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Introduction – The Evolution of Cancer Therapy and Cancer Research: How We Got Here?


Introduction – The Evolution of Cancer Therapy and Cancer Research: How We Got Here?

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

The evolution of progress we have achieved in cancer research, diagnosis, and therapeutics has  originated from an emergence of scientific disciplines and the focus on cancer has been recent. We can imagine this from a historical perspective with respect to two observations. The first is that the oldest concepts of medicine lie with the anatomic dissection of animals and the repeated recurrence of war, pestilence, and plague throughout the middle ages, and including the renaissance.  In the awakening, architecture, arts, music, math, architecture and science that accompanied the invention of printing blossomed, a unique collaboration of individuals working in disparate disciplines occurred, and those who were privileged received an education, which led to exploration, and with it, colonialism.  This also led to the need to increasingly, if not without reprisal, questioning long-held church doctrines.

It was in Vienna that Rokitansky developed the discipline of pathology, and his student Semelweis identified an association between then unknown infection and childbirth fever. The extraordinary accomplishments of John Hunter in anatomy and surgery came during the twelve years war, and his student, Edward Jenner, observed the association between cowpox and smallpox resistance. The development of a nursing profession is associated with the work of Florence Nightengale during the Crimean War (at the same time as Leo Tolstoy). These events preceded the work of Pasteur, Metchnikoff, and Koch in developing a germ theory, although Semelweis had committed suicide by infecting himself with syphilis. The first decade of the Nobel Prize was dominated by discoveries in infectious disease and public health (Ronald Ross, Walter Reed) and we know that the Civil War in America saw an epidemic of Yellow Fever, and the Armed Services Medical Museum was endowed with a large repository of osteomyelitis specimens. We also recall that the Russian physician and playwriter, Anton Checkov, wrote about the conditions in prison camps.

But the pharmacopeia was about to open with the discoveries of insulin, antibiotics, vitamins, thyroid action (Mayo brothers pioneered thyroid surgery in the thyroid iodine-deficient midwest), and pitutitary and sex hormones (isolatation, crystal structure, and synthesis years later), and Karl Landsteiner’s discovery of red cell antigenic groups (but he also pioneered in discoveries in meningitis and poliomyelitis, and conceived of the term hapten) with the introduction of transfusion therapy that would lead to transplantation medicine.  The next phase would be heralded by the discovery of cancer, which was highlighted by the identification of leukemia by Rudolph Virchow, who cautioned about the limitations of microscopy. This period is highlighted by the classic work – “Microbe Hunters”.

John Hunter

John Hunter

Walter Reed

Walter Reed

Robert Koch

Robert Koch

goldberger 1916 Pellagra

goldberger 1916 Pellagra

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur

A multidisciplinary approach has led us to a unique multidisciplinary or systems view of cancer, with different fields of study offering their unique expertise, contributions, and viewpoints on the etiology of cancer.  Diverse fields in immunology, biology, biochemistry, toxicology, molecular biology, virology, mathematics, social activism and policy, and engineering have made such important contributions to our understanding of cancer, that without cooperation among these diverse fields our knowledge of cancer would never had evolved as it has. In a series of posts “Heroes in Medical Research:” the work of researchers are highlighted as examples of how disparate scientific disciplines converged to produce seminal discoveries which propelled the cancer field, although, at the time, they seemed like serendipitous findings.  In the post Heroes in Medical Research: Barnett Rosenberg and the Discovery of Cisplatin (Translating Basic Research to the Clinic) discusses the seminal yet serendipitous discoveries by bacteriologist Dr. Barnett Rosenberg, which eventually led to the development of cisplatin, a staple of many chemotherapeutic regimens. Molecular biologist Dr. Robert Ting, working with soon-to-be Nobel Laureate virologist Dr. James Gallo on AIDS research and the associated Karposi’s sarcoma identified one of the first retroviral oncogenes, revolutionizing previous held misconceptions of the origins of cancer (described in Heroes in Medical Research: Dr. Robert Ting, Ph.D. and Retrovirus in AIDS and Cancer).   Located here will be a MONTAGE of PHOTOS of PEOPLE who made seminal discoveries and contributions in every field to cancer   Each of these paths of discovery in cancer research have led to the unique strategies of cancer therapeutics and detection for the purpose of reducing the burden of human cancer.  However, we must recall that this work has come at great cost, while it is indeed cause for celebration. The current failure rate of clinical trials at over 70 percent, has been a cause for disappointment, and has led to serious reconsideration of how we can proceed with greater success. The result of the evolution of the cancer field is evident in the many parts and chapters of this ebook.  Volume 4 contains chapters that are in a predetermined order:

  1. The concepts of neoplasm, malignancy, carcinogenesis,  and metastatic potential, which encompass:

(a)     How cancer cells bathed in an oxygen rich environment rely on anaerobic glycolysis for energy, and the secondary consequences of cachexia and sarcopenia associated with progression

invasion

invasion

ARTS protein and cancer

ARTS protein and cancer

Glycolysis

Glycolysis

Krebs cycle

Krebs cycle

Metabolic control analysis of respiration in human cancer tissue

Metabolic control analysis of respiration in human cancer tissue

akip1-expression-modulates-mitochondrial-function

akip1-expression-modulates-mitochondrial-function

(b)     How advances in genetic analysis, molecular and cellular biology, metabolomics have expanded our basic knowledge of the mechanisms which are involved in cellular transformation to the cancerous state.

nucleotides

nucleotides

Methylation of adenine

Methylation of adenine

ampk-and-ampk-related-kinase-ark-family-

ampk-and-ampk-related-kinase-ark-family-

ubiquitylation

ubiquitylation

(c)  How molecular techniques continue to advance our understanding  of how genetics, epigenetics, and alterations in cellular metabolism contribute to cancer and afford new pathways for therapeutic intervention.

 genomic effects

genomic effects

LKB1AMPK pathway

LKB1AMPK pathway

mutation-frequencies-across-12-cancer-types

mutation-frequencies-across-12-cancer-types

AMPK-activating drugs metformin or phenformin might provide protection against cancer

AMPK-activating drugs metformin or phenformin might provide protection against cancer

pim2-phosphorylates-pkm2-and-promotes-glycolysis-in-cancer-cells

pim2-phosphorylates-pkm2-and-promotes-glycolysis-in-cancer-cells

pim2-phosphorylates-pkm2-and-promotes-glycolysis-in-cancer-cells

pim2-phosphorylates-pkm2-and-promotes-glycolysis-in-cancer-cells

2. The distinct features of cancers of specific tissue sites of origin

3.  The diagnosis of cancer by

(a)     Clinical presentation

(b)     Age of onset and stage of life

(c)     Biomarker features

hairy cell leukemia

hairy cell leukemia

lymphoma leukemia

lymphoma leukemia

(d)     Radiological and ultrasound imaging

  1. Treatments
  2. Prognostic differences within and between cancer types

We have introduced the emergence of a disease of great complexity that has been clouded in more questions than answers until the emergence of molecular biology in the mid 20th century, and then had to await further discoveries going into the 21st century.  What gave the research impetus was the revelation of

1     the mechanism of transcription of the DNA into amino acid sequences

Proteins in Disease

Proteins in Disease

2     the identification of stresses imposed on cellular function

NO beneficial effects

NO beneficial effects

3     the elucidation of the substructure of the cell – cell membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes – and their functions, respectively

pone.0080815.g006  AKIP1 Expression Modulates Mitochondrial Function

AKIP1 Expression Modulates Mitochondrial Function

4     the elucidation of oligonucleotide sequences

nucleotides

nucleotides

dna-replication-unwinding

dna-replication-unwinding

dna-replication-ligation

dna-replication-ligation

dna-replication-primer-removal

dna-replication-primer-removal

dna-replication-leading-strand

dna-replication-leading-strand

dna-replication-lagging-strand

dna-replication-lagging-strand

dna-replication-primer-synthesis

dna-replication-primer-synthesis

dna-replication-termination

dna-replication-termination

5     the further elucidation of functionally relevant noncoding lncDNA

lncRNA-s   A summary of the various functions described for lncRNA

6     the technology to synthesis mRNA and siRNA sequences

RNAi_Q4 Primary research objectives

Figure. RNAi and gene silencing

7     the repeated discovery of isoforms of critical enzymes and their pleiotropic properties

8.     the regulatory pathways involved in signaling

signaling pathjways map

Figure. Signaling Pathways Map

This is a brief outline of the modern progression of advances in our understanding of cancer.  Let us go back to the beginning and check out a sequence of  Nobel Prizes awarded and related discoveries that have a historical relationship to what we know.  The first discovery was the finding by Louis Pasteur that fungi that grew in an oxygen poor environment did not put down filaments.  They did not utilize oxygen and they produced used energy by fermentation.  This was the basis for Otto Warburg sixty years later to make the comparison to cancer cells that grew in the presence of oxygen, but relied on anaerobic glycolysis. He used a manometer to measure respiration in tissue one cell layer thick to measure CO2 production in an adiabatic system.

video width=”1280″ height=”720″ caption=”1741-7007-11-65-s1 Macromolecular juggling by ubiquitylation enzymes.” mp4=”https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.files.wordpress.com/2014/04/1741-7007-11-65-s1-macromolecular-juggling-by-ubiquitylation-enzymes.mp4“][/video]

An Introduction to the Warburg Apparatus

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M-HYbZwN43o

Lavoisier Antoine-Laurent and Laplace Pierre-Simon (1783) Memoir on heat. Mémoirs de l’Académie des sciences. Translated by Guerlac H, Neale Watson Academic Publications, New York, 1982.

Instrumental background 200 years later:   Gnaiger E (1983) The twin-flow microrespirometer and simultaneous calorimetry. In Gnaiger E, Forstner H, eds. Polarographic Oxygen Sensors. Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin, New York: 134-166.

otto_heinrich_warburg

otto_heinrich_warburg

Warburg apparatus

The Warburg apparatus is a manometric respirometer which was used for decades in biochemistry for measuring oxygen consumption of tissue homogenates or tissue slices.

The Warburg apparatus has its name from the German biochemist Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883-1970) who was awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1931 for his “discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme” [1].

The aqueous phase is vigorously shaken to equilibrate with a gas phase, from which oxygen is consumed while the evolved carbon dioxide is trapped, such that the pressure in the constant-volume gas phase drops proportional to oxygen consumption. The Warburg apparatus was introduced to study cell respiration, i.e. the uptake of molecular oxygen and the production of carbon dioxide by cells or tissues. Its applications were extended to the study of fermentation, when gas exchange takes place in the absence of oxygen. Thus the Warburg apparatus became established as an instrument for both aerobic and anaerobic biochemical studies [2, 3].

The respiration chamber was a detachable glass flask (F) equipped with one or more sidearms (S) for additions of chemicals and an open connection to a manometer (M; pressure gauge). A constant temperature was provided by immersion of the Warburg chamber in a constant temperature water bath. At thermal mass transfer equilibrium, an initial reading is obtained on the manometer, and the volume of gas produced or absorbed is determined at specific time intervals. A limited number of ‘titrations’ can be performed by adding the liquid contained in a side arm into the main reaction chamber. A Warburg apparatus may be equipped with more than 10 respiration chambers shaking in a common water bath.   Since temperature has to be controlled very precisely in a manometric approach, the early studies on mammalian tissue respiration were generally carried out at a physiological temperature of 37 °C.

The Warburg apparatus has been replaced by polarographic instruments introduced by Britton Chance in the 1950s. Since Chance and Williams (1955) measured respiration of isolated mitochondria simultaneously with the spectrophotometric determination of cytochrome redox states, a water chacket could not be used, and measurements were carried out at room temperature (or 25 °C). Thus most later studies on isolated mitochondria were shifted to the artifical temperature of 25 °C.

Today, the importance of investigating mitochondrial performance at in vivo temperatures is recognized again in mitochondrial physiology.  Incubation times of 1 hour were typical in experiments with the Warburg apparatus, but were reduced to a few or up to 20 min, following Chance and Williams, due to rapid oxygen depletion in closed, aqueous phase oxygraphs with high sample concentrations.  Today, incubation times of 1 hour are typical again in high-resolution respirometry, with low sample concentrations and the option of reoxygenations.

“The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931”. Nobelprize.org. 27 Dec 2011 www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1931/

  1. Oesper P (1964) The history of the Warburg apparatus: Some reminiscences on its use. J Chem Educ 41: 294.
  2. Koppenol WH, Bounds PL, Dang CV (2011) Otto Warburg’s contributions to current concepts of cancer metabolism. Nature Reviews Cancer 11: 325-337.
  3. Gnaiger E, Kemp RB (1990) Anaerobic metabolism in aerobic mammalian cells: information from the ratio of calorimetric heat flux and respirometric oxygen flux. Biochim Biophys Acta 1016: 328-332. – “At high fructose concen­trations, respiration is inhibited while glycolytic end products accumulate, a phenomenon known as the Crabtree effect. It is commonly believed that this effect is restric­ted to microbial and tumour cells with uniquely high glycolytic capaci­ties (Sussman et al, 1980). How­ever, inhibition of respiration and increase of lactate production are observed under aerobic condi­tions in beating rat heart cell cultures (Frelin et al, 1974) and in isolated rat lung cells (Ayuso-Parrilla et al, 1978). Thus, the same general mechanisms respon­sible for the integra­tion of respiration and glycolysis in tumour cells (Sussman et al, 1980) appear to be operating to some extent in several isolated mammalian cells.”

