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Posts Tagged ‘Conditions and Diseases’


New Generation of Platinated Compounds to Circumvent Resistance

Curator/Writer: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs continues to be a major hurdle in the treatment of neoplastic disorders, irregardless if the drug is a member of the cytotoxic “older” drugs or the cytostatic “newer” personalized therapies like the tyrosine kinase inhibitors.  For the platinatum compounds such as cisplatin and carboplatin, which are mainstays in therapeutic regimens for ovarian and certain head and neck cancers, development of resistance is often regarded as the final blow, as new options for these diseases have been limited.

Although there are many mechanisms by which resistance to platinated compounds may develop the purpose of this posting is not to do an in-depth review of this area except to refer the reader to the book   Ovarian Cancer and just to summarize the well accepted mechanisms of cisplatin resistance including:

  • Decreased cellular cisplatin influx
  • Increased cellular cisplatin efflux
  • Increased cellular glutathione and subsequent conjugation, inactivation
  • Increased glutathione-S-transferase activity (GST) and subsequent inactivation, conjugation
  • Increased γ-GGT
  • Increased metallothionenes with subsequent conjugation, inactivation
  • Increased DNA repair: increased excision repair
  • DNA damage tolerance: loss of mismatch repair (MMR)
  • altered cell signaling activities and cell cycle protein expression

Williams, S.J., and Hamilton, T.C. Chemotherapeutic resistance in ovarian cancer. In: S.C. Rubin, and G.P. Sutton (eds.), Ovarian Cancer, pp.34-44. Lippincott, Wilkins, and Williams, New York, 2000.

Also for a great review on clinical platinum resistance by Drs. Maritn, Hamilton and Schilder please see the following Clinical Cancer Research link here.

This curation represents the scientific rationale for the development of a new class of platinated compounds which are meant to circumvent mechanisms of resistance, in this case the loss of mismatch repair (MMR) and increased tolerance to DNA damage.

An early step in the production of cytotoxicity by the important anticancer drug cisplatin and its analog carboplatin is the formation of intra- and inter-strand adducts with tumor cell DNA 1-3. This damage triggers a cascade of events, best characterized by activation of damage-sensing kinases (reviewed in 4), p53 stabilization, and induction of p53-related genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, such as bax and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21waf1/cip1/sdi1 (p21), respectively 5,6. DNA damage significantly induces p21 in various p53 wild-type tumor cell lines, including ovarian carcinoma cells, and this induction is responsible for the cell cycle arrest at G1/S and G2/M borders, allowing time for repair 7,8.  DNA lesions have the ability of  to result in an opening of chromatin structure, allowing for transcription factors to enter 56-58.  Therefore the anti-tumoral ability of cisplatin and other DNA damaging agents is correlated to their ability to bind to DNA and elicit responses, such as DNA breaks or DNA damage responses which ultimately lead to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.  Therefore either repair of such lesions, the lack of recognition of such lesions, or the cellular tolerance of such lesions can lead to resistance of these agents.

resistmech2

Mechanisms of Cisplatin Sensitivity and Resistance. Red arrows show how a DNA lesion results in chemo-sensitivity while the beige arrow show common mechanisms of resistance including increased repair of the lesion, effects on expression patterns, and increased inactivation of the DNA damaging agent by conjugation reactions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

mechPtresistance

 

 

Increased DNA Repair Mechanisms of Platinated Lesion Lead to ChemoResistance

 

DNA_repair_pathways

Description of Different Types of Cellular DNA Repair Pathways. Nucleotide Excision Repair is commonly up-regulated in highly cisplatin resistant cells

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Loss of Mismatch Repair Can Lead to DNA Damage Tolerance

dnadamage tolerance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the following Cancer Research paper Dr. Vaisman in the lab of Dr. Steve Chaney at North Carolina (and in collaboration with Dr. Tom Hamilton) describe how cisplatin resistance may arise from loss of mismatch repair and how oxaliplatin lesions are not recognized by the mismatch repair system.
Cancer Res. 1998 Aug 15;58(16):3579-85.

The role of hMLH1, hMSH3, and hMSH6 defects in cisplatin and oxaliplatin resistance: correlation with replicative bypass of platinum-DNA adducts.

Abstract

Defects in mismatch repair are associated with cisplatin resistance, and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this correlation. It is hypothesized that futile cycles of translesion synthesis past cisplatin-DNA adducts followed by removal of the newly synthesized DNA by an active mismatch repair system may lead to cell death. Thus, resistance to platinum-DNA adducts could arise through loss of the mismatch repair pathway. However, no direct link between mismatch repair status and replicative bypass ability has been reported. In this study, cytotoxicity and steady-state chain elongation assays indicate that hMLH1 or hMSH6 defects result in 1.5-4.8-fold increased cisplatin resistance and 2.5-6-fold increased replicative bypass of cisplatin adducts. Oxaliplatin adducts are not recognized by the mismatch repair complex, and no significant differences in bypass of oxaliplatin adducts in mismatch repair-proficient and -defective cells were found. Defects in hMSH3 did not alter sensitivity to, or replicative bypass of, either cisplatin or oxaliplatin adducts. These observations support the hypothesis that mismatch repair defects in hMutL alpha and hMutS alpha, but not in hMutS beta, contribute to increased net replicative bypass of cisplatin adducts and therefore to drug resistance by preventing futile cycles of translesion synthesis and mismatch correction.

 

 

The following are slides I had co-prepared with my mentor Dr. Thomas C. Hamilton, Ph.D. of Fox Chase Cancer Center on DNA Mismatch Repair, Oxaliplatin and Ovarina Cancer.

edinborough2mmrtranslesion1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Multiple Platinum Analogs of Cisplatin (like Oxaliplatin )Had Been Designed to be Sensitive in MMR Deficient Tumors

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mmroxaliplatin

 

 

 

 

 

 

edinborough2ptanalogsresist

 

 

 

 

 

 

edinborough2relresistptanalogsdifflines

 

 

 

 

 

 

edinborough2msimlmh2refract

 

 

 

 

 

 

edinborough2gogoxaliplatintrial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Please see below video on 2015 Nobel Laureates and their work to elucidate the celluar DNA repair mechanisms.

Clinical genetics expert Kenneth Offit gives an overview of Lynch syndrome, a genetic disorder that can cause colon (HNPCC) and other cancers by defects in the MSH2 DNA mismatch repair gene. (View Video)

 

 

References

  1. Johnson, S. W. et al. Relationship between platinum-DNA adduct formation, removal, and cytotoxicity in cisplatin sensitive and resistant human ovarian cancer cells. Cancer Res 54, 5911-5916 (1994).
  2. Eastman, A. The formation, isolation and characterization of DNA adducts produced by anticancer platinum complexes. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 34, 155-166 (1987).
  3. Zhen, W. et al. Increased gene-specific repair of cisplatin interstrand cross-links in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cell lines. Molecular and Cellular Biology 12, 3689-3698 (1992).
  4. Durocher, D. & Jackson, S. P. DNA-PK, ATM and ATR as sensors of DNA damage: variations on a theme? Curr Opin Cell Biol 13, 225-231 (2001).
  5. el-Deiry, W. S. p21/p53, cellular growth control and genomic integrity. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 227, 121-37 (1998).
  6. Ewen, M. E. & Miller, S. J. p53 and translational control. Biochim Biophys Acta 1242, 181-4 (1996).
  7. Gartel, A. L., Serfas, M. S. & Tyner, A. L. p21–negative regulator of the cell cycle. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 213, 138-49 (1996).
  8. Chang, B. D. et al. p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1-induced growth arrest is associated with depletion of mitosis-control proteins and leads to abnormal mitosis and endoreduplication in recovering cells. Oncogene 19, 2165-70 (2000).
  9. Davies, N. P., Hardman, L. C. & Murray, V. The effect of chromatin structure on cisplatin damage in intact human cells. Nucleic Acids Res 28, 2954-2958 (2000).
  10. Vichi, P. et al. Cisplatin- and UV-damaged DNA lure the basal transcription factor TFIID/TBP. Embo J 16, 7444-7456 (1997).
  11. Xiao, G. et al. A DNA damage signal is required for p53 to activate gadd45. Cancer Res 60, 1711-9 (2000).

Other articles in this Open Access Journal on ChemoResistance Include:

Cancer Stem Cells as a Mechanism of Resistance

An alternative approach to overcoming the apoptotic resistance of pancreatic cancer

Mutation D538G – a novel mechanism conferring acquired Endocrine Resistance causes a change in the Estrogen Receptor and Treatment of Breast Cancer with Tamoxifen

Can IntraTumoral Heterogeneity Be Thought of as a Mechanism of Resistance?

Nitric Oxide Mitigates Sensitivity of Melanoma Cells to Cisplatin

Heroes in Medical Research: Barnett Rosenberg and the Discovery of Cisplatin

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Cancer Stem Cells as a Mechanism of Resistance

 

Curator: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

The cancer stem-cell hypothesis proposes the existence of a subset of cells within a heterogeneous tumor cell population that have stem-cell like properties [1], and may be essential for the progression and metastases of epithelial malignancies, by providing a reservoir of cells that self-renew and differentiate into the bulk of the tumor [2]. The stem-cell hypothesis implies that similar genetic regulatory pathways might define critical stem-cell like functions, such as self-renewal and pluripotency, in both normal and cancer stem-cells. Indeed, cancer stem-cells have been identified in many tumor types, such as breast [3], pancreas [4] and ovarian [5], based on screening with cellular markers typically found in normal stem-cells such as CD44, ALDH1, and CD133 (reviewed in [2]). A number of studies have suggested that the expression of these stem-cell markers is correlated with poor prognosis [6-9]. The ability to identify and isolate these populations may have a significant impact on design of individualized therapies.

Great general posts and good review on this site about Cancer Stem Cells, their markers, and ability to target them with chemotherapy can be seen here.

In Focus: Identity of Cancer Stem Cells

In Focus: Targeting of Cancer Stem Cells

Stem Cells and Cancer

 

However, there has been growing acknowledgement of the ability of cancer stem cell populations to resist the cytotoxic effects of most chemotherapeutic agents, including cisplatin, topoisomerase inhibitors, DNA damaging agents, and even tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Indeed, some feel that intrinsic resistance to cytotoxic drugs may be a biological feature of cancer stem cells.

Definitions:

Acquired resistance: a resistance to a particular drug which results following continued exposure to said drug. Can take days (in cases of some TKIs) or months to develop. Acquired resistant cells lines are developed by exposure to increasing drug concentration over a time period (either intermittent exposure or continuous exposure)

Intrinsic resistance: a pre-existing resistance usually termed refractory where cancer cells THAT HAVE NOT BEEN EXPOSED to drug, do not respond to initial drug exposure. Can be seen experimentally in panels of unrelated cancer cells lines isolated from untreated patients which show no cytotoxicity to drug exposure in vitro.

Below is one of the first reports which described the drug resistant phenotype of cancer stem cells in an in vivo (mouse) model of breast cancer with videos.

Cancer Res. 2008 May 1;68(9):3243-50. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-5480.

Cancer stem cells contribute to cisplatin resistance in Brca1/p53-mediated mouse mammary tumors.

Shafee N1, Smith CR, Wei S, Kim Y, Mills GB, Hortobagyi GN, Stanbridge EJ, Lee EY.

Author information

Abstract

The majority of BRCA1-associated breast cancers are basal cell-like, which is associated with a poor outcome. Using a spontaneous mouse mammary tumor model, we show that platinum compounds, which generate DNA breaks during the repair process, are more effective than doxorubicin in Brca1/p53-mutated tumors. At 0.5 mg/kg of daily cisplatin treatment, 80% primary tumors (n = 8) show complete pathologic response. At greater dosages, 100% show complete response (n = 19). However, after 2 to 3 months of complete remission following platinum treatment, tumors relapse and become refractory to successive rounds of treatment. Approximately 3.8% to 8.0% (mean, 5.9%) of tumor cells express the normal mammary stem cell markers, CD29(hi)24(med), and these cells are tumorigenic, whereas CD29(med)24(-/lo) and CD29(med)24(hi) cells have diminished tumorigenicity or are nontumorigenic, respectively. In partially platinum-responsive primary transplants, 6.6% to 11.0% (mean, 8.8%) tumor cells are CD29(hi)24(med); these populations significantly increase to 16.5% to 29.2% (mean, 22.8%; P < 0.05) in platinum-refractory secondary tumor transplants. Further, refractory tumor cells have greater colony-forming ability than the primary transplant-derived cells in the presence of cisplatin. Expression of a normal stem cell marker, Nanog, is decreased in the CD29(hi)24(med) populations in the secondary transplants. Top2A expression is also down-regulated in secondary drug-resistant tumor populations and, in one case, was accompanied by genomic deletion of Top2A. These studies identify distinct cancer cell populations for therapeutic targeting in breast cancer and implicate clonal evolution and expansion of cancer stem-like cells as a potential cause of chemoresistance.

Please Watch Videos

 

Below is a curation of talks and abstracts from the 2015 Annual AACR Meeting in Philadelphia, PA.

The Talk by Dr. Cheresh is an example of this school of thought; that inducing cancer cell stemness can result in development of drug resistance, in this case to a TKI. (For a press release on this finding see here.)

SY27-04: Induction of cancer stemness and drug resistance by EGFR blockade
Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 12:00 PM -12:15 PM
David A. Cheresh. UCSD Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA

SY27-04  
 
Presentation Title: Induction of cancer stemness and drug resistance by EGFR blockade
Presentation Time: Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 12:00 PM -12:15 PM
Abstract Body: Tumor drug resistance is often accompanied by genetic and biological changes in the tumor cell population reflecting the acquisition of a stem-like state. However, it is not clear whether cancer therapies select for the growth of drug resistance cancer stem cells and/or directly induce the reprograming of tumor cells to a cancer stem-like, drug resistance state. We provide evidence that breast, pancreas and lung carcinomas in the presence of prolonged exposure to EGFR inhibitors undergo an epigenetic reprogramming resulting in a drug resistant stem-like tumor population expressing the cell surface marker CD61 (b3 integrin). In fact, CD61 in the context of KRAS, is necessary and sufficient to account for drug resistance, tumor initiation, self-renewal and expression of the pluripotent genes Oct 4 and Nanog. Once expressed, CD61 in the unligated state recruits KRAS to the plasma membrane leading to the activation of RalB, TBK1 and c-Rel driving both stemness and EGFR inhibitor resistance. Pharmacological targeting this pathway with drugs such as bortezomib or revlimid not only reverses stemness but resensitizes these epithelial tumors to EGFR inhibition. This epigenetic pathway can also be initiated by range of cellular stresses found within the tumor microenvironment such as hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, low pH, and oxidative stress. In normal tissues CD61 is induced during tissue remodeling and repair. For example, CD61 was found to be critical for mammary gland remodeling during pregnancy and as a mediator of pathological neovascularization. Together these findings reveal a stress-induced epigenetic pathway characterized by the upregulation of CD61 that promotes the remodeling of normal tissues but in tumors contributes to EGFR inhibitor resistance and tumor progression.

