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Licensing deal with Regeneron to accelerate CRISPR biotech Intellia (Jennifer Doudna’s Start Up) for an IPO

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

UPDATED on 4/27/2016

CRISPR Firm Intellia Prices IPO at $16 to $18 Per Share

NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) – Intellia Therapeutics has priced shares for its upcoming initial public offering in the range of $16 to $18, according to an amendment to its preliminary prospectus filed today with the US Securities and Exchange Commission.

The Cambridge, Massachusetts-based CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing firm also announced in the amended prospectus that it will offer 5 million shares of common stock in the IPO, and that the Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research has agreed to concurrently purchase $5 million in common stock in a separate private placement at a price equal to the offering price.

Intellia had previously announced that Regeneron Pharmaceuticals would purchase $50 million in stock in a similar private placement.

The share pricing places a $90 million ceiling on the offering, though the company is also making 750,000 shares available to the IPO underwriters which would bring the total value to no more than $103.5 million.

Intellia filed is preliminary prospectus with the SEC on April 9.

According to that filing, the firm had $75.8 million in cash and cash equivalents and $66.9 million in working capital as of Dec. 31, 2015.

SOURCE

https://www.genomeweb.com/gene-silencinggene-editing/crispr-firm-intellia-prices-ipo-16-18-share?utm_source=SilverpopMailing&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Daily%20News:%20Illumina%27s%20Overseas%20NIPT%20Patent%20Suits%20Rescheduled%20to%202017%20-%2004/27/2016%2003:50:00%20PM

UPDATED on 4/16/2016

Intellia is one of a handful of biotechs which is pioneering the use of the technology in drug development. Launched by Atlas Venture and partnered closely with Novartis ($NVS), the technology at Intellia comes from a startup–Caribou– founded by UC Berkeley’s Jennifer Doudna, who worked closely with Emmanuelle Charpentier on making CRISPR/Cas9 ready for prime time. Those two have been battling Editas over control of the foundation IP, though there have been several new advances in just the past year.

The IP didn’t come cheap. According to the IPO, Intellia handed Doudna’s Caribou a $21.5% stake in the company. Novartis has a 20.3% interest while Atlas retained 17%. 

Regeneron, which has been scoring a swift series of late-stage wins with Sanofi, is paying a $75 million upfront and promised $50 million for the next round, which follows a $70 million fundraising last fall that clearly outlined the biotech’s yearning for a public offering.

Now allied closely with a pair of the biggest players in biopharma, Intellia has laid the foundation for an IPO that will attempt to win over a wary set of investors–many of whom have steered clear of biotech as the sector was pummeled over recent months. Intellia will be banking on the allure of an emerging technology that allowed Editas to get out on the market successfully in the face of severe headwinds.

Read more at SOURCE

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/125m-regeneron-deal-hand-crispr-cas9-star-intellia-files-for-ipo?utm_medium=nl&utm_source=internal&mrkid=993697&mkt_tok=eyJpIjoiT1Roa1pEQmhaR1F4Wm1ZMyIsInQiOiJkNjZXdXI1bWlLV0h4d2I5NVozWndkZHZhV09DV0Frd1VUczFjNDNaQ3NxWDhcLzNXckR5b2J3cXI3M3VQRnpyZjZGaGY2K0tRWDFqZnRKSElpU0R4djFQbTVra0VHeGU3a0ZJRVZuZFJEWnM9In0%3D

UPDATED On 4/16/2016

April 11, 2016

Regeneron and Intellia Therapeutics Announce Collaboration to Discover and Develop CRISPR/Cas Therapeutics

TARRYTOWN, N.Y. and CAMBRIDGE, Mass., April 11, 2016 /PRNewswire/ — Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: REGN) and Intellia Therapeutics, Inc. announced today a licensing and collaboration agreement to advance CRISPR/Cas gene-editing technology for in vivo therapeutic development. In addition to the discovery, development and commercialization of new therapies, the companies will focus on technology development of the CRISPR/Cas platform.

Under the terms of the six-year agreement, Regeneron has the exclusive right to discover and develop CRISPR-based products against up to 10 targets, focused primarily on therapies for a broad range of diseases that may be treated by editing genes in the liver. Of the 10 targets, Regeneron can select up to five non-liver targets. Non-liver targets from Intellia’s ongoing and planned research, as well as targets included in another Intellia collaboration, are excluded from this collaboration.