Mitochondria are sometimes described as “cellular power plants” because they generate most of the cell’s supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy.[2] In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in other tasks such as signalingcellular differentiationcell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth.[3]   The organelle is composed of compartments that carry out specialized functions. These compartments or regions include the outer membrane, the intermembrane space, the inner membrane, and the cristae and matrix. Mitochondrial proteins vary depending on the tissue and the species. In humans, 615 distinct types of proteins have been identified from cardiac mitochondria,[9   Leonor Michaelis discovered that Janus green can be used as a supravital stain for mitochondria in 1900.  Benjamin F. Kingsbury, in 1912, first related them with cell respiration, but almost exclusively based on morphological observations.[13] In 1913 particles from extracts of guinea-pig liver were linked to respiration by Otto Heinrich Warburg, which he called “grana”. Warburg and Heinrich Otto Wieland, who had also postulated a similar particle mechanism, disagreed on the chemical nature of the respiration. It was not until 1925 when David Keilin discovered cytochromes that the respiratory chain was described.[13]    

The Clark Oxygen Sensor

Dr. Leland Clark – inventor of the “Clark Oxygen Sensor” (1954); the Clark type polarographic oxygen sensor remains the gold standard for measuring dissolved oxygen in biomedical, environmental and industrial applications .   ‘The convenience and simplicity of the polarographic ‘oxygen electrode’ technique for measuring rapid changes in the rate of oxygen utilization by cellular and subcellular systems is now leading to its more general application in many laboratories. The types and design of oxygen electrodes vary, depending on the investigator’s ingenuity and specific requirements of the system under investigation.’Estabrook R (1967) Mitochondrial respiratory control and the polarographic measurement of ADP:O ratios. Methods Enzymol. 10: 41-47.   “one approach that is underutilized in whole-cell bioenergetics, and that is accessible as long as cells can be obtained in suspension, is the oxygen electrode, which can obtain more precise information on the bioenergetic status of the in situ mitochondria than more ‘high-tech’ approaches such as fluorescent monitoring of Δψm.” Nicholls DG, Ferguson S (2002) Bioenergetics 3. Academic Press, London.

Great Figures in Cancer

Dr. Elizabeth Blackburn,

Dr. Elizabeth Blackburn,

j_michael_bishop onogene

j_michael_bishop onogene

Harold Varmus

Harold Varmus

Potts and Habener (PTH mRNA, Harvard MIT)  JCI

Potts and Habener (PTH mRNA, Harvard MIT) JCI

JCI Fuller Albright and hPTH AA sequence

JCI Fuller Albright and hPTH AA sequence

Dr. E. Donnall Thomas  Bone Marrow Transplants

Dr. E. Donnall Thomas Bone Marrow Transplants

Dr Haraldzur Hausen  EBV HPV

Dr Haraldzur Hausen EBV HPV

Dr. Craig Mello

Dr. Craig Mello

Dorothy Hodgkin  protein crystallography

Lee Hartwell - Hutchinson Cancer Res Center

Lee Hartwell – Hutchinson Cancer Res Center

Judah Folkman, MD

Judah Folkman, MD

Gertrude B. Elien (1918-1999)

Gertrude B. Elien (1918-1999)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922   

Archibald V. Hill, Otto Meyerhof

AV Hill –

“the production of heat in the muscle” Hill started his research work in 1909. It was due to J.N. Langley, Head of the Department of Physiology at that time that Hill took up the study on the nature of muscular contraction. Langley drew his attention to the important (later to become classic) work carried out by Fletcher and Hopkins on the problem of lactic acid in muscle, particularly in relation to the effect of oxygen upon its removal in recovery. In 1919 he took up again his study of the physiology of muscle, and came into close contact with Meyerhof of Kiel who, approaching the problem differently, arrived at results closely analogous to his study. In 1919 Hill’s friend W. Hartree, mathematician and engineer, joined in the myothermic investigations – a cooperation which had rewarding results.

Otto Meyerhof

otto-fritz-meyerhof

otto-fritz-meyerhof

lactic acid production in muscle contraction Under the influence of Otto Warburg, then at Heidelberg, Meyerhof became more and more interested in cell physiology.  In 1923 he was offered a Professorship of Biochemistry in the United States, but Germany was unwilling to lose him.  In 1929 he was he was placed in charge of the newly founded Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research at Heidelberg.  From 1938 to 1940 he was Director of Research at the Institut de Biologie physico-chimique at Paris, but in 1940 he moved to the United States, where the post of Research Professor of Physiological Chemistry had been created for him by the University of Pennsylvania and the Rockefeller Foundation.  Meyerhof’s own account states that he was occupied chiefly with oxidation mechanisms in cells and with extending methods of gas analysis through the calorimetric measurement of heat production, and especially the respiratory processes of nitrifying bacteria. The physico-chemical analogy between oxygen respiration and alcoholic fermentation caused him to study both these processes in the same subject, namely, yeast extract. By this work he discovered a co-enzyme of respiration, which could be found in all the cells and tissues up till then investigated. At the same time he also found a co-enzyme of alcoholic fermentation. He also discovered the capacity of the SH-group to transfer oxygen; after Hopkins had isolated from cells the SH bodies concerned, Meyerhof showed that the unsaturated fatty acids in the cell are oxidized with the help of the sulfhydryl group. After studying closer the respiration of muscle, Meyerhof investigated the energy changes in muscle. Considerable progress had been achieved by the English scientists Fletcher and Hopkins by their recognition of the fact that lactic acid formation in the muscle is closely connected with the contraction process. These investigations were the first to throw light upon the highly paradoxical fact, already established by the physiologist Hermann, that the muscle can perform a considerable part of its external function in the complete absence of oxygen.

But it was indisputable that in the last resort the energy for muscle activity comes from oxidation, so the connection between activity and combustion must be an indirect one, and observed that in the absence of oxygen in the muscle, lactic acid appears, slowly in the relaxed state and rapidly in the active state, disappearing in the presence of oxygen. Obviously, then, oxygen is involved when muscle is in the relaxed state. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e1/Glycolysis.jpg

The Nobel Prize committee had been receiving nominations intermittently for the previous 14 years (for Eijkman, Funk, Goldberger, Grijns, Hopkins and Suzuki but, strangely, not for McCollum in this period). Tthe Committee for the 1929 awards apparently agreed that it was high time to honor the discoverer(s) of vitamins; but who were they? There was a clear case for Grijns, but he had not been re-nominated for that particular year, and it could be said that he was just taking the relatively obvious next steps along the new trail that had been laid down by Eijkman, who was also now an old man in poor health, but there was no doubt that he had taken the first steps in the use of an animal model to investigate the nutritional basis of a clinical disorder affecting millions. Goldberger had been another important contributor, but his recent death put him out of consideration. The clearest evidence for lack of an unknown “something” in a mammalian diet was presented by Gowland Hopkins in 1912. This Cambridge biochemist was already well known for having isolated the amino acid tryptophan from a protein and demonstrated its essential nature. He fed young rats on an experimental diet, half of them receiving a daily milk supplement, and only those receiving milk grew well, Hopkins suggested that this was analogous to human diseases related to diet, as he had suggested already in a lecture published in 1906. Hopkins, the leader of the “dynamic biochemistry” school in Britain and an influential advocate for the importance of vitamins, was awarded the prize jointly with Eijkman. A door was opened. Recognition of work on the fat-soluble vitamins begun by McCollum. The next award related to vitamins was given in 1934 to George WhippleGeorge Minot and William Murphy “for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of [then incurable pernicious] anemia,” The essential liver factor (cobalamin, or vitamin B12) was isolated in 1948, and Vitamin B12  was absent from plant foods. But William Castle in 1928 had demonstrated that the stomachs of pernicious anemia patients were abnormal in failing to secrete an “intrinsic factor”.

1937   Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt

” the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid”

http://www.biocheminfo.org/klotho/html/fumarate.html

structure of fumarate

Szent-Györgyi was a Hungarian biochemist who had worked with Otto Warburg and had a special interest in oxidation-reduction mechanisms. He was invited to Cambridge in England in 1927 after detecting an antioxidant compound in the adrenal cortex, and there, he isolated a compound that he named hexuronic acid. Charles Glen King of the University of Pittsburgh reported success In isolating the anti-scorbutic factor in 1932, and added that his crystals had all the properties reported by Szent-Györgyi for hexuronic acid. But his work on oxidation reactions was also important. Fumarate is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle used by cells to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from food. It is formed by the oxidation of succinate by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase. Fumarate is then converted by the enzyme fumarase to malate. An enzyme adds water to the fumarate molecule to form malate. The malate is created by adding one hydrogen atom to a carbon atom and then adding a hydroxyl group to a carbon next to a terminal carbonyl group.

In the same year, Norman Haworth from the University of Birmingham in England received a Nobel prize from the Chemistry Committee for having advanced carbohydrate chemistry and, specifically, for having worked out the structure of Szent-Györgyi’s crystals, and then been able to synthesize the vitamin. This was a considerable achievement. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was shared with the Swiss organic chemist Paul Karrer, cited for his work on the structures of riboflavin and vitamins A and E as well as other biologically interesting compounds. This was followed in 1938 by a further Chemistry award to the German biochemist Richard Kuhn, who had also worked on carotenoids and B-vitamins, including riboflavin and pyridoxine. But Karrer was not permitted to leave Germany at that time by the Nazi regime. However, the American work with radioisotopes at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, UC Berkeley, was already ushering in a new era of biochemistry that would enrich our studies of metabolic pathways. The importance of work involving vitamins was acknowledged in at least ten awards in the 20th century.

1.   Carpenter, K.J., Beriberi, White Rice and Vitamin B, University of California Press, Berkeley (2000).

2.  Weatherall, M.W. and Kamminga, H., The making of a biochemist: the construction of Frederick Gowland Hopkins’ reputation. Medical History vol.40, pp. 415-436 (1996).

3.  Becker, S.L., Will milk make them grow? An episode in the discovery of the vitamins. In Chemistry and Modern Society (J. Parascandela, editor) pp. 61-83, American Chemical Society,

Washington, D.C. (1983).

4.  Carpenter, K.J., The History of Scurvy and Vitamin C, Cambridge University Press, New York (1986).

Transport and metabolism of exogenous fumarate and 3-phosphoglycerate in vascular smooth muscle.

D R FinderC D Hardin

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 2.33). 05/1999; 195(1-2):113-21.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006976432578

The keto (linear) form of exogenous fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, a highly charged glycolytic intermediate, may utilize a dicarboxylate transporter to cross the cell membrane, support glycolysis, and produce ATP anaerobically. We tested the hypothesis that fumarate, a dicarboxylate, and 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG), an intermediate structurally similar to a dicarboxylate, can support contraction in vascular smooth muscle during hypoxia. 3-PG improved maintenance of force (p < 0.05) during the 30-80 min period of hypoxia. Fumarate decreased peak isometric force development by 9.5% (p = 0.008) but modestly improved maintenance of force (p < 0.05) throughout the first 80 min of hypoxia. 13C-NMR on tissue extracts and superfusates revealed 1,2,3,4-(13)C-fumarate (5 mM) metabolism to 1,2,3,4-(13)C-malate under oxygenated and hypoxic conditions suggesting uptake and metabolism of fumarate. In conclusion, exogenous fumarate and 3-PG readily enter vascular smooth muscle cells, presumably by a dicarboxylate transporter, and support energetically important pathways.

Comparison of endogenous and exogenous sources of ATP in fueling Ca2+ uptake in smooth muscle plasma membrane vesicles.

