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Posts Tagged ‘Preventive medicine’

Summary of Genomics and Medicine: Role in Cardiovascular Diseases


Summary of Genomics and Medicine: Role in Cardiovascular Diseases

Author: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

The articles within Chapters and Subchapters you have just read have been organized into four interconnected parts.
  1. Genomics and Medicine
  2. Epigenetics – Modifyable Factors Causing CVD
  3. Determinants of CVD – Genetics, Heredity and Genomics Discoveries
  4. Individualized Medicine Guided by Genetics and Genomics Discoveries
The first part established the
  • rapidly evolving science of genomics
  • aided by analytical and computational tools for the identification of nucleotide substitutions, or combinations of them
that have a significant association with the development of
  • cardiovascular diseases,
  • hypercoagulable state,
  • atherosclerosis,
  • microvascular disease,
  • endothelial disruption, and
  • type-2DM, to name a few.
These may well be associated with increased risk for stroke and/or peripheral vascular disease in some cases,
  • essentially because the involvement of the circulation is systemic in nature.

Part 1

establishes an important connection between RNA and disease expression.  This development has led to
  • the necessity of a patient-centric approach to patient-care.
When I entered medical school, it was eight years after Watson and Crick proposed the double helix.  It was also
  • the height of a series of discoveries elucidating key metabolic pathways.
In the period since then there have been treatments for some of the important well established metabolic diseases of
  • carbohydrate,
  • protein, and
  • lipid metabolism,
such as –  glycogen storage disease, and some are immense challenges, such as
  • Tay Sachs, or
  • Transthyretin-Associated amyloidosis.
But we have crossed a line delineating classical Mendelian genetics to
  • multifactorial non-linear traits of great complexity and
involving combinatorial program analyses to resolve.
The Human Genome Project was completed in 2001, and it has opened the floodgates of genomic discovery.  This resulted in the identification of
genomic alterations in
  • cardiovascular disease,
  • cancer,
  • microbial,
  • plant,
  • prion, and
  • metabolic diseases.
This has also led to
  • the identification of genomic targets
  • that are either involved in transcription or
  • are involved with cellular control mechanisms for targeted pharmaceutical development.
In addition, there is great pressure on the science of laboratory analytics to
  • codevelop with new drugs,
  • biomarkers that are indicators of toxicity or
  • of drug effectiveness.
I have not mentioned the dark matter of the genome. It has been substantially reduced, and has been termed dark because
  • this portion of the genome is not identified in transcription of proteins.
However, it has become a lightning rod to ongoing genomic investigation because of
  • an essential role in the regulation of nuclear and cytoplasmic activities.
Changes in the three dimensional structure of these genes due to
  • changes in Van der Waal forces and internucleotide distances lead to
  • conformational changes that could have an effect on cell activity.

Part 2

is an exploration of epigenetics in cardiovascular diseases.  Epigenetics is
  • the post-genomic modification of genetic expression
  • by the substitution of nucleotides or by the attachment of carbohydrate residues, or
  • by alterations in the hydrophobic forces between sequences that weaken or strengthen their expression.
This could operate in a manner similar to the conformational changes just described.  These changes
  • may be modifiable, and they
  • may be highly influenced by environmental factors, such as
    1. smoking and environmental toxins,
    2. diet,
    3. physical activity, and
    4. neutraceuticals.
While neutraceuticals is a black box industry that evolved from
  • the extraction of ancient herbal remedies of agricultural derivation
    (which could be extended to digitalis and Foxglove; or to coumadin; and to penecillin, and to other drugs that are not neutraceuticals).

The best examples are the importance of

  • n-3 fatty acids, and
  • fiber
  • dietary sulfur (in the source of methionine), folic acid, vitamin B12
  • arginine combined with citrulline to drive eNOS
  • and of iodine, which can’t be understated.
In addition, meat consumption involves the intake of fat that contains

  • the proinflammatory n-6 fatty acid.