 

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/gca?gca=canres%3B75%2F15_Supplement%2F4&gca=canres%3B75%2F15_Supplement%2F6&gca=canres%3B75%2F15_Supplement%2F19&gca=canres%3B75%2F15_Supplement%2F24&gca=canres%3B75%2F15_Supplement%2F48&gca=canres%3B75%2F15_Supplement%2F54&gca=canres%3B75%2F15_Supplement%2F57&gca=canres%3B75%2F15_Supplement%2F88&gca=canres%3B75%2F15_Supplement%2F90&gca=canres%3B75%2F15_Supplement%2F97&allch=&submit=Go

Selected Abstracts

  1. Abstract 1
  2. Molecular and Cellular Biology – Poster Presentations – Proffered Abstracts – Poster Presentations – Cell Death Mechanisms: Abstract 4: ABT-263 is effective in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines
    • Aoi Kuroda,
    • Keiko Ohgino,
    • Hiroyuki Yasuda,
    • Junko Hamamoto,
    • Daisuke Arai,
    • Kota Ishioka,
    • Tetsuo Tani,
    • Shigenari Nukaga,
    • Ichiro Kawada,
    • Katsuhiko Naoki,
    • Kenzo Soejima,
    • and Tomoko Betsuyaku

Cancer Res August 1, 2015 75:4; doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-4

  1. Abstract 2
  2. Molecular and Cellular Biology – Poster Presentations – Proffered Abstracts – Poster Presentations – Cell Death Mechanisms: Abstract 6: Quantitative assessment of BCL-2:BIM complexes as a pharmacodynamic marker for venetoclax (ABT-199)
    • Sha Jin,
    • Paul Tapang,
    • Donald J. Osterling,
    • Wenqing Gao,
    • Daniel H. Albert,
    • Andrew J. Souers,
    • Joel D. Leverson,
    • Darren C. Phillips,
    • and Jun Chen

Cancer Res August 1, 2015 75:6; doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-6

  1. Molecular and Cellular Biology – Poster Presentations – Proffered Abstracts – Poster Presentations – Cell Death Mechanisms: Abstract 24: The phosphorylation of p53 at serine 46 is essential to induce cell death through palmdelphin in response to DNA damage
    • Nurmaa Khund Dashzeveg and
    • Kiyotsugu Yoshida

Cancer Res August 1, 2015 75:24; doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-24

  1. Abstract 5
  2. Molecular and Cellular Biology – Poster Presentations – Proffered Abstracts – Poster Presentations – Cell Signaling in Cancer 1: Abstract 48: Identification of a novel binding protein playing a critical role in HER2 activation in lung cancer cells
    • Tomoaki Ohtsuka,
    • Masakiyo Sakaguchi,
    • Katsuyoshi Takata,
    • Shinsuke Hashida,
    • Mototsugu Watanabe,
    • Ken Suzawa,
    • Yuho Maki,
    • Hiromasa Yamamoto,
    • Junichi Soh,
    • Hiroaki Asano,
    • Kazunori Tsukuda,
    • Shinichiro Miyoshi,
    • and Shinichi Toyooka

Cancer Res August 1, 2015 75:48; doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-48

  1. Abstract 1 of 10Molecular and Cellular Biology / Poster Presentations – Proffered Abstracts / Poster Presentations – Cell Death Mechanisms

Abstract 4: ABT-263 is effective in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines

Proceedings: AACR 106th Annual Meeting 2015; April 18-22, 2015; Philadelphia, PA

Rationale:

ABT-263 (Navitoclax) is one of the BH3 mimetics targeting anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family proteins such as Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-w, thereby inducing apoptosis. It has been reported that the response to ABT-263 is associated with expressions of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), an anti-apoptotic protein. Given its effectiveness as a single agent in preclinical studies, ABT-263 is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and leukemia. However, the efficacy of ABT-263 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been fully evaluated. We examined the effect of ABT-263 on cell proliferation of NSCLC cell lines and investigated the underlying mechanisms.

Methods:

The following 9 NSCLC cell lines were examined: SK-LU-1, A549, H358, Calu3, H3122, H1975, H460, H441, and BID007. The effects of ABT-263 in NSCLC cell lines were evaluated by MTS assay. Apoptosis was examined by flowcytometry using staining for annexin V and propidium iodide (PI), and also western blotting for cleaved PARP. Quantitative RT-PCR was carried out to assess the mRNA expression levels of anti-apoptotic genes and pro-apoptotic genes. Immunoprecipitation and western blotting were performed to compare the levels of anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic proteins between the sensitive and resistant cell lines. In addition, knockdown of Mcl-1 was performed by siRNA.

Results:

By screening 9 NSCLC cell lines using MTS assay, we found Calu3 and BID007were sensitive to ABT-263. We also confirmed that apoptosis was induced only in the ABT-263 sensitive lines but not in the ABT-263 resistant cell lines after ABT-263 treatment. However, the expression levels of Bcl-2 family proteins, including Mcl-1, did not differ significantly among the ABT-263 sensitive and resistant cell lines. Unlike the results in previous reports regarding SCLC, Mcl-1 was not decreased in the sensitive cell lines. The ABT-263 resistant cell lines became sensitive to ABT-263 after knockdown of Mcl-1 by siRNA, while the ABT-263 sensitive cell lines maintained the same sensitivity.

Conclusion:

We found that Calu3 and BID007 were sensitive to ABT-263. In the sensitive NSCLC cell lines, ABT-263 induces apoptosis irrespective of Mcl-1 expression levels.

Citation Format: Aoi Kuroda, Keiko Ohgino, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Junko Hamamoto, Daisuke Arai, Kota Ishioka, Tetsuo Tani, Shigenari Nukaga, Ichiro Kawada, Katsuhiko Naoki, Kenzo Soejima, Tomoko Betsuyaku. ABT-263 is effective in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 106th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2015 Apr 18-22; Philadelphia, PA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2015;75(15 Suppl):Abstract nr 4. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-4

    • ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
  1. Abstract 2 of 10Molecular and Cellular Biology / Poster Presentations – Proffered Abstracts / Poster Presentations – Cell Death Mechanisms

Abstract 6: Quantitative assessment of BCL-2:BIM complexes as a pharmacodynamic marker for venetoclax (ABT-199)

Proceedings: AACR 106th Annual Meeting 2015; April 18-22, 2015; Philadelphia, PA

The BCL-2-selective inhibitor venetoclax (ABT-199) binds with high affinity to the BH3-binding groove of BCL-2, thereby competing for binding with the BH3-only protein BIM (Souers et al., 2013). Venetoclax is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for CLL, AML, multiple myeloma and NHL. To facilitate these studies, we developed and validated a 384-well electrochemiluminescent ELISA (MSD, Gaithersburg, MD,USA) that quantifies expression of BCL-2, BCL-XL, and MCL-1protein alone or in complex with BIM. We subsequently quantified expression of BCL-2 and BCL-2:BIM complexes in 16 hematologic tumor cell lines. We found the EC50 of venetoclax in these tumor cell lines to correlate strongly with baseline BCL-2:BIM complex levels. This correlation was superior to the correlation between venetoclax EC50 and absolute BCL-2 expression. We also applied the assay to measure disruption of BCL-2:BIM complexes in vivo. Treatment of the Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL) xenograft model SU-DHL-4 with a BCL-2-selective inhibitor resulted in disruption of tumor BCL-2:BIM complexes that aligned with serum and tumor concentrations of inhibitor. Collectively, these data demonstrate that quantifying BCL-2:BIM complexes offers an accurate means of assessing target engagement by venetoclax and, potentially, predicting its efficacy. The utility of this assay is currently being assessed in clinical trials.

Citation Format: Sha Jin, Paul Tapang, Donald J. Osterling, Wenqing Gao, Daniel H. Albert, Andrew J. Souers, Joel D. Leverson, Darren C. Phillips, Jun Chen. Quantitative assessment of BCL-2:BIM complexes as a pharmacodynamic marker for venetoclax (ABT-199). [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 106th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2015 Apr 18-22; Philadelphia, PA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2015;75(15 Suppl):Abstract nr 6. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-6

    • ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
  1. Abstract 3 of 10Molecular and Cellular Biology / Poster Presentations – Proffered Abstracts / Poster Presentations – Cell Death Mechanisms

Abstract 19: Antitumor activity of selective inhibitors of XPO1/CRM1-mediated nuclear export in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: the role of survivin

Proceedings: AACR 106th Annual Meeting 2015; April 18-22, 2015; Philadelphia, PA

Survivin, which is highly expressed and promotes cell survival in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM), exclusively relies on the nuclear exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1) to be released in the cytoplasm and perform its anti-apoptotic function. Here, we explored the efficacy of selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINEs) in patient-derived DMPM preclinical models. Exposure to individual SINE (KPT-251, KPT-276, KPT-330) was able to induce a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of the growth of two DMPM cell lines without affecting normal cell proliferation. Such a cell growth inhibition was preceded by a decline in the nuclear XPO1/CRM1 levels and an increase in the nuclear accumulation of its cargo proteins p53 and p21, which led to a cell cycle arrest at G1-phase. Our results also indicated that survivin is an essential component of the downstream signaling pathway of XPO1/CRM1 inhibition in DMPM cells. In fact, in both cell lines, exposure to SINEs led to a time-dependent reduction of cytoplasmic survivin levels and, after an initial survivin nuclear accumulation, also to a progressive decrease in the nuclear protein abundance, through the ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation pathway, leading to the complete depletion of total survivin levels. In both DMPM cell models, according to survivin anti-apoptotic activity, drug-induced reduction of cytoplasmic survivin levels correlated with the onset of caspase-dependent apoptosis. We further observed that SINEs can be combined with other survivin inhibitors, such as the survivin suppressant YM155 to achieve enhanced growth inhibition in DMPM cells. Initial in vivo experiments with orally administered KPT-251, KPT-276 and the orally available, clinical stage KPT-330 (selinexor) indicated that each compound was able to significantly reduce the growth of early-stage subcutaneous DMPM xenografts. Interestingly, additional experiments carry out with selinexor demonstrated that the compound was also able to inhibit the growth of late-stage subcutaneous DMPM xenografts in nude mice. Most importantly, oral administration of selinexor to SCID mice reduced the growth of orthotopic DMPM xenografts, which properly recapitulate the dissemination pattern in the peritoneal cavity of human DMPM and, for this reason, represent a valuable model for investigating novel therapeutic approaches for the disease. Consistent with an important role of survivin as a determinant of anti-cancer activity of SINE compounds, a reduction of the protein expression was observed in tumor specimens obtained from selinexor treated mice. Overall, our results (i) demonstrate a marked efficacy of SINEs in DMPM preclinical models, which is, at least in part, dependent on the interference with survivin intracellular distribution and function, and (ii) suggest SINE-mediated XPO1/CRM1 inhibition as a novel therapeutic option for the disease.

Citation Format: Nadia Zaffaroni, Michelandrea De Cesare, Denis Cominetti, Valentina Doldi, Alessia Lopergolo, Marcello Deraco, Paolo Gandellini, Yosef Landesman, Sharon Friedlander, Michael G. Kauffman, Sharon Shacham, Marzia Pennati. Antitumor activity of selective inhibitors of XPO1/CRM1-mediated nuclear export in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: the role of survivin. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 106th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2015 Apr 18-22; Philadelphia, PA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2015;75(15 Suppl):Abstract nr 19. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-19

    • ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
  1. Abstract 4 of 10Molecular and Cellular Biology / Poster Presentations – Proffered Abstracts / Poster Presentations – Cell Death Mechanisms

Abstract 24: The phosphorylation of p53 at serine 46 is essential to induce cell death through palmdelphin in response to DNA damage

Proceedings: AACR 106th Annual Meeting 2015; April 18-22, 2015; Philadelphia, PA

Tumor suppressor p53 plays a pivotal role in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Promoter selectivity of p53 depends mainly on post-translational modification. Notably, the apoptotic function of p53 is related to its phosphorylation at serine-46 (ser46) to promote pro-apoptotic genes. However, little is known about the pro-apoptotic genes induced by Ser46 phosphorylation. Our research achieved to investigate the pro-apoptotic genes induced by p53 in a phospho-ser46-specific manner using microarray and ChIP sequencing in human cancer cell lines. As a result, palmdelphin (PALMD), an isoform of paralemmin protein, was strongly elicited from the phosphorylation of ser46. The mRNA and protein expression of PALMD increased only in wild type p53 transfected cells, but not in ser46-mutated cells. Importantly, PALMD moved to the nucleus in response to DNA damage and the apoptotic function of PALMD was tightly exerted with localization into nucleus. Interestingly, down-regulation of PALMD by siRNA resulted in necroptosis-like cell death through ATP depletion. Moreover, we found vimentin as a PALMD interacting protein and the depletion of vimentin increased PALMD level to accelerate apoptosis. These results demonstrate that p53 regulates cell death fate (apoptosis or necroptosis-like cell death) through promoting PALMD expression in a phospho-ser46-specific manner in response to DNA damage.

Citation Format: Nurmaa Khund Dashzeveg, Kiyotsugu Yoshida. The phosphorylation of p53 at serine 46 is essential to induce cell death through palmdelphin in response to DNA damage. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 106th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2015 Apr 18-22; Philadelphia, PA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2015;75(15 Suppl):Abstract nr 24. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-24

    • ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
  1. Abstract 5 of 10Molecular and Cellular Biology / Poster Presentations – Proffered Abstracts / Poster Presentations – Cell Signaling in Cancer 1

Abstract 48: Identification of a novel binding protein playing a critical role in HER2 activation in lung cancer cells

Proceedings: AACR 106th Annual Meeting 2015; April 18-22, 2015; Philadelphia, PA

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a member of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family. Previous studies have revealed that many kinds of malignant tumors have genetic mutations or amplification of HER2, indicating that HER2 alterations are oncogenic. Many kinds of HER2 targeted therapies are effective to HER2 positive tumors, but those treated tumors often get resistance to drugs. Thus, to elucidate HER2 related pathway in cancer biology is important to develop new therapeutic strategy for cancers.

Recently, we newly identified a protein X (a temporary name) as a novel binding protein to HER2 with immunoprecipitation and following LC-Ms/Ms analysis. The protein generally expressed in lung and breast cancers at remarkable level.

We constructed plasmid vectors carrying wild type HER2 and gene X. These vectors were simultaneously introduced to HEK293T cells to examine the binding ability of protein X and HER2 as well as the effect of gene X on HER2-mediated signal-transduction pathway. The approach clearly showed that the expression of gene X, resulted in phosphorylation of HER2 and subsequent activation of oncogenic effector molecules.

We next constructed several kinds of gene X-truncated variants and subjected to the binding assay to look for the binding domain of gene X to HER2. The analysis showed that N-terminal head domain of gene X was essential for the HER2 binding. This domain has an ability to induce HER2 phosphorylation and subsequent activation of the effector kinase, ERK.

In conclusion, we found that gene X is a novel binding protein to HER2 and has a role in HER2 activation.