Intellia will receive a $75 million upfront payment and is eligible to receive significant milestone and royalty payments on potential Regeneron products. Intellia and Regeneron have agreed to co-develop and co-commercialize a certain number of targets that are generated during the collaboration. Transthyretin amyloidosis is the first target to be jointly developed and potentially commercialized by the companies. Regeneron has also agreed to invest up to $50 million in Intellia’s next equity financing.

“Our industry-leading human genetics research with the Regeneron Genetics Center is already identifying important genetic targets, building on our long-standing expertise in genetic engineering,” said George D. Yancopoulos, M.D., Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer of Regeneron and President of Regeneron Laboratories. “We believe combining these capabilities with Intellia’s technology holds real promise for serious diseases that have been historically difficult to address, and expands our ability to help patients where antibody-based therapies may not be the optimal solution.”

CRISPR/Cas9 is a gene-editing technology that can cut DNA in precise locations, providing the opportunity to selectively knock out, repair or insert specific genetic sequences. It has potential application across multiple therapeutic areas including autoimmune diseases, metabolic and blood disorders, cancer and rare and genetic-based diseases.

“We are excited to be partnering with Regeneron, an industry leader in human genetics research,” said Nessan Bermingham, Ph.D., Chief Executive Officer and Founder, Intellia Therapeutics. “Regeneron’s focus on advancing science to medicine is an excellent fit with Intellia’s approach, and together, we aim to bring potential cures to patients who are suffering from life-threatening rare diseases and genetic diseases.”

About Intellia Therapeutics
Intellia Therapeutics is a leading gene editing company focused on the development of proprietary products utilizing a recently developed biological tool known as the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

About Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Regeneron (NASDAQ: REGN) is a leading science-based biopharmaceutical company based in Tarrytown, New York that discovers, invents, develops, manufactures and commercializes medicines for the treatment of serious medical conditions. Regeneron commercializes medicines for high LDL cholesterol, eye diseases and a rare inflammatory condition and has product candidates in development in other areas of high unmet medical need, including oncology, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, pain, and infectious diseases. For additional information about the company, please visit www.regeneron.com or follow @Regeneron on Twitter.

SOURCE

http://investor.regeneron.com/releaseDetail.cfm?ReleaseID=964496

 

CRISPR biotech Intellia strikes licensing deal with Regeneron, readies IPO

Dive Brief:

  • Intellia Therapeutics, one of several companies working to develop CRISPR/Cas 9 technology commercially, on Monday filed to go public in an initially priced $120 million IPO. Concurrently, the biotech announced a collaboration and licensing deal with Regeneron Pharmaceuticals aimed at advancing up to 10 CRISPR-based programs, focusing primarily on liver diseases. 
  • Regeneron will pay Intellia $75 million upfront, as well as investing $50 million in Intellia’s forthcoming IPO. Additionally, the agreement includes as much as $320 million in milestone payments, according to SEC filing documents
  • The first program to be co-developed with Regeneron will target a rare genetic disorder known as ATTR, which can causes severely impaired nerve or cardiac function. 

Dive Insight:

Intellia is one of several companies developing commerical CRISPR treatments, competing with the likes of CRISPR Therapeutics, Editas Medicine, and others. Editas Medicine has already gone public, with $94 million offering in February.

The new collaboration agreement with Regeneron will help Intellia develop new in vivo therapries, where CRISPR products are delivered directly into the body. Under the six-year agreement, Regeneron will have exclusive rights to develop products against up to 10 targets, at least five of which will be focused on diseases treatable by editing genes found in the liver. 

For example, Intellia hopes CRISPR gene-editing can cure the genetic disorder ATTR, which is caused by a buildup of the transthyretin (TTR) protein in tissue. By “knocking out” TTR expression in the liver, Intellia could reduce or eliminate the disease-causing buildup.

In addition to ATTR, Intellia is developing three other liver programs and expects one to two of the programs to reach clinical trials in the next 1 to 2 years.

PARTNERSHIP WITH NOVARTIS

Prior to this new deal, Intellia and Novartis had entered into a separate partnership focusing on CAR-T cells and hematopoietic stem cells. Novartis gained exclusive rights to Intellia’s CAR-T program, and the companies will jointly advance the stem cell therapies. Unlike the deal with Regeneron, the partnership with Novartis focuses on ex vivo therapies, in which cells are taken out of the body, genetically edited, and then re-introduced. 

The Novartis partnership also comes with a hefty schedule of milestone payments. According to regulatory filings, Intellia is eligible for $230 million in milestone payments, along with single-digit royalties. However, Novartis now owns 20.3% of the company.

