Posts Tagged ‘Cardiometabolic Syndrome’

The Cost to Value Conundrum in Cardiovascular Healthcare Provision

The Cost to Value Conundrum in Cardiovascular Healthcare Provision

Author: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

I write this introduction to Volume 2 of the e-series on Cardiovascular Diseases, which curates the basic structure and physiology of the heart, the vasculature, and related structures, e.g., the kidney, with respect to:

1. Pathogenesis
2. Diagnosis
3. Treatment

Curation is an introductory portion to Volume Two, which is necessary to introduce the methodological design used to create the following articles. More needs not to be discussed about the methodology, which will become clear, if only that the content curated is changing based on success or failure of both diagnostic and treatment technology availability, as well as the systems needed to support the ongoing advances.  Curation requires:

  • meaningful selection,
  • enrichment, and
  • sharing combining sources and
  • creation of new synnthesis

Curators have to create a new perspective or idea on top of the existing media which supports the content in the original. The curator has to select from the myriad upon myriad options available, to re-share and critically view the work. A search can be overwhelming in size of the output, but the curator has to successfully pluck the best material straight out of that noise.

Part 1 is a highly important treatment that is not technological, but about the system now outdated to support our healthcare system, the most technolog-ically advanced in the world, with major problems in the availability of care related to economic disparities.  It is not about technology, per se, but about how we allocate healthcare resources, about individuals’ roles in a not full list of lifestyle maintenance options for self-care, and about the important advances emerging out of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), impacting enormously on Medicaid, which depends on state-level acceptance, on community hospital, ambulatory, and home-care or hospice restructuring, which includes the reduction of management overhead by the formation of regional healthcare alliances, the incorporation of physicians into hospital-based practices (with the hospital collecting and distributing the Part B reimbursement to the physician, with “performance-based” targets for privileges and payment – essential to the success of an Accountable Care Organization (AC)).  One problem that ACA has definitively address is the elimination of the exclusion of patients based on preconditions.  One problem that has been left unresolved is the continuing existence of private policies that meet financial capabilities of the contract to provide, but which provide little value to the “purchaser” of care.  This is a holdout that persists in for-profit managed care as an option.  A physician response to the new system of care, largely fostered by a refusal to accept Medicaid, is the formation of direct physician-patient contracted care without an intermediary.

In this respect, the problem is not simple, but is resolvable.  A proposal for improved economic stability has been prepared by Edward Ingram. A concern for American families and businesses is substantially addressed in a macroeconomic design concept, so that financial services like housing, government, and business finance, savings and pensions, boosting confidence at every level giving everyone a better chance of success in planning their personal savings and lifetime and business finances.


Part 2 is a collection of scientific articles on the current advances in cardiac care by the best trained physicians the world has known, with mastery of the most advanced vascular instrumentation for medical or surgical interventions, the latest diagnostic ultrasound and imaging tools that are becoming outdated before the useful lifetime of the capital investment has been completed.  If we tie together Part 1 and Part 2, there is ample room for considering  clinical outcomes based on individual and organizational factors for best performance. This can really only be realized with considerable improvement in information infrastructure, which has miles to go.  Why should this be?  Because for generations of IT support systems, they are historically focused on billing and have made insignificant inroads into the front-end needs of the clinical staff.

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Cardiometabolic Syndrome and the Genetics of Hypertension: The Neuroendocrine Transcriptome Control Points

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN


Integrated Computational and Experimental Analysis of the Neuroendocrine Transcriptome in Genetic Hypertension Identifies Novel Control Points for the Cardiometabolic Syndrome

Ryan S. Friese, PhD, Chun Ye, PhD, Caroline M. Nievergelt, PhD, Andrew J. Schork, BS, Nitish R. Mahapatra, PhD, Fangwen Rao, MD, Philip S. Napolitan, BS, Jill Waalen, MD, MPH, Georg B. Ehret, MD, Patricia B. Munroe, PhD, Geert W. Schmid-Schönbein, PhD, Eleazar Eskin, PhD and Daniel T. O’Connor, MD

Author Affiliations

From the Departments of Bioengineering (R.S.F., G.W.S.-S.), Medicine (R.S.F., A.J.S., F.R., P.S.N., D.T.O.), Pharmacology (D.T.O.), and Psychiatry (C.M.N.), the Bioinformatics Program (C.Y.), and the Institute for Genomic Medicine (D.T.O.), University of California at San Diego; the VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA (D.T.O.); the Departments of Computer Science & Human Genetics, University of California at Los Angeles (E.E.); the Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India (N.R.M.); Clinical Pharmacology and The Genome Centre, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom (P.B.M.); Center for Complex Disease Genomics, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (G.B.E.); and Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (J.W.).

Correspondence to Daniel T. O’Connor, MD, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego School of Medicine, VASDHS (0838), Skaggs (SSPPS) Room 4256, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0838. E-mail doconnor@ucsd.edu


Background—Essential hypertension, a common complex disease, displays substantial genetic influence. Contemporary methods to dissect the genetic basis of complex diseases such as the genomewide association study are powerful, yet a large gap exists betweens the fraction of population trait variance explained by such associations and total disease heritability.

Methods and Results—We developed a novel, integrative method (combining animal models, transcriptomics, bioinformatics, molecular biology, and trait-extreme phenotypes) to identify candidate genes for essential hypertension and the metabolic syndrome. We first undertook transcriptome profiling on adrenal glands from blood pressure extreme mouse strains: the hypertensive BPH (blood pressure high) and hypotensive BPL (blood pressure low). Microarray data clustering revealed a striking pattern of global underexpression of intermediary metabolism transcripts in BPH. The MITRA algorithm identified a conserved motif in the transcriptional regulatory regions of the underexpressed metabolic genes, and we then hypothesized that regulation through this motif contributed to the global underexpression. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated transcriptional activity of the motif through transcription factors HOXA3, SRY, and YY1. We finally hypothesized that genetic variation at HOXA3SRY, and YY1 might predict blood pressure and other metabolic syndrome traits in humans. Tagging variants for each locus were associated with blood pressure in a human population blood pressure extreme sample with the most extensive associations for YY1 tagging single nucleotide polymorphism rs11625658 on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, and fasting glucose. Meta-analysis extended the YY1results into 2 additional large population samples with significant effects preserved on diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, and fasting glucose.

Conclusions—The results outline an innovative, systematic approach to the genetic pathogenesis of complex cardiovascular disease traits and point to transcription factor YY1 as a potential candidate gene involved in essential hypertension and the cardiometabolic syndrome.


Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2012; 5: 430-440

Published online before print June 5, 2012,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.111.962415

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