Citation Format: Tomoaki Ohtsuka, Masakiyo Sakaguchi, Katsuyoshi Takata, Shinsuke Hashida, Mototsugu Watanabe, Ken Suzawa, Yuho Maki, Hiromasa Yamamoto, Junichi Soh, Hiroaki Asano, Kazunori Tsukuda, Shinichiro Miyoshi, Shinichi Toyooka. Identification of a novel binding protein playing a critical role in HER2 activation in lung cancer cells. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 106th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2015 Apr 18-22; Philadelphia, PA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2015;75(15 Suppl):Abstract nr 48. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-48

    • ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
  1. Abstract 6 of 10Molecular and Cellular Biology / Poster Presentations – Proffered Abstracts / Poster Presentations – Cell Signaling in Cancer 1

Abstract 54: Ezrin enhances signaling and nuclear translocation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in non-small cell lung cancer cells

Proceedings: AACR 106th Annual Meeting 2015; April 18-22, 2015; Philadelphia, PA

The cytoskeletal cross linker protein ezrin is a member of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family and plays important roles not only in cell motility, cell adhesion, and apoptosis, but also in various cell-signaling pathways. Ezrin interacts with EGFR in the cell membrane and involves in cell motility events, but little is known about the effects of this interaction on the EGFR signaling pathway. We investigated the role of Ezrin in EGFR signaling and nuclear trafficking in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The ligand induced interaction between Ezrin and EGFR was evaluated by immunoprecipitation (IP) and immunofluorescence (IF) in H292 and A549 cells. Ezrin levels were reduced using siRNA in these two cell lines. Downstream signaling protein phosphorylation and nuclear localization of EGFR were detected after EGF treatment. Expressions of nuclear EGFR target genes were evaluated by qPCR. Endogenous Ezrin was found in a complex with EGFR in IP and IF. When Ezrin protein expression was inhibited, phosphorylation levels of EGFR at Y1068, Y1101 and Y845 were reduced as well as phosphorylation levels of downstream signaling pathway proteins ERK and STAT3. Cell fractionation revealed that EGFR nuclear translocation after EGF treatment significantly reduced in Ezrin-knockdown cells. Further, mRNA levels of EGFR target genes AuroraK-A, COX2, Cyclin D1 and iNOS were decreased in Ezrin-knockdown A549 cells. Small molecule ezrin inhibitors showed strong synergy with EGFR inhibitors in cytotoxicity assays. These results suggest that Ezrin has a role as an enhancer in the EGFR pathway and targeting ezrin may potentiate anti-EGFR based therapies in NSCLC.

Citation Format: Yasemin Saygideger Kont, Haydar Celik, Hayriye V. Erkizan, Tsion Minas, Jenny Han, Jeffrey Toretsky, Aykut Uren. Ezrin enhances signaling and nuclear translocation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in non-small cell lung cancer cells. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 106th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2015 Apr 18-22; Philadelphia, PA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2015;75(15 Suppl):Abstract nr 54. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-54

    • ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
  1. Abstract 7 of 10Molecular and Cellular Biology / Poster Presentations – Proffered Abstracts / Poster Presentations – Cell Signaling in Cancer 1

Abstract 57: Substrates of protein kinase C drive cell rac1-dependent motility

Proceedings: AACR 106th Annual Meeting 2015; April 18-22, 2015; Philadelphia, PA

This laboratory has identified and/or characterized substrates of PKC that upon phosphorylation give rise to motility, an aspect of metastasis. By use of the traceable kinase method, we discovered that alpha-tubulin and Cdc42 effector protein-4 (CEP4) are PKC substrates. Phosphorylation of alpha-tubulin stimulates its incorporation into microtubules (MTs), consequently increasing the stability and prolonged growth of MTs and leading to the activation of the small GTPase Rac1. CEP4 undergoes phosphorylation by PKC that results in its release from Cdc42, whereupon CEP4 binds a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that in turn activates Rac1 GTPase. These results imply that Rac1 acts as a node in pathways driven by phosphorylated PKC substrates. Since translocation of IQGAP to the membrane is known to be promoted by Rac1, a role is explored in non-transformed human MCF-10A cells that express a specific phospho-mimetic mutant substrate. In addition, the phospho-mimetic mutant for each substrate expressed in human metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells produces different morphologies in 3-D growth assays. This research is being supported by NIH CA125632.

Citation Format: Susan A. Rotenberg, Xin Zhao, Shatarupa De. Substrates of protein kinase C drive cell rac1-dependent motility. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 106th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2015 Apr 18-22; Philadelphia, PA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2015;75(15 Suppl):Abstract nr 57. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-57

    • ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
  1. Abstract 8 of 10Molecular and Cellular Biology / Poster Presentations – Proffered Abstracts / Poster Presentations – Deregulation of Gene Expression in Prostate Cancer and Sarcoma

Abstract 88: The Nkx3.1 homeobox gene maintains prostatic identity while its loss leads to prostate cancer initiation

Proceedings: AACR 106th Annual Meeting 2015; April 18-22, 2015; Philadelphia, PA

Background

Maintenance of epithelial cell identity is tightly coordinated by tissue-specific gene expression programs, which are often deregulated during tumorigenesis. The homeodomain-containing transcription factor, Nkx3.1, is a key regulator of normal prostatic development and is frequently lost at early stages of prostate cancer initiation. In this study, we aim to elucidate detailed mechanisms governing Nkx3.1-driven maintenance of prostate identity and how deregulation of such can lead to prostate tumorigenesis.

Models and Methods

We evaluated the consequences of Nkx3.1 loss or gain of function in vivo using genetically-engineered mouse models and cell-recombination assays. RNA sequencing was performed to generate gene expression profiles, which were analyzed using Gene Set Enrichment analysis (GSEA), and validated by quantitative real-time PCR. In parallel, protein expression was assessed by immunofluorescence and western blot. Immunoprecipitation (IP) and chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed using RWPE1 prostate epithelial cells.

Results

Here, we show that loss of function of Nkx3.1 leads to the progressive down-regulation of a prostate-specific gene expression program and to aberrant expression of genes that are not typically expressed in the prostate epithelium. Conversely, gain of function of Nkx3.1 in non-prostatic epithelium leads to the acquisition of a prostate-like morphology and expression of prostate-related genes. Our findings indicate that the underlying mechanism by which Nkx3.1 promotes prostatic identity is via epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In particular, we show that Nkx3.1 interacts with the histone methyl-transferase complex G9a/Glp. Finally, we demonstrate that this interaction is necessary for maintenance of prostate identity in vivo and that Nkx3.1 and G9a cooperate to control expression of genes that coordinate prostatic epithelial integrity.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that Nkx3.1 promotes prostatic identity by interacting with histone modifying enzymes to coordinate the expression of prostate-specific genes and that the loss of this function results in a failure to maintain prostate identity associated with early stages of prostate tumorigenesis.

Citation Format: Clémentine Le Magnen, Aditya Dutta, Cory Abate-Shen. The Nkx3.1 homeobox gene maintains prostatic identity while its loss leads to prostate cancer initiation. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 106th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2015 Apr 18-22; Philadelphia, PA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2015;75(15 Suppl):Abstract nr 88. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-88

    • ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
  1. Abstract 9 of 10Molecular and Cellular Biology / Poster Presentations – Proffered Abstracts / Poster Presentations – Deregulation of Gene Expression in Prostate Cancer and Sarcoma

Abstract 90: K63-linked JARID1B ubiquitination by TRAF6 contributes to aberrant elevation of JARID1B in prostate cancer

Proceedings: AACR 106th Annual Meeting 2015; April 18-22, 2015; Philadelphia, PA

Aberrant elevation of JARID1B and histone H3 Lys4 trimethylations (H3K4me3) is frequently observed in many diseases including prostate cancer (PCa), yet the mechanisms on the regulations of JARID1B and H3K4me3 through epigenetic modifications still remain poorly understood. In this study we performed immunohistochemistry staining, immunofluorescence imaging, immunoprecipitation, shRNA and Western blotting analysis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), mouse models, and cultured human prostate cancer cells. As a result, we discovered that SKP2 modulates JARID1B and H3K4me3 levels in vitro in PTEN null prostate cancer cells and in vivo in Pten/Trp53 mouse models. We demonstrated that levels of SKP2, JARID1B and H3K4me3 are strikingly elevated in vitro and in vivo when both PTEN and P53 are inactivated. Importantly, SKP2 inactivation resulted in a reduction of cell growth, cell migration and malignant transformation of Pten/Trp53 double null MEFs, and further restrained prostate tumorigenesis of Pten/Trp53 mutant mice. Mechanistically, JARID1B is ubiquitinated by E3 ligase TRAF6 through the K63-linkage in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, SKP2 contributes to JARID1B ubiquitination machinery as a non-E3 ligase regulator by decreasing TRAF6-mediated ubiquitination of JARID1B. SKP2 deficiency resulted in an increase of JARID1B ubiquitination and in turn a reduction of H3K4me3, and induced senescence through JARID1B accumulation in nucleoli of PCa cells and prostate tumors of mice. Furthermore, we showed that the aberrant levels of SKP2, JARID1B, and H3K4me3 are associated with malignant features of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in mice. Overall, our findings reveal a novel network of SKP2- JARID1B, and targeting SKP2 and JARID1B may be a potential strategy for PCa control.

Citation Format: Wenfu Lu, Shenji Liu, Bo Li, Yingqiu Xie, Christine Adhiambo, Qing Yang, Billy R. Ballard, Keiichi I. Nakayama, Robert J. Matusik, Zhenbang Chen. K63-linked JARID1B ubiquitination by TRAF6 contributes to aberrant elevation of JARID1B in prostate cancer. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 106th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2015 Apr 18-22; Philadelphia, PA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2015;75(15 Suppl):Abstract nr 90. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-90

    • ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
  1. Abstract 10 of 10Molecular and Cellular Biology / Poster Presentations – Proffered Abstracts / Poster Presentations – Histone Methylation and Acetylation

Abstract 97: CARM1 preferentially methylates H3R17 over H3R26 through a random kinetic mechanism

Proceedings: AACR 106th Annual Meeting 2015; April 18-22, 2015; Philadelphia, PA

CARM1 (PRMT4) is a type I arginine methyltransferase involved in the regulation of transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, cell cycle progression and the DNA damage response. Overexpression of CARM1 has been implicated in breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. Since CARM1 appears to be a good target for the development of therapies against these cancers, we studied the substrate specificity and kinetic mechanism of the full-length human enzyme. CARM1 has been shown to methylate both residues R17 and R26 of histone H3. Substrate specificity was examined by testing CARM1 activity with several H3-based peptide substrates using a radiometric assay. Comparison of kcat/KM values reveal that methylation of H3R17 is preferred over H3R26. An R17/R26K peptide produced 8-fold greater kcat/KM value compared to the corresponding R17K/R26 peptide. These effects are KM-driven as kcat values remain relatively constant for the peptides tested. Shortening the peptide at the C-terminus by 5 amino acid residues greatly reduced the specificity (16-24-fold), demonstrating the contribution of distal residues to substrate binding. In contrast, adding residues to the N-terminus of the shortened peptide had a negative effect on activity. CARM1 displays little preference for monomethylated over unmethylated H3R17 (2-5-fold by kcat/KM) suggesting that it operates through a distributive mechanism. Previous crystallographic studies with mouse CARM1 showed that part of the substrate binding groove was formed by cofactor binding, thereby suggesting an ordered kinetic mechanism (Yue et al., EMBO J., 2007). Our results from dead-end and product inhibition studies performed with human CARM1, however, are consistent with a random kinetic mechanism. SAH and sinefungin demonstrate competitive inhibition with respect to SAM and produced noncompetitive inhibition patterns with respect to peptide. Both dimethylated R17 product peptide and dead-end R17K peptide exhibited noncompetitive inhibition patterns with respect to SAM. Furthermore, binding of SAM and peptide substrates were shown to be independent of each other in initial velocity experiments where both substrates were varied. Together, these results elucidate the kinetic mechanism of CARM1 and highlight elements important for binding affinity.

Citation Format: Suzanne L. Jacques, Katrina P. Aquino, Jodi Gureasko, P Ann Boriack-Sjodin, Robert A. Copeland, Thomas V. Riera. CARM1 preferentially methylates H3R17 over H3R26 through a random kinetic mechanism. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 106th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2015 Apr 18-22; Philadelphia, PA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2015;75(15 Suppl):Abstract nr 97. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-97

    • ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

References

 

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  3. Hughes L, Malone C, Chumsri S, Burger AM, McDonnell S: Characterisation of breast cancer cell lines and establishment of a novel isogenic subclone to study migration, invasion and tumourigenicity. Clin Exp Metastasis 2008, 25(5):549-557.
  4. Li C, Lee CJ, Simeone DM: Identification of human pancreatic cancer stem cells. Methods Mol Biol 2009, 568:161-173.
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  7. Ginestier C, Hur MH, Charafe-Jauffret E, Monville F, Dutcher J, Brown M, Jacquemier J, Viens P, Kleer CG, Liu S et al: ALDH1 is a marker of normal and malignant human mammary stem cells and a predictor of poor clinical outcome. Cell Stem Cell 2007, 1(5):555-567.
  8. Dontu G: Breast cancer stem cell markers – the rocky road to clinical applications. Breast Cancer Res 2008, 10(5):110.
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Additional Articles on this Open Access Journal on Cancer Stem Cells Include

Nonhematologic Cancer Stem Cells [11.2.3]

In Focus: Identity of Cancer Stem Cells

In Focus: Targeting of Cancer Stem Cells

Stem Cells and Cancer

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging: Noninvasive Imaging of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) monitoring of AC133+ glioblastoma in subcutaneous and intracerebral xenograft tumors

“To Die or Not To Die” – Time and Order of Combination drugs for Triple Negative Breast Cancer cells: A Systems Level Analysis

Can IntraTumoral Heterogeneity Be Thought of as a Mechanism of Resistance?

 

 

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Can IntraTumoral Heterogeneity Be Thought of as a Mechanism of Resistance?

Curator/Reporter: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

Therapeutic resistance remains one of the most challenging problems for the oncologist, despite the increase of new therapeutics in the oncologist’s toolkit. As new targeted therapies are developed, and new novel targets are investigated as potential therapies, especially cytostatic therapies which it has become evident our understanding of chemoresistance is expanding beyond mechanisms to circumvent a drug’s pharmacologic mechanism of action (i.e. increased DNA repair and cisplatin) or pharmacokinetic changes (i.e. increased efflux by acquisition of a MDR phenotype).

In a talk at the 2015 AACR National Meeting, Dr. Charles Swanton discusses the development of tumor heterogeneity in the light of developing, or acquired, drug resistance. Chemoresistance is either categorized as acquired resistance (where resistance develops upon continued exposure to drug) or inherent resistance (related to a tumor being refractory or unresponsive to drug). Dr Swanton discusses findings where development of this heterogeneity (discussed here in a posting on Issues in Personalized Medicine in Cancer: Intratumor Heterogeneity and Branched Evolution Revealed by Multiregion Sequencing) and here (Notes On Tumor Heterogeneity: Targets and Mechanisms, from the 2015 AACR Meeting in Philadelphia PA) on recent findings on Branched Chain Heterogeneity) is resulting in clones resistant to the initial drug treatment.

