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Posts Tagged ‘Recombinant DNA’


Pharmaceutical Companies Racing Together to Find a Cure for COVID-19

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

The global outbreak has put pressure on companies and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to act quickly to make medications available to patients. Several companies are working together to find solutions to treat those infected by the virus and prevent it from spreading.

AstraZeneca is responding to the COVID-19 (novel coronavirus) outbreak to accelerate the development of its di diagnostic testing capabilities to scale-up screening and is also working in partnership with governments on existing screening programs to supplement testing. In addition, AstraZeneca is working to identify monoclonal antibodies to progress towards clinical trial evaluation as a treatment to prevent COVID-19.

Bayer, German multinational pharmaceutical and life sciences company is donating malaria drug, Resochin to the US government for possible use to treat COVID-19. Resochin, made of chloroquine phosphate is a current approve treatment for malaria. China is evaluating it for potential use of COVID-19 and presented decent effects against the first SARS virus in 2003. Doctors consider it a promising treatment for seriously ill coronavirus patients.

AbbVie is research-driven biopharmaceutical company dedicated to developing innovative advanced therapies for four primary therapeutic areas: immunology, oncology, virology and neuroscience. The company declared plans to evaluate HIV medicine as COVID-19 treatment and go into partnerships with health authorities in various countries to explore the efficacy and antiviral activity of the medication.

Boehringer Ingelheim, research driven company  is collaborating with the German Center for Infectious Research to develop therapies and diagnostic tools for COVID-19. Their research teams are screening their entire molecule library with more than one million compounds to identify novel small molecules with activity against the virus.

EMD Serono is the biopharmaceutical business of Merck KGaA, Germany donated interferon beta-1a to French Institute of National Health and Medical Research to use for a clinical trial. Interferon beta-1a is presently in use to treat multiple sclerosis and is under investigation as potential treatment for people with COVID-19 coronavirus disease caused by the SARS-nCoV-2 virus. When confronted with the virus, each cell shoots an emergency flare of interferon to tell the immune system to strengthen its defenses. The interferon beta1a cytokine activates macrophages that engulf antigens and natural killer cells, which are integral to innate immune system. The trial is subsidized by INSERM and its start has been announced by the French Health authorities on March 11. To date, Merck interferon beta-1a is not approved by any regulatory authority for the treatment of COVID-19 or for use as an antiviral agent.

GLAXOSMITHKLINE (GSK) has been working to make vaccine using its established pandemic vaccine adjuvant platform technology available. Sanofi and GSK announced on April 14, 2020 they will collaborate to develop an adjuvanted vaccine for COVID-19, using innovative technology from both companies. Sanofi will donate its S-protein COVID-19 antigen, which is based on recombinant DNA technology. This technology gives an exact genetic match to proteins found on the surface of the virus and the DNA sequence encoding this antigen has been combined into the DNA of the baculovirus expression platform, the basis of Sanofi’s licensed recombinant influenza product in the US.GSK will contribute its proven pandemic adjuvant technology to the collaboration, since it may reduce the amount of vaccine protein required per dose, letting more vaccine doses to be produced and consequently contributing to protect more people.

JOHNSON & JOHNSON has started research into a vaccine, leveraging the same innovative technology used for  Ebola vaccine. Janssen, the pharmaceutical arm of J&J has donated medicines for use in laboratory-based investigations to support efforts in finding a resolution against COVID-19.

Eli Lilly entered into an agreement with AbCellera to co-develop antibody products for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. The collaboration will leverage AbCellera’s rapid pandemic response platform, established under the DARPA Pandemic Prevention Platform Program, along with Lilly’s global capabilities for rapid development, manufacturing and distribution of therapeutic antibodies. Eli Lilly has also entered an agreement with NIH, NIAID to study baricitinib as an arm in NIAID’s Adaptive COVID-19 treatment trial. Baricitinib, an oral JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor is accepted in more than 65 countries as a treatment for adults with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis. Because of the inflammatory cascade in COVID-19, baricitinib’s anti-inflammatory activity has been hypothesized to have a potential beneficial effect in COVID-19 and needs further study in patients with this infection. Eli Lilly is also using an investigational selective monoclonal antibody against Angiopoientin-2 to Phase 2 testing in pneumonia patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who are at higher risk of delveoping acute respiratory distress syndrome. The company will look whether inhibiting the effects of Angiopoientin-2 with monoclonal antibody which can reduce the progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome. The trial will start in April 2020.

Pfizer and BioNTech work together to develop a potential COVID-19 vaccine which aims to accelerate development of BioNTech’s potential first-in-class COVID-19 mRNA vaccine program, BNT162 . A clinical study is expected to start by the end of April 2020. The collaboration is a continuation of the original agreement in 2019 between the two companies to develop mRNA-based vaccines for prevention of influenza.