IP WARS

Intellia’s IPO documents also showed how the company could become embroiled in the high-stakes patent fight between the Broad Institute and UC Berkeley over CRISP/Cas 9 intellectual property.

The company sublicensed its technology from CRISPR pioneer Jennifer Doudna’s biotech startup Caribou Biosciences. One of the patents Intellia received is now the subject of interference proceedings between the Broad and Berkeley. If the Broad wins, Intellia could face patent litigation on any of its CRISPR products in development or commercialization.

Furthermore, one of Intellia’s key competitors – Editas Medicine – received its CRISPR technology IP from a deal with the Broad, raising the stakes of the ongoing patent case even higher for Intellia.

Recommended Reading

Exconomy: CRISPR Developer Intellia Deals With Regeneron, Jumps Into IPO Queue
FierceBiotech: $125M Regeneron deal in hand, CRISPR/Cas9 star Intellia files for IPO

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/?s=transthyretin+

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Amyloidosis with Cardiomyopathy

Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP
Introduction
Amyloidosis describes the various clinical syndromes that occur as a result of damage by amyloid deposits in tissues and organs throughout the body.  Systemic amyloidosis is a relatively rare multisystem disease caused by the deposition of misfolded protein in various tissues and organs. The term amyloid describes the deposition in the extracellular space of certain proteins in a highly characteristic, insoluble fibrillar form.  The disease entity is a disorder of misfolded or misassembled proteins.  There is extracellular amyloid fiber laid down as cross β-sheets disrupting organ function, which may affect the pancreas, kidney, autonomic nervous system, the heart, and in one form causes carpal tunnel syndrome.
It may present to almost any specialty, and diagnosis is frequently delayed. Cardiac involvement is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in primary light chain (AL) amyloidosis and in both wild-type and hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis. The heart is also occasionally involved in acquired serum amyloid A type (AA) amyloidosis and other rare hereditary types. Clinical phenotype varies greatly between different types of amyloidosis, and even the cardiac presentation has a great spectrum. The incidence of amyloidosis is uncertain, but it is thought that the most frequently diagnosed AL amyloidosis has an annual incidence of 6 to 10 cases per million population in the United Kingdom and United States.
The molecular basis for this particular phenomenon came with the extensive work done on multiple myeloma, antibody structure, and light chains.  In 1950, the discovery of a familial amyloid polyneuropathy was described in Portugal, and there were similar diseases in Sweden and Japan.  There were 72 known variants of transthyretin (TTR) in 1995, and now there are 100.  In addition, the occurance of different TTR associated variants with and without (amyloid) is found is Brazil, UK, US, Israel, Spain, France, Germany, Denmark, and Africa.  The table of variants, organ damage, and geographic location is too large to place on this document. If we refer to amyloid cardiomyopathy, it is exclusively a primary amyloidopathy, not secondary to light chain disorders or an inflammatory disease.  If we consider amyloidosis, we also have to consider family history, organ dysfunction, and we have to make a distinction between primary cardiac involvement, autonomic nervous system instability, and the two coexisting.  Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is an extremely debilitating and progressive disease that is only treatable by liver transplantation.  Primary amyloid cardiomyopathy has been treated by heart transplant.  The qualifying statement here is, it depends.

Primary and Secondary Amyloidoses

Amyloid was originally described by pathologists based on microscopy. Amyloidoses are a systemic primary or secondary disease. There are distinctions to be made based on location and type.  The clinical significance of amyloid disease varies enormously, ranging from incidental asymptomatic deposits to localized disease through to rapidly fatal systemic forms that can affect multiple vital organs.
Common causes of secondary amyloidosis are – light chain production (AL) as in plasma cell dyscrasia, amyloid A (AA), senile systemic amyloidosis (diagnosed rarely in life).  The systemic amyloidoses are designated by a capital A (for amyloid) followed by the abbreviation for the chemical identity of the fibril protein. Thus, TTR amyloidosis is abbreviated ATTR, and immunoglobulin light chain type amyloidosis is abbreviated AL. Both normal-sequence TTR and variant-sequence TTR form amyloidosis. Normal-sequence TTR forms cardiac amyloidosis in elderly people, termed senile cardiac amyloidosis (SCA). When it was recognized that SCA is often accompanied by microscopic deposits in many other organs, the alternative name senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) was proposed. Both terms are now used.
Currently available therapy is focused on reducing the supply of the respective amyloid fibril precursor protein and supportive medical care, which together have greatly improved survival. Chemotherapy and anti-inflammatory treatment for the disorders that underlie AL and AA amyloidosis are guided by serial measurements of the respective circulating amyloid precursor proteins, i.e. serial serum free light chains in AL and serum amyloid A protein in AA type.
Quality of life and prognosis of some forms of hereditary systemic amyloidosis can be improved by liver and other organ transplants. Various new therapies, ranging from silencing RNA, protein stabilizers to monoclonal antibodies, aimed at inhibiting fibril precursor supply, fibril formation or the persistence of amyloid deposits, are in development; some are already in clinical phase.
Ann Clin Biochem May 2012; 49(3 ): 229-241   http://acb.2011.011225v1 49/3/229

What is transthyretin (TTR)?