C D HardinL RaeymaekersR J Paul

The Journal of General Physiology (Impact Factor: 4.73). 12/1991; 99(1):21-40.   http://dx.doi.org:/10.1085/jgp.99.1.21

A smooth muscle plasma membrane vesicular fraction (PMV) purified for the (Ca2+/Mg2+)-ATPase has endogenous glycolytic enzyme activity. In the presence of glycolytic substrate (fructose 1,6-diphosphate) and cofactors, PMV produced ATP and lactate and supported calcium uptake. The endogenous glycolytic cascade supports calcium uptake independent of bath [ATP]. A 10-fold dilution of PMV, with the resultant 10-fold dilution of glycolytically produced bath [ATP] did not change glycolytically fueled calcium uptake (nanomoles per milligram protein). Furthermore, the calcium uptake fueled by the endogenous glycolytic cascade persisted in the presence of a hexokinase-based ATP trap which eliminated calcium uptake fueled by exogenously added ATP. Thus, it appears that the endogenous glycolytic cascade fuels calcium uptake in PMV via a membrane-associated pool of ATP and not via an exchange of ATP with the bulk solution. To determine whether ATP produced endogenously was utilized preferentially by the calcium pump, the ATP production rates of the endogenous creatine kinase and pyruvate kinase were matched to that of glycolysis and the calcium uptake fueled by the endogenous sources was compared with that fueled by exogenous ATP added at the same rate. The rate of calcium uptake fueled by endogenous sources of ATP was approximately twice that supported by exogenously added ATP, indicating that the calcium pump preferentially utilizes ATP produced by membrane-bound enzymes.

Evidence for succinate production by reduction of fumarate during hypoxia in isolated adult rat heart cells.

C HohlR OestreichP RösenR WiesnerM Grieshaber

Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics (Impact Factor: 3.37). 01/1988; 259(2):527-35. http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/0003-9861(87)90519-4   It has been demonstrated that perfusion of myocardium with glutamic acid or tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates during hypoxia or ischemia, improves cardiac function, increases ATP levels, and stimulates succinate production. In this study isolated adult rat heart cells were used to investigate the mechanism of anaerobic succinate formation and examine beneficial effects attributed to ATP generated by this pathway. Myocytes incubated for 60 min under hypoxic conditions showed a slight loss of ATP from an initial value of 21 +/- 1 nmol/mg protein, a decline of CP from 42 to 17 nmol/mg protein and a fourfold increase in lactic acid production to 1.8 +/- 0.2 mumol/mg protein/h. These metabolite contents were not altered by the addition of malate and 2-oxoglutarate to the incubation medium nor were differences in cell viability observed; however, succinate release was substantially accelerated to 241 +/- 53 nmol/mg protein. Incubation of cells with [U-14C]malate or [2-U-14C]oxoglutarate indicates that succinate is formed directly from malate but not from 2-oxoglutarate. Moreover, anaerobic succinate formation was rotenone sensitive.

We conclude that malate reduction to succinate occurs via the reverse action of succinate dehydrogenase in a coupled reaction where NADH is oxidized (and FAD reduced) and ADP is phosphorylated. Furthermore, by transaminating with aspartate to produce oxaloacetate, 2-oxoglutarate stimulates cytosolic malic dehydrogenase activity, whereby malate is formed and NADH is oxidized.

In the form of malate, reducing equivalents and substrate are transported into the mitochondria where they are utilized for succinate synthesis.

1953 Hans Adolf Krebs –

 ” discovery of the citric acid cycle” and In the course of the 1920’s and 1930’s great progress was made in the study of the intermediary reactions by which sugar is anaerobically fermented to lactic acid or to ethanol and carbon dioxide. The success was mainly due to the joint efforts of the schools of Meyerhof, Embden, Parnas, von Euler, Warburg and the Coris, who built on the pioneer work of Harden and of Neuberg. This work brought to light the main intermediary steps of anaerobic fermentations.

In contrast, very little was known in the earlier 1930’s about the intermediary stages through which sugar is oxidized in living cells. When, in 1930, I left the laboratory of Otto Warburg (under whose guidance I had worked since 1926 and from whom I have learnt more than from any other single teacher), I was confronted with the question of selecting a major field of study and I felt greatly attracted by the problem of the intermediary pathway of oxidations.

These reactions represent the main energy source in higher organisms, and in view of the importance of energy production to living organisms (whose activities all depend on a continuous supply of energy) the problem seemed well worthwhile studying.   http://www.johnkyrk.com/krebs.html

Interactive Krebs cycle

There are different points where metabolites enter the Krebs’ cycle. Most of the products of protein, carbohydrates and fat metabolism are reduced to the molecule acetyl coenzyme A that enters the Krebs’ cycle. Glucose, the primary fuel in the body, is first metabolized into pyruvic acid and then into acetyl coenzyme A. The breakdown of the glucose molecule forms two molecules of ATP for energy in the Embden Meyerhof pathway process of glycolysis.

On the other hand, amino acids and some chained fatty acids can be metabolized into Krebs intermediates and enter the cycle at several points. When oxygen is unavailable or the Krebs’ cycle is inhibited, the body shifts its energy production from the Krebs’ cycle to the Embden Meyerhof pathway of glycolysis, a very inefficient way of making energy.  

Fritz Albert Lipmann –

 “discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism”.

In my development, the recognition of facts and the rationalization of these facts into a unified picture, have interplayed continuously. After my apprenticeship with Otto Meyerhof, a first interest on my own became the phenomenon we call the Pasteur effect, this peculiar depression of the wasteful fermentation in the respiring cell. By looking for a chemical explanation of this economy measure on the cellular level, I was prompted into a study of the mechanism of pyruvic acid oxidation, since it is at the pyruvic stage where respiration branches off from fermentation.

For this study I chose as a promising system a relatively simple looking pyruvic acid oxidation enzyme in a certain strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii1.   In 1939, experiments using minced muscle cells demonstrated that one oxygen atom can form two adenosine triphosphate molecules, and, in 1941, the concept of phosphate bonds being a form of energy in cellular metabolism was developed by Fritz Albert Lipmann.

In the following years, the mechanism behind cellular respiration was further elaborated, although its link to the mitochondria was not known.[13]The introduction of tissue fractionation by Albert Claude allowed mitochondria to be isolated from other cell fractions and biochemical analysis to be conducted on them alone. In 1946, he concluded that cytochrome oxidase and other enzymes responsible for the respiratory chain were isolated to the mitchondria. Over time, the fractionation method was tweaked, improving the quality of the mitochondria isolated, and other elements of cell respiration were determined to occur in the mitochondria.[13]

The most important event during this whole period, I now feel, was the accidental observation that in the L. delbrueckii system, pyruvic acid oxidation was completely dependent on the presence of inorganic phosphate. This observation was made in the course of attempts to replace oxygen by methylene blue. To measure the methylene blue reduction manometrically, I had to switch to a bicarbonate buffer instead of the otherwise routinely used phosphate. In bicarbonate, pyruvate oxidation was very slow, but the addition of a little phosphate caused a remarkable increase in rate. The phosphate effect was removed by washing with a phosphate free acetate buffer. Then it appeared that the reaction was really fully dependent on phosphate.

A coupling of this pyruvate oxidation with adenylic acid phosphorylation was attempted. Addition of adenylic acid to the pyruvic oxidation system brought out a net disappearance of inorganic phosphate, accounted for as adenosine triphosphate.   The acetic acid subunit of acetyl CoA is combined with oxaloacetate to form a molecule of citrate. Acetyl coenzyme A acts only as a transporter of acetic acid from one enzyme to another. After Step 1, the coenzyme is released by hydrolysis to combine with another acetic acid molecule and begin the Krebs’ Cycle again.

Hugo Theorell

the nature and effects of oxidation enzymes”

From 1933 until 1935 Theorell held a Rockefeller Fellowship and worked with Otto Warburg at Berlin-Dahlem, and here he became interested in oxidation enzymes. At Berlin-Dahlem he produced, for the first time, the oxidation enzyme called «the yellow ferment» and he succeeded in splitting it reversibly into a coenzyme part, which was found to be flavin mononucleotide, and a colourless protein part. On return to Sweden, he was appointed Head of the newly established Biochemical Department of the Nobel Medical Institute, which was opened in 1937.

Succinate is oxidized by a molecule of FAD (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide). The FAD removes two hydrogen atoms from the succinate and forms a double bond between the two carbon atoms to create fumarate.

1953

double-stranded-dna

double-stranded-dna

crick-watson-with-their-dna-model.

crick-watson-with-their-dna-model.

Watson & Crick double helix model 

A landmark in this journey

They followed the path that became clear from intense collaborative work in California by George Beadle, by Avery and McCarthy, Max Delbruck, TH Morgan, Max Delbruck and by Chargaff that indicated that genetics would be important.

1965

François Jacob, André Lwoff and Jacques Monod  –

” genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”.

In 1958 the remarkable analogy revealed by genetic analysis of lysogeny and that of the induced biosynthesis of ß-galactosidase led François Jacob, with Jacques Monod, to study the mechanisms responsible for the transfer of genetic information as well as the regulatory pathways which, in the bacterial cell, adjust the activity and synthesis of macromolecules. Following this analysis, Jacob and Monod proposed a series of new concepts, those of messenger RNA, regulator genes, operons and allosteric proteins.

Francois Jacob

Having determined the constants of growth in the presence of different carbohydrates, it occurred to me that it would be interesting to determine the same constants in paired mixtures of carbohydrates. From the first experiment on, I noticed that, whereas the growth was kinetically normal in the presence of certain mixtures (that is, it exhibited a single exponential phase), two complete growth cycles could be observed in other carbohydrate mixtures, these cycles consisting of two exponential phases separated by a-complete cessation of growth.

Lwoff, after considering this strange result for a moment, said to me, “That could have something to do with enzyme adaptation.”

“Enzyme adaptation? Never heard of it!” I said.

Lwoff’s only reply was to give me a copy of the then recent work of Marjorie Stephenson, in which a chapter summarized with great insight the still few studies concerning this phenomenon, which had been discovered by Duclaux at the end of the last century.  Studied by Dienert and by Went as early as 1901 and then by Euler and Josephson, it was more or less rediscovered by Karström, who should be credited with giving it a name and attracting attention to its existence.

Lwoff’s intuition was correct. The phenomenon of “diauxy” that I had discovered was indeed closely related to enzyme adaptation, as my experiments, included in the second part of my doctoral dissertation, soon convinced me. It was actually a case of the “glucose effect” discovered by Dienert as early as 1900.   That agents that uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, completely inhibit adaptation to lactose or other carbohydrates suggested that “adaptation” implied an expenditure of chemical potential and therefore probably involved the true synthesis of an enzyme.

With Alice Audureau, I sought to discover the still quite obscure relations between this phenomenon and the one Massini, Lewis, and others had discovered: the appearance and selection of “spontaneous” mutants.   We showed that an apparently spontaneous mutation was allowing these originally “lactose-negative” bacteria to become “lactose-positive”. However, we proved that the original strain (Lac-) and the mutant strain (Lac+) did not differ from each other by the presence of a specific enzyme system, but rather by the ability to produce this system in the presence of lactose.  This mutation involved the selective control of an enzyme by a gene, and the conditions necessary for its expression seemed directly linked to the chemical activity of the system.

1974

Albert Claude, Christian de Duve and George E. Palade –

” the structural and functional organization of the cell”.

I returned to Louvain in March 1947 after a period of working with Theorell in Sweden, the Cori’s, and E Southerland in St. Louis, fortunate in the choice of my mentors, all sticklers for technical excellence and intellectual rigor, those prerequisites of good scientific work. Insulin, together with glucagon which I had helped rediscover, was still my main focus of interest, and our first investigations were accordingly directed on certain enzymatic aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in liver, which were expected to throw light on the broader problem of insulin action. But I became distracted by an accidental finding related to acid phosphatase, drawing most of my collaborators along with me. The studies led to the discovery of the lysosome, and later of the peroxisome.

In 1962, I was appointed a professor at the Rockefeller Institute in New York, now the Rockefeller University, the institution where Albert Claude had made his pioneering studies between 1929 and 1949, and where George Palade had been working since 1946.  In New York, I was able to develop a second flourishing group, which follows the same general lines of research as the Belgian group, but with a program of its own.

1968

Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana and Marshall W. Nirenberg –

“interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”.

1969

Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador E. Luria –

” the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”.

1975 David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco and Howard Martin Temin –

” the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell”.

1976

Baruch S. Blumberg and D. Carleton Gajdusek –

” new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases” The editors of the Nobelprize.org website of the Nobel Foundation have asked me to provide a supplement to the autobiography that I wrote in 1976 and to recount the events that happened after the award. Much of what I will have to say relates to the scientific developments since the last essay. These are described in greater detail in a scientific memoir first published in 2002 (Blumberg, B. S., Hepatitis B. The Hunt for a Killer Virus, Princeton University Press, 2002, 2004).

1980

Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset and George D. Snell 

” genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”.

1992

Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs 

“for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”

1994

Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell –

“G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”

2011

Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann –

the activation of innate immunity and the other half to Ralph M. Steinman – “the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity”.

Renato L. Baserga, M.D.

Kimmel Cancer Center and Keck School of Medicine

Dr. Baserga’s research focuses on the multiple roles of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) in the proliferation of mammalian cells. The IGF-IR activated by its ligands is mitogenic, is required for the establishment and the maintenance of the transformed phenotype, and protects tumor cells from apoptosis. It, therefore, serves as an excellent target for therapeutic interventions aimed at inhibiting abnormal growth. In basic investigations, this group is presently studying the effects that the number of IGF-IRs and specific mutations in the receptor itself have on its ability to protect cells from apoptosis.