To recount a bit of background I list the overall points of the one of previous posts on tumor heterogeneity (and an interview with Dr. Charles Swanton) are as follows:

Multiple biopsies of primary tumor and metastases are required to determine the full mutational landscape of a patient’s tumor

The intratumor heterogeneity will have an impact on the personalized therapy strategy for the clinician

Metastases arising from primary tumor clones will have a greater genomic instability and mutational spectrum than the tumor from which it originates

Tumors and their metastases do NOT evolve in a linear path but have a branched evolution and would complicate biomarker development and the prognostic and resistance outlook for the patient

 

The following is a curation of various talks and abstracts from the 2015 AACR National Meeting in Philadelphia on effects of clonal evolution and intratumoral heterogeneity of a tumor with respect to development of chemoresistance. As this theory of heterogeneity and clonal evolution is particularly new I attempted to present all works (although apologize for the length upfront) to forgo bias and so the reader may extract any information pertinent to their clinical efforts and research. However I will give a brief highlight summary below:

 

From the 2015 AACR National Meeting in Philadelphia

 

 

 

 

PresentationNumber:NGO2

Presentation Title: Polyclonal and heterogeneous resistance to targeted therapy in leukemia
Presentation Time: Monday, Apr 20, 2015, 10:40 AM -10:55 AM
Location: Room 201, Pennsylvania Convention Center
Author Block: Catherine C. Smith, Amy Paguirigan, Chen-Shan Chin, Michael Brown, Wendy Parker, Mark J. Levis, Alexander E. Perl, Kevin Travers, Corynn Kasap, Jerald P. Radich, Susan Branford, Neil P. Shah. University of California, San Francisco, CA, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, Pacific Biosciences, Menlo Park, CA, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD, Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, University of California, San Francisco, CA
Abstract Body: Genomic studies in solid tumors have revealed significant branching intratumoral clonal genetic heterogeneity. Such complexity is not surprising in solid tumors, where sequencing studies have revealed thousands of mutations per tumor genome. However, in leukemia, the genetic landscape is considerably less complex. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is the human malignancy most definitively linked to a single genetic lesion, the BCR-ABL gene fusion. Genome wide sequencing of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has revealed that AML is the most genetically straightforward of all extensively sequenced adult cancers to date, with an average of 13 coding mutations and 3 or less clones identified per tumor.
In CML, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of BCR-ABL have resulted in high rates of remission. However, despite excellent initial response rates with TKI monotherapy, patients still relapse, including virtually all patients with Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia and blast crisis CML. Studies of clinical resistance highlight BCR-ABL as the sole genetic driver in CML as secondary kinase domain (KD) mutations that prevent drug binding are the predominant mechanism of relapse on BCR-ABL TKIs.
In AML, a more diverse panel of disease-defining genetic mutations has been uncovered. However, in individual patients, a single oncogene can still drive disease. This is the case in FLT3 mutant AML, in which the investigational FLT3 TKI quizartinib achieved an initial response rate of ~50% in relapsed/refractory AML patients with activating FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations, though most patients eventually relapsed. Confirming the importance of FLT3 in disease maintenance, we showed that 8 of 8 patients who relapsed on quizartinib did so due to acquired drug-resistant FLT3 KD mutations.
Studies in CML have revealed that sequential TKI therapy is associated with additional complexity where multiple mutations can coexist separately in an individual patient (“polyclonality”) or in tandem on a single allele (“compound mutations”). In AML, we observed polyclonal FLT3-ITD KD mutations in 2 of 8 patients examined in our initial study of quizartinib resistance.
In light of the polyclonal KD mutations observed in CML and AML at the time of TKI relapse, we undertook next generation sequencing studies to determine the true genetic complexity in CML and AML patients at the time of relapse on targeted therapy. We used Pacific Biosciences RS Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) third generation sequencing technology to sequence the entire ABL KD or the entire FLT3 juxtamembrane and KD on a single strand of DNA. Using this method, we assessed a total of 103 samples from 79 CML patients on ABL TKI therapy and 36 paired pre-treatment and relapse samples from 18 FLT3-ITD+ AML patients who responded to investigational FLT3 TKI therapy.
In CML, using SMRT sequencing, we detected all mutations previously detected by direct sequencing. Of samples in which multiple mutations were detectable by direct sequencing, 85% had compound mutant alleles detectable in a variety of combinations. Compound mutant alleles were comprised of both dominant and minor mutations, some which were not detectable by direct sequencing. In the most complex case, 12 individual mutant alleles comprised of 7 different mutations were identified in a single sample.
For 12 CML patients, we interrogated longitudinal samples (2-4 time points per patient) and observed complex clonal relationships with highly dynamic shifts in mutant allele populations over time. We detected compound mutations arising from ancestral single mutant clones as well as parallel evolution of de novo polyclonal and compound mutations largely in keeping with what would be expected to cause resistance to the second generation TKI therapy received by that patient.
We used a phospho-flow cytometric technique to assesses the phosphorylation status of the BCR-ABL substrate CRKL in as a method to test the ex vivo biochemical responsiveness of individual mutant cell populations to TKI therapy and assess functional cellular heterogeneity in a given patient at a given timepoint. Using this technique, we observed co-existing cell populations with differential ex vivo response to TKI in 2 cases with detectable polyclonal mutations. In a third case, we identified co-existence of an MLL-AF9 containing cell population that retained the ability to modulate p-CRKL in response to BCR-ABL TKIs along with a BCR-ABL containing only population that showed biochemical resistance to all TKIs, suggesting the co-existence of BCR-ABL independent and dependent resistance in a single patient.
In AML, using SMRT sequencing, we identified acquired quizartinib resistant KD mutations on the FLT3-ITD (ITD+) allele of 9 of 9 patients who relapsed after response to quizartinib and 4 of 9 patients who relapsed after response to the investigational FLT3 inhibitor, PLX3397. In 4 cases of quizartinib resistance and 3 cases of PLX3397 resistance, polyclonal mutations were observed, including 7 different KD mutations in one patient with PLX3397 resistance. In 7 quizartinib-resistant cases and 3 PLX3397-resistant cases, mutations occurred at the activation loop residue D835. When we examined non-ITD containing (ITD-) alleles, we surprisingly uncovered concurrent drug-resistant FLT3 KD mutations on ITD- alleles in 7 patients who developed quizartinib resistance and 4 patients with PLX3397 resistance. One additional PLX3397-resistant patient developed a D835Y mutation only in ITD- alleles at the time of resistance, suggesting selection for a non-ITD containing clone. All of the individual substitutions found on ITD- alleles were the same substitutions identified on ITD+ alleles for each individual patient.
Given that the same individual mutations found on ITD- alleles were also found on ITD+ alleles, we sought to determine whether these mutations were found in the same cell or were indicative of polyclonal blast populations in each patient. To answer this question, we performed single cell sorting of viably frozen blasts from 3 quizartinib-resistant patients with D835 mutations identified at the time of relapse and genotyped single cells for the presence or absence of ITD and D835 mutations. This analysis revealed striking genetic heterogeneity. In 2/3 cases, polyclonal D835 mutations were found in both ITD+ and ITD- cells. In all cases, FLT3-ITD and D835 mutations were found in both heterozygous and homozygous combinations. Most surprisingly, in all 3 patients, approximately 30-40% of FLT3-ITD+ cells had no identified quizartinib resistance-causing FLT3 KD mutation to account for resistance, suggesting the presence of non-FLT3 dependent resistance in all patients.
To determine that ITD+ cells lacking FLT3 KD mutations observed in patients relapsed on quizartinib are indeed consistent with leukemic blasts functionally resistant to quizartinib and do not instead represent a population of differentiated or non-proliferating cells, we utilized relapse blasts from another patient who initially achieved clearance of bone marrow blasts on quizartinib and developed a D835Y mutation at relapse. We performed a colony assay in the presence of 20nM quizartinib. As expected, this dose of quizartinib was unable to suppress the colony-forming ability of blasts from this relapsed patient when compared to DMSO treatment. Genotyping of individual colonies grown from this relapse sample in the presence of 20nM quizartinib again showed remarkable genetic heterogeneity, including ITD+ and ITD- colonies with D835Y mutations in homozygous and heterozygous combinations as well as ITD+ colonies without D835Y mutations, again suggesting the presence of blasts with non-FLT3 dependent resistance. Additionally, 4 colonies with no FLT3 mutations at all were identified in this sample, suggesting the presence of a quizartinib-resistant non-FLT3 mutant blast population. To see if we could identify specific mechanisms of off-target resistance, we performed targeted exome sequencing 33-AML relevant genes from relapse and pre-treatment DNA from all four patients and detected no new mutations in any genes other than FLT3 acquired at the time of disease relapse. Clonal genetic heterogeneity is not surprising in solid tumors, where multiple driver mutations frequently occur, but in CML and FLT3-ITD+ AML, where disease has been shown to be exquisitely dependent on oncogenic driver mutations, our studies suggest a surprising amount of clonal diversity. Our findings show that clinical TKI resistance in these diseases is amazingly intricate on the single allele level and frequently consists of both polyclonal and compound mutations that give rise to an complicated pool of TKI-resistant alleles that can change dynamically over time. In addition, we demonstrate that cell populations with off-target resistance can co-exist with other TKI-resistant populations, underscoring the emerging complexity of clinical TKI resistance. Such complexity argues strongly that monotherapy strategies in advanced CML and AML may be ultimately doomed to fail due to heterogeneous cell intrinsic resistance mechanisms. Ultimately, combination strategies that can address both on and off target resistance will be required to effect durable therapeutic responses.
Session Title: Tumor Heterogeneity and Evolution
Session Type: Educational Session
Session Start/End Time: Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 1:00 PM – 3:00 PM
Location: Terrace Ballroom II-III (400 Level), Pennsylvania Convention Center
CME: CME-Designated
CME/CE Hours: 2
Session Description: One of the major challenges for both the measurement and management of cancer is its heterogeneity. Recent studies have revealed both extensive inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity at the genotypic and phenotypic levels. Leaders in the field will discuss this challenge, its origins, dynamics and clinical importance. They will also review how we can best measure and deal with tumor heterogeneity, particularly intra-tumor heterogeneity.
Presentations:
Chairperson
Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 1:00 PM – 3:00 PM
Carlo C. Maley. UCSF Helen Diller Family Comp. Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA
Universal biomarkers: How to handle tumor heterogeneity
Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 1:00 PM – 1:25 PM
Carlo C. Maley. UCSF Helen Diller Family Comp. Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA
Discussion
Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 1:25 PM – 1:30 PM
Heterogeneity of resistance to cancer therapy
Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 1:30 PM – 1:55 PM
Ivana Bozic. HARVARD UNIV., Cambridge, MA
Discussion
Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 1:55 PM – 2:00 PM
Determinants of phenotypic intra-tumor heterogeneity: integrative approach
Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 2:00 PM – 2:25 PM
Andriy Marusyk, Michalina Janiszewska, Doris Tabassum. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA
Discussion
Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 2:25 PM – 2:30 PM
Cancer clonal complexity and evolution at the macro- and microheterogeneity scale
Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 2:30 PM – 2:55 PM
Marco Gerlinger. Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom
Discussion
Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 2:55 PM – 3:00 PM

From Ivana Bozic:

A spatial model predicts that dispersal and cell turnover limit intratumour heterogeneity.

Waclaw B, Bozic I, Pittman ME, Hruban RH, Vogelstein B, Nowak MA.

Nature. 2015 Sep 10;525(7568):261-4. doi: 10.1038/nature14971. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

PMID:

26308893

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Session Title: Mechanisms of Cancer Therapy Resistance
Session Type: Educational Session
Session Start/End Time: Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 1:00 PM – 3:00 PM
Location: Room 204, Pennsylvania Convention Center
CME: CME-Designated
CME/CE Hours: 2
Session Description: Despite dramatic advances in the treatment of cancer, therapy resistance remains the most significant hurdle in improving the outcome of cancer patients. In this session, we will discuss many different aspects of therapy resistance, including a summary of our current understanding of therapy resistant tumor cell populations as well as analyses of the challenges associated with intratumoral heterogeneity and adaptive responses to targeted therapies.
Presentations:
Chairperson
Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 1:00 PM – 3:00 PM
Charles Swanton. Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, London, United Kingdom
Tumor heterogeneity and drug resistance
Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 1:00 PM – 1:30 PM
Charles Swanton. Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, London, United Kingdom
Discussion

Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 1:30 PM – 1:40 PM
Discussion Discussion, Discussion

Principles of resistance to targeted therapy
Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 1:40 PM – 2:10 PM
Levi A. Garraway. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA
Discussion

Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 2:10 PM – 2:20 PM
Discussion Discussion, Discussion

Adaptive re-wiring of signaling pathways driving drug resistance to targeted therapies
Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 2:20 PM – 2:50 PM
Taru E. Muranen. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
Discussion

Saturday, Apr 18, 2015, 2:50 PM – 3:00 PM
Discussion Discussion, Discussion

Presentation Abstract  

 

 

 

Abstract Number: 737
Presentation Title: Clonal evolution of the HER2 L755S mutation as a mechanism of acquired HER-targeted therapy resistance
Presentation Time: Sunday, Apr 19, 2015, 1:00 PM – 5:00 PM
Location: Section 30
Poster Board Number: 29
Author Block: Xiaowei Xu1, Agostina Nardone1, Huizhong Hu1, Lanfang Qin1, Sarmistha Nanda1, Laura Heiser2, Nicholas Wang2, Kyle Covington1, Edward Chen1, Alexander Renwick1, Tamika Mitchell1, Marty Shea1, Tao Wang1, Carmine De Angelis1, Alejandro Contreras1, Carolina Gutierrez1, Suzanne Fuqua1, Gary Chamness1, Chad Shaw1, Marilyn Li1, David Wheeler1, Susan Hilsenbeck1, Mothaffar Fahed Rimawi1, Joe Gray2, C.Kent Osborne1, Rachel Schiff1. 1Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; 2Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR
Abstract Body: Background: Targeting HER2 with lapatinib (L), trastuzumab (T), or the LT combination, is effective in HER2+ breast cancer (BC), but acquired resistance commonly occurs. In our 12-week neoadjuvant
trial (TBCRC006) of LT without chemotherapy in HER2+ BC, the overall pathologic complete response (pCR) rate was 27%. To investigate resistance mechanisms, we developed 10 HER2+ BC cell line
models resistant (R) to one or both drugs (LR/TR/LTR). To discover potential predictive markers/therapeutic targets to circumvent resistance, we completed genomic profiling of the cell lines and a
subset of pre-treatment specimens from TBCRC006.
Methods: Parental (P) and LR/TR/LTR lines of 10 cell line models were profiled with whole exome/RNA sequencing. Mutations detected in R lines but not in P lines of the same model were identified. Mutation-specific Q-PCR was designed for sensitive quantification. Resistant cell and xenograft tumor growth were measured in response to drugs. Whole exome sequencing (>100X) and Ampliseq of 17 baseline tumor/normal pairs from TBCRC006 were performed.
Results: We found and validated the HER2 L755S mutation in the BT474/ATCC-LTR line and BT474/AZ-LR line (in ~30% of DNA/RNA), in which the HER pathway was reactivated for resistance. Overexpression of this mutation was previously shown to induce LR in HER2-negative BC cell lines, and resistant growth of BT474/AZ-LR line is significantly inhibited by HER2-L755S-specific siRNA knock-down, suggesting its role as an acquired L/LT resistance driver in HER2+ BC. Sequencing of BT474/AZ-LR single cell clones found the mutation in ~30% of HER2 copies in every cell. Using mutation-specific Q-PCR, we found statistically higher HER2 L755S levels in two BT474 parentals compared to P lines of SKBR3, AU565, and UACC812. These data suggest that HER2 L755S resistant subclones preexist in the BT474 parentals and were selected by L treatment to become the major clone in the two R lines. The HER1/2 irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) afatinib (Afa) robustly inhibited growth of BT474/AZ-LR and BT474/ATCC-LTR cells (IC50: Afa 0.02µM vs. L 3 µM) and BT474/AZ-LR xenografts. Whole exome sequencing/Ampliseq of TBCRC006 found the HER2 L755S mutation in 1/17 primaries. This patient did not achieve pCR. The variant was present in 2% of DNA on both platforms, indicating a subclonal event of the resistance mutation.
Conclusion: Acquired L/LT resistance in the two BT474 R lines is due to selection of HER2 L755S subclones present in parental cells. The higher HER2 L755S
levels in BT474 parentals compared with other parentals, and detection of its subclonal presence in a pre-treatment HER2+ BC patient, suggest that sensitive mutation detection methods will be needed to identify patients with potentially actionable HER family mutations in primary tumor. Treating this patient group
with an irreversible TKI like Afa may prevent resistance and improve clinical outcome of this subset of HER2+ BC.
Presentation Number: SY07-04
Presentation Title: The evolutionary landscape of CLL: Therapeutic implications
Presentation Time: Sunday, Apr 19, 2015, 2:25 PM – 2:45 PM
Location: Grand Ballroom (300 Level), Pennsylvania Convention Center
Author Block: Catherine J. Wu. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA
Abstract Body: Clonal evolution is a key feature of cancer progression and relapse. Recent studies across cancers have demonstrated the extensive degree of intratumoral heterogeneity present within individual cancers. We hypothesized that evolutionary dynamics contribute to the variations in disease tempo and response to therapy that are highly characteristic of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We have recently investigated this phenomenon by developing a pipeline that estimates the fraction of cancer cells harboring each somatic mutation within a tumor through integration of whole-exome sequence (WES) and local copy number data (Landau et al., Cell 2013). By applying this analysis approach to 149 CLL cases, we discovered earlier and later cancer drivers, uncovered patterns of clonal evolution in CLL and linked the presence of subclones harboring driver mutations with adverse clinical outcome. Thus, our study, generated from a heterogeneous sample cohort, strongly supports the concept that CLL clonal evolution arises from mass extinction and therapeutic bottlenecks which lead to the emergence of highly fit (and treatment resistant) subclones. We further hypothesized that epigenetic heterogeneity also shapes CLL clonal evolution through interrelation with genetic heterogeneity. Indeed, in recent work, we have uncovered stochastic methylation disorder as the primary cause of methylation changes in CLL and cancer in general, and that this phenomena impacts gene transcription, genetic evolution and clinical outcome. Thus, integrated studies of genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity in CLL have revealed the complex and diverse evolutionary trajectories of these cancer cells.
Immunotherapy is exquisitely suited for specifically and simultaneously targeting multiple lesions. We have developed an approach that leverages whole-exome sequencing to systematically identify personal tumor mutations with immunogenic potential, which can be incorporated as antigen targets in multi-epitope personalized therapeutic vaccines. We are pioneering this approach in an ongoing trial in melanoma and will now expand this concept to address diverse malignancies. Our expectation is that the choice of tumor neoantigens for a vaccine bypasses thymic tolerance and thus generates highly specific and potent high-affinity T cell responses to eliminate tumors in any cancer, including both ‘trunk’ and ‘branch’ lesions.