The importance of the ratio of n-3/n-6 fatty acids in diet is not seriously discussed when

  • we look at the association of fat intake and disease etiology.
Part 2 then leads into signaling pathways and proteomics. The signaling pathways are
  • critical to understanding the inflammatory process, just as
  • dietary factors tie in with a balance that is maintained by dietary intake,
    • possibly gut bacteria utilization of delivered substrate, and
    • proinflammatory factors in disaease.
These are being explored by microfluidic proteomic and metabolomic technologies that were inconceivable a half century ago.
This portion extended into the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, and
  • elucidated the relationship between platelet-endothelial interaction in the formation of vascular plaque.
It explored protein, proteomic, and genomic markers
  1. for identifying and classifying types of disease pathobiology, and
  2. for following treatment measures.

Part 3

connected with genetics and genomic discoveries in cardiovascular diseases.

Part 4

is the tie between life style habits and disease etiology, going forward with
  • the pursuit of cardiovascular disease prevention.
The presentation of walking and running, and of bariatric surgery (type 2DM) are fine examples.
It further discussed gene therapy and congenital heart disease.  But the most interesting presentations are
  • in the pharmacogenomics for cardiovascular diseases, with
    1. volyage-gated calcium-channels, and
    2. ApoE in the statin response.

This volume is a splendid example representative of the entire collection on cardiovascular diseases.

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Cardiology, Genomics and Individualized Heart Care: Framingham Heart Study (65 y-o study) & Jackson Heart Study (15 y-o study)


Cardiology, Genomics and Individualized Heart Care

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

The topic of Cardiology, Genomics and Individualized Heart Care is been developed in the following forthcoming e-Book on a related subject matter:

Curators: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

This e-Book has the following Parts:

PART 1
Genomics and Medicine

Introduction to Volume Three
1.1: Genomics and Medicine: The Physician’s View
1.2: Ribozymes and RNA Machines – Work of Jennifer A. Doudn
1.3: Genomics and Medicine: The Geneticist’s View
1.4: Genomics in Medicine – Establishing a Patient-Centric View of Genomic Data

PART 2
Epigenetics- Modifiable Factors Causing Cardiovascular Diseases

2.1 Diseases Etiology

2.1.1 Environmental Contributors Implicated as Causing Cardiovascular Diseases
2.1.2 Diet: Solids and Fluid Intake
2.1.3 Physical Activity and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases
2.1.4 Psychological Stress and Mental Health: Risk for Cardiovascular Diseases
2.1.5 Correlation between Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases
2.1.6 Medical Etiologies for Cardiovascular Diseases: Evidence-based Medicine – Leading DIAGNOSES of Cardiovascular Diseases, Risk Biomarkers and Therapies
2.1.7 Signaling Pathways
2.1.8 Proteomics and Metabolomics

2.2 Assessing Cardiovascular Disease with Biomarkers

2.2.1 Issues in Genomics of Cardiovascular Diseases
2.2.2 Endothelium, Angiogenesis, and Disordered Coagulation
2.2.3 Hypertension BioMarkers
2.2.4 Inflammatory, Atherosclerotic and Heart Failure Markers
2.2.5 Myocardial Markers

2.3  Therapeutic Implications: Focus on Ca(2+) signaling, platelets, endothelium

2.3.1 The Centrality of Ca(2+) Signaling and Cytoskeleton Involving Calmodulin Kinases and Ryanodine Receptors

2.3.2 Platelets in Translational Research ­ 2

2.3.3 The Final Considerations of the Role of Platelets and Platelet Endothelial Reactions in Atherosclerosis

2.3.4 Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors (NOS-I)

2.3.5 Resistance to Receptor of Tyrosine Kinase

2.3.6 Oxidized Calcium Calmodulin Kinase and Atrial Fibrillation

2.3.7 Advanced Topics in Sepsis and the Cardiovascular System at its End Stage

2.4 Comorbidity of Diabetes and Aging

PART 3
Determinants of Cardiovascular Diseases
Genetics, Heredity and Genomics Discoveries