This investigation is strictly correlated with IGF-IR signaling, and part of this work tries to elucidate the pathways originating from the IGF-IR that are important for its functional effects. Baserga’s group has recently discovered a new signaling pathway used by the IGF-IR to protect cells from apoptosis, a unique pathway that is not used by other growth factor receptors. This pathway depends on the integrity of serines 1280-1283 in the C-terminus of the receptor, which bind 14.3.3 and cause the mitochondrial translocation of Raf-1.

Another recent discovery of this group has been the identification of a mechanism by which the IGF-IR can actually induce differentiation in certain types of cells. When cells have IRS-1 (a major substrate of the IGF-IR), the IGF-IR sends a proliferative signal; in the absence of IRS-1, the receptor induces cell differentiation. The extinction of IRS-1 expression is usually achieved by DNA methylation.

Janardan Reddy, MD

Northwestern University

The central effort of our research has been on a detailed analysis at the cellular and molecular levels of the pleiotropic responses in liver induced by structurally diverse classes of chemicals that include fibrate class of hypolipidemic drugs, and phthalate ester plasticizers, which we designated hepatic peroxisome proliferators. Our work has been central to the establishment of several principles, namely that hepatic peroxisome proliferation is associated with increases in fatty acid oxidation systems in liver, and that peroxisome proliferators, as a class, are novel nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens.

We introduced the concept that sustained generation of reactive oxygen species leads to oxidative stress and serves as the basis for peroxisome proliferator-induced liver cancer development. Furthermore, based on the tissue/cell specificity of pleiotropic responses and the coordinated transcriptional regulation of fatty acid oxidation system genes, we postulated that peroxisome proliferators exert their action by a receptor-mediated mechanism. This receptor concept laid the foundation for the discovery of

  • a three member peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARalpha-, ß-, and gamma) subfamily of nuclear receptors.
  •  PPARalpha is responsible for peroxisome proliferator-induced pleiotropic responses, including
    • hepatocarcinogenesis and energy combustion as it serves as a fatty acid sensor and regulates fatty acid oxidation.

Our current work focuses on the molecular mechanisms responsible for PPAR action and generation of fatty acid oxidation deficient mouse knockout models. Transcription of specific genes by nuclear receptors is a complex process involving the participation of multiprotein complexes composed of transcription coactivators.  

Jose Delgado de Salles Roselino, Ph.D.

Leloir Institute, Brazil

Warburg effect, in reality “Pasteur-effect” was the first example of metabolic regulation described. A decrease in the carbon flux originated at the sugar molecule towards the end metabolic products, ethanol and carbon dioxide that was observed when yeast cells were transferred from anaerobic environmental condition to an aerobic one. In Pasteur´s works, sugar metabolism was measured mainly by the decrease of sugar concentration in the yeast growth media observed after a measured period of time. The decrease of the sugar concentration in the media occurs at great speed in yeast grown in anaerobiosis condition and its speed was greatly reduced by the transfer of the yeast culture to an aerobic condition. This finding was very important for the wine industry of France in Pasteur time, since most of the undesirable outcomes in the industrial use of yeast were perceived when yeasts cells took very long time to create a rather selective anaerobic condition. This selective culture media was led by the carbon dioxide higher levels produced by fast growing yeast cells and by a great alcohol content in the yeast culture media. This finding was required to understand Lavoisier’s results indicating that chemical and biological oxidation of sugars produced the same calorimetric results. This observation requires a control mechanism (metabolic regulation) to avoid burning living cells by fast heat released by the sugar biological oxidative processes (metabolism). In addition, Lavoisier´s results were the first indications that both processes happened inside similar thermodynamics limits.

In much resumed form, these observations indicates the major reasons that led Warburg to test failure in control mechanisms in cancer cells in comparison with the ones observed in normal cells. Biology inside classical thermo dynamics poses some challenges to scientists. For instance, all classical thermodynamics must be measured in reversible thermodynamic conditions. In an isolated system, increase in P (pressure) leads to decrease in V (volume) all this in a condition in which infinitesimal changes in one affects in the same way the other, a continuum response. Not even a quantic amount of energy will stand beyond those parameters. In a reversible system, a decrease in V, under same condition, will led to an increase in P.

In biochemistry, reversible usually indicates a reaction that easily goes from A to B or B to A. This observation confirms the important contribution of E Schrodinger in his What´s Life: “This little book arose from a course of public lectures, delivered by a theoretical physicist to an audience of about four hundred which did not substantially dwindle, though warned at the outset that the subject-matter was a difficult one and that the lectures could not be termed popular, even though the physicist’s most dreaded weapon, mathematical deduction, would hardly be utilized. The reason for this was not that the subject was simple enough to be explained without mathematics, but rather that it was much too involved to be fully accessible to mathematics.”

Hans Krebs describes the cyclic nature of the citrate metabolism. Two major research lines search to understand the mechanism of energy transfer that explains how ADP is converted into ATP. One followed the organic chemistry line of reasoning and therefore, searched how the breakdown of carbon-carbon link could have its energy transferred to ATP synthesis. A major leader of this research line was B. Chance who tried to account for two carbon atoms of acetyl released as carbon dioxide in the series of Krebs cycle reactions. The intermediary could store in a phosphorylated amino acid the energy of carbon-carbon bond breakdown. This activated amino acid could transfer its phosphate group to ADP producing ATP. Alternatively, under the possible influence of the excellent results of Hodgkin and Huxley a second line of research appears.

The work of Hodgkin & Huxley indicated the storage of electrical potential energy in transmembrane ionic asymmetries and presented the explanation for the change from resting to action potential in excitable cells. This second line of research, under the leadership of P Mitchell postulated a mechanism for the transfer of oxide/reductive power of organic molecules oxidation through electron transfer as the key for energetic transfer mechanism required for ATP synthesis. Paul Boyer could present how the energy was transduced by a molecular machine that changes in conformation in a series of 3 steps while rotating in one direction in order to produce ATP and in opposite direction in order to produce ADP plus Pi from ATP (reversibility). Nonetheless, a victorious Peter Mitchell obtained the correct result in the conceptual dispute, over the B. Chance point of view, after he used E. Coli mutants to show H gradients in membrane and its use as energy source.

However, this should not detract from the important work of Chance. B. Chance got the simple and rapid polarographic assay method of oxidative phosphorylation and the idea of control of energy metabolism that bring us back to Pasteur. This second result seems to have been neglected in searching for a single molecular mechanism required for the understanding of the buildup of chemical reserve in our body. In respiring mitochondria the rate of electron transport, and thus the rate of ATP production, is determined primarily by the relative concentrations of ADP, ATP and phosphate in the external media (cytosol) and not by the concentration of respiratory substrate as pyruvate. Therefore, when the yield of ATP is high as is in aerobiosis and the cellular use of ATP is not changed, the oxidation of pyruvate and therefore of glycolysis is quickly (without change in gene expression), throttled down to the resting state. The dependence of respiratory rate on ADP concentration is also seen in intact cells. A muscle at rest and using no ATP has very low respiratory rate.

I have had an ongoing discussion with Jose Eduardo de Salles Roselino, inBrazil. He has made important points that need to be noted.

  1. The constancy of composition which animals maintain in the environment surrounding their cells is one of the dominant features of their physiology. Although this phenomenon, homeostasis, has held the interest of biologists over a long period of time, the elucidation of the molecular basis for complex processes such as temperature control and the maintenance of various substances at constant levels in the blood has not yet been achieved. By comparison, metabolic regulation in microorganisms is much better understood, in part because the microbial physiologist has focused his attention on enzyme-catalyzed reactions and their control, as these are among the few activities of microorganisms amenable to quantitative study. Furthermore, bacteria are characterized by their ability to make rapid and efficient adjustments to extensive variations in most parameters of their environment; therefore, they exhibit a surprising lack of rigid requirements for their environment, and appears to influence it only as an incidental result of their metabolism. Animal cells on the other hand have only a limited capacity for adjustment and therefore require a constant milieu. Maintenance of such constancy appears to be a major goal in their physiology (Regulation of Biosynthetic Pathways H.S. Moyed and H EUmbarger Phys Rev,42 444 (1962)).
  2. A living cell consists in a large part of a concentrated mixture of hundreds of different enzymes, each a highly effective catalyst for one or more chemical reactions involving other components of the cell. The paradox of intense and highly diverse chemical activity on the one hand and strongly poised chemical stability (biological homeostasis) on the other is one of the most challenging problems of biology (Biological feedback Control at the molecular Level D.E. Atkinson Science vol. 150: 851, 1965). Almost nothing is known concerning the actual molecular basis for modulation of an enzyme`s kinetic behavior by interaction with a small molecule. (Biological feedback Control at the molecular Level D.E. Atkinson Science vol. 150: 851, 1965). In the same article, since the core of Atkinson´s thinking seems to be strongly linked with Adenylates as regulatory effectors, the previous phrases seems to indicate a first step towards the conversion of homeostasis to an intracellular phenomenon and therefore, one that contrary to Umbarger´s consideration could be also studied in microorganisms.
  3.  Most biochemical studies using bacteria, were made before the end of the third upper part of log growth phase. Therefore, they could be considered as time-independent as S Luria presented biochemistry in Life an Unfinished Experiment. The sole ingredient on the missing side of the events that led us into the molecular biology construction was to consider that proteins, a macromolecule, would never be affected by small molecules translational kinetic energy. This, despite the fact that in a catalytic environment and its biological implications S Grisolia incorporated A K Balls observation indicating that the word proteins could be related to Proteus an old sea god that changed its form whenever he was subjected to inquiry (Phys Rev v 4,657 (1964).
  1. In D.E. Atkinson´s work (Science vol 150 p 851, 1965), changes in protein synthesis acting together with factors that interfere with enzyme activity will lead to “fine-tuned” regulation better than enzymatic activity regulation alone. Comparison of glycemic regulation in granivorous and carnivorous birds indicate that when no important nutritional source of glucose is available, glycemic levels can be kept constant in fasted and fed birds. The same was found in rats and cats fed on high protein diets. Gluconeogenesis is controlled by pyruvate kinase inhibition. Therefore, the fact that it can discriminate between fasting alone and fasting plus exercise (carbachol) requirement of gluconeogenic activity (correspondent level of pyruvate kinase inhibition) the control of enzyme activity can be made fast and efficient without need for changes in genetic expression (20 minute after stimulus) ( Migliorini,R.H. et al Am J. Physiol.257 (Endocrinol. Met. 20): E486, 1989). Regrettably, this was not discussed in the quoted work. So, when the control is not affected by the absorption of nutritional glucose it can be very fast, less energy intensive and very sensitive mechanism of control despite its action being made in the extracellular medium (homeostasis).

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Role of Calcium, the Actin Skeleton, and Lipid Structures in Signaling and Cell Motility

Author: Larry H. Bernstein, MD

Author: Stephen Williams, PhD

and

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

This article is Part II in a series of articles on Calcium and its role in Cell motility

The Series consists of the following articles:

Part I: Identification of Biomarkers that are Related to the Actin Cytoskeleton

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/10/identification-of-biomarkers-that-are-related-to-the-actin-cytoskeleton/

Part II: Role of Calcium, the Actin Skeleton, and Lipid Structures in Signaling and Cell Motility

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Stephen Williams, PhD and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/26/role-of-calcium-the-actin-skeleton-and-lipid-structures-in-signaling-and-cell-motility/

Part III: Renal Distal Tubular Ca2+ Exchange Mechanism in Health and Disease

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Stephen J. Williams, PhD
 and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/09/02/renal-distal-tubular-ca2-exchange-mechanism-in-health-and-disease/

Part IV: The Centrality of Ca(2+) Signaling and Cytoskeleton Involving Calmodulin Kinases and Ryanodine Receptors in Cardiac Failure, Arterial Smooth Muscle, Post-ischemic Arrhythmia, Similarities and Differences, and Pharmaceutical Targets

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/09/08/the-centrality-of-ca2-signaling-and-cytoskeleton-involving-calmodulin-kinases-and-ryanodine-receptors-in-cardiac-failure-arterial-smooth-muscle-post-ischemic-arrhythmia-similarities-and-differen/

Part V: Ca2+-Stimulated Exocytosis:  The Role of Calmodulin and Protein Kinase C in Ca2+ Regulation of Hormone and Neurotransmitter

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP
and
Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/23/calmodulin-and-protein-kinase-c-drive-the-ca2-regulation-of-hormone-and-neurotransmitter-release-that-triggers-ca2-stimulated-exocytosis/

Part VI: Calcium Cycling (ATPase Pump) in Cardiac Gene Therapy: Inhalable Gene Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Percutaneous Intra-coronary Artery Infusion for Heart Failure: Contributions by Roger J. Hajjar, MD