Roche, Canada has been designated as a participant in a Phase III clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of one of Roche’s portfolio medicines in hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. The company announced the future launch of its Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 serology test to detect antibodies in people who have been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 that causes the COVID-19 disease. Antibody testing is vital to help detect people who have been infected by the virus, particularly those who may have been infected but did not display symptoms. Furthermore, the test can support priority screening of high-risk groups who might by now have advanced a certain level of immunity and can continue serving and/or return to work.

Takeda Pharmaceutical Company is initiating the development of an anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal hyperimmune globulin (H-IG) to treat high-risk individuals with COVID-19, although also investigating whether Takeda’s currently marketed products may be effective treatments for infected patients. Hyperimmune globulins are plasma derived-therapies that have been effective in the treatment of severe acute viral respiratory infections and could be a treatment option for COVID-19. Takeda has the research expertise to develop and manufacture a potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal H-IG.

Takeda is presently in discussions  with multiple national health and regulatory agencies and health care partners in the US, Asia, and Europe to expeditiously move the research into anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal H-IG forward. The research requires access to source plasma from people who have efficaciously recovered from COVID-19. The donors have developed antibodies to the virus that could possibly alleviate severity of illness in COVID-19 patients and perhaps prevent it. By transferring the antibodies to a new patient, it may help that person’s immune system respond to the infection and increase their chance of recovery. These efforts to find a vaccine are at an early stage nevertheless being given a high priority within the company.

SOURCE

https://www.marketwatch.com/story/these-nine-companies-are-working-on-coronavirus-treatments-or-vaccines-heres-where-things-stand-2020-03-06

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The late Cambridge Mayor Alfred Vellucci welcomed Life Sciences Labs to Cambridge, MA – June 1976

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

How Cambridge became the Life Sciences Capital

Worth watching is the video below, which captures the initial Cambridge City Council hearing on recombinant DNA research from June 1976. The first speaker is the late Cambridge mayor Alfred Vellucci.

Vellucci hoped to pass a two-year moratorium on gene splicing in Cambridge. Instead, the council passed a three-month moratorium, and created a board of nine Cambridge citizens — including a nun and a nurse — to explore whether the work should be allowed, and if so, what safeguards would be necessary. A few days after the board was created, the pro and con tables showed up at the Kendall Square marketplace.

At the time, says Phillip Sharp, an MIT professor, Cambridge felt like a manufacturing town that had seen better days. He recalls being surrounded by candy, textile, and leather factories. Sharp hosted the citizens review committee at MIT, explaining what the research scientists there planned to do. “I think we built a relationship,” he says.

By early 1977, the citizens committee had proposed a framework to ensure that any DNA-related experiments were done under fairly stringent safety controls, and Cambridge became the first city in the world to regulate research using genetic material.

 

WATCH VIDEO

How Cambridge became the life sciences capital

Scott Kirsner can be reached at kirsner@pobox.com. Follow him on Twitter@ScottKirsner and on betaboston.com.

SOURCE

How Cambridge became the life sciences capital

http://www.betaboston.com/news/2016/03/17/how-cambridge-became-the-life-sciences-capital/

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Transphosphorylation of E-coli Proteins and Kinase Specificity

Reporter: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/03/04/transphosphory…i-ptoteins-and/

Transphosphorylation of E. coli proteins during production of recombinant protein kinases provides a robust system to characterize kinase specificity

X Wu, Man-Ho Oh, HS Kim, D Schwartz,… Huber SC.

Front. Plant Sci. 3:262.    http://dx.doi.org/ 10.3389/fpls.2012.00262 

Four lines of evidence suggest that transphosphorylation of E. coli proteins by BRI1

is specific and therefore provides meaningful results:

(1) phosphorylation is

(2) phosphosite stoichiometry, estimated by spectral counting, is also

  •  not related to protein abundance;

(3) a transphosphorylation motif emerged

  •  with strong preference for basic residues both N- and C-terminal to the phosphosites; and

(4) other protein kinases (BAK1, PEPR1, FLS2, and CDPKβ) phosphorylated a distinct set of E. coli proteins and phosphosites. http://fpls.com/Transphosphorylation_of_E._coli_proteins_during_production_of_recombinant_protein_kinases_provides_a_robust_system_to_characterize_kinase_specificity/

English: Structure of the BAK1 protein. Based ...

English: Structure of the BAK1 protein. Based on PyMOL rendering of PDB 2ims. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Escherichia coli - Scanning Electron Microscopy

Escherichia coli – Scanning Electron Microscopy (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Protein kinase CK2, a phosphorylation...

English: Protein kinase CK2, a phosphorylation enzyme (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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