 

Abstract Number: LB-056
Presentation Title: TP53 and RB1 alterations promote reprogramming and antiandrogen resistance in advanced prostate cancer
Presentation Time: Sunday, Apr 19, 2015, 4:50 PM – 5:05 PM
Location: Room 122, Pennsylvania Convention Center
Author Block: Ping Mu, Zhen Cao, Elizabeth Hoover, John Wongvipat, Chun-Hao Huang, Wouter Karthaus, Wassim Abida, Elisa De Stanchina, Charles Sawyers. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY
Abstract Body: Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is one of the most difficult cancers to treat with conventional methods and is responsible for nearly all prostate cancer deaths in the US. The Sawyers laboratory first showed that the primary mechanism of resistance to antiandrogen therapy is elevated androgen receptor (AR) expression. Research based on this finding has led to the development of next-generation antiandrogen: enzalutamide. Despite the exciting clinical success of enzalutamide, about 60% of patients exhibit various degrees of resistance to this agent. Highly variable responses to enzalutamide limit the clinical benefit of this novel antiandrogen, underscoring the importance of understanding the mechanisms of enzalutamide resistance. Most recently, an unbiased SU2C-Prostate Cancer Dream Team metastatic CRPC sequencing project led by Dr. Sawyers and Dr. Chinnaiyan revealed that mutations in the TP53 locus are the most significantly enriched alteration in CRPC tumors when compared to primary prostate cancers. Moreover, deletions and decreased expressions of the TP53 and RB1 loci (co-occurrence and individual occurrence) are more commonly associated with CRPC than with primary tumors. These results established that alteration of the TP53 and RB1 pathways are associated with the development of antiandrogen resistance.
By knockdowning TP53 or/and RB1 in the castration resistant LNCaP/AR model, we demonstrate that the disruption of either TP53 or RB1 alone confers significant resistance to enzalutamide both in vitro and in vivo. Strikingly, the co-inactivation of these pathways confers the most dramatic resistance. Since up-regulation of either AR or AR target genes is not observed in the resistant tumors, loss of TP53 and RB1 function confers enzalutamide resistance likely through an AR independent mechanism. In the clinic, resistance to enzalutamide is increasingly being associated with a transition to a poorly differentiated or neuroendocrine-like histology. Interestingly, we observed significant up-regulations of the basal cell marker Ck5 and the neuroendocrine-like cell marker Synaptophysin in the TP53 and RB1 inactivated cells, as well as down-regulation of the luminal cell marker Ck8. The differences between these markers became even greater after enzalutamide treatment. By using the p53-stabilizing drug Nutlin, level of p53 is rescued and consequently the the decrease of AR protein caused by RB1 and TP53 knockdown is reversed. These results strongly suggest that interference of TP53 and RB1 pathways confers antiandrogen resistance by “priming” prostate cancer cells to reprogramming or transdifferentiation, likely neuroendocrine-like differentiation, in response to treatment. Futher experiments will be performed to assess the molecular mechanism of TP53/RB1 alterations in mediating cell programming and conferring antiandrogen resistance.

 

Abstract Number: LB-146
Presentation Title: TGF-β-induced tumor heterogeneity and drug resistance of cancer stem cells
Presentation Time: Monday, Apr 20, 2015, 1:00 PM – 5:00 PM
Location: Section 41
Author Block: Naoki Oshimori1, Daniel Oristian1, Elaine Fuchs2. 1Rockefeller University, New York, NY; 2HHMI/Rockefeller University, New York, NY
Abstract Body: Among the most common and life-threatening cancers world-wide, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) exhibit high rates of tumor recurrence following anti-cancer therapy. Subsets of cancer stem cells (CSCs) often escape anti-cancer therapeutics and promote recurrence. However, its sources and mechanisms that generate tumor heterogeneity and therapy-resistant cell population are largely unknown. Tumor microenvironment may drive intratumor heterogeneity by transmitting signaling factors, oxygen and metabolites to tumor cells depending on their proximity to the local sources. While the hypothesis is attractive, experimental evidence is lacking, and non-genetic mechanisms that drive functional heterogeneity remain largely unknown. As a potential non-genetic factor, we focused on TGF-β because of its multiple roles in tumor progression.
Here we devise a functional reporter system to monitor, track and modify TGF-β signaling in mouse skin SCC in vivo. Using this approach, we found that perivascular TGF-β in the tumor microenvironment generates heterogeneity in TGF-β signaling in neighboring CSCs. This heterogeneity is functionally important: small subsets of TGF-β-responding CSCs proliferate more slowly than their non-responding counterparts. They also exhibit invasive morphology and a malignant differentiation program compared to their non-responding neighbors. By lineage tracing, we show that although TGF-β-responding CSCs clonally expand more slowly they gain a growth advantage in a remarkable ability to escape cisplatin-induced apoptosis. We show that indeed it is their progenies that make a substantial contribution in tumor recurrence. Surprisingly, the slower proliferating state of this subset of CSCs within the cancer correlated with but did not confer the survival advantage to anti-cancer drugs. Using transcriptomic, biochemical and genetic analyses, we unravel a novel mechanism by which heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment allows a subset of CSCs to respond to TGF-β, and evade anti-cancer drugs.
Our findings also show that TGF-β established ability to suppress proliferation and promote invasion and metastasis do not happen sequentially, but rather simultaneously. This new work build upon the roles of this factor in tumor progression, and sets an important paradigm for a non-genetic factor that produces tumor heterogeneity.
Abstract Number: LB-129
Presentation Title: Identifying tumor subpopulations and the functional consequences of intratumor heterogeneity using single-cell profiling of breast cancer patient-derived xenografts
Presentation Time: Monday, Apr 20, 2015, 1:00 PM – 5:00 PM
Location: Section 41
Author Block: Paul Savage1, Sadiq M. Saleh1, Ernesto Iacucci1, Timothe Revil1, Yu-Chang Wang1, Nicholas Bertos1, Anie Monast1, Hong Zhao1, Margarita Souleimanova1, Keith Szulwach2, Chandana Batchu2, Atilla Omeroglu1, Morag Park1, Ioannis Ragoussis1. 1McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Fluidigm Corporation, South San Francisco, CA
Abstract Body: Human breast tumors have been shown to exhibit extensive inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity. While recent advances in genomic technologies have allowed us to deconvolute this heterogeneity, few studies have addressed the functional consequences of diversity within tumor populations. Here, we identified an index case for which we have derived a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) as a renewable tissue source to identify subpopulations and perform functional assays. On pathology, the tumor was an invasive ductal carcinoma which was hormone receptor-negative, HER2-positive (IHC 2+, FISH average HER2/CEP17 2.4), though the FISH signal was noted to be heterogeneous. On gene expression profiling of bulk samples, the primary tumor and PDX were classified as basal-like. We performed single cell RNA and exome sequencing of the PDX to identify population structure. Using a single sample predictor of breast cancer subtype, we have identified single basal-like, HER2-enriched and normal-like cells co-existing within the PDX tumor. Genes differentially expressed between these subpopulations are involved in proliferation and differentiation. Functional studies distinguishing these subpopulations are ongoing. Microfluidic whole genome amplification followed by whole exome capture of 81 single cells showed high and homogeneous target enrichment with >75% of reads mapping uniquely on target. Variant calling using GATK and Samtools revealed founder mutations in key genes as BRCA1 and TP53, as well as subclonal mutations that are being investigated further. Loss of heterozygocity was observed in 16 TCGA cancer driver genes and novel mutations in 7 cancer driver genes. These findings may be important in understanding the functional consequences of intra-tumor heterogeneity with respect to clinically important phenotypes such as invasion, metastasis and drug-resistance.
Abstract Number: 2847
Presentation Title: High complexity barcoding to study clonal dynamics in response to cancer therapy
Presentation Time: Monday, Apr 20, 2015, 4:35 PM – 4:50 PM
Location: Room 118, Pennsylvania Convention Center
Author Block: Hyo-eun C. Bhang1, David A. Ruddy1, Viveksagar Krishnamurthy Radhakrishna1, Rui Zhao2, Iris Kao1, Daniel Rakiec1, Pamela Shaw1, Marissa Balak1, Justina X. Caushi1, Elizabeth Ackley1, Nicholas Keen1, Michael R. Schlabach1, Michael Palmer1, William R. Sellers1, Franziska Michor2, Vesselina G. Cooke1, Joshua M. Korn1, Frank Stegmeier1. 1Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, MA; 2Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA
Abstract Body: Targeted therapies, such as erlotinib and imatinib, lead to dramatic clinical responses, but the emergence of resistance presents a significant challenge. Recent studies have revealed intratumoral heterogeneity as a potential source for the emergence of therapeutic resistance. However, it is still unclear if relapse/resistance is driven predominantly by pre-existing or de novo acquired alterations. To address this question, we developed a high-complexity barcode library, ClonTracer, which contains over 27 million unique DNA barcodes and thus enables the high resolution tracking of cancer cells under drug treatment. Using this library in two clinically relevant resistance models, we demonstrate that the majority of resistant clones pre-exist as rare subpopulations that become selected in response to therapeutic challenge. Furthermore, our data provide direct evidence that both genetic and non-genetic resistance mechanisms pre-exist in cancer cell populations. The ClonTracer barcoding strategy, together with mathematical modeling, enabled us to quantitatively dissect the frequency of drug-resistant subpopulations and evaluate the impact of combination treatments on the clonal complexity of these cancer models. Hence, monitoring of clonal diversity in drug-resistant cell populations by the ClonTracer barcoding strategy described here may provide a valuable tool to optimize therapeutic regimens towards the goal of curative cancer therapies.
Abstract Number: 3590
Presentation Title: Resistance mechanisms to ALK inhibitors
Presentation Time: Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 8:00 AM -12:00 PM
Location: Section 31
Poster Board Number: 13
Author Block: Ryohei Katayama1, Noriko Yanagitani1, Sumie Koike1, Takuya Sakashita1, Satoru Kitazono1, Makoto Nishio1, Yasushi Okuno2, Jeffrey A. Engelman3, Alice T. Shaw3, Naoya Fujita1. 1Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, Japan; 2Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 3Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA
Abstract Body: Purpose: ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was first reported in 2007. Approximately 3-5% of NSCLCs harbor an ALK gene rearrangement. The first-generation ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) crizotinib is a standard therapy for patients with advanced ALK-rearranged NSCLC. Several next-generation ALK-TKIs have entered the clinic and have shown promising antitumor activity in crizotinib-resistant patients. As patients still relapse even on these next-generation ALK-TKIs, we examined mechanisms of resistance to one next-generation ALK-TKI – alectinib – and potential strategies to overcome this resistance.
Experimental Procedure: We established a cell line model of alectinib resistance, and analyzed resistant tumor specimens from patients who had relapsed on alectinib. Cell lines were also established under an IRB-approved protocol when there was sufficient fresh tumor tissue. We established Ba/F3 cells expressing EML4-ALK and performed ENU mutagenesis to compare potential crizotinib or alectinib-resistance mutations. In addition, we developed Ba/F3 models harboring ALK resistance mutations and evaluated the potency of multiple next-generation ALK-TKIs including 3rd generation ALK inhibitor in these models and in vivo. To elucidate structure-activity-relationships of ALK resistance mutations, we performed computational thermodynamic simulation with MP-CAFEE.
Results: We identified multiple resistance mutations, including ALK I1171N, I1171S, and V1180L, from the ENU mutagenesis screen and the cell line model. In addition we found secondary mutations at the I1171 residue from the Japanese patients who developed resistance to alectinib or crizotinib. Both ALK mutations (V1180L and I1171 mutations) conferred resistance to alectinib as well as to crizotinib, but were sensitive to ceritinib and other next-generation ALK-TKIs. Based on thermodynamics simulation, each resistance mutation is predicted to lead to distinct structural alterations that decrease the binding affinity of ALK-TKIs for ALK.
Conclusions: We have identified multiple alectinib-resistance mutations from the cell line model, patient derived cell lines, and tumor tissues, and ENU mutagenesis. ALK secondary mutations arising after alectinib exposure are sensitive to other next generation ALK-TKIs. These findings suggest a potential role for sequential therapy with multiple next-generation ALK-TKIs in patients with advanced, ALK-rearranged cancers.
Session Title: Mechanisms of Resistance: From Signaling Pathways to Stem Cells
Session Type: Major Symposium
Session Start/End Time: Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 10:30 AM -12:30 PM
Location: Terrace Ballroom II-III (400 Level), Pennsylvania Convention Center
CME: CME-Designated
CME/CE Hours: 2
Session Description: Even the most effective cancer therapies are limited due to the development of one or more resistance mechanisms. Acquired resistance to targeted therapies can, in some cases, be attributed to the selective propagation of a small population of intrinsically resistant cells. However, there is also evidence that cancer drugs themselves can drive resistance by triggering the biochemical- or genetic-reprogramming of cells within the tumor or its microenvironment. Therefore, understanding drug resistance at the molecular and biological levels may enable the selection of specific drug combinations to counteract these adaptive responses. This symposium will explore some of the recent advances addressing the molecular basis of cancer cell drug resistance. We will address how tumor cell signaling pathways become rewired to facilitate tumor cell survival in the face of some of our most promising cancer drugs. Another topic to be discussed involves how drugs select for or induce the reprogramming of tumor cells toward a stem-like, drug resistant fate. By targeting the molecular driver(s) of rewired signaling pathways and/or cancer stemness it may be possible to select drug combinations that prevent the reprogramming of tumors and thereby delay or eliminate the onset of drug resistance.
Presentations:
Chairperson
Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 10:30 AM -12:30 PM
David A. Cheresh. UCSD Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA
Introduction
Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 10:30 AM -10:40 AM
Resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors: Heterogeneity and therapeutic strategies.
Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 10:40 AM -10:55 AM
Jeffrey A. Engelman. Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA
Discussion
Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 10:55 AM -11:00 AM
NG04: Clinical acquired resistance to RAF inhibitor combinations in BRAF mutant colorectal cancer through MAPK pathway alterations
Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 11:00 AM -11:15 AM
Ryan B. Corcoran, Leanne G. Ahronian, Eliezer Van Allen, Erin M. Coffee, Nikhil Wagle, Eunice L. Kwak, Jason E. Faris, A. John Iafrate, Levi A. Garraway, Jeffrey A. Engelman. Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA
Discussion
Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 11:15 AM -11:20 AM
SY27-02: Tumour heterogeneity and therapy resistance in melanoma
Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 11:20 AM -11:35 AM
Claudia Wellbrock. Univ. of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Presentation Number: SY27-02
Presentation Title: Tumour heterogeneity and therapy resistance in melanoma
Presentation Time: Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 11:20 AM -11:35 AM
Location: Terrace Ballroom II-III (400 Level), Pennsylvania Convention Center
Author Block: Claudia Wellbrock. Univ. of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Abstract Body: Solid tumors are structurally very complex; they consist of heterogeneous cancer cell populations, other non-cancerous cell types and a distinct extracellular matrix. Interactions of cancer cells with non-cancerous cells is well investigated, and our recent work in melanoma has demonstrated that the cellular environment that surrounds cancer cells has a major impact on the way a patient responds to MAP-kinase pathway targeting therapy.
We have shown that intra-tumor signaling within a heterogeneous tumor can have a major impact on the efficacy of BRAF and MEK inhibitors. With the increasing evidence of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity within tumors, intra-tumor signaling between individual cancer-cell subpopulations is therefore a crucial factor that needs to be considered in future therapy approaches. Our work has identified the ‘melanocyte-lineage survival oncogene’ MITF as an important player in phenotypic heterogeneity (MITFhigh and MITFlow cells) in melanoma, and MITF expression levels are crucial for the response to MAP-kinase pathway targeted therapy. We found that ‘MITF heterogeneity’ can be caused by cell-autonomous mechanisms or by the microenvironment, including the immune-microenvironment.
We have identified various mechanisms underlying MITF action in resistance to BRAF and MEK inhibitors in melanoma. In MITFhigh expressing cells, MITF confers cell-autonomous resistance to MAP-kinase pathway targeted therapy. Moreover, it appears that in melanomas heterogeneous for MITF expression (MITFhigh and MITFlow cells), individual subpopulations of resistant and sensitive cells communicate and MITF can contribute to overall tumor-resistance through intra-tumor signaling. Finally, we have identified a novel approach of interfering with MITF action, which profoundly sensitizes melanoma to MAP-kinase pathway targeted therapy.
Discussion
Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 11:35 AM -11:40 AM
SY27-03: Breast cancer stem cell state transitions mediate therapeutic resistance
Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 11:40 AM -11:55 AM
Max S. Wicha. University of Michigan, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, MI
Discussion
Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 11:55 AM -12:00 PM
SY27-04: Induction of cancer stemness and drug resistance by EGFR blockade
Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 12:00 PM -12:15 PM
David A. Cheresh. UCSD Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA