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/01/calcium-molecule-in-cardiac-gene-therapy-inhalable-gene-therapy-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-and-percutaneous-intra-coronary-artery-infusion-for-heart-failure-contributions-by-roger-j-hajjar/

Part VII: Cardiac Contractility & Myocardium Performance: Ventricular Arrhythmias and Non-ischemic Heart Failure – Therapeutic Implications for Cardiomyocyte Ryanopathy (Calcium Release-related Contractile Dysfunction) and Catecholamine Responses

Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/28/cardiac-contractility-myocardium-performance-ventricular-arrhythmias-and-non-ischemic-heart-failure-therapeutic-implications-for-cardiomyocyte-ryanopathy-calcium-release-related-contractile/

Part VIII: Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis: Cardiomyocytes and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: The Cardiac and Cardiovascular Calcium Signaling Mechanism

Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/09/12/disruption-of-calcium-homeostasis-cardiomyocytes-and-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-the-cardiac-and-cardiovascular-calcium-signaling-mechanism/

Part IX: Calcium-Channel Blockers, Calcium Release-related Contractile Dysfunction (Ryanopathy) and Calcium as Neurotransmitter Sensor

Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Part X: Synaptotagmin functions as a Calcium Sensor: How Calcium Ions Regulate the fusion of vesicles with cell membranes during Neurotransmission

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/09/10/synaptotagmin-functions-as-a-calcium-sensor-how-calcium-ions-regulate-the-fusion-of-vesicles-with-cell-membranes-during-neurotransmission/

Part XI: Sensors and Signaling in Oxidative Stress

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/11/01/sensors-and-signaling-in-oxidative-stress/

Part XII: Atherosclerosis Independence: Genetic Polymorphisms of Ion Channels Role in the Pathogenesis of Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction and Myocardial Ischemia (Coronary Artery Disease (CAD))

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/21/genetic-polymorphisms-of-ion-channels-have-a-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-and-ischemic-heart-disease/

 

This article, constitute, Part II, it is a broad, but not complete review of the emerging discoveries of the critical role of calcium signaling on cell motility and by extension, embryonic development, cancer metastasis, changes in vascular compliance at the junction between the endothelium and the underlying interstitial layer.  The effect of calcium signaling on the heart in arrhtmogenesis and heart failure will be a third in this series, while the binding of calcium to troponin C in the synchronous contraction of the myocardium had been discussed by Dr. Lev-Ari in Part I.

Universal MOTIFs essential to skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac syncytial muscle, endothelium, neovascularization, atherosclerosis and hypertension, cell division, embryogenesis, and cancer metastasis. The discussion will be presented in several parts:
1.  Biochemical and signaling cascades in cell motility
2.  Extracellular matrix and cell-ECM adhesions
3.  Actin dynamics in cell-cell adhesion
4.  Effect of intracellular Ca++ action on cell motility
5.  Regulation of the cytoskeleton
6.  Role of thymosin in actin-sequestration
7.  T-lymphocyte signaling and the actin cytoskeleton

Part 1.  Biochemical and Signaling Cascades in Cell Motility

BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOMECHANICS OF CELL MOTILITY

Song Li, Jun-Lin Guan, and Shu Chien
Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2005. 7:105–50   [doi:10.1146/annurev.bioeng.7.060804.100340]
Cell motility or migration is an essential cellular process for a variety of biological events. In embryonic development, cells migrate to appropriate locations for the morphogenesis of tissues and organs. Cells need to migrate to heal the wound in repairing damaged tissue. Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) migrate to form new capillaries during angiogenesis. White blood cells migrate to the sites of inflammation to kill bacteria. Cancer cell metastasis involves their migration through the blood vessel wall to invade surrounding tissues.

Variety of important roles for cell migration:

1. Embryogenesis
2. Wound healing (secondary extension)
3. Inflammatory infiltrate (chemotaxis)
4. Angiogenesis
5. Cancer metastasis
6. Arterial compliance
7. Myocardial and skeletal muscle contraction
8. Cell division

Portrait of Cell in Migration:

1. protrusion of leading edge
2. Formation of new adhesions at front
3. Cell contraction
4. Release of adhesions at rear
Microenvironmental factor:
1. Concentration gradient of chemoattractants
2. Gradient of immobilized ECM proteins
3. Gradient of matrix rigidity
4. Mechanotaxis
Extracellular signals are sensed by receptors or mechanosensors on cell surface or in cell interior to initiate migration. Actin polymerization is the key event leading to protrusion at the leading edge and new focal adhesions anchor the actin filaments and the cell to the underlying surface.  This is followed by contraction of the actin filaments.  The contraction of actomyosin filaments pulls the elongate body forward and at the same time the tail retracts.

Part 2.  Cell-ECM Adhesions

Cytoskeleton and cell-ECM adhesions are two major molecular machineries involved in mechano-chemical signal transduction during cell migration. Although all three types of cytoskeleton (actin microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments) contribute to cell motility, actin cytoskeleton plays the central role. The polymerization of actin filaments provides the driving force for the protrusion of the leading edge as lamellipodia (sheet-like protrusions) or filopodia (spike-like protrusions), and actomyosin contraction generates the traction force at (focal adhesions) FAs and induces the retraction at the rear. It is generally accepted that actin filaments interact with the double-headed myosin to generate the force for cell motility and that actomyosin contraction/relaxation involves the modulation of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation.  Rho family GTPases, including Cdc42, Rac, and Rho, are the key regulators of actin polymerization, actomyosin contraction, and cell motility.  Cdc42 activation induces the formation of filopodia; Rac activation induces lamellipodia; and Rho activation increases actin polymerization, stress fiber formation, and actomyosin contractility. All three types of Rho GTPases stimulate new FA formation.
Integrins are the major receptors for ECM proteins. The integrin family includes more than 20  transmembrane heterodimers composed of α and β subunits with noncovalent association. The extracellular domain of integrin binds to specific ligands, e.g., ECM proteins such as fibronectin (FN), vitronectin, collagen, and laminin. The cytoplasmic domain interacts with cytoskeletal proteins (e.g., paxillin, talin, vinculin, and actin) and signaling molecules in the focal adhesion (FA) sites. The unique structural features of integrins enable them to mediate outside-in signaling, in which extracellular stimuli induce the intracellular signaling cascade via integrin activation, and inside-out signaling, in which intracellular signals modulate integrin activation and force generation through FAs.

Part 3. Actin Dynamics in Cell-cell Adhesion

Actin filaments are linked to the focal adhesions (Fas) between cell and ECM through a protein complex that includes talin, vinculin, α-actinin, and filamin. Such a complex couples the actomyosin contractile apparatus to FAs, and plays an important role in the force transmission between ECM and the cell.

3a. Actin dynamics and cell–cell adhesion in epithelia

Valeri Vasioukhin and Elaine Fuchs
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL
Current Opinion in Cell Biology 2001, 13:76–84
Recent advances in the field of intercellular adhesion highlight the importance of adherens junction association with the underlying actin cytoskeleton. In skin epithelial cells a dynamic feature of adherens junction formation involves filopodia, which physically project into the membrane of adjacent cells, catalyzing the clustering of adherens junction protein complexes at their tips. In turn, actin polymerization is stimulated at the cytoplasmic interface of these complexes. Although the mechanism remains unclear, the VASP/Mena family of proteins seems to be involved in organizing actin polymerization at these sites. In vivo, adherens junction formation appears to rely upon filopodia in processes where epithelial sheets must be physically moved closer to form stable intercellular connections, for example, in ventral closure in embryonic development or wound healing in the postnatal animal.
Located at cell–cell borders, adherens junctions are electron dense transmembrane structures that associate with the actin cytoskeleton. In their absence, the formation of other cell–cell adhesion structures is dramatically reduced. The transmembrane core of adherens junctions consists of cadherins, of which E-cadherin is the epithelial prototype. Its extracellular domain is responsible for homotypic, calcium-dependent, adhesive interactions with E-cadherins on the surface of opposing cells. Its cytoplasmic domain is important for associations with other intracellular proteins involved in the clustering of surface cadherins to form a junctional structure.
The extracellular domain of the transmembrane E-cadherin dimerizes and interacts in a calcium-dependent manner with similar molecules on neighboring cells. The intracellular juxtamembrane part of E-cadherin binds to p120ctn, an armadillo repeat protein capable of modulating E-cadherin clustering. The distal segment of E-cadherin’s cytoplasmic domain can interact with β-catenin or plakoglobin, armadillo repeat proteins which in turn bind to α-catenin. The carboxyl end of α-catenin binds directly to f-actin, and, through a direct mechanism, α-catenin can link the membrane-bound cadherin–catenin complex to the actin cytoskeleton. Additionally, α-catenin can bind to either vinculin or ZO1, and it is required for junctional localization of zyxin. Vinculin and zyxin can recruit VASP (and related family members), which in turn can associate with the actin cytoskeleton, providing the indirect mechanism to link the actin cytoskeleton to adherens junctions. ZO1 is also a member of tight junctions family, providing a means to link these junctions with adherens junctions.
Through a site near its transmembrane domain, cadherins bind directly to the catenin p120ctn, and through a more central site within the cytoplasmic domain, cadherins bind preferentially to β-catenin. Cell migration appears to be promoted by p120ctn through recruiting and activating small GTPases. β-catenin is normally involved in adherens junction formation through its ability to bind to β-catenin and link cadherins to the actin cytoskeleton. However, β-catenin leads a dual life in that it can also act as a transcriptional cofactor when stimulated by the Wnt signal transduction pathway

α-Catenin: More than just a Bridge between Adherens Junctions and the Actin Cytoskeleton

α-catenin was initially discovered as a member of the E-cadherin–catenin complex.  It is related to vinculin, an actin-binding protein that is found at integrin-based focal contacts. The amino-terminal domain of α-catenin is involved in α-catenin/plakoglobin binding and is also important for dimerization. Its central segment can bind to α-actinin and to vinculin, and it partially encompasses the region of the protein necessary for cell adhesion (which is the adhesion-modulation domain; amino acids 509–643). The carboxy-terminal domain of both vinculin and α-catenin is involved in filamentous actin (f-actin) binding, and for α-catenin, this domain is also involved in binding to ZO1.  VH1, VH2 and VH3 are three regions sharing homology to vinculin. The percentage amino acid identity and the numbers correspond to the amino acid residues of the α-catenin polypeptide.
α-catenin is the only catenin that can directly bind to actin filaments , and E-cadherin–catenin complexes do not associate with the actin cytoskeleton after α-catenin is removed by extraction with detergent. Cancer cell lines lacking α-catenin still express E-cadherin and β-catenin, but do not show proper cell–cell adhesion unless the wild-type gene is reintroduced into the cancer cell. This provides strong evidence that clustering of the E-cadherin–catenin complex and cell–cell adhesion requires the presence of α-catenin.
Although intercellular adhesion is dependent upon association of the E-cadherin–β-catenin protein complex with α-catenin and the actin cytoskeleton, it is unclear whether α-catenin’s role goes beyond linking the two structures. Fusion of a nonfunctional tailless E-cadherin (E C71) with α-catenin resulted in a chimeric protein able to confer cell–cell adhesion on mouse fibroblasts in vitro, and generation of additional chimeric proteins enabled delineation of the region of α-catenin that is important for cell aggregation. Not surprisingly, the essential domain of α-catenin was its carboxy-terminal domain (~amino acids 510–906), containing the actin-binding site, which encompasses residues 630–906 of this domain.
The binding of α-catenin to the actin cytoskeleton is required for cell–cell adhesion,  but α-catenin appears to have additional function(s) beyond its ability to link E-cadherin–β-catenin complexes to actin filaments.  The domain encompassing residues 509–643 of α-catenin has been referred to as an adhesion-modulation domain to reflect this added, and as yet unidentified, function.  Besides its association with β-catenin and f-actin, α-catenin binds to a number of additional proteins, some of which are actin binding proteins themselves.  Additionally, the localization of vinculin to cell–cell borders is dependent upon the presence of α-catenin. α-catenin can also bind to the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase) family members ZO1 and ZO2.  Thus, the role for α-catenin might not simply be to link E-cadherin–catenin complexes to the actin cytoskeleton but rather to organize a multiprotein complex with multiple actin-binding, bundling and polymerization activities.
The decisive requirement for α-catenin’s actin-binding domain in adherens junction formation underscores the importance of the actin cytoskeleton in intercellular adhesion. Thus, it is perhaps not surprising that the majority of f-actin in epithelial cells localizes to cell–cell junctions.  When epidermal cells are incubated in vitro in culture media with calcium concentrations below 0.08 mM they are unable to form adherens junctions. However, when the calcium concentrations are raised to the levels naturally occurring in skin (1.5–1.8 mM), intercellular adhesion is initiated.
This switch in part promotes a calcium-dependent conformational change in the extracellular domain of E-cadherin that is necessary for homotypic interactions to take place.  It appears that the actin cytoskeleton has a role in facilitating the process that brings opposing membranes together and stabilizing them once junction formation has been initiated. In this regard, the formation of cell–cell adhesion can be divided into two categories:
  • active adhesion, a process that utilizes the actin cytoskeleton to generate the force necessary to bring opposing membranes together, and
  • passive adhesion, a process which may not require actin if the membranes are already closely juxtaposed and stabilized by the deposition of cadherin–catenin complexes.
Upon a switch from low to high calcium, cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion is activated. Passive adhesion: in cells whose actin cytoskeleton has been largely disrupted by cytochalasin D, cadherin–catenin complexes occur at sites where membranes of neighboring cells directly contact each other. Active adhesion: neighboring cells with functional actin cytoskeletons can draw their membranes together, forming a continuous epithelial sheet.  Upon initial membrane contact, E-cadherin forms punctate aggregates or puncta along regions where opposing membranes are in contact with one another. Each of these puncta is contacted by a bundle of actin filaments that branch off from the cortical belt of actin filaments underlying the cell membrane. At later stages in the process, those segments of the circumferential actin cables that reside along the zone of cell–cell contacts disappear, and the resulting semi-circles of cortical actin align to form a seemingly single circumferential cable around the perimeter of the two cells. At the edges of the zone of cell–cell contact, plaques of E-cadherin–catenin complexes connect the cortical belt of actin to the line of adhesion. At the center of the developing zone of adhesion, E-cadherin puncta associate with small bundles of actin filaments oriented perpendicular to the zone.
Multiple E-cadherin-containing puncta that form along the developing contact rapidly associate with small bundles of actin filaments. As the contact between cells lengthens, puncta continue to develop at a constant average density, with new puncta at the edges of the contact. The segment of the circumferential actin cable that underlies the developing contact gradually ‘dissolves’, and merges into a large cable, encompassing both cells. This is made possible through cable-mediated connections to the E-cadherin plaques at the edges of the contact. As contact propagates, E-cadherin is deposited along the junction as a continuous line. The actin cytoskeleton reorganizes and is now oriented along the cell–cell contact. In primary keratinocytes, two neighboring cells send out filopodia, which, upon contact, slide along each other and project into the opposing cell’s membrane. Filopodia are rich in f-actin. Embedded tips of filopodia are stabilized by puncta, which are transmembrane clusters of adherens junction proteins.
This process draws regions of the two cell surfaces together, which are then clamped by desmosomes. Radial actin fibers reorganize at filopodia tips in a zyxin-, vinculin-, VASP-, and Mena-dependent fashion.  Actin polymerization is initiated at stabilized puncta, creating the directed reverse force needed to push and merge puncta into a single line as new puncta form at the edges. The actin-based movement physically brings remaining regions of opposing membranes together and seals them into epithelial sheets. As filopodia contain actin rather than keratin intermediate filaments, they become natural zones of adherens junctions, whereas the cell surface flanking filopodia becomes fertile ground for desmosome formation, alternating adherens junctions and desmosomes.