Introduction
3.1 Why cancer cells contain abnormal numbers of chromosomes (Aneuploidy)
3.2 Functional Characterization of Cardiovascular Genomics: Disease Case Studies @ 2013 ASHG
3.3 Leading DIAGNOSES of Cardiovascular Diseases covered in Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, 3/2010 – 3/2013
3.4  Commentary on Biomarkers for Genetics and Genomics of Cardiovascular Disease

PART 4
Individualized Medicine Guided by Genetics and Genomics Discoveries

4.1 Preventive Medicine: Cardiovascular Diseases
4.2 Gene-Therapy for Cardiovascular Diseases
4.3 Congenital Heart Disease/Defects
4.4 Pharmacogenomics for Cardiovascular Diseases

SOURCE

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/biomed-e-books/series-a-e-books-on-cardiovascular-diseases/volume-three-etiologies-of-cardiovascular-diseases-epigenetics-genetics-genomics/

The Next Frontier in Heart Care

Research Aims to Personalize Treatment With Genetics

Nov. 25, 2013 7:18 p.m. ET

VIEW VIDEO

http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304281004579220373600912930#!

Two influential heart studies are joining forces to bring the power of genetics and other 21st century tools to battle against heart disease and stroke. Ron Winslow and study co-director Dr. Vasan Ramachandran explain. Photo: Shubhangi Ganeshrao Kene/Corbis.

Scientists from two landmark heart-disease studies are joining forces to wield the power of genetics in battling the leading cause of death in the U.S.

Cardiologists have struggled in recent years to score major advances against heart disease and stroke. Although death rates have been dropping steadily since the 1960s, progress combating the twin diseases has plateaued by other measures.

Genetics has had a profound impact on cancer treatment in recent years. Now, heart-disease specialists hope genetics will reveal fresh insight into the interaction between a

  • person’s biology,
  • living habits and
  • medications

that can better predict who is at risk of a heart attack or stroke.

“There’s a promise of new treatments with this research,” said Daniel Jones, chancellor of the University of Mississippi and former principal investigator of the 15-year-old Jackson Heart Study, a co-collaborator in the new genetics initiative.

Scienc e Source /Photo Researchers Inc. (hearts); below, l-r: Boston University; Robert Jordan/Univ. of Miss.; Jay Ferchaud/Univ. of Miss Medical Center

Prevention efforts also could improve with the help of genetics research, Dr. Jones said. For example, an estimated 75 million Americans currently have high blood pressure, or hypertension, but only about half of those are able to control it with medication. It can take months of trial-and-error for a doctor to get the right dose or combination of pills for a patient. Researchers hope genetic and other information might enable doctors to identify subgroups of hypertension that respond to specific treatments and target patients with an appropriate therapy.

Also collaborating on the genetics project is the 65-year-old Framingham Heart Study. Its breakthrough findings decades ago linked heart disease to such factors as smoking, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Framingham findings have been a foundation of cardiovascular disease prevention policy for a half-century.

More than 15,000 people have participated in the Framingham study. The Jackson study, with more than 5,000 participants, was launched in 1998 to better understand risk factors in African-Americans, who were underrepresented in Framingham and who bear a higher burden of cardiovascular disease than the rest of the population. Both studies are funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health.

Exactly how the collaboration, announced last week, will proceed hasn’t been determined. One promising area is the “biobank,” the collection of more than one million blood and other biological samples gathered during biennial checkups of Framingham study participants going back more than a half century.

The samples are stored in freezers in an underground earthquake-proof facility in Massachusetts, said Vasan Ramachandran, a Boston University scientist who takes over at the beginning of next year as principal investigator of the Framingham Heart Study. Another 40,000 samples from the Jackson study are kept in freezers in Vermont. By subjecting samples to DNA sequencing and other tests, researchers say they may be able to identify variations linked to progression of cardiovascular disease—or protection from it.