 

Cellular Reprogramming in Carcinogenesis: Implications for Tumor Heterogeneity, Prognosis, and Therapy
Session Type: Major Symposium
Session Start/End Time: Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 10:30 AM -12:30 PM
Location: Room 103, Pennsylvania Convention Center
CME: CME-Designated
CME/CE Hours: 2
Session Description: Cancers, both solid and liquid, consist of phenotypically heterogeneous cell types that make up the full cellular complement of disease. Deep sequencing of bulk cancers also frequently reveals a genetic intratumoral heterogeneity that reflects clonal evolution in space and in time and under the influence of treatment. How the distinct phenotypic and genotypic cells contribute to individual cancer growth and progression is incompletely understood. In this symposium, we will discuss issues of cancer heterogeneity and effects on growth and treatment resistance, with emphasis on cancer cell functional properties and influences of the microenvironment, interclonal genomic heterogeneity, and lineage relationships between cancer cells with stem cell and differentiated properties. Understanding these complex cellular relationships within cancers will have critical implications for devising more effective treatments.
Presentations:
Chairperson
Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 10:30 AM -12:30 PM
Peter B. Dirks. Univ. of Toronto Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada
Introduction

Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 10:30 AM -10:40 AM

Origins, evolution and selection in childhood leukaemia
Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 10:40 AM -11:00 AM
Tariq Enver. Cancer Research UK, London, United Kingdom
Discussion

Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 11:00 AM -11:05 AM

Cytokine-controlled stem cell plasticity inintestinal tumorigenesis
Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 11:05 AM -11:25 AM
Florian Greten. Georg-Speyer-Haus, Frankfurt, Germany
Discussion

Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 11:25 AM -11:30 AM

SY23-03: Intratumoural heterogeneity in human serous ovarian carcinoma
Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 11:30 AM -11:50 AM
John P. Stingl. Cancer Research UK Cambridge Research Inst., Cambridge, United Kingdom
Discussion

Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 11:50 AM -11:55 AM

Functional and genomic heterogeneity in brain tumors
Tuesday, Apr 21, 2015, 11:55 AM -12:15 PM

 

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 20;112(3):851-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1320611111. Epub 2015 Jan 5.

Single cell-derived clonal analysis of human glioblastoma links functional and genomic heterogeneity.

Meyer M1, Reimand J2, Lan X3, Head R1, Zhu X1, Kushida M1, Bayani J4, Pressey JC5, Lionel AC6, Clarke ID7, Cusimano M8, Squire JA9, Scherer SW6, Bernstein M10, Woodin MA5, Bader GD11, Dirks PB12.

Author information

Abstract

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a cancer comprised of morphologically, genetically, and phenotypically diverse cells. However, an understanding of the functional significance of intratumoral heterogeneity is lacking. We devised a method to isolate and functionally profile tumorigenic clones from patient glioblastoma samples. Individual clones demonstrated unique proliferation and differentiation abilities. Importantly, naïve patient tumors included clones that were temozolomide resistant, indicating that resistance to conventional GBM therapy can preexist in untreated tumors at a clonal level. Further, candidate therapies for resistant clones were detected with clone-specific drug screening. Genomic analyses revealed genes and pathways that associate with specific functional behavior of single clones. Our results suggest that functional clonal profiling used to identify tumorigenic and drug-resistant tumor clones will lead to the discovery of new GBM clone-specific treatment strategies.

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739: Tumor cell plasticity with transition to a mesenchymal phenotype is a mechanism of chemoresistance that is reversed by Notch pathway inhibition in lung adenocarcinoma
Sunday, Apr 19, 2015, 1:00 PM – 5:00 PM
Khaled A. Hassan. University Of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

745: Oncostatin M receptor activation leads to molecular targeted therapy resistance in non-small cell lung cancer
Sunday, Apr 19, 2015, 1:00 PM – 5:00 PM
Kazuhiko Shien1, Vassiliki A. Papadimitrakopoulou1, Dennis Ruder1, Nana E. Hanson1, Neda Kalhor1, J. Jack Lee1, Waun Ki Hong1, Ximing Tang1, Roy S. Herbst2, Luc Girard3, John D. Minna3, Jonathan M. Kurie1, Ignacio I. Wistuba1, Julie G. Izzo1. 1University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; 2Yale Cancer Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; 3Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX

746: Activation of EGFR bypass signaling through TGFα overexpression induces acquired resistance to alectinib in ALK-translocated lung cancer cells
Sunday, Apr 19, 2015, 1:00 PM – 5:00 PM
Tetsuo Tani, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Junko Hamamoto, Aoi Kuroda, Daisuke Arai, Kota Ishioka, Keiko Ohgino, Ichiro Kawada, Katsuhiko Naoki, Hayashi Yuichiro, Tomoko Betsuyaku, Kenzo Soejima. Keio University, Tokyo, Japan

752: Elucidating the mechanisms of acquired resistance in lung adenocarcinomas
Sunday, Apr 19, 2015, 1:00 PM – 5:00 PM
Sandra Ortiz-Cuarán1, Lynnette Fernandez-Cuesta1, Christine M. Lovly2, Marc Bos1, Matthias Scheffler3, Sebastian Michels3, Kerstin Albus4, Lydia Meyer4, Katharina König4, Ilona Dahmen1, Christian Mueller1, Luca Ozretić4, Lars Tharun4, Philipp Schaub1, Alexandra Florin4, Berit Pinther1, Nike Bahlmann1, Sascha Ansén3, Martin Peifer1, Lukas C. Heukamp4, Reinhard Buettner4, Martin L. Sos1, Jürgen Wolf3, William Pao2, Roman K. Thomas1. 1University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Integrated Oncology Köln-Bonn, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 4Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany

760: On the evolution of erlotinib-resistant NSCLC subpopulations
Sunday, Apr 19, 2015, 1:00 PM – 5:00 PM
Michael E. Ramirez1, Robert J. Steininger, III1, Lani F. Wu2, Steven J. Altschuler2. 1UT Southwestern, Dallas, TX; 2UCSF, San Francisco, CA
763: Implications of resistance patterns with NSCLC targeted agents
Sunday, Apr 19, 2015, 1:00 PM – 5:00 PM
David J. Stewart, Paul Wheatley-Price, Rob MacRae, Jason Pantarotto. University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada

 

768: A kinome-wide siRNA screen identifies modifiers of sensitivity to the EGFR T790M-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), AZD9291, in EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma
Sunday, Apr 19, 2015, 1:00 PM – 5:00 PM
Eiki Ichihara1, Joshua A. Bauer2, Pengcheng Lu3, Fei Ye3, Darren Cross4, William Pao1, Christine M. Lovly1. 1Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN; 2Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology High-Throughput Screening Facility, Nashville, TN; 3Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN; 4AstraZeneca Oncology Innovative Medicines, United Kingdom

LB-055: Clinical acquired resistance to RAF inhibitor combinations in BRAF-mutant colorectal cancer through MAPK pathway alterations
Sunday, Apr 19, 2015, 4:35 PM – 4:50 PM
Leanne G. Ahronian1, Erin M. Sennott1, Eliezer M. Van Allen2, Nikhil Wagle2, Eunice L. Kwak1, Jason E. Faris1, Jason T. Godfrey1, Koki Nishimura1, Kerry D. Lynch3, Craig H. Mermel1, Elizabeth L. Lockerman1, Anuj Kalsy1, Joseph M. Gurski, Jr.1, Samira Bahl4, Kristin Anderka4, Lisa M. Green4, Niall J. Lennon4, Tiffany G. Huynh3, Mari Mino-Kenudson3, Gad Getz1, Dora Dias-Santagata3, A. John Iafrate3, Jeffrey A. Engelman1, Levi A. Garraway2, Ryan B. Corcoran1. 1Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA; 2Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA; 3Massachusetts General Hospital Department of Pathology, Boston, MA; 4Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard, Cambridge, MA

 

Other Articles on this Site Related to Tumor Heterogeneity Include

Notes On Tumor Heterogeneity: Targets and Mechanisms, from the 2015 AACR Meeting in Philadelphia PA

Issues in Personalized Medicine: Discussions of Intratumor Heterogeneity from the Oncology Pharma forum on LinkedIn

Issues in Personalized Medicine in Cancer: Intratumor Heterogeneity and Branched Evolution Revealed by Multiregion Sequencing

CANCER COMPLEXITY: Heterogeneity in Tumor Progression and Drug Response – 2015 Annual Symposium @Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT – W34, 6/12/2015 9:00 AM EDT – 4:30 PM EDT

In vitro Models of Tumor Microenvironment for New Cancer Target and Drug Discovery, 11/17 – 11/19/2014, Hyatt Boston Harbor

What can we expect of tumor therapeutic response?

 

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Humanized Mice May Revolutionize Cancer Drug Discovery

 

Curator: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

Decades ago cancer research and the process of oncology drug discovery was revolutionized by the development of mice deficient in their immune system, allowing for the successful implantation of human-derived tumors. The ability to implant human tumors without rejection allowed researchers to study how the kinetics of human tumor growth in its three-dimensional environment, evaluate potential human oncogenes and drivers of oncogenesis, and evaluate potential chemotherapeutic therapies. Indeed, the standard preclinical test for antitumor activity has involved the subcutaneous xenograft model in immunocompromised (SCID or nude athymic) mice. More detail is given in the follow posts in which I describe some early pioneers in this work as well as the development of large animal SCID models:

Heroes in Medical Research: Developing Models for Cancer Research

The SCID Pig: How Pigs are becoming a Great Alternate Model for Cancer Research

The SCID Pig II: Researchers Develop Another SCID Pig, And Another Great Model For Cancer Research

This strategy (putting human tumor cells into immunocompromised mice and testing therapeutic genes and /or compounds) has worked extremely well for most cytotoxic chemotherapeutics (those chemotherapeutic drugs with mechanisms of action related to cell kill, vital cell functions, and cell cycle). For example the NCI 60 panel of human tumor cell lines has proved predictive for the chemosensitivity of a wide range of compounds.

Even though the immunocompromised model has contributed greatly to the chemotherapeutic drug discovery process. using these models to develop the new line of immuno-oncology products has been met with challenges three which I highlight below with curated database of references and examples.

From a practical standpoint development of a mouse which can act as a recipient for human tumors yet have a humanized immune system allows for the preclinical evaluation of antitumoral effect of therapeutic antibodies without the need to use neutralizing antibodies to the comparable mouse epitope,   thereby reducing the complexity of the study and preventing complications related to pharmacokinetics.

Champions Oncology Files Patents for Use of PDX Platform in Immune-Oncology

Hackensack, NJ – August 17, 2015 – Champions Oncology, Inc. (OTC: CSBR), engaged in the development of advanced technology solutions and services to personalize the development and use of oncology drugs, today announced that it has filed two patent applications with the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) relating to the development and use of mice with humanized immune systems to test immune-oncology drugs and therapeutic cancer vaccines.

Dr. David Sidransky, the founder and Chairman of Champions Oncology commented, “Drug development ‎in the immune-oncology space is fundamentally changing our approach to cancer treatment. These patents represent potentially invaluable tools for developing and personalizing immune therapy based on cutting edge sequence analysis, bioinformatics and our unique in vivo models.”

Joel Ackerman, Chief Executive Officer of Champions Oncology stated, “Developing intellectual property related to our Champions TumorGraft® platform has been an important component of strategy. The filing of these patents is an important milestone in leveraging our research and development investment to expand our platform and create proprietary tools for use by our pharmaceutical partners. We continue to look for additional revenue streams to supplement our fee-for-service business and we believe these patents will help us capture more of the value we create for our customers in the future.”

The first patent filing covers the methodology used by the Company to create a mouse model, containing a humanized immune system and a human tumor xenograft, which is capable of testing the efficacy of immune-oncology agents, both as single agents and in combination with anti-neoplastic drugs. The second patent filing relates to the detection of neoantigens and their role in the development of anti-cancer vaccines.

Keren Pez, Chief Scientific Officer, explained, “In the last few years, there has been a significant increase in cancer research that focuses on exploring the power of the human immune system to attack tumors. However, it’s challenging to test immune-oncology agents in traditional animal models due to the major differences between human and murine immune systems. The Champions ImmunoGraft™ platform has the unique ability of mimicking a human adaptive immune response in the mice, which allows us to specifically evaluate a variety of cancer therapeutics that modulate human immunity.

