8. Paired kidney donation
  9. Pediatric services in transplant
  10. Regenerative medicine
  11. Toward a bioartificial liver: Buying time, boosting hope

VIEW VIDEO on LVAD

VIEW VIDEO on  Mayo Clinic Heart Attack Study
People who survive a heart attack face the greatest risk of dying from sudden cardiac death (SCD) during the first month after leaving the hospital, according to a long-term community study by Mayo Clinic researchers of nearly 3,000 heart attack survivors.
Sudden cardiac death can happen when the hearts electrical system malfunctions; if treatment — cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation — does not happen fast, a person dies.
After that first month, the risk of sudden cardiac death drops significantly — but rises again if a person experiences signs of heart failure. The research results appear in the Nov. 5 edition of Journal of the American Medical Association.
Veronique Roger, M.D., a Mayo Clinic cardiologist provides an overview of the study and it’s findings.
For more information on heart attacks, click on the following link:http://www.mayoclinic.org/heart-attack/

VIEW VIDEO on Mayo Clinic Regenerative Medicine Consult Service – Stem Cell Transplantation post MI

In a proof-of-concept study, Mayo Clinic investigators have demonstrated that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be used to treat heart disease. iPS cells are stem cells converted from adult cells. In this study, the researchers reprogrammed ordinary fibroblasts, cells that contribute to scars such as those resulting from a heart attack, converting them into stem cells that fix heart damage caused by infarction. The findings appear in the current online issue of the journal Circulation.
Timothy Nelson, M.D., Ph.D., first author on the Mayo Clinic study, talks about the study and it’s findings.

Heart Transplant: Volumes and success measures Transplant Center@ Mayo Clinic

Mayo Clinic doctors’ experience and integrated team approach results in transplant outcomes that compare favorably with national averages. Teams work with transplant recipients before, during and after surgery to ensure the greatest likelihood of superior results.

Volumes and statistics are maintained separately for the three Mayo Clinic locations. Taken together or separately, transplant recipients at Mayo Clinic enjoy excellent results.

Volumes

Arizona

More than 100 heart transplants have been completed since the program began in 2005.

Florida

Surgeons at Mayo Clinic in Florida have performed more than 167 heart transplants and eight heart-lung transplants since the program began in 2001. Mayo surgeons have performed combined transplants, such as heart-kidney and heart-lung-liver transplants.

Minnesota

Mayo Clinic’s outcomes for heart transplantation compare favorably with national norms. Doctors at Mayo Clinic in Minnesota have transplanted more than 450 adult and pediatric patients, including both isolated heart transplants and combined transplants such as heart-liver, heart-kidney and others.

Success Measures

Heart Transplant Patient Survival — Adult

  1. Arizona

Mayo Clinic Hospital
(Phoenix, AZ)

  1. 1-month survival: 97.50%(n=40) • 2009-2011
  2. 1-year survival: 94.63%(n=40) • 2009-2011
  3. 3-year survival: 82.22%(n=45) • 2006-2008
  4. n = number of patients

National Average

  1. 1-month survival: 95.89%
  2. 1-year survival: 90.21%
  3. 3-year survival: 81.79%

Source: Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, July 2012

  1. Florida

Mayo Clinic Hospital**
(Jacksonville, FL)

  1. 1-month survival: 95.08%(n=61) • 2009-2011
  2. 1-year survival: 91.50%(n=61) • 2009-2011
  3. 3-year survival: 81.82%(n=44) • 2006-2008
  4. n = number of patients
  5. **Surgeries before April 11, 2008, were performed at St. Luke’s Hospital in Jacksonville, FL.

National Average

  1. 1-month survival: 95.89%
  2. 1-year survival: 90.21%
  3. 3-year survival: 81.79%

Source: Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, July 2012

  1. Minnesota

Saint Marys Hospital
(Mayo Clinic)

  1. 1-month survival: 95.83%(n=48) • 2009-2011
  2. 1-year survival: 95.83%(n=48) • 2009-2011
  3. 3-year survival: 82.61%(n=46) • 2006-2008
  4. n = number of patients

National Average

  1. 1-month survival: 95.89%
  2. 1-year survival: 90.21%
  3. 3-year survival: 81.79%

Source: Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, July 2012

Heart Transplant Patient Survival — Children

  1. Minnesota

Saint Marys Hospital
(Mayo Clinic)

  1. 1-month survival: 100.00%(n=5) • 2009-2011
  2. 1-year survival: 100.00%(n=5) • 2009-2011
  3. 3-year survival: 60.00%(n=5) • 2006-2008
  4. n = number of patients

National Average

  1. 1-month survival: 96.38%
  2. 1-year survival: 91.31%
  3. 3-year survival: 82.93%