Each study is likely to enroll new participants as part of the collaboration to allow tracking of risk factors and diet and exercise habits, for instance, in real time instead of only during infrequent checkups.

Heart disease is linked to about 800,000 deaths a year in the U.S. In 2010, some 200,000 of those deaths could have been avoided, including more than 112,300 deaths among people younger than 65, according to a recent analysis by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But those avoidable deaths reflected a 3.8% per year decline in mortality rates during the previous 10 years.

Now, widespread prevalence of obesity and diabetes threatens to undermine such gains. And a large gap remains between how white patients and minorities—especially African-Americans—benefit from effective strategies.

There have been few new transformative cardiovascular treatments since the mid-1980s to early 1990s, when a stream of large-scale trials of new agents ranging from clot-busters to treat heart attacks to the mega class of statins electrified the cardiology field with evidence of significant improvements in survival from the disease. One reason: Some of those remedies have proven tough to beat with new treatments.

What’s more, use of the current menu of medicines for reducing heart risk remains an imprecise art. Besides

  • blood pressure drugs,
  • cholesterol-lowering statins

also are widely prescribed. Drug-trial statistics show that to prevent a single first heart attack in otherwise healthy patients can require prescribing a statin to scores of patients, but no one knows for sure who actually benefits and who doesn’t.

“It would be great if we could make some more paradigm-shifting discoveries,” said Michael Lauer, director of cardiovascular sciences at the NHLBI, which is a part of the National Institutes of Health.

Finding new treatments isn’t the only aim of the new project. “You could use existing therapies smarter,” said Joseph Loscalzo, chairman of medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston.

The American Heart Association launched the initiative and has committed $30 million to it over the next five years. The AHA sees the project as critical to its goal to achieve a 20% improvement in cardiovascular health in the U.S. while also reducing deaths from heart disease and stroke by 20% for the decade ending in 2020, said Nancy Brown, the nonprofit organization’s chief executive.

The Jackson study has already identified characteristics of cardiovascular risk among African-American patients “that may have promise for new insights” in a collaborative effort, said Adolfo Correa, professor of medicine and pediatrics at University of Mississippi Medical Center and interim director of the Jackson study.

For instance, there is a higher prevalence of obesity among Jackson participants than seen in the Framingham cohorts. Obesity is associated with high blood pressure, diabetes and cardiovascular risk. Diabetes is also more prevalent among blacks than whites.

But African-Americans of normal weight appear to have higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than whites of normal weight. “The question is, should [measures] for defining diabetes be different or the same for the [different] populations and are they associated with the same risk of cardiovascular disease?” said Dr. Correa. The collaboration, he said, may provide better comparisons.

Researchers, who plan to use tools other than genetics, think more might be learned about blood pressure and heart and stroke risk by monitoring patients in real time using mobile devices rather than taking readings only in periodic office visits. For example, high blood pressure during sleep or spikes during exercise could indicate risks that don’t show up in a routine measurement in the doctors’ office.

A big challenge is making sense of the huge amounts of data involved in sequencing DNA and linking it to

  • medical records,
  • diet and
  • exercise habits and other variables that influence risk.

“The analytical methods for sorting out these complex relationships are still in evolution,” said Dr. Loscalzo, of Brigham and Women’s Hospital. “The cost of sequencing is getting cheaper and cheaper. The hard part is analyzing the data.”

Write to Ron Winslow at ron.winslow@wsj.com

SOURCE

http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304281004579220373600912930#!

The e-Reader is advised to to review tightly related articles in

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/biomed-e-books/series-a-e-books-on-cardiovascular-diseases/volume-three-etiologies-of-cardiovascular-diseases-epigenetics-genetics-genomics/

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