“Therapeutic vaccines that trigger the immune system to mount a response against a growing tumor are another area of intense interest. The development of an effective vaccine remains challenging but has an outstanding curative potential. Tumors harbor mutations in DNA that result in the translation of aberrant proteins. While these proteins have the potential to provoke an immune response that destructs early-stage cancer development, often the immune response becomes insufficient. Vaccines can trigger it by proactively challenging the system with these specific mutated peptides. Nevertheless, developing anti-cancer vaccines that effectively inhibit tumor growth has been complicated, partially due to challenges in finding the critical mutations, among others difficulties. With the more recent advances in genome sequencing, it’s now possible to identify tumor-specific antigens, or neoantigens, that naturally develop as an individual’s tumor grows and mutates,” she continued.

Traumatic spinal cord injury in mice with human immune systems.

Carpenter RS, Kigerl KA, Marbourg JM, Gaudet AD, Huey D, Niewiesk S, Popovich PG.

Exp Neurol. 2015 Jul 17;271:432-444. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2015.07.011. [Epub ahead of print]

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015 Jul;21(7):1652-73. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0000000000000446.

Use of Humanized Mice to Study the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases.

Koboziev I1, Jones-Hall Y, Valentine JF, Webb CR, Furr KL, Grisham MB.

Author information

Abstract

Animal models of disease have been used extensively by the research community for the past several decades to better understand the pathogenesis of different diseases and assess the efficacy and toxicity of different therapeutic agents. Retrospective analyses of numerous preclinical intervention studies using mouse models of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases reveal a generalized failure to translate promising interventions or therapeutics into clinically effective treatments in patients. Although several possible reasons have been suggested to account for this generalized failure to translate therapeutic efficacy from the laboratory bench to the patient’s bedside, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the mouse immune system is substantially different from the human. Indeed, it is well known that >80 major differences exist between mouse and human immunology; all of which contribute to significant differences in immune system development, activation, and responses to challenges in innate and adaptive immunity. This inconvenient reality has prompted investigators to attempt to humanize the mouse immune system to address important human-specific questions that are impossible to study in patients. The successful long-term engraftment of human hematolymphoid cells in mice would provide investigators with a relatively inexpensive small animal model to study clinically relevant mechanisms and facilitate the evaluation of human-specific therapies in vivo. The discovery that targeted mutation of the IL-2 receptor common gamma chain in lymphopenic mice allows for the long-term engraftment of functional human immune cells has advanced greatly our ability to humanize the mouse immune system. The objective of this review is to present a brief overview of the recent advances that have been made in the development and use of humanized mice with special emphasis on autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. In addition, we discuss the use of these unique mouse models to define the human-specific immunopathological mechanisms responsible for the induction and perpetuation of chronic gut inflammation.

J Immunother Cancer. 2015 Apr 21;3:12. doi: 10.1186/s40425-015-0056-2. eCollection 2015.

Human tumor infiltrating lymphocytes cooperatively regulate prostate tumor growth in a humanized mouse model.

Roth MD1, Harui A1.

Author information

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The complex interactions that occur between human tumors, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and the systemic immune system are likely to define critical factors in the host response to cancer. While conventional animal models have identified an array of potential anti-tumor therapies, mouse models often fail to translate into effective human treatments. Our goal is to establish a humanized tumor model as a more effective pre-clinical platform for understanding and manipulating TIL.

METHODS:

The immune system in NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγnull (NSG) mice was reconstituted by the co-administration of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) or subsets (CD4+ or CD8+) and autologous human dendritic cells (DC), and animals simultaneously challenged by implanting human prostate cancer cells (PC3 line). Tumor growth was evaluated over time and the phenotype of recovered splenocytes and TIL characterized by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Serum levels of circulating cytokines and chemokines were also assessed.

RESULTS:

A tumor-bearing huPBL-NSG model was established in which human leukocytes reconstituted secondary lymphoid organs and promoted the accumulation of TIL. These TIL exhibited a unique phenotype when compared to splenocytes with a predominance of CD8+ T cells that exhibited increased expression of CD69, CD56, and an effector memory phenotype. TIL from huPBL-NSG animals closely matched the features of TIL recovered from primary human prostate cancers. Human cytokines were readily detectible in the serum and exhibited a different profile in animals implanted with PBL alone, tumor alone, and those reconstituted with both. Immune reconstitution slowed but could not eliminate tumor growth and this effect required the presence of CD4+ T cell help.

CONCLUSIONS:

Simultaneous implantation of human PBL, DC and tumor results in a huPBL-NSG model that recapitulates the development of human TIL and allows an assessment of tumor and immune system interaction that cannot be carried out in humans. Furthermore, the capacity to manipulate individual features and cell populations provides an opportunity for hypothesis testing and outcome monitoring in a humanized system that may be more relevant than conventional mouse models.

Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1213:379-88. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1453-1_31.

A chimeric mouse model to study immunopathogenesis of HCV infection.

Bility MT1, Curtis A, Su L.

Author information

Abstract

Several human hepatotropic pathogens including chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) have narrow species restriction, thus hindering research and therapeutics development against these pathogens. Developing a rodent model that accurately recapitulates hepatotropic pathogens infection, human immune response, chronic hepatitis, and associated immunopathogenesis is essential for research and therapeutics development. Here, we describe the recently developed AFC8 humanized liver- and immune system-mouse model for studying chronic hepatitis C virus and associated human immune response, chronic hepatitis, and liver fibrosis.

PMID:

25173399

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID:

PMC4329723

Free PMC Article

Immune humanization of immunodeficient mice using diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from carcinoma patients.

Werner-Klein M, Proske J, Werno C, Schneider K, Hofmann HS, Rack B, Buchholz S, Ganzer R, Blana A, Seelbach-Göbel B, Nitsche U, Männel DN, Klein CA.

PLoS One. 2014 May 15;9(5):e97860. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097860. eCollection 2014.

From 2015 AACR National Meeting in Philadelphia

LB-050: Patient-derived tumor xenografts in humanized NSG mice: a model to study immune responses in cancer therapy
Sunday, Apr 19, 2015, 3:20 PM – 3:35 PM
Minan Wang1, James G. Keck1, Mingshan Cheng1, Danying Cai1, Leonard Shultz2, Karolina Palucka2, Jacques Banchereau2, Carol Bult2, Rick Huntress2. 1The Jackson Laboratory, Sacramento, CA; 2The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME

 

References

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  2. Shi LM, Fan Y, Lee JK, Waltham M, Andrews DT, Scherf U, Paull KD, Weinstein JN. J Chem Inf Comput Sci. 2000;40:367–379. [PubMed]
  3. Monks A, Scudiero D, Skehan P, Shoemaker R, Paull K, Vistica D, Hose C, Langley J, Cronise P, Vaigro-Wolff A, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991;83:757–766. [PubMed]
  4. Potti A, Dressman HK, Bild A, et al. Genomic signatures to guide the use of chemotherapeutics. Nat Med. 2006;12:1294–1300. [PubMed]
  5. Baggerly KA, Coombes KR. Deriving chemosensitivity from cell lines: forensic bioinformatics and reproducible research in high-throughput biology. Ann Appl Stat. 2009;3:1309–1334.
  6. Carlson, B. Putting Oncology Patients at Risk Biotechnol Healthc. 2012 Fall; 9(3): 17–21.
  7. Salter KH, Acharya CR, Walters KS, et al. An Integrated Approach to the Prediction of Chemotherapeutic Response in Patients with Breast Cancer. Ouchi T, ed. PLoS ONE. 2008;3(4):e1908. NOTE RETRACTED PAPER

 

Other posts on this site on Animal Models, Disease and Cancer Include:

 

Heroes in Medical Research: Developing Models for Cancer Research

Guidelines for the welfare and use of animals in cancer research

Model mimicking clinical profile of patients with ovarian cancer @ Yale School of Medicine

Vaccines, Small Peptides, aptamers and Immunotherapy [9]

Immunotherapy in Cancer: A Series of Twelve Articles in the Frontier of Oncology by Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

Mouse With ‘Humanized Version’ Of Human Language Gene Provides Clues To Language Development

The SCID Pig: How Pigs are becoming a Great Alternate Model for Cancer Research

The SCID Pig II: Researchers Develop Another SCID Pig, And Another Great Model For Cancer Research

 

 

 

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From the NIH Website

New NIH breast cancer research to focus on prevention

A new phase of the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program (BCERP), focused on prevention, is being launched at the National Institutes of Health. Grant-funded researchers will now work across scientific disciplines, involve new racially and ethnically diverse communities, and expand the study of risk factors that precede breast cancer, such as breast density.

These new directions reflect recommendations made by the Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee (IBCERCC) in 2013. IBCERCC was congressionally mandated to review the state of the science around breast cancer and environmental influences by the Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Act. Recommendations included prioritizing prevention, involving transdisciplinary research teams, engaging public stakeholders, collaborating across federal agencies, and communicating the science to the public.

This broadened research focus will add to the growing knowledge of environmental and genetic factors that may influence breast cancer risk across the lifespan. The six new BCERP projects, plus a new coordinating center promoting cross-project collaboration, are jointly funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the National Cancer Institute. All projects involve strong partnerships between researchers and organizations focused on breast cancer prevention or environmental health.

The new research will be conducted at the following institutions

  • Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston
  • City of Hope/Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, California
  • Columbia University, New York City
  • Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, D.C.
  • Michigan State University, Lansing
  • University of Massachusetts, Amherst
  • University of Wisconsin – Madison (Coordinating Center)

“The beauty of this research is that scientific discoveries and community observations inform each other, in order to dive deeper into the complex causes of breast cancer,” said Gwen Collman, Ph.D., director of NIEHS Division of Extramural Research and Training.

The focus on minority and socio-economically disadvantaged women is an important step in addressing disparities in breast cancer outcomes. Although African-American women are diagnosed with breast cancer less often than white women, more aggressive cancers and breast cancer deaths are more common among African-American women.

Another new direction for BCERP is research on the role of breast density as a possible intermediate risk factor for breast cancer. Dense breast tissue is one of the most common risk factors for breast cancer. Identifying links between environmental exposures and high breast density may provide new insights into prevention.

“These priorities reflect our continued commitment to breast cancer prevention,” noted Caroline Dilworth, Ph.D., BCERP program lead at NIEHS. “Our goal is to build on the high quality science we’ve been funding for more than a decade, while also being responsive to the expert recommendations of the IBCERCC report.”

Grant Numbers: U01ES026130, U01ES026137, U01ES026122, U01ES026132, U01ES026119, U01ES026140, U01ES026127

NIEHS supports research to understand the effects of the environment on human health and is part of NIH. For more information on environmental health topics, visit www.niehs.nih.gov. Subscribe to one or more of the NIEHS news lists to stay current on NIEHS news, press releases, grant opportunities, training, events, and publications.

The National Cancer Institute leads the National Cancer Program and the NIH’s efforts to dramatically reduce the prevalence of cancer and improve the lives of cancer patients and their families, through research into prevention and cancer biology, the development of new interventions, and the training and mentoring of new researchers. For more information about cancer, please visit the NCI website at http://www.cancer.gov or call NCI’s Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation’s medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.

Other posts on this site on  Cancer and Early Detection  include

Early Detection of Prostate Cancer: American Urological Association (AUA) Guideline

Mechanism involved in Breast Cancer Cell Growth: Function in Early Detection & Treatment

Warning signs may lead to better early detection of ovarian cancer

‘Mosaicism’ is Associated with Aging and Chronic Diseases like Cancer: detection of genetic mosaicism could be an early marker for detecting cancer.

CDC Findings: Due to Aging Population, Actual Number of Cancer Deaths is Rising while Risk of Dying From Cancer is Falling in the US

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Curation of Recently Halted Oncology Trials Due to Serious Adverse Events – 2015

Curator: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

The following is reports of oncology clinical trials in 2015 which have been halted for Serious Adverse Events (SAE), in most instances of an idiopathic nature. For comparison I have listed (as of this writing) the oncology drug approvals (8) for 2015. (from CenterWatch.com)

Oncology Drugs Approved in 2015

Farydak (panobinostat); Novartis; For the treatment of multiple myeloma, Approved February 2015

Ibrance (palbociclib); Pfizer; For the treatment of ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, Approved February 2015

Lenvima (lenvatinib); Eisai; For the treatment of thyroid cancer, Approved February 2015

Lonsurf (trifluridine and tipiracil); Taiho Oncology; For the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer , Approved September 2015

Odomzo (sonidegib); Novartis; For the treatment of locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, July 2015

Opdivo (nivolumab); Bristol-Myers Squibb; For the treatment of metastatic squamous non-small cell lung cancer, Approved March 2015

Unituxin (dinutuximab); United Therapeutics; For the treatment of pediatrics with high-risk neuroblastoma, Approved March 2015

Varubi (rolapitant); Tesaro; For the prevention of delayed nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, Approved September 2015


Death Forces FDA to Place Clinical Hold on Advaxis (ADXS) Cancer Drug

from Biospace News

October 7, 2015
By Alex Keown, BioSpace.com Breaking News Staff

PRINCETON, N.J. – Following the death of a patient, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) placed a hold on Advaxis (ADXS)’s experimental cancer treatment axalimogene filolisbac, which is currently in mid-stage trials.

In a statement issued this morning, Advaxis maintains the patient’s death was a result of the severity of her cancer and not due to the company’s experimental cancer treatment. It is seeking proof from the FDA that the drug was not a factor in the death. Still, the hold on the experimental cancer drug will cause the company to halt four clinical trials, Advaxis said. Other clinical trials, including those with the experimental ADXS-PSA and ADXS-HER2, are not affected by this hold. The company said it will continue to actively enroll and dose patients.

The FDA placed a hold on the drug on Oct. 2 after the company submitted a safety report to the regulatory agency that week. The drug is being developed to treat patients with persistent or recurrent metastatic (squamous or non-squamous cell) carcinoma of the cervix (PRmCC) who have progressed on at least one prior line of systemic therapy. Phase I trials released at the end of September showed treatment with axalimogene filolisbac resulted in a 38.5 percent 12-month overall survival rate in 26 patients. Patients typically fighting PRmCC who have failed at least one line of therapy have a typical survival rate of four to seven months.

Read full story here


FDA Halts Trial of Halozyme’s PEGPH20 for Pancreatic Cancer

Apr 9, 2014 Alex Philippidis

Halozyme Therapeutics acknowledged today that the FDA placed a formal clinical hold on its troubled Study 202 assessing its experimental drug PEGPH20 in patients with pancreatic cancer—less than a week after the company temporarily halted enrolling and dosing patients in the ongoing Phase II trial.

The agency told Halozyme it placed the clinical hold following the company’s pause in study activity. The trial’s independent data monitoring committee is evaluating data from the trial to learn why patients treated with PEGPH20 as well as nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine saw a higher rate of blood clots and other thromboembolic events compared with patients treated with nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine alone.

“We will be providing this information to the data monitoring committee and the FDA in parallel so they can complete their respective assessments,” Helen Torley, M.B. Ch.B., M.R.C.P., Halozyme’s president and CEO, said in a statement.

“Pancreatic cancer has one of the lowest survival rates of any cancer. We remain committed to evaluating PEGPH20 as a possible therapy to address this devastating disease,” Dr. Torley added.

As with Halozyme’s statement last week, the company’s latest remarks did not indicate when Halozyme expects to resume enrolling and dosing patients in Study 202, or how many patients had been enrolled and dosed when the temporary halt occurred.

The trial was envisioned as having 124 subjects, divided evenly between a treatment arm of PEGPH20 and nab-paclitaxel, and a gemcitabine arm, preceded by eight subject “run-in” phase assessing safety and tolerability, according to Study 202’s page on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01839487), last updated on January 27.

The study is one of two Phase II trials for PEGPH20; the other, SWOG, also aims to assess the drug for pancreatic cancer.