Source: Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, July 2012

Heart Donor Organ (Graft) Survival — Adult

  1. Arizona

Mayo Clinic Hospital
(Phoenix, AZ)

  1. 1-month survival: 97.56%(n=41) • 2009-2011
  2. 1-year survival: 94.77%(n=41) • 2009-2011
  3. 3-year survival: 82.22%(n=45) • 2006-2008
  4. n = number of patients

National Average

  1. 1-month survival: 95.71%
  2. 1-year survival: 89.91%
  3. 3-year survival: 80.92%

Source: Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, July 2012

  1. Florida
  2. Mayo Clinic Hospital**
    (Jacksonville, FL)

    1. 1-month survival: 95.08%(n=61) • 2009-2011
    2. 1-year survival: 91.50%(n=61) • 2009-2011
    3. 3-year survival: 80.00%(n=45) • 2006-2008
    4. n = number of patients
    5. **Surgeries before April 11, 2008, were performed at St. Luke’s Hospital in Jacksonville, FL.

    National Average

    1. 1-month survival: 95.71%
    2. 1-year survival: 89.91%
    3. 3-year survival: 80.92%

Source: Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, July 2012

  1. Minnesota

Saint Marys Hospital
(Mayo Clinic)

  1. 1-month survival: 93.88%(n=49) • 2009-2011
  2. 1-year survival: 93.88%(n=49) • 2009-2011
  3. 3-year survival: 82.61%(n=46) • 2006-2008
  4. n = number of patients

National Average

  1. 1-month survival: 95.71%
  2. 1-year survival: 89.91%
  3. 3-year survival: 80.92%

Source: Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, July 2012

Heart-Lung Transplant Patient Survival — Adult

  1. Florida

Mayo Clinic Hospital**
(Jacksonville, FL)

  1. 1-month survival: 0.00%(n=0) • 2009-2011
  2. 1-year survival: 0.00%(n=0) • 2009-2011
  3. 3-year survival: 0.00%(n=1) • 2006-2008
  4. n = number of patients
  5. **Surgeries before April 11, 2008, were performed at St. Luke’s Hospital in Jacksonville, FL.

National Average

  1. 1-month survival: 89.04%
  2. 1-year survival: 80.12%
  3. 3-year survival: 56.36%

Source: Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, July 2012

  1. Minnesota

Saint Marys Hospital
(Mayo Clinic)

  1. 1-month survival: 100.00%(n=2) • 2009-2011
  2. 1-year survival: 100.00%(n=2) • 2009-2011
  3. 3-year survival: 100.00%(n=1) • 2006-2008
  4. n = number of patients

National Average

  1. 1-month survival: 89.04%
  2. 1-year survival: 80.12%
  3. 3-year survival: 56.36%

Source: Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, July 2012

Heart-Lung Donor Organ (Graft) Survival — Adult

  1. Florida

Mayo Clinic Hospital**
(Jacksonville, FL)

  1. 1-month survival: 0.00%(n=0) • 2009-2011
  2. 1-year survival: 0.00%(n=0) • 2009-2011
  3. 3-year survival: 0.00%(n=1) • 2006-2008
  4. n = number of patients
  5. **Surgeries before April 11, 2008, were performed at St. Luke’s Hospital in Jacksonville, FL.

National Average

  1. 1-month survival: 89.04%
  2. 1-year survival: 80.02%
  3. 3-year survival: 57.93%

Source: Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, July 2012

  1. Minnesota

Saint Marys Hospital
(Mayo Clinic)

  1. 1-month survival: 100.00%(n=2) • 2009-2011
  2. 1-year survival: 100.00%(n=2) • 2009-2011
  3. 3-year survival: 100.00%(n=1) • 2006-2008
  4. n = number of patients

National Average

  1. 1-month survival: 89.04%
  2. 1-year survival: 80.02%
  3. 3-year survival: 57.93%

Source: Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, July 2012

 

Part Three

Research  on Heart Transplant (HT) and Alternative Solutions Indicated for Heart Failure (HF)

  • Center for Heart Failure @Cleveland Clinic, and

  • Transplant Center @Mayo Clinic

The Editorial decision to focus on Research on Heart Transplant (HT) and Alternative Solutions Indicated for Heart Failure (HF) is covered in 

Chapter 5

Invasive Procedures by Surgery versus Catheterization

and had yielded one Sub-Chapter (5.8)  The Human Heart & Heart-Lung Transplant. This Sub-Chapter deals with

  • Heart Failure – Organ Transplant: The Human Heart & Heart-Lung Transplant,
  • Implantable Assist Devices and the Artificial Heart,

This Chapter 5 is in Volume Three in a forthcoming three volume Series of e-Books on Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiovascular Diseases: Causes, Risks and Management