Possible Roles of Myosin in Cell–cell Adhesion.

[a] A hypothetical ‘purse string’ model for myosin-driven epithelial sheet closure at a large circular wound site in the cornea of an adult mouse. At the edge of wound site epithelial cables of actin appear to extend from cell to cell, forming a ring around the wound circumference. Contraction of actin cables  driven by myosin can lead to wound closure.
[b] Inside out ‘purse string’ model for contact propagation (compaction) in MDCK cells. During contact formation in MDCK cells, circumferential actin cables contact cadherin–catenin plaques at the edges of the contact. Contraction of actin cables driven by myosin can lead to the contact expansion.

What Regulates the Actin Dynamics that are Important for Cell–cell Adhesion?

The answer to this remains uncertain, but the small GTPases of the Rho family seem to be likely candidates, given that Rho, Rac1 and Cdc42 promote stress fiber, lamellipodia and filopodia formation, respectively.
In vivo mutagenesis studies in Drosophila reveal a role for Rac1 and Rho in dorsal closure and/or in head involution, processes that involve complex and well orchestrated rearrangements of cells. In contrast, Cdc42 appears to be involved in regulating polarized cell shape changes. In vitro, keratinocytes microinjected with dominant negative Rac1 or with C3 toxin, a specific inhibitor of Rho, are unable to form cadherin-based cell–cell contacts.  Similarly, overexpression of a constitutively active form of Rac1 or Cdc42 in MDCK cells increases junctional localization of E-cadherin–catenin complexes, whereas the dominant negative forms of Rac1 and Cdc42, or C3 microinjection, have the opposite effect. The finding that Tiam1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1, increases E-cadherin mediated cell–cell adhesion, inhibits hepatocyte growth-factor-induced cell scattering and reverses the loss of adhesion in Ras-transformed cells is consistent with the above.  Together, these findings provide compelling evidence that activation of the Rho family of small GTPases plays a key role in the actin dynamics that are necessary for adherens junction formation.
We found that E-cadherin–catenin-enriched puncta, which assemble during the first stages of epithelial sheet formation, are sites of de novo actin polymerization. This led us to postulate that actin polymerization might provide the force that is subsequently necessary to merge the double role of puncta into a single row and ultimately into an epithelial sheet. Knowledge of how actin polymerization might generate movement comes largely from studies of the mechanism by which the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes pirates actin polymerization and utilizes it for intracellular propulsion. For this endeavor, these bacteria recruit two types of cellular components, the VASP family of proteins and the Arp2/3 complex. The Arp2/3 protein complex is required for de novo nucleation of actin filament polymerization, whereas VASP appears to accelerate bacterial movement by about 10 fold.
Although most studies have revealed positive roles for VASP and its cousins in actin reorganization/ polymerization, recent experiments have shown that in certain instances these proteins act negatively in directing cell movement. A further complication is the finding that VASP family proteins can be phosphorylated, thereby inhibiting their actin nucleation and f-actin binding ability. A  role for VASP may be in the actin polymerization necessary for filopodia  extensions. In this regard, VASP family proteins localize to the tips of filopodia during neural growth and in calcium-stimulated keratinocytes. VASP family proteins in this process might provide directionality to the process of actin polymerization, reshaping f-actin into parallel bundles to produce and extend filopodia-like structures from branched lamellipodial networks.

The Might of Myosins

Although actin polymerization seems to be important in generating the cellular movement necessary for intercellular adhesion, this does not rule out the possibility that the myosin family of actin motor proteins may also play a role.  It is known, for instance, that cells can use myosin–actin contractile forces to alter cell shape, and myosin II is a ubiquitously expressed protein involved in such diverse processes as cell spreading, cytokinesis, cell migration, generation of tension within actin stress fiber networks and retrograde flow of actin filaments at the leading edge of moving cells. Interestingly, mouse corneal cells at a wound edge assemble cables of actin filaments anchored to E-cadherin–catenin complexes. The cells surrounding the wound site display myosin-II-associated actin filaments that are aligned in a structure resembling a purse string. It has been postulated that closure of the wound may be achieved through myosin-directed contraction of the actin filaments, in a mechanism similar to that of pulling on a purse string.
Overall, through guilt by association, myosins have been implicated in cell–cell adhesion and in adherens junction formation and although the models proposed are attractive, direct experimental evidence is still lacking. BDM (2,3-butanedione monoxime), a general inhibitor of myosin function, had no obvious effect on intercellular junction formation in our keratinocyte adhesion assays (V Vasioukhin, E Fuchs, unpublished data). However, the role of myosins clearly deserves a more detailed investigation, and this awaits the development of new and improved inhibitors and activators of myosin action.

 Key references:

1. Imamura Y, Itoh M, Maeno Y, Tsukita S, Nagafuchi A: Functional  domains of α-catenin required for the strong state of cadherin based cell adhesion. J Cell Biol 1999, 144:1311-1322.
Three distinct functional domains for α-catenin were identified: a vinculin binding domain, a ZO-1-binding domain and an adhesion modulation domain. Both ZO1-binding (also actin binding) and adhesion modulation domains are necessary for strong adhesion.
2. Vasioukhin V, Bauer C, Yin M, Fuchs E: Directed actin polymerization is the driving force for epithelial cell–cell adhesion. Cell 2000, 100:209-219.
A dynamic filopodia-driven process of cell–cell adhesion is described in primary mouse keratinocyte cultures. Newly forming adherens junctions were identified as sites of actin polymerization and/or reorganization, involving VASP/Mena family members.
3. Raich WB, Agbunag C, Hardin J: Rapid epithelial-sheet sealing in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo requires cadherin-dependent filopodial priming. Curr Biol 1999, 9:1139-1146.
An elegant in vivo analysis of filopodia-based cell–cell junction formation during epithelial-sheet closure in embryonic development of C. elegans.
4. Loisel TP, Boujemaa R, Pantaloni D, Carlier MF: Reconstitution of actin-based motility of Listeria and Shigella using pure proteins.  Nature 1999, 401:613-616.
Using an in vitro reconstitution approach, the authors show that Arp2/3, actin, cofilin and capping proteins are required for motility of Listeria, in contrast VASP seems to act by increasing the speed of movement by about 10 fold.

3b.  Role for Gelsolin in Actuating Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-mediated Cell Motility

Philip Chen,  Joanne E. Murphy-Ullrich, and Alan Wells
Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL
J Cell Biology Aug 1996; 134(3): 689-698
Phospholipase C-~/(PLC~/) is required for EGF-induced motility (Chen, P., H. Xie, M.C. Sekar, K.B. Gupta, and A. Wells. J. Cell Biol. 1994. 127:847-857); however, the molecular basis of how PLC~/modulates the actin filament network underlying cell motility remains undetermined. One connection to the actin cytoskeleton may be direct hydrolysis of PIP 2 with subsequent mobilization of membrane-associated actin modifying proteins. We used signaling restricted EGFR mutants expressed in receptor-devoid NR6 fibroblast cells to investigate whether EGFR activation of PLC causes gelsolin mobilization from the cell membrane in vivo and whether this translocation facilitates cell movement. Gelsolin anti-sense  oligonucleotide (20 p,M) treatment of NR6 ceils expressing the motogenic full-length (WT) and  truncated c’ 1000 EGFR decreased endogenous gelsolin by 30–60%; this resulted in preferential reduction of EGF (25 nM)-induced cell movement by >50% with little effect on the basal motility. As 14 h of EGF stimulation of cells did not increase total cell gelsolin content, we determined whether EGF induced redistribution of gelsolin from the membrane fraction. EGF treatment decreased the gelsolin mass associated with the membrane fraction in motogenic WT and c’1000 EGFR NR6 cells but not in cells expressing the fully mitogenic, but nonmotogenic c’973 EGFR. Blocking PLC activity with the pharmacologic agent U73122 (1 ~M) diminished both this mobilization of gelsolin and EGF-induced motility, suggesting that gelsolin mobilization is downstream of PLC. Concomitantly observed was reorganization of submembranous actin filaments correlating directly with PLC activation and gelsolin mobilization. In vivo expression of a peptide that is reported to compete in vitro with gelsolin in binding to PIP2 dramatically increased basal cell motility in NR6 cells expressing either motogenic (WT and c’1000) or nonmotogenic (c’973) EGFR; EGF did not further augment cell motility and gelsolin mobilization. Cells expressing this peptide demonstrated actin reorganization similar to that observed in EGF-treated control cells; the peptide-induced changes were unaffected by U73122. These data suggest that much of the EGF induced motility and cytoskeletal alterations can be reproduced by displacement of select actin-modifying proteins from a PIP2-bound state. This provides a signaling mechanism for translating cell surface receptor mediated biochemical reactions to the cell movement machinery.

3c.  Actomyosin Contraction at the Cell Rear Drives Nuclear Translocation in Migrating Cortical Interneurons

Francisco J. Martini and Miguel Valdeolmillos
Instituto de Neurociencias de Alicante, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Alacant, Spain
Journal of Neuroscience 2010 • 30(25):8660–8670
Neuronal migration is a complex process requiring the coordinated interaction of cytoskeletal components and regulated by calcium signaling among other factors. Migratory neurons are polarized cells in which the largest intracellular organelle, the nucleus, has to move repeatedly. Current views support a central role for pulling forces that drive nuclear movement. By analyzing interneurons migrating in cortical slices of mouse brains, we have found that nucleokinesis is associated with a precise pattern of actin dynamics characterized by the initial formation of a cup-like actin structure at the rear nuclear pole. Time-lapse experiments show that progressive actomyosin contraction drives the nucleus forward. Nucleokinesis concludes with the complete contraction of the cup-like structure, resulting in an actin spot at the base of the retracting trailing process. Our results demonstrate that this actin remodeling requires a threshold calcium level provided by low-frequency spontaneous fast intracellular calcium transients. Microtubule stabilization with taxol treatment prevents actin remodeling and nucleokinesis, whereas cells with a collapsed microtubule cytoskeleton induced by nocodazole treatment, display nearly normal actin dynamics and nucleokinesis. In summary, the results presented here demonstrate that actomyosin forces acting at the rear side of the nucleus drives nucleokinesis in tangentially migrating interneurons in a process that requires calcium and a dynamic cytoskeleton of microtubules.