TTR is a  tetramer of 4 127 amino acid subunits synthesized by the liver that circulates as a transporter of thyroxin, and with retinol-binding protein, transports vitamin A.  It was originally defined by the migration in electrophoresis more anodal to albumin, hence, prealbumin.  It is present in cerebrospinal fluid, secreted by the choroid plexus.  The TTR monomer contains 8 antiparallel beta pleated sheet domains. TTR can be found in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid and is synthesized by the choroid plexus of the brain and, to a lesser degree, by the retina. Its gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 18 and contains 4 exons and 3 introns.
The concentration in serum can be expected to be above 20 mg/dL in a health adult, but the protein decreases by 1 mg/dL/day postoperatively, and it decreases with acute or chronic renal failure, pneumonia or sepsis, rising again with the onset of anabolism.  Patients in the pulmonary intensive care unit have TTR levels that remain low for 7-10 days, but followup data for the remainder of the hospital stay or in relationship to readmission in the six months after release from hospital care was not part of the study.
A decrease in TTR is associated with the systemic inflammatory response, whereby, the liver reprioritizes the synthesis of proteins with an increase in acute phase reactants (APRs), namely, C-reactive protein (CRP) and a-1 acid glycoprotein, and decreased albumin and TTR.  The inflammatory condition maintains a euthyroid status with decreased TTR because of the availability of free thyroxine in equilibrium with the lower binding protein.  This has been referred to sick euthyroid status. The role in thyroxine transport is not insignificant, as chronic protein malnutrition is associated with hypothyroidism, as originally described by Prof. Yves Ingenbleek, Univ. Louis Pateur, Starsbourg, Fr. in Senegalese children with Kwashiorkor.  However, the importance of TTR as a unique biomarker is not to be downgraded because of what is often refered to as “an inverted APR”.
Transthyretin was discovered to be a good reflection of the “lean body mass”, by Vernon Young, MIT, and Ingenbleek, as a result of 3 decades of study. The ratio of S:N being 1:20 in plant proteins and 1:12.5 in animal sources, is closely related to methylation reactions and sustained deficiency of S intake results in elevated homocysteine level.

What is FAP?

Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), also called transthyretin-related hereditary amyloidosis, transthyretin amyloidosis or Corino de Andrade’s disease, is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. It is a form of amyloidosis, and was first identified and described by Portuguese neurologist Mário Corino da Costa Andrade, in the 1950s.FAP is distinct from senile systemic amyloidosis (SAS), which is not inherited, and which was determined to be the primary cause of death for 70% of supercentenarians who have been autopsied.
Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is an extremely debilitating and progressive disease that is only treatable by liver transplantation.  Primary amyloid cardiomyopathy has been treated by heart transplant.  The qualifying statement here is, it depends.  Those patients with TTR-amyloidopathy have a specific gene substitution in the TTR gene. Consequently, there is circulation TTR, but it is not effectively involved in thyroxine transport.

Characteristics.

Usually manifesting itself between 20 and 40 years of age, it is characterized by pain, paresthesia, muscular weakness and autonomic dysfunction. In its terminal state, the kidneys and the heart are affected. FAP is characterized by the systemic deposition of amyloidogenic variants of the transthyretin protein, especially in the peripheral nervous system, causing a progressive sensory and motor polyneuropathy. The age at symptom onset, pattern of organ involvement, and disease course vary, but most mutations are associated with cardiac and/or nerve involvement. The gastrointestinal tract, vitreous, lungs, and carpal ligament are also frequently affected. When the peripheral nerves are prominently affected, the disease is termed familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). When the heart is involved heavily but the nerves are not, the disease is called familial amyloid cardiomyopathy (FAC). Regardless of which organ is primarily targeted, the general term is simply amyloidosis-transthyretin type, abbreviated ATTR.

Genetics.