The Center for Heart Failure @Cleveland Clinic’s, and the Transplant Center @Mayo Clinic’s Institutions Profiles, Procedures Outcomes and Selection of their Research are  now in: 

Volume Three

Management of Cardiovascular Diseases

Justin D. Pearlman MD ME PhD MA FACC, Editor

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence, Los Angeles

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Editor-in-Chief BioMed E-Book Series

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence, Boston

avivalev-ari@alum.berkeley.edu

5.8  The Human Heart & Heart-Lung Transplant, Implantable Assist Devices and the Artificial Heart

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

5.8.3 Mechanical Circulatory Assist Devices as a Bridge to Heart Transplantation or as “Destination Therapy“: Options for Patients in Advanced Heart Failure

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

5.8.4 Heart Transplantation: NHLBI’s Ten year Strategic Research Plan to Achieving Evidence-based Outcomes

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

5.8.5 Orthotropic Heart Transplant (OHT): Effects of Autonomic Innervation / Denervation on Atrial Fibrillation (AF) Genesis and Maintenance

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

5.8.6 After Cardiac Transplantation: Sirolimus acts asimmunosuppressant Attenuates Allograft Vasculopathy

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

5.8.7 Prognostic Marker Importance of Troponin I in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF)

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

5.8.8 Alternative Models of Artificial Hearts PENDING 

Larry H. Bernstein, Justin D. Pearlman, and A. Lev-Ari

From other Sub-Chapters in Chapter 5:

5.6.1 The Cardio-Renal Syndrome (CRS) in Heart Failure (HF)

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

5.4.3 Heart Remodeling by Design – Implantable Synchronized Cardiac Assist Device:Abiomed’s Symphony | Comments

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

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Becoming a Cardiothoracic Surgeon: An Emerging Profile in the Surgery Theater and through Scientific Publications 

Author and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Two components of an Emerging Profile of a Young Cardiothoracic Surgeon were researched by the Author for the case of  Dr. Isaac George, Assistant Professor of Surgery, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center , New York, NY.

The two components being:

1. the Cardiothoracic Surgery Theater

2. the Scientific Publications

I noted with interest Dr. George’s second publication, to be about a very well known surgeon in the US and Europe, John Benjamin Murphy. written by Dr. George and two other colleagues,  George I, Hardy MA, Widmann WD. published in Curr Surg. 2004 Sep-Oct;61(5):439-41.

Dr. Murphy, is best remembered for the eponymous clinical sign that is used in evaluating patients with acute cholecystitis. His career spanned general surgery, orthopedicsneurosurgery, and cardiothoracic surgery, which helped him to gain international prominence in the surgical profession. Mayo Clinic co-founder William James Mayo called him “the surgical genius of our generation.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Benjamin_Murphy 

[Musana, Kenneth and Steven H. Yale (May 2005). “John Benjamin Murphy (1857–1916)”. Clinical Medicine & Research. Retrieved 2008-05-16.]

I assume that Dr. Murphy’s contributions to Thoracic surgery were of interest to Dr. George to inspire him to write on the subject and elect that Specialty in Surgery.

Murphy was first in the U.S. to induce (1898) artificial immobilization and collapse of the lung in treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. He was a pioneer in the use of bone grafting and made contributions to the understanding and management of ankylosis as well as independently proposing artificial pneumothorax to manage unilateral lung disease in tuberculosis.

        «It is the purpose of every man’s life to do something worthy of the recognition and appreciation of his fellow men. . . . By their superior intellectual qualifications, their fidelity to purpose and above all their indefatigable labour the few become leaders.»

Journal of the American Medical Association, Chicago, 1911, 57: 1.

SOURCE Whonamedit? A dictionary of medical eponyms, John Benjamin Murphy

I came across Dr. Isaac George’s name while researching clinical indications for Inhaled Nitric Oxide in June 2013, upon the recent publication of Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence FIRST e-Book on  Amazon (Biomed e-Books) [Kindle  Edition]

Perspectives on Nitric Oxide in  Disease  Mechanisms
http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00DINFFYC

Dr. George’s article on Outcomes After Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy was particularly useful in my own research on the topic,

Clinical Indications for Use of Inhaled Nitric Oxide (iNO) in the Adult Patient Market: Clinical Outcomes after Use of iNO in the Institutional Market,  Therapy Demand and Cost of Care vs. Existing Supply Solutions

Being myself in Analytics and quantitative model design, 1976-2004, I found of particular interest the range of quantitative methodologies used in the following article by Isaac George, assuming that his days at MIT, came very handy in 2006:

George, Isaac, Xydas, Steve, Topkara, Veli K., Ferdinando, Corrina, Barnwell, Eileen C., Gableman, Larissa, Sladen, Robert N., Naka, Yoshifumi, Oz, Mehmet C.
Clinical Indication for Use and Outcomes After Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy
Ann Thorac Surg 2006 82: 2161-2169