3d. Migration of Zebrafish Primordial Germ Cells: A Role for Myosin Contraction and Cytoplasmic Flow

H Blaser, M Reichman-Fried, I Castanon, K Dumstrei, F L Marlow, et al.
Max Planck Institute, Gottingen & Dresden, Germany;  Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn; National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan
Developmental Cell 2006; 11: 613–627 [DOI 10.1016/j.devcel.2006.09.023]
The molecular and cellular mechanisms governing cell motility and directed migration in response to the chemokine SDF-1 are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that zebrafish primordial germ cells whose migration is guided by SDF-1 generate bleb-like protrusions that are powered by cytoplasmic flow. Protrusions are formed at sites of higher levels of free calcium where activation of myosin contraction occurs. Separation of the acto-myosin cortex from the plasma membrane at these sites is followed by a flow of cytoplasm into the forming bleb. We propose that polarized activation of the receptor CXCR4 leads to a rise in free calcium that in turn activates myosin contraction in the part of the cell responding to higher levels of the ligand SDF-1. The biased formation of new protrusions in a particular region of the cell in response to SDF-1 defines the leading edge and the direction of cell migration.

Part 4.  Calcium Signaling

4a. Indirect Association of Ezrin with F-Actin: Isoform Specificity and Calcium Sensitivity

Charles B. Shuster and Ira M. Herman
Tufts University Health Science Schools, Boston, MA
J Cell Biology Mar 1995; 128(5): 837-848
Muscle and nonmuscle isoactins are segregated into distinct cytoplasmic domains,  but the mechanism regulating subcellular sorting is unknown (Herman, 1993a). To reveal whether isoform-specific actin-binding proteins function to coordinate these events, cell extracts derived from motile (Era) versus stationary (Es) cytoplasm were selectively and sequentially fractionated over filamentous isoactin affinity columns prior to elution with a KC1 step gradient.  A polypeptide of interest, which binds specifically to/3-actin filament columns, but not to muscle actin columns has been conclusively identified as the ERM family member, ezrin. We studied ezrin-/3 interactions in vitro by passing extracts (Era) over isoactin affinity matrices in the presence of Ca2+-containing versus Ca2+-free buffers, with or without cytochalasin D. Ezrin binds and can be released from/3-actin Sepharose-4B in the presence of Mg2+/EGTA and 100 mM NaC1 (at 4°C and room temperature), but not when affinity fractionation of Em is carried out in the presence of 0.2 mM CaC12 or 2/~M cytochalasin D. N-acetyl-(leucyl)2-norleucinal and E64, two specific inhibitors of the calcium-activated protease, calpain I, protect ezrin binding to β-actin in the presence of calcium. Biochemical analysis of endothelial lysates reveals that a calpain I cleavage product of ezrin emerges when cell locomotion is stimulated in response to monolayer injury. Immunofluorescence analysis shows that anti-ezrin and anti-β-actin IgGs can be simultaneously co-localized, extending the results of isoactin affinity fractionation of Em-derived extracts and suggesting that ezrin and β-actin interact in vivo. To test the hypothesis that ezrin binds directly to β-actin, we performed three sets of studies under a wide range of physiological conditions (pH 7.0-8.5) using purified pericyte ezrin and either α- or β-actin. Results of these experiments reveal that purified ezrin does not directly bind to β-actin filaments. We mapped cellular free calcium in endothelial monolayers crawling in response to injury. Confocal imaging of fluo-3 fluorescence followed by simultaneous double antibody staining reveals a transient rise of free calcium within ezrin-/3-actin-enriched domains in the majority of motile cells bordering the wound edge. These results support the notion that calcium and calpain I modulate ezrin and β-actin interactions during forward protrusion formation.

4b.  Calcium channel and glutamate receptor activities regulate actin organization in salamander retinal neurons

Massimiliano Cristofanilli and Abram Akopian
New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY
J Physiol 575.2 (2006) pp 543–554
Intracellular Ca2+ regulates a variety of neuronal functions, including neurotransmitter release, protein phosphorylation, gene expression and synaptic plasticity. In a variety of cell types, including neurons, Ca2+ is involved in actin reorganization, resulting in either actin polymerization or depolymerization. Very little, however, is known about the relationship between Ca2+ and the actin cytoskeleton organization in retinal neurons. We studied the effect of high-K+-induced depolarization on F-actin organization in salamander retina and found that Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated L-type channels causes F-actin disruption, as assessed by 53±5% (n=23, P <0.001) reduction in the intensity of staining with Alexa-Fluor488-phalloidin, a compound that permits visualization and quantification of polymerized actin. Calcium-induced F-actin depolymerization was attenuated in the presence of protein kinase C antagonists, chelerythrine or bis-indolylmaleimide hydrochloride (GF 109203X). In addition, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), but not 4α-PMA, mimicked the effect of Ca2+ influx on F-actin. Activation of ionotropic AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors also caused a reduction in F-actin. No effect on F-actin was exerted by caffeine or thapsigargin, agents that stimulate Ca2+ release from internal stores. In whole-cell recording from a slice preparation, light-evoked ‘off’ but not ‘on’ EPSCs in ‘on–off’ ganglion cells were reduced by 60±8% (n=8, P <0.01) by cytochalasin D. These data suggest that elevation of intracellular Ca2+ during excitatory synaptic activity initiates a cascade for activity-dependent  actin remodelling, which in turn may serve as a feedback mechanism to attenuate excite-toxic Ca2+ accumulation induced by synaptic depolarization.

4c.  Electric Field-directed Cell Shape Changes, Displacement, and Cytoskeletal Reorganization Are Calcium Dependent

Edward K. Onuma and Sek-Wen Hui
Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Buffalo, New York
J Cell Biology 1988; 106: 2067-2075

C3H/10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblasts were stimulated by a steady electric field ranging up to 10 V/cm. Some cells elongated and aligned perpendicular to the field direction. A preferential positional shift toward the cathode was observed which was inhibited by the calcium channel blocker D-600 and the calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine. Rhodaminephalloidin labeling of actin filaments revealed a field induced disorganization of the stress fiber pattern, which was reduced when stimulation was conducted in calcium-depleted buffer or in buffer containing calcium antagonist CoC12, calcium channel blocker D-600, or calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine. Treatment with calcium ionophore A23187 had similar effects, except that the presence of D-600 did not reduce the stress fiber disruption. The calcium-sensitive photoprotein aequorin was used to monitor changes in intracellular-free calcium. Electric stimulation caused an increase of calcium to the micromolar range. This increase was inhibited by calcium-depleted buffer or by CoC12, and was reduced by D-600. A calcium-dependent mechanism is proposed to explain the observed field-directed cell shape changes, preferential orientation, and displacement.

4d. Local Calcium Elevation and Cell Elongation Initiate Guided Motility in Electrically Stimulated osteoblast-Like Cells

N Ozkucur, TK Monsees, S Perike, H Quynh Do, RHW Funk.
Carl Gustav Carus, TU-Dresden, Dresden, Germany; University of the Western Cape, SAfrica.
Plos ONE 2009; 4 (7): e6131

Investigation of the mechanisms of guided cell migration can contribute to our understanding of many crucial biological processes, such as development and regeneration. Endogenous and exogenous direct current electric fields (dcEF) are known to induce directional cell migration, however the initial cellular responses to electrical stimulation are poorly understood. Ion fluxes, besides regulating intracellular homeostasis, have been implicated in many biological events, including regeneration. Therefore understanding intracellular ion kinetics during EF-directed cell migration can provide useful information for development and regeneration.
We analyzed the initial events during migration of two osteogenic cell types, rat calvarial and human SaOS-2 cells, exposed to strong (10–15 V/cm) and weak (#5 V/cm) dcEFs. Cell elongation and perpendicular orientation to the EF vector occurred in a time- and voltage-dependent manner. Calvarial osteoblasts migrated to the cathode as they formed new filopodia or lamellipodia and reorganized their cytoskeleton on the cathodal side. SaOS-2 cells showed similar responses except towards the anode. Strong dcEFs triggered a rapid increase in intracellular calcium levels, whereas a steady state level of intracellular calcium was observed in weaker fields. Interestingly, we found that dcEF induced intracellular calcium elevation was initiated with a local rise on opposite sides in calvarial and SaOS-2 cells, which may explain their preferred directionality. In calcium-free conditions, dcEFs induced neither intracellular calcium elevation nor directed migration, indicating an important role for calcium ions. Blocking studies using cadmium chloride revealed that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are involved in dcEF-induced intracellular calcium elevation. Taken together, these data form a time scale of the morphological and physiological rearrangements underlying EF-guided migration of osteoblast-like cell types and reveal a requirement for calcium in these reactions. We show for the first time here that dcEFs trigger different patterns of intracellular calcium elevation and positional shifting in osteogenic cell types that migrate in opposite directions.

4e. TRPM4 Regulates Migration of Mast Cells in Mice

T Shimizua, G Owsianik, M Freichelb, V Flockerzi, et al.
Laboratory of Ion Channel Research, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Universität des Saarlandes, Homburg, Germany; National Institute for Physiological Sciences,Okazaki, Japan
Cell Calcium 2008; xxx–xxx

We demonstrate here that the transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily channel, TRPM4, controls migration of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), triggered by dinitrophenylated human serum albumin (DNP-HSA) or stem cell factor (SCF). Wild-type BMMCs migrate after stimulation with DNPHSA or SCF whereas both stimuli do not induce migration in BMMCs derived from TRPM4 knockout mice (trpm4−/−). Mast cell migration is a Ca2+-dependent process, and TRPM4 likely controls this process by setting the intracellular Ca2+ level upon cell stimulation. Cell migration depends on filamentous actin (F-actin) rearrangement, since pretreatment with cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of F-actin formation, prevented both DNP-HSA- and SCF-induced migration in wild-type BMMC. Immunocytochemical experiments using fluorescence-conjugated phalloidin demonstrate a reduced level of F-actin formation in DNP-HSA-stimulated BMMCs from trpm4−/− mice. Thus, our results suggest that TRPM4 is critically involved in migration of BMMCs by regulation of Ca2+-dependent actin cytoskeleton rearrangements.
4f. Nuclear and cytoplasmic free calcium level changes induced by elastin peptides in human endothelial cells
G FAURY, Y USSON, M ROBERT-NICOUD, L ROBERT, AND J VERDETTI.
Institut Albert Bonniot, Universite´ J. Fourier, Grenoble, Fr; and Universite´ Paris, Paris, Fr
PNAS: Cell Biology 1998; 95: pp. 2967–2972.

The extracellular matrix protein ‘‘elastin’’ is the major component of elastic fibers present in the arterial wall. Physiological degradation of elastic fibers, enhanced in vascular pathologies, leads to the presence of circulating elastin peptides (EP). EP have been demonstrated to influence cell migration and proliferation. EP also induce, at circulating pathophysiological concentrations (and not below), an endothelium-and NO- dependent vasorelaxation mediated by the 67-kDa subunit of the elastin-laminin receptor. Here, by using the techniques of patch-clamp, spectrofluorimetry and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that circulating concentrations of EP activate low specificity calcium channels on human umbilical venous endothelial cells, resulting in increase in cytoplasmic and nuclear free calcium concentrations. This action is independent of phosphoinositide metabolism. Furthermore, these effects are inhibited by lactose, an antagonist of the elastin-laminin receptor, and by cytochalasin D, an actin microfilament depolymerizer. These observations suggest that EP-induced signal transduction is mediated by the elastin-laminin receptor via coupling of cytoskeletal actin microfilaments to membrane channels and to the nucleus. Because vascular remodeling and carcinogenesis are accompanied by extracellular matrix modifications involving elastin, the processes here described could play a role in the elastin-laminin receptor-mediated cellular migration, differentiation, proliferation, as in atherogenesis, and metastasis formation.

Part 5. Regulation of the Cytoskeleton

5a Regulation of the Actin Cytoskeleton by PIP2 in Cytokinesis

MR Logan and CA Mandato
McGill University, Montreal, Ca
Biol. Cell (2006) 98, 377–388 [doi:10.1042/BC20050081]

Cytokinesis is a sequential process that occurs in three phases:

  • assembly of the cytokinetic apparatus, 
  • furrow progression and 
  • fission (abscission) of the newly formed daughter cells.