  1. TTR mutations accelerate the process of TTR amyloid formation and are the most important risk factor for the development of clinically significant ATTR. More than 85 amyloidogenic TTR variants cause systemic familial amyloidosis. The variant TTR is mostly produced by the liver. Amyloidogenic TTR mutations destabilize TTR monomers or tetramers, allowing the molecule to more easily attain an amyloidogenic intermediate conformation. The tetramer has to dissociate into misfolded monomers to aggregate into a variety of structures including amyloid fibrils. Because most patients are heterozygotes, they deposit both mutant and wild type TTR subnits.
  2. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. FAP is caused by a mutation of the TTR gene, located on human chromosome 18q12.1-11.2. A replacement of valine by methionine at position 30 (TTR V30M) is the mutation most commonly found in FAP.
  3. The disease in the TTR V30M kindreds was termed FAP because early symptoms arose from peripheral neuropathy, but these patients actually have systemic amyloidosis, with widespread deposits often involving the heart, gastrointestinal tract, eye, and other organs.
  4. TTR V122I: This variant, carried by 3.9% of African Americans and over 5% of the population in some areas of West Africa, increases the risk of late-onset (after age 60 years) cardiac amyloidosis. It appears to be the most common amyloid-associated TTR variant worldwide. Affected patients usually do not have peripheral neuropathy.
  5. TTR T60A: This variant causes late-onset systemic amyloidosis with cardiac, and sometimes neuropathic, involvement. This variant originated in northwest Ireland and is found in Irish and Irish American patients.
  6. TTR L58H: Typically affecting the carpal ligament and nerves of the upper extremities, this variant originated in Germany. It has spread throughout the United States but is most common in the mid-Atlantic region.
  7. TTR G6S: This is the most common TTR variant, but it appears to be a neutral polymorphism not associated with amyloidosis. It is carried by about 10% of people of white European descent.

Cardiac transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis

Cardiac amyloidosis of transthyretin fibril protein (ATTR) type is an infiltrative cardiomyopathy characterised by ventricular wall thickening and diastolic heart failure. More than 27 different precursor proteins have the propensity to form amyloid fibrils. The particular precursor protein that misfolds to form amyloid fibrils defines the amyloid type and predicts the patient’s clinical course. Several types of amyloid can infiltrate the heart, resulting in progressive diastolic and systolic dysfunction, congestive heart failure, and death.  Increased access to cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging has led to a marked increase in referrals to St George’s University of London, London (Dr. Jason Dungu) of Caucasian patients with wild-type ATTR (senile systemic) amyloidosis and Afro-Caribbean patients with the hereditary ATTR V122I type. Both subtypes present predominantly as isolated cardiomyopathy. The differential diagnosis includes cardiac amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, which has a poorer prognosis and can be amenable to chemotherapy.

Clinical Presentation

Cardiac amyloidosis, irrespective of type, presents as a restrictive cardiomyopathy characterized by progressive diastolic and subsequently systolic biventricular dysfunction and arrhythmia.1 Key “red flags” to possible systemic amyloidosis include nephrotic syndrome, autonomic neuropathy (eg, postural hypotension, diarrhea), soft-tissue infiltrations (eg, macroglossia, carpal tunnel syndrome, respiratory disease), bleeding (eg, cutaneous, such as periorbital, gastrointestinal), malnutrition/cachexia and genetic predisposition (eg, family history, ethnicity). Initial presentations may be cardiac, with progressive exercise intolerance and heart failure. Other organ involvement, particularly in AL amyloidosis, may cloud the cardiac presentation (eg, nephrotic syndrome, autonomic neuropathy, pulmonary or bronchial involvement). Pulmonary edema is not common early in the disease process, but pleural and pericardial effusions and atrial arrhythmias are often seen. Syncope is common and a poor prognostic sign. It is typically exertional or postprandial as part of restrictive cardiomyopathy, sensitivity to intravascular fluid depletion from loop diuretics combined with autonomic neuropathy, or conduction tissue involvement (atrioventricular or sinoatrial nodes) or ventricular arrhythmia. The latter may rarely cause recurrent syncope. Disproportionate septal amyloid accumulation mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with dynamic left ventricular (LV) outflow tract obstruction is rare but well documented. Myocardial ischemia can result from amyloid deposits within the microvasculature. Atrial thrombus is common, particularly in AL amyloidosis

Diagnosis and Treatment

imaging – Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Cardiac Amyloidosis*.