As a result of studying this article, I became aware that it has impacted  favorably my 6/2013, Editorial decision, for  a forthcoming book on Cardiovascular Disease in 2013. The Editorial decision regarding the selection and representation of  prominent Cardiothoracic Surgery Theater in the US, and my personal decision to select a Young Cardiothoracic Surgeon

Dr. Isaac George, Assistant Professor of Surgery, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY

Education Profile and Medical Training of a Cardiac Surgeon


Isaac George, MD

Positions and Appointments

2012-present Attending Surgeon, Heart Valve Center
NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY
2012-present Assistant Professor of Surgery
Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center , New York, NY

Clinical Specialties

Adult aortic and mitral valve surgery
Transcatheter aortic and mitral valve implantation
Hybrid coronary artery bypass surgery
Complex aortic surgery
Complex valvular surgery
Heart failure and transplant surgery
Reoperative cardiac surgery
Thoracic aortic endograft implantation

Research Interests

Director, Cardiac Surgery Research Lab

1. Regulation of myostatin signaling in human cardiomyopathy

2. TGFB regulation in non-syndromic aortic aneurysm formation

3. Valve interstitial cell activation mechanisms after surgical and transcatheter valve replacement

4. Clinical outcomes after valve and hybrid surgery

Education and Training

2011-2012 Interventional Cardiology/Hybrid Cardiac Surgery Fellowship
New York Presbyterian Hospital – Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY
2011 Ventricular Assist Device/Cardiac Transplant Fellowship, Minimally Invasive, Cardiac Surgery
New York Presbyterian Hospital – Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY
2009-2011 Fellow, Cardiothoracic Surgery
New York Presbyterian Hospital – Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY
2008-2009 Post-Doctoral Clinical Fellow, Cardiothoracic Surgery
New York Presbyterian Hospital – Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY
2006-2008 Resident, General Surgery
New York Presbyterian Hospital – Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY
2004-2006 Research Fellow, Cardiothoracic Surgery
New York Presbyterian Hospital – Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY
2002-2004 Resident, General Surgery
New York Presbyterian Hospital – Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY
2001-2002 Internship, General Surgery
New York Presbyterian Hospital – Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY
1997-2001 MD, Medicine
Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC
1993-1997 BS, Mechanical Engineering
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

Board Certifications

American Board of Thoracic Surgery, 2012-
American Board of Surgery, 2008-
Certification, Pediatric Advanced Life Support, 2008-
Certification, Advanced Trauma Life Support, 2006-
MD, State of New York, 2005-
Certification, Advanced Cardiac Life Support/Basic Life Support, 2001-
United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 3, 2004
United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2, 2001
United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1, 2000

Professional Honors

2008 Blakemore Prize – Best Resident Research Award, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

2007 Blakemore Award – Best Resident Research Award, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

2006 Blakemore Award – Best Resident Research Award, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

2004 New Era Cardiac Surgery Conference Scholarship

1995 Pi Tau Sigma, Mechanical Engineering Honor Society

1993 Duke University Comprehensive Cancer Center Fellowship

Professional Societies and Committees

2011 Faculty, Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics (TCT) Annual Symposium

2010- Candidate Member, Society of Thoracic Surgeons

2010- Fellow-in-Training, American College of Cardiology, Surgeons Council

2005-06 American Society of Artificial Internal Organs

2004- Member, American Heart Association

1997-01 Member, American Medical Association

SOURCE http://asp.cpmc.columbia.edu/facdb/profile_list.asp?uni=ig2006&DepAffil=Surgery

The decision to focus on Cardiothoracic Surgery @Presbeterian as described in Dr. Isaac George’s research had yielded one Sub-Chapter (4.1) in Chapter 4

Cardiac Surgery, Cardiothoracic Surgical Procedures and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)/Coronary Angioplasty  – Heart and Cardiovascular Medical Devices in Use in Operating Rooms and in Catheterization Labs in the US

in Volume Three in a forthcoming three volume Series of e-Books on Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiovascular Diseases: Causes, Risks and Management

This very Sub-Chapter represents milestones in Dr. Isaac George – Becoming a Cardiothoracic Surgeon: An Emerging Profile through Scientific Publications, This profile is now in: 

 

Volume Three

Management of Cardiovascular Diseases

Justin D. Pearlman MD ME PhD MA FACC, Editor

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence, Los Angeles

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Editor-in-Chief BioMed E-Book Series

Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence, Boston

avivalev-ari@alum.berkeley.edu

Chapter 5

Invasive Procedures by Surgery versus Catheterization

 