The ingression of the cleavage furrow is dependent on the constriction of an equatorial actomyosin ring in many cell types. Recent studies have demonstrated that this structure is highly dynamic and undergoes active polymerization and depolymerization throughout the furrowing process. Despite much progress in the identification of contractile ring components, little is known regarding the mechanism of its assembly and structural rearrangements. PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) is a critical regulator of actin dynamics and plays an essential role in cell motility and adhesion. Recent studies have indicated that an elevation of PIP2 at the cleavage furrow is a critical event for furrow stability. We discuss the role of PIP2-mediated signaling in the structural maintenance of the contractile ring and furrow progression. In addition, we address the role of other phosphoinositides, PI(4)P (phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate) and PIP3 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate) in these processes.

Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by PIPKs (phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases) and PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate)

PIP2 is generated by the activity of type I (PIPKIs) or type II (PIPKII) kinase isoforms (α, β, γ) which utilize PI(4)P (phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate) and PI(5)P (phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate) as substrates respectively. PIPKIs are localized to the plasma membrane and are thought to account for the majority of PIP2 synthesis, whereas PIPKIIs are predominantly localized to intracellular sites. PIP2 plays a key role in re-structuring the actin cytoskeleton in several ways. In general, high levels of PIP2 are associated with actin polymerization, whereas low levels block assembly or promote actin severing activity. PIP2 facilitates actin polymerization in multiple ways such as:

(i) activating N-WASp (neuronal Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein)- and Arp2/3 (actin-related protein 2/3)-mediated actin branching, 
(ii) binding and impairing the activity of actin-severing proteins, such as gelsolin and cofilin/ADF (actin depolymerizing factor); and
(iii) uncapping actin filaments for the addition on new actin monomers

This polymerization signal is counteracted by the generation of IP3 (inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate) and DAG (diacylglycerol), following PLC (phospholipase C)-mediated hydrolysis of PIP2. IP3-mediated activation of Ca2+/CaM (calmodulin) promotes the activation of severing proteins such as gelsolins and cofilin, which lead to solubilization of the actin network (Figure 1). In addition to influencing actin polymerization, PIP2 modulates the function of several actin cross-linking and regulatory proteins which are critical for the assembly of stress fibres, gel meshworks and membrane attachment. For example, PIP2 negatively regulates cross-linking mediated by filamin and the actin-bundling activity of α-actinin. In contrast, PIP2 induces conformational changes in vinculin, talin and ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family proteins to promote anchoring of the actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. PLC-mediated hydrolysis of PIP2 and the downstream activation of Ca2+/CaM and PKC (protein kinase C) also influences actin-myosin based contractility. Ca2+/CaM activates MLCK (myosin regulatory light chain kinase), leading to phosphorylation of the MLC (myosin regulatory light chain). Similarly, PKC has been shown to phosphorylate and activate MLC (Figure 1).

Figure 1 Summary of PIP2-mediated regulation of the actin cytoskeleton

Role of PIP2-mediated signaling in cell division

Prior to cell division cells undergo a global cell rounding which is a prerequisite step for the initiation of the cleavage furrow. In frog, sea urchin and newt eggs these shape changes correlate with an increase in cortical tension that precedes or occurs near the onset of the cleavage furrow.  Precise mapping of the changes in cortical tension have shown that peaks of tension are propagated in waves that occur in front of and at the same time as furrow initiation. These tension waves are generated by actomyosin-based contractility and subside after the furrow has passed. Experiments in Xenopus eggs, zebrafish and  Xenopus embryos indicated that site-specific Ca2+ waves were generated within the cleavage furrow that would be predicted to coincide with peaks of cortical tension. The injection of heparin, a competitive inhibitor of IP3 receptors, or Ca2+ chelators were both demonstrated to significantly delay or arrest furrowing , and a similar inhibitory effect was observed of microinjected PIP2 antibodies that caused a depletion of the intracellular pool of DAG and Ca2+ in Xenopus blastomeres. In addition, the increase in cortical contractility of Xenopus oocytes has been shown to occur via a PKC-dependent pathway. Together, these studies demonstrate a role for PIP2-mediated signaling at the early stages of cytokinesis.
Recent studies have supported that PIP2-mediated signaling also plays a critical role in ingression of the cleavage furrow, although significant differences have been shown in the localization of PIP2 and the role of PLC. Lithium and the PLC inhibitor, U73122, caused a rapid (within minutes) regression of cleavage furrows in crane fly spermatocytes, but did not block their initial formation. PIP2 may become concentrated within the cleavage furrow and could facilitate anchoring of the plasma membrane to structural components of the actomyosin ring. A PIPKI homologue, its3, and PIP2 were reported at the septum of dividing fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A temperature sensitive mutant of its3 exhibited disrupted actin patches, following a shift to the restrictive temperature, and also impaired cytokinesis. Although a contractile ring was still evident in these cells, abnormalities, such as an extra ring, were found. Two recent studies demonstrated an increase in PIP2-specific GFP-labeled PH domains within the cleavage furrow of mammalian cells. Both of these reports suggested de novo synthesis of PIP2 occurs within the furrow. Another study found that endogenous and over-expressed PIPKIβ, but not PIPKIγ, concentrated in the cleavage furrow of CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells. The expression of a kinase-dead mutant of this isoform and microinjection of PIP2-specific antibodies both caused a significant increase in the number of multinucleated cells. A multinucleated phenotype was, similarly, observed in multiple cell lines (CHO, HeLa, NIH 3T3 and 293T) transfected with high levels of PIP2-specific PH domains, synaptojanin [which dephosphorylates PIP2 to PI(4)P], or a kinase-dead mutant of PIPKIα. In addition, a small percentage of CHO and HeLa cells expressing high levels of PIP2-specific PH domains or synaptojanin showed signs of F-actin dissociation from the plasma membrane.  CHO cells transfected with PIP2 PH domains, but not PH domains specific for PI(3,4)P2 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate) and PIP3, also exhibited impaired furrow expansion induced by the application of hypotonic buffer. This suggests one of the primary roles of PIP2 is to promote cytoskeleton–membrane anchoring at the furrow.
Role of PI3Ks (phosphoinositide 3-kinases) and PI4Ks (phosphoinositide 4-kinases) in cytokinesis PI4Ks generate the PIPKI substrate, PI(4)P, and play a critical role in PIP2 generation.  Studies in lower organisms support  the requirement of PI4Ks for cytokinesis. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae two PI4Ks, STT4 and PIK1, have non-overlapping functions in Golgi-tomembrane trafficking and cell-wall integrity respectively.  Both genes are also required for cell division. Conditional mutants of Pik1p exhibited a cytokinesis defect: cells arrest with large buds and fully divided nuclei. In addition, STT4 was identified as a gene implicated in reorientation of the mitotic spindle prior to cytokinesis.  Spermatocytes derived from fwd mutant males had unstable furrows that failed to ingress and abnormal contractile rings with dissociated myosin II and F-actin, fwd has homology with yeast PIK1 and human PI4KIIIβ. Although PIK1 is an essential gene in yeast, the deletion of fwd was not lethal and female flies were fertile.  A study in fission yeast suggests that PI4Ks may be recruited to the furrow, as reported for PIPKs. Desautels et al. (2001) identified a PI4K as a binding partner of Cdc4p, a contractile ring protein with homology to the myosin essential light chain. A Cdc4p mutant, G107S, abolished the interaction with PI4K and induced the formation of multinucleated cells with defects in septum formation. This finding suggests that, at least for fission yeast, anchoring of PI4K to the contractile ring may concentrate PI(4)P substrate within the furrow for subsequent PIP2 generation.
An increased synthesis of PIP2 by PIPKIs at the cleavage furrow is anticipated to promote both actin polymerization and structural support to the contractile ring. Structural proteins of the contractile ring regulated by PIP2 include anillin, septin and ERM proteins. The concentration of PIP2 at the cleavage furrow is postulated to be a critical molecule in the recruitment of these proteins and their integration with the actomyosin ring. Anillin exhibits actin-bundling activity and is required at the terminal stages of cytokinesis in Drosophila and human cells.  The depletion of anillin in Drosophila and human cells causes cytokinesis failure, which is correlated with uncoordinated actomyosin contraction of the medial ring. Anillin also functions as a cofactor to promote the recruitment of septins to actin bundles. Mutations within the PH domain of anillin were recently demonstrated to impair septin localization to both the furrow canal and the contractile ring in Drosophila cells, blocking cellularization and furrow progression. Septins have also been shown to bind to phosphoinositides and this interaction regulates their subcellular localization. The mammalian septin, H5, bound PIP2 and PIP3 liposomes at its N-terminal basic region, which is conserved in most septin proteins. The over-expression of synaptojanin and treatment with neomycin (which depletes cellular PIP2) both caused disruption of actin stress fibres and dissociation of H5 from filamentous structures in Swiss 3T3 cells. Septins are co-localized with actin at the cleavage furrow and form ring structures that are postulated to structurally support  the contractile ring.
Studies suggest that PLC-mediated hydrolysis of PIP2 and the subsequent release of intracellular Ca2+ stores is a necessary event for furrow stability and ingression.  A role for Ca2+ is similarly supported by previous findings that Ca2+ waves were localized to the cleavage furrow in frog embryos, eggs and fish. PLC second messengers have also been implicated in cytokinesis. For example, CaM was localized to mitotic spindles of HeLa cells and the inhibition of its activity was reported to cause cytokinesis defects. A recent RNAi (RNA interference) screen also identified PI4Ks and PIPKs, but not PLC genes, as critical proteins for cytokinesis in Drosophila.  This may indicate PLC is required for completion of furrowing, rather than its initiation.
It is hypothesized that PLC activity may promote actin filament severing through the activation of Ca2+-dependent actin-severing proteins, such as gelsolin and cofilin. Depending on the localization of PLC, this could either drive disassembly of actin filaments of the medial ring or the cortical actin network. Furthermore, the activation of PKC and CaM would activate actomyosin contraction via the phosphorylation of MLCK. At the furrow, PKC and CaM could act in concert with the Rho effectors ROCK and Citron kinase, which also phosphorylate and activate MLC.
The activation of CaM and/or PKC may also provide positive feedback for the recruitment of PIP2 effectors and regulate GTPase-mediated actin polymerization. Both PKC and CaM have been shown to promote the dissociation of MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrates) family proteins from PIP2. MARCKS are postulated to play a major regulatory role in phosphoinositide signalling by sequestering PIP2 at the membrane. Thus the activation of PKC and CaM promotes PIP2 availability for the recruitment of PH-domain-containing effector proteins. Studies in yeast and mammalian cells have supported that CaM and PKC can mediate positive feedback for PIP2 synthesis by activating PIPKs.

Signaling Crosstalk: Role of GTPases and Phosphoinositides

On the basis of the present available data, PIP2 has been shown to be a critical molecule for structural integrity of the contractile ring and furrow stability. However, the observation that furrows are initiated in cells treated with agents that either sequester PIP2 or prevent its hydrolysis suggests PIP2 does not provide the originating signal for furrow formation. Recent studies suggest that the recruitment and activation of RhoA may provide this early signal.

Figure 2 Proposed model of PIP2 and GTPase signaling at the cleavage furrow

Ect2, is recruited to the cleavage furrow via its interaction withMgcRacGAP at the central spindle. Ect2 and MgcRacGAP regulate the activities of Rho GTPases (RhoA, Cdc42 and Rac) and are functionally implicated in the assembly of the contractile ring. Active RhoA and Cdc42 are increased at the furrow, whereas Rac is suppressed (grey). Furrow-recruited GTPases (RhoA, ARF6 and Cdc42) are predicted to activate PIPKI, leading to the generation of PIP2. PI3K activity is suppressed at the furrow (grey), which may be due to MgcRacGAP-mediated inhibition of Rac and/or the activity of the PIP3 phosphatase, PTEN. Cycles of PIP2 synthesis and hydrolysis by PLC are thought to play a critical role in re-structuring the contractile ring throughout the duration of furrowing. PIP2-mediated activation of anillin, septins and ERM proteins promotes cross-linking and membrane anchoring of the contractile ring. PLC-mediated activation of PKC and CaM can facilitate the contraction of the actomyosin ring, similar to RhoA effectors, ROCK and Citron kinase. CaM may also regulate IQGAP–Cdc42 interactions, and thereby modulate actin organization. It is hypothesized that Cdc42-mediated actin polymerization via effectors, such as N-WASp (neuronalWiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein) and Arp2/3 (actin-related protein 2/3), may reduce membrane tension outside the inner region of RhoA-mediated contractility.
Actin core bundle fimbrin

Actin core bundle fimbrin (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Diagram showing Actin-Myosin filament...

English: Diagram showing Actin-Myosin filaments in Smooth muscle. The actin fibers attach to the cell wall and to dense bodies in the cytoplasm. When activated the slide over the myosin bundles causing shortening of the cell walls (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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English: Figure 2: The matrix can play into other pathways inside the cell even through just its physical state. Matrix immobilization inhibits the formation of fibrillar adhesions and matrix reorganization. Likewise, players of other signaling pathways inside the cell can affect the structure of the cytoskeleton and thereby the cell’s interaction with the ECM. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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