PEGPH20 is an investigational PEGylated form of Halozyme’s FDA-approved recombinant human hyaluronidase rHuPH20 (marketed as Hylenex®), designed to dramatically increases the half-life of the compound in the blood and allow for intravenous administration.

The temporary halt for Study 202 came two months after Halozyme publicly cited “potential acceleration of the PEGPH20 program” among several R&D programs for which it raised funds through a public offering of common stock that closed in February and generated approximately $107.8 million in net proceeds.

Read more at GenNEWS


FDA orders CytRx to halt patient enrollment after death of a cancer patient

CytRx ($CYTR) has run into an unexpected roadblock with its cancer drug conjugate aldoxorubicin, slamming the brakes on new patient recruitment in all their clinical trials after the FDA dropped a partial clinical hold on the program. According to the biotech the hold was forced by the death of a patient who was given the drug through a compassionate use program.

LA-based CytRx execs say that patients already enrolled in the studies will continue to receive the therapy as investigators added new safety measures, retooling trial protocols to include an “appropriate inclusion/exclusion criteria, an additional patient screening assessment and an evaluation of serum electrolytes prior to aldoxorubicin administration.” The patient who died, they added, had not qualified for any of its studies.

As it stands now, the biotech doesn’t know exactly how long the partial hold will last, but their announcement sought to calm jumpy investors, saying they expected to resolve the FDA’s demands “expeditiously” and can stick to their current timelines. CytRx says it expects to report preliminary results from their mid-stage study of Kaposi’s sarcoma in the second quarter of 2015 and preliminary results from the ongoing Phase II clinical trial of aldoxorubicin in glioblastoma multiforme in the first half of 2015. The company added that it is committed to completing enrollment in their Phase III trial by the end of next year.

hat reassurance appears to have helped with investors, who seemed to count this as more of a temporary setback than a catastrophe. Shares for CytRx were down about 9% in mid-morning trading.

Aldoxorubicin uses a linker molecule to attach to albumin in the blood and concentrate in tumors, where the acidic environment releases the chemotherapy doxorubicin in doses up to four times higher than what’s used now. Late last year their stock soared after their drug scored promising results for progression-free survival in a Phase IIb trial.

This case illustrates one reason why biotechs often quietly squirm under the pressure of compassionate use programs. They can be expensive to operate, time-consuming and raise fresh concerns when a patient dies or experiences a setback. On the other hand, if regulators take action like this following the death of an advanced stage cancer patient, there may have been something about the case that triggered broader concerns for the entire patient population


Clot risk in Lilly lung-cancer drug raises FDA concerns

July 7, 2015

Eli Lilly and Co.’s experimental lung cancer drug has raised concerns with U.S. regulators that it may increase patients’ risk of suffering potentially deadly blood clots.

The drug, known as necitumumab, improved patients’ overall chances of survival, yet people taking the medicine also experienced more risk, Food and Drug Administration staff said in a report Tuesday. Indianapolis-based Lilly is seeking to sell the medicine to treat a subset of the most common type of lung cancer.

FDA advisers will meet Thursday to discuss the risks and benefits of necitumumab for patients with advanced squamous non-small cell lung cancer, in combination with chemotherapy. The FDA is expected to decide if Lilly can sell the drug by the end of the year.

While the safety of necitumumab reflects that of similar drugs, the increased danger of clotting “in this already high risk population is of concern,” FDA staff wrote.

One study showed that out of 538 patients taking necitumumab and chemotherapy, 9 percent experienced a serious clot, compared with 5 percent of 541 patients given only chemotherapy, according to the staff report.

Squamous lung cancer accounts for 25 percent to 30 percent of all lung cancer, according to the American Cancer Society.

Patients in a clinical trial who took necitumumab lived a median of 11.5 months, 1.6 months longer than those who got only chemotherapy, the FDA staff report said.

Opdivo Side Effects Center (as seen on Rxlist.com) (NOTE:TRIAL NOT HALTED)

Last reviewed on RxList 10/05/2015

Opdivo (nivolumab) is a human monoclonal antibody used to treat patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma and disease progression following ipilimumab and, if BRAF V600 mutation positive, a BRAF inhibitor; and to treat metastatic squamous non-small cell lung cancer with progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy. Common side effects of Opdivo include fatigue, rash, itching, cough, upper respiratory tract infection, swelling of the extremities, shortness of breath, muscle pain, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, weakness, swelling, fever, abdominal pain, chest pain, joint pain, and weight loss.


Opdivo FDA Prescribing Information: Side Effects
(Adverse Reactions)

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

The data described in the WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS section and below reflect exposure to OPDIVO in Trial 1, a randomized trial in patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma and in Trial 3, a single-arm trial in patients with metastatic squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Clinically significant adverse reactions were evaluated in a total of 691 patients enrolled in Trials 1, 3, or an additional dose finding study (n=306) administering OPDIVO at doses of 0.1 to 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Unresectable or Metastatic Melanoma

The safety of OPDIVO was evaluated in Trial 1, a randomized, open-label trial in which 370 patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma received OPDIVO 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks (n=268) or investigator’s choice of chemotherapy (n=102), either dacarbazine 1000 mg/m² every 3 weeks or the combination of carboplatin AUC 6 every 3 weeks plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m² every 3 weeks [see Clinical Studies]. The median duration of exposure was 5.3 months (range: 1 day to 13.8+ months) with a median of eight doses (range: 1 to 31) in OPDIVO-treated patients and was 2 months (range: 1 day to 9.6+ months) in chemotherapy treated patients. In this ongoing trial, 24% of patients received OPDIVO for greater than 6 months and 3% of patients received OPDIVO for greater than 1 year.

In Trial 1, patients had documented disease progression following treatment with ipilimumab and, if BRAF V600 mutation positive, a BRAF inhibitor. The trial excluded patients with autoimmune disease, prior ipilimumab-related Grade 4 adverse reactions (except for endocrinopathies) or Grade 3 ipilimumab-related adverse reactions that had not resolved or were inadequately controlled within 12 weeks of the initiating event, patients with a condition requiring chronic systemic treatment with corticosteroids ( > 10 mg daily prednisone equivalent) or other immunosuppressive medications, a positive test for hepatitis B or C, and a history of HIV.

The study population characteristics in the OPDIVO group and the chemotherapy group were similar: 66% male, median age 59.5 years, 98% white, baseline ECOG performance status 0 (59%) or 1 (41%), 74% with M1c stage disease, 73% with cutaneous melanoma, 11% with mucosal melanoma, 73% received two or more prior therapies for advanced or metastatic disease, and 18% had brain metastasis. There were more patients in the OPDIVO group with elevated LDH at baseline (51% vs. 38%).

OPDIVO was discontinued for adverse reactions in 9% of patients. Twenty-six percent of patients receiving OPDIVO had a drug delay for an adverse reaction. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 41% of patients receiving OPDIVO. Grade 3 and 4 adverse reactions occurred in 42% of patients receiving OPDIVO. The most frequent Grade 3 and 4 adverse reactions reported in 2% to less than 5% of patients receiving OPDIVO were abdominal pain, hyponatremia, increased aspartate aminotransferase, and increased lipase.


FDA Approves Eisai’s LENVIMA™ (lenvatinib) for the Treatment of Patients with Locally Recurrent or Metastatic, Progressive, Radioactive Iodine-Refractory Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

– Press release from Eisai (NOTE: TRIAL NOT HALTED)

Feb 13, 2015

WOODCLIFF LAKE, N.J., Feb. 13, 2015 /PRNewswire/ — Eisai Inc. announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the company’s receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor LENVIMA™ (lenvatinib) for the treatment of locally recurrent or metastatic, progressive, radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RAI-R DTC). LENVIMA was approved following a priority review by the FDA, which is designated for drugs the FDA believes have the potential to provide a significant improvement in the treatment of a serious condition. LENVIMA demonstrated a statistically significant progression-free survival (PFS) prolongation and response rate in patients with progressive, differentiated thyroid cancer who had become refractory to radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy.

In the clinical trial, adverse events led to dose reductions in 68% of patients who received LENVIMA and 5% of patients who received placebo. Some patients will need to discontinue treatment for serious adverse reactions. In the trial, 18% of patients treated with LENVIMA and 5% who received placebo discontinued treatment. The most common adverse reactions (at least 10%) that resulted in dose reductions of LENVIMA were hypertension (13%), proteinuria (11%), decreased appetite (10%), and diarrhea (10%).

AstraZeneca halts a pair of lung cancer trials over a safety scare

From October 9, 2015 | By of FierceBiotech

“AstraZeneca ($AZN) is pressing pause on trials combining two of its most important pipeline cancer treatments after tracking reports of lung disease, halting enrollment as it gathers more information.

The company is testing a combination of AZD9291 and durvalumab, formerly MEDI4736, in two studies involving patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Late last month, AstraZeneca hit the brakes on enrollment in both trials due to an increase in reports of interstitial lung disease, which can lead to dangerous scarring and impaired pulmonary function. The pauses are temporary, the company stressed in an emailed statement, and patients already enrolled in the study will be given new consent forms to ensure they understand the risks before choosing whether keep getting treatment.”

Other posts on this site on Cytotoxicity and Cancer include

Novel Approaches to Cancer Therapy [11.1]

Misfolded Proteins – from Little Villains to Little Helpers… Against Cancer

Multiple Lung Cancer Genomic Projects Suggest New Targets, Research Directions for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

A Synthesis of the Beauty and Complexity of How We View Cancer

Good and Bad News Reported for Ovarian Cancer Therapy

Read Full Post »


 

Horizon Discovery Group plc In-licenses Oncology Programme from Servier and Enters Option Agreement

Reporter: Aviva-Lev Ari, Ph.D., R.N.; Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

Press release

7 October 2015

 

Horizon Discovery Group plc In-licenses Oncology Programme from Servier and Enters Option Agreement

 

  • License programme with milestone payments of up to £50 million plus royalties on product sales
  • Horizon to in-license novel kinase inhibitor programme from Servier
  • Horizon will exploit its translational genomics and combination sciences platform to define optimum approaches to treatment and identify cancer patient populations most likely to respond

 

Cambridge, UK, 7 October 2015: Horizon Discovery Group plc (LSE: HZD) (“Horizon” or “the Company”), the international life science company supplying research tools and services that power genomics research and the development of personalised medicines, announces today that its leveraged business unit has signed a programme in-licensing and option agreement with Servier, the independent French research-based pharmaceutical company. The agreement is potentially worth over £50 million to Horizon in preclinical and clinical milestones, payments linked to net sales, and tiered royalties on future product sales.

 

Horizon has in-licensed novel kinase inhibitors from Servier that exhibit great promise based on pre-clinical data for treatment of a range of cancer types but do not currently have a biomarker to define a sensitive patient population. Horizon will use its world-leading platform, comprising isogenic cell lines and in vivo models, CRISPR-Cas9 mediated gene editing technology and ultra-high-throughput combination screening, to identify the population of cancer patients most likely to respond to the in-licensed compounds, whether as single agents or in combinations with other drugs. Horizon also has the option to explore the use of the inhibitors in other therapeutic indications.

 

Under the terms of the agreement, Servier has a first option to license back the assets. Should Servier take up this option, Horizon would receive up to £50 million in milestone payments plus royalties on product sales. If Servier does not take up its option, Horizon will be free to seek another pharma partner and Horizon and Servier would then share in the success of the progression of the programme as it advances into the clinic and registration.

 

Horizon will evaluate the mechanism of action of the candidate compounds, and will verify the patient stratification hypothesis by both in vitro and in vivo preclinical experiments. Horizon will also define a path towards the development of biomarkers for both patient stratification and drug efficacy.

 

Dr. Darrin M. Disley, Chief Executive Officer of Horizon Discovery Group plc, said: “The in-license of assets with a strong pre-clinical pedigree but do not yet have a clear clinical development strategy, represents a great opportunity for companies like Horizon. Demonstrating our scientific leadership through our translational genomics, drug combination and biomarker discovery platforms; we seek to identify genetic markers that predict drug sensitivity enabling programmes like this one to be progressed rapidly into the clinic for defined patient populations. This innovative deal, as part of our strategy to drive accelerated growth, offers significant upside potential for our investors built upon the leverage of our intellectual property, technology platforms and know-how.”

 

Mr Jean Pierre Abastado, Director of Oncology Innovation, Servier, commented: “The long standing collaboration between Servier and Vernalis has led to the discovery of novel kinase inhibitors. Horizon’s technology portfolio and expertise makes them ideally positioned to progress these drug candidates into the clinic and to investigate their potential for therapeutic efficacy both alone and in combination therapies. Servier is committed to driving therapeutic progress for the benefit of patients, with partnerships such as this playing a key role.”

ENDS

 

For further information from Horizon Discovery Group plc, please contact:

 

Zyme Communications (Trade and Regional Media)

Katie Odgaard

Tel: +44 (0)7787 502 947

Email: katie.odgaard@zymecommunications.com

 

Consilium Strategic Communications (Financial Media and Investor Relations)

Amber Fennell / Jessica Hodgson / Matthew Neal / Laura Thornton

Tel: +44 (0) 20 3709 5701

Email: horizon@consilium-comms.com

 

Panmure Gordon & Co. (NOMAD)

Corporate Finance: Freddy Crossley / Duncan Monteith / Fabien Holler

Broking: Tom Salvesen

Tel: +44 20 7886 2500

 

Notes for Editors

 

About Horizon Discovery Group plc www.horizondiscovery.com/

Horizon is a revenue-generating life science group supplying research tools to organisations engaged in genomics research and the development of personalised medicines. Horizon has a diverse and international customer base of over 1,200 organisations across more than 50 countries, including major pharmaceutical, biotechnology and diagnostic companies as well as leading academic research centers. The Group supplies its products and services into multiple markets, estimated to total in excess of £29 billion by 2015.

 

Horizon’s core capabilities are built around its proprietary translational genomics platform, a high-precision and flexible suite of gene editing tools able to alter almost any endogenous gene sequence of human or mammalian cell-lines. Horizon offers over 20,000 catalogue products, almost all of which are based on the application of gene editing to generate cell lines that accurately model the disease-causing mutations found in genetically based diseases. These ‘patients-in-a-test-tube’ are being used by customers to identify the effect of individual or compound genetic mutations on drug activity, patient responsiveness, and resistance, which may lead to the successful prediction of which patient sub-groups will respond to currently available and future drug treatments.

In addition, Horizon provides custom cell line and in vivo model generation services for research and bioproduction applications, quantitative molecular reference standards, in vivo disease models, and contract research and custom screening services.

 

Horizon is headquartered in Cambridge, UK, and is listed on the London Stock Exchange’s AIM market under the ticker “HZD”, for further information please visit: www.horizondiscovery.com.

 

About Servier

Servier is an independent French research-based pharmaceutical company. Its development is driven by the pursuit of innovation in the therapeutic areas of cardiovascular, metabolic, central nervous system, psychiatric, bone, muscle and joint diseases, as well as cancer.

  • In 2014, the company recorded a turnover of 4 billion euros.
  • 92% of Servier medicines are prescribed outside of France.
  • 28% of turnover from Servier drugs was reinvested in Research and Development in 2014.

With a strong international presence in 146 countries, Servier employs more than 21,400 people worldwide.

 

Oncology is one of the key priorities of Servier in terms of research and development with currently 8 new molecular entities in clinical development in breast cancer, lung cancer, other solid tumours and various types of lymphomas and leukaemias. This portfolio of innovative cancer treatments is being developed with various partners worldwide, and covers different hallmarks of cancer including cytotoxics, pro-apoptotic, targeted, immune and cellular therapies. Hence, Servier aims at delivering a significant and positive impact on cancer patients’ lives.

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