5.1 Cardiothoracic Surgery 

5.1.1 Becoming a Cardiothoracic Surgeon: An Emerging Profile in the Surgery Theater and through Scientific Publications

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

5.2: Catheter Interventions

5.2.2 Survivals Comparison of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) / Coronary Angioplasty

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

5.3: Transcatheter (Percutaneous) Valves

5.3.1 Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR): Postdilatation to Reduce Paravalvular Regurgitation During TAVR with a Balloon-expandable Valve

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

5.3.2 Trans-apical Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in a Patient with Severe and Complex Left Main Coronary Artery Disease (LMCAD)

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

5.4: Transcatheter (Percutaneous) Pumps

5.4.1  Ventricular Assist Device (VAD): Recommended Approach to the Treatment of Intractable Cardiogentic Shock

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

5.4.2 Phrenic Nerve Stimulation in Patients with Cheyne-Stokes Respiration and Congestive Heart Failure

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Content Analysis of  Surgeon Isaac George, MD – Publications on PubMed

SOURCE

Original classification by Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, 7/8/2013

Title

Journal

Year

CABG
Stent

Valves
Bio

material
TAVR MVR

End stage

HF

AMI

shock

Congen
Genet

Animal

Model

Heart &
Heart-Lung
Transpl

Stent exteriorization

CCI

13

X

Left Main Coronary

CCI

13

X

TAVR-MVR

JACC

13

X

Paravalvular

CVI

13

X

Cardiogenic Shock

Heart-Lung

12

X

Cheyne-Stokes

Chest

12

X

Myostatin

PlusOne

11

X

Aortic Root & RV

ATS

11

X

Beta-Adrenergic

CV Research

11

X

Erythropoietin

LV  Systolic

J CV

Pharmacol

10

X

Myostatin & HF

Eur J

Heart Failure

10

X

Stentless in valve conduit

ATS

09

X

BNP peptide-

infusion-post MI

Am J Physiol-

Heart Circ

Physiology

09

X

Marginal donor heart

ATS

09

X

Device-surface & Immunogenic

J Thoracic

CV Surg

08

X

Myocardial

electromagnetic

J Cell Physiol

08

X

Clenbuterol-

muscle-mass

J Heart- Lung Transplant

08

X

Bradycardic LV

J Pharmacol Exper Therap

07

X

Ischemia- post

Heart Transplant

J Thoracic

CV Surgery

07

X

Octogen CABG

ATS

07

X

Ventricular synchrony

Eup J Cardio-thoracic Surg

07

X

Inhaled NO

ATS

06

X

X

Adult heart-donor-

to-pediatric

J Thoracic

CV Surg

06

X

Clenbuterol

on LVAD

J Heart-Lung Transplant

06

X

LV-CA stent

Heart Surg

Forum

06

X

LVAD myocarditis

J Thoracic

CV Surg

06

X

MI-Ischemia

Am J Physiol-

Ht-Circ Physiol

06

X

It is the unique combination of Animal Model Research, Biomaterial, Surgical Procedures and Molecular Cardiology, N=33.

Cardiothoracic Surgeon: An Emerging Profile in the Surgery Theater

Isaac George, MD – Clinical Specialties 

  • Adult aortic and mitral valve surgery
  • Transcatheter aortic and mitral valve implantation
  • Hybrid coronary artery bypass surgery
  • Complex aortic surgery
  • Complex valvular surgery
  • Heart failure and transplant surgery
  • Reoperative cardiac surgery
  • Thoracic aortic endograft implantation

 

VIDEOS on CardioThoracic Surgery @ Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York City

VIEW VIDEO on the new Heart Center @ Presbyterian Hospital

http://videos.nyp.org/videos/introduction-to-the-vivian-and-seymour-milstein-family-heart-center

VIEW VIDEO on the two Hybrid OR with Siemens Artis Zeego Technology

http://videos.nyp.org/videos/tour-a-hybrid-or-with-siemens-artis-zeego-technology

VIEW VIDEO on Mininally Invesive and Conventional Therapy for Aortic Dissection and Aneurysms – Hybrid Surgery Case

http://videos.nyp.org/videos/thoracic-innovations-in-minimally-invasive-and-conventional-therapy-for-aortic-dissection-and-aneurysms

VIEW VIDEO on Mitral Valve Repair and Replacement – Dr. Karl H. Krieger

Dr. Karl H. Krieger, the Vice Chairman of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York City, discusses treatment for Mitral Valve Disease. Specifically, Dr. Krieger compares the options of Mitral Valve Repair with Mitral Valve Replacement.

This video with Dr. Krieger is from a web cast at the Ronald O. Perelman Heart Institute at NewYork-Presbyterian.

VIEW VIDEO on Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVADs) – Dr. Jonathan Chen

Dr. Jonathan Chen, the Site Chief for Pediatric Cardiac Surgery at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York City, explains how Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVADs) work and how they can benefit patients with heart failure.

LVADs are implantable devices that help the heart pump blood. They can be used as a temporary therapy, allowing patients’ hearts to rest while they recover from cardiac events such as heart attacks, or while they wait for hearts to become available for transplants. For some patients whose hearts are unlikely to recover and are not candidates for heart transplants, the devices may be used as a permanent therapy. Heart failure, especially in severe forms, can force patients to lead restricted lives because often even very limited physical activity, such as walking from one room to another, will leave them breathless.

Dr. Chen is a pediatric cardiothoracic surgeon, yet the information in the video is applicable to adult patients as well.

VIEW VIDEO on Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation @ Presbyterian Hospital

http://videos.nyp.org/videos/chapter-3-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation

Heart, Heart-Lung Transplantation @ Presbyterian Hospital

Organ transplantation that prolongs and dramatically improves quality of life is nearly a daily occurrence at Columbia University Medical Center.

The success of solid organ transplantation – with improved surgical techniques, replacement organ procurement, and medical management – is advancing each year. Many of these advances have resulted from scientific and clinical research conducted at Columbia University Medical Center.

A Brief History of Transplantation at Columbia

Transplantation: Where we’ve been, where we’re going

Transplantation: Where we've been, where we're going
Eric A. Rose, MD, former chairman of the department of surgery, left center, performing the first successful pediatric heart transplant in 1984. Transplant pioneer Keith Reemtsma, MD, who is overseeing the operating field (top of photo).

When he transplanted a chimpanzee kidney into a human patient in the late 1960’s, the late Keith Reemtsma, MD, then Department of Surgery Chairman at Tulane University, revolutionized treatment of end-stage organ failure and initiated an era of unprecedented exploration into organ transplantation that would affect the lives of patients around the world.

Transferring to Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in 1971, Dr. Reemtsma recruited Mark A. Hardy, MD, who laid another cornerstone of organ transplant medicine by founding the program for dialysis and kidney transplantation. Dr. Hardy based the new program on the principle of collaborative clinical care between surgeons and nephrologists. During a time when renal transplant programs were managed by one or the other discipline but never by both simultaneously, the medical community regarded the concept as folly. Yet the program grew steadily, as did the program’s immune tolerance research initiatives to induce the transplant recipient’s body to accept a donor organ. This multidisciplinary cooperation also led to major contributions in immunogenetics, immunosuppression, and treatment of autoimmune diseases and lymphoma — and it ultimately became the overarching principle for all the NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital transplant services.

Mark A. Hardy, MD

Mark Hardy
Eric Rose
Eric A. Rose, MD
Lloyd Ratner
Lloyd E. Ratner, MD

Colleagues universally give credit to Eric A. Rose, MD, who co-founded the heart transplantation program with Dr. Reemtsma, for his successful transformation of the program into the outstanding center it is today. A parade of achievements marks the history of the heart transplant program, including the first mechanical bridge-totransplantation using intra-aortic balloon pumps in the 1970’s, and the first successful pediatric heart transplant, performed by Dr. Rose in 1984. Under the guidance of Dr. Rose and his successors, the program has pioneered research in immunosuppressant medications, mechanical assist devices, and minimally invasive surgical procedures. It currently performs over 100 heart transplants yearly, with among the highest success rates in the nation.

Also in 2004, Lloyd E. Ratner, MD, succeeded Dr. Hardy as director of the renal and pancreas transplant program. One of the first to perform laparoscopic donor operations, Dr. Ratner has found creative solutions to overcome immune barriers to kidney transplantation. The program now routinely uses extended-criteria donor organs, performs transplants among incompatible donors, and is a leader in coordinating “donor swaps” to maximize availability of compatible donor organs. Since Dr. Ratner’s arrival, Columbia has been designated one of ten regional islet resource centers in the U.S. that isolate and transplant pancreatic cells to treat type 1 diabetes as part of a limited protocol controlled by the FDA. Recent progress in visualization of pancreatic islets using PET technology, under the guidance of Paul Harris, PhD, has been recognized by the scientific community as a milestone in this developing field.

NYPH/Columbia received UNOS approval for pancreatic transplantation in January 2008. Our premier kidney transplant program is facilitating rapid growth of the new pancreatic transplantation program, which overlaps both in its patient population and its surgical and medical expertise. The northeast region of the U.S. has been consistently underserved as far as access to pancreatic transplantation, with relatively few centers serving a disproportionately large metropolitan population. The expanding program at NewYork-Presbyterian now provides much-needed access to patients with end-stage pancreatic disease in New York state, particularly those with the most complex medical and surgical challenges.

Transplantation of cells, rather than organs, is emerging as a therapy with enormous potential. Transplantation of either a patient’s own or a foreign donor’s bone marrow cells, for example, offers hope of regenerating the heart so that patients with heart failure may be able to avoid heart transplantation.

In introducing the transplantation programs, it would be remiss to neglect mention of the yet another dimension in which they excel — education. Physician training is a top priority, and NYPH/Columbia has trained many of the greatest transplant surgeons over the last 20 years, including many of the leaders of transplant programs throughout the U.S.

http://columbiasurgery.org/transplant/history.html

Transplant Initiative

At NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, the Transplant Initiative (TI) has been launched to drive the growth of both clinical and research aspects of transplantation. This multi-year undertaking will involve Departments of Medicine, Pathology, Pediatrics, and Surgery and all of the solid organ transplantation programs, both adult and pediatrics. It is led by its Executive Director, Jean C. Emond, MD.

Although NYP/Columbia is already a national leader in clinical transplantation with respect to volume and patient outcomes, this initiative will further leverage the diverse expertise of its transplant scientists and clinicians.

Heart Transplantation

Approximately 2,200 heart transplants are now performed each year in more than 150 heart transplant centers in the United States. The surgeons and cardiologists of Columbia University Medical Center of NYPH have a long and distinguished history of advancing “standards of care” and the survival rates of our patients by using innovative surgical techniques, by applying our basic scientific research in immunosuppression to the clinical setting, and by inventing and perfecting life-sustaining cardiac assist devices that prolong life while waiting for organ availability.

Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation

Columbia University Medical Center’s lung and heart-lung transplantation program, which began in 1985, is fast approaching its 200th transplant. Performing more than 30 transplants each year, the lung and heart-lung transplant teams have earned a national reputation for excellence. Our world-renowned transplantation researchers have helped lead the way to improvements in care that, nationwide, have increased the long-term survival rate for lung transplantation by 50% over the past seven years. Among those improvements are new immunosuppressive agents, new antibiotics, refined surgical techniques, and a more comprehensive understanding of follow-up care.

http://columbiasurgery.org/transplant/

It is the combination of basic research at the molecular cardiology level, biomaterial, surgical procedures and PUBLICATION of Cases and research results that found me in Dr. George’s territory as a renewed inspiration.

For Author’s training & experience @ MGH – Cardiac Floor – Ellison 11, BWH – CCU, Tower 3 – 12Fl, BIDMC – Acute Surgery, Farr 9, and Texas Heart Institute, Perfusion, Faulkner Hospital – ICU

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/founder/scientific-and-medical-affairs-chronological-cv/

and in Part II, Section IV in

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/07/14/vascular-surgery-position-statement-in-2013-and-contributions-of-a-vascular-surgeon-at-peak-career-richard-paul-cambria-md-chief-division-of-vascular-and-endovascular-surgery-co-director-thoracic/

Surgeon Isaac George, MD – Training in the OR @ Presbyterian Hospital

2011-2012 Interventional Cardiology/Hybrid Cardiac Surgery Fellowship
New York Presbyterian Hospital – Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY
2011 Ventricular Assist Device/Cardiac Transplant Fellowship, Minimally Invasive, Cardiac Surgery
New York Presbyterian Hospital – Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY
2009-2011 Fellow, Cardiothoracic Surgery
New York Presbyterian Hospital – Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY
2008-2009 Post-Doctoral Clinical Fellow, Cardiothoracic Surgery
New York Presbyterian Hospital – Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY
2006-2008 Resident, General Surgery
New York Presbyterian Hospital – Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY
2004-2006 Research Fellow, Cardiothoracic Surgery
New York Presbyterian Hospital – Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY
2002-2004 Resident, General Surgery
New York Presbyterian Hospital – Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY
2001-2002 Internship, General Surgery
New York Presbyterian Hospital – Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY

SOURCE

http://asp.cpmc.columbia.edu/facdb/profile_list.asp?uni=ig2006&DepAffil=Surgery

Surgeon Isaac George, MD – Publications on PubMed

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed

Select item 234757651.

Stent exteriorization facilitates surgical repair for large-bore sheath complications.

George I, Shrikhande G, Williams MR.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2013 Mar 8. doi: 10.1002/ccd.24918. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:

 23475765

[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Related citations

Select item 234131722.

Management of significant left main coronary disease before and after trans-apical transcatheter aortic valve replacement in a patient with severe and complex arterial disease.

Paradis JM, George I, Kodali S.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2013 Feb 14. doi: 10.1002/ccd.24865. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:

 23413172

[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Related citations

Select item 233478683.

Concomitant transcatheter aortic and mitral valve-in-valve replacements using transfemoral devices via the transapical approach: first case in United States.

Paradis JM, Kodali SK, Hahn RT, George I, Daneault B, Koss E, Nazif TM, Leon MB, Williams MR.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2013 Jan;6(1):94-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jcin.2012.07.018. No abstract available.

PMID:

 23347868

[PubMed – in process]

Related citations

Select item 233398414.

Efficacy and safety of postdilatation to reduce paravalvular regurgitation during balloon-expandable transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Daneault B, Koss E, Hahn RT, Kodali S, Williams MR, Généreux P, Paradis JM, George I, Reiss GR, Moses JW, Smith CR, Leon MB.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2013 Feb;6(1):85-91. doi: 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.112.971614. Epub 2013 Jan 22.

PMID:

 23339841

[PubMed – in process]

Related citations

Select item 226080345.

A stepwise progression in the treatment of cardiogenic shock.

Pollack A, Uriel N, George I, Kodali S, Takayama H, Naka Y, Jorde U.

Heart Lung. 2012 Sep-Oct;41(5):500-4. doi: 10.1016/j.hrtlng.2012.03.007. Epub 2012 May 16.

PMID:

 22608034

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Related citations

Select item 223022996.

Transvenous phrenic nerve stimulation in patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration and congestive heart failure: a safety and proof-of-concept study.

Zhang XL, Ding N, Wang H, Augostini R, Yang B, Xu D, Ju W, Hou X, Li X, Ni B, Cao K, George I, Wang J, Zhang SJ.

Chest. 2012 Oct;142(4):927-34.

PMID:

 22302299

[PubMed – in process]

Related citations

Select item 219316167.

Myostatin is elevated in congenital heart disease and after mechanical unloading.

Bish LT, George I, Maybaum S, Yang J, Chen JM, Sweeney HL.

PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e23818. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023818. Epub 2011 Sep 13.

PMID:

 21931616

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Free PMC Article

Related citations

Select item 216199558.

Aortic root and right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction using composite biological valved conduits after failed Ross procedure.

Russo MJ, Easterwood R, Williams MR, George I, Stewart AS.

Ann Thorac Surg. 2011 Jun;91(6):e87-9. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.01.035.

PMID:

 21619955

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Related citations

Select item 214937019.

β-adrenergic receptor blockade reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress and normalizes calcium handling in a coronary embolization model of heart failure in canines.

George I, Sabbah HN, Xu K, Wang N, Wang J.

Cardiovasc Res. 2011 Aug 1;91(3):447-55. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvr106. Epub 2011 Apr 14.

PMID:

 21493701

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Free Article

Related citations

Select item 2088161410.

Erythropoietin derivate improves left ventricular systolic performance and attenuates left ventricular remodeling in rats with myocardial infarct-induced heart failure.

Xu K, George I, Klotz S, Hay I, Xydas S, Zhang G, Cerami A, Wang J.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010 Nov;56(5):506-12. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181f4f05a.

PMID:

 20881614

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Related citations

Select item 2034855011.

Myostatin activation in patients with advanced heart failure and after mechanical unloading.

George I, Bish LT, Kamalakkannan G, Petrilli CM, Oz MC, Naka Y, Sweeney HL, Maybaum S.

Eur J Heart Fail. 2010 May;12(5):444-53. doi: 10.1093/eurjhf/hfq039. Epub 2010 Mar 27.

PMID:

 20348550

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Free PMC Article

Related citations

Select item 1993228712.

Stentless bioprosthesis in a valved conduit: implications for pulmonary reconstruction.

George I, Shah JN, Bacchetta M, Stewart A.

Ann Thorac Surg. 2009 Dec;88(6):2022-4. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2009.04.145.

PMID:

 19932287

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Related citations

Select item 1985873513.

Long-term effects of B-type natriuretic peptide infusion after acute myocardial infarction in a rat model.

George I, Xydas S, Klotz S, Hay I, Ng C, Chang J, Xu K, Li Z, Protter AA, Wu EX, Oz MC, Wang J.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010 Jan;55(1):14-20. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181c5e743.

PMID:

 19858735

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Free PMC Article

Related citations

Select item 1952537314.

Prolonged effects of B-type natriuretic peptide infusion on cardiac remodeling after sustained myocardial injury.

George I, Morrow B, Xu K, Yi GH, Holmes J, Wu EX, Li Z, Protter AA, Oz MC, Wang J.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009 Aug;297(2):H708-17. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00661.2008. Epub 2009 Jun 12.

PMID:

 19525373

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Free PMC Article

Related citations

Select item 1932412915.

Matching high-risk recipients with marginal donor hearts is a clinically effective strategy.

Russo MJ, Davies RR, Hong KN, Chen JM, Argenziano M, Moskowitz A, Ascheim DD, George I, Stewart AS, Williams M, Gelijns A, Naka Y.

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