Cardiac amyloidosis can be diagnostically challenging. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can assess abnormal myocardial interstitium. In cardiac amyloidosis, CMR shows a characteristic pattern of global subendocardial late enhancement coupled with abnormal myocardial and blood-pool gadolinium kinetics. The findings agree with the transmural histological distribution of amyloid protein and the cardiac amyloid load.
 *AM Maceira; J Joshi; SK Prasad; J Charles Moon, et al. Royal Brompton Hospital, London;
The diagnosis of amyloidosis requires histological identification of amyloid deposits. Congo Red staining renders amyloid deposits salmon pink by light microscopy, with a characteristic apple green birefringence under polarized light conditions. Additional immunohistochemical staining for precursor proteins identifies the type of amyloidosis.  Ultimately, immunogold electron microscopy and mass spectrometry confer the greatest sensitivity and specificity for amyloid typing.
Treatment of cardiac amyloidosis is dictated by the amyloid type and degree of involvement. Consequently, early recognition and accurate classification are essential.
Novel diagnostic and surveillance approaches using imaging (echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance), biomarkers (brain natriuretic peptide [BNP], high-sensitivity troponin), new histological typing techniques, and current and future treatments, including approaches directly targeting the amyloid deposits.

Etiology

Amyloidosis is caused by the extracellular deposition of autologous protein in an abnormal insoluble β-pleated sheet fibrillary conformation—that is, as amyloid fibrils. More than 30 proteins are known to be able to form amyloid fibrils in vivo, which cause disease by progressively damaging the structure and function of affected tissues. Amyloid deposits also contain minor nonfibrillary constituents, including serum amyloid P component (SAP), apolipoprotein E, connective tissue components (glycosaminoglycans, collagen), and basement membrane components (fibronectin, laminin). Amyloid deposits can be massive, and cardiac or other tissues may become substantially replaced. Amyloid fibrils bind Congo red stain, yielding the pathognomonic apple-green birefringence under cross-polarized light microscopy that remains the gold standard for identifying amyloid deposits.

AL Amyloidosis

AL amyloidosis is caused by deposition of fibrils composed of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains and is associated with clonal plasma cell or other B-cell dyscrasias. The spectrum and pattern of organ involvement is very wide, but cardiac involvement occurs in half of cases and is sometimes the only presenting feature. Cardiac AL amyloidosis may be rapidly progressive. Low QRS voltages, particularly in the limb leads, are common. Thickening of the LV wall is typically mild to moderate and is rarely >18 mm even in advanced disease. Cardiac AL amyloid deposition is accompanied by marked elevation of the biomarkers BNP and cardiac troponin, even at an early stage. Involvement of the heart is the commonest cause of death in AL amyloidosis and is a major determinant of prognosis; without cardiac involvement, patients with AL amyloidosis have a median survival of around 4 years, but the prognosis among affected patients with markedly elevated BNP and cardiac troponin (Mayo stage III disease) is on the order of 8 months.

Hereditary Amyloidoses

Mutations in several genes, such as transthyretin, fibrinogen, apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein A2 can be responsible for hereditary amyloidosis, but by far the most common cause is variant ATTR amyloidosis (variant ATTR) caused by mutations in the transthyretin gene causing neuropathy and, often, cardiac involvement.

TTR gene mutation

 The most common is the Val122Ile mutation. In a large autopsy study that included individuals with cardiac amyloidosis, the TTR Val122Ile allele was present in 3.9% of all African Americans and 23% of African Americans with cardiac amyloidosis. Penetrance of the mutation is not truly known and is associated with a late-onset cardiomyopathy that is indistinguishable from senile cardiac amyloidosis.

Pathology, Presentation, and Management of Amyloidoses

More than 100 genetic variants of TTR are associated with amyloidosis. Most present as the clinical syndrome of progressive peripheral and autonomic neuropathy. Unlike wild-type ATTR or variant ATTR Val122Ile, the features of other variant ATTR include vitreous amyloid deposits or, rarely, deposits in other organs. Cardiac involvement in variant ATTR varies by mutations and can be the presenting or indeed the only clinical feature. For example, cardiac involvement is rare in variant ATTR associated with Val30Met (a common variant in Portugal or Sweden), but it is almost universal and develops early in individuals with variant ATTR due to Thr60Ala mutation (a mutation common in Ireland).

Senile Systemic Amyloidosis (Wild-Type ATTR)

Wild-type TTR amyloid deposits are found at autopsy in about 25% of individuals >80 years of age.  The prevalence of wild-type TTR deposits leading to the clinical syndrome of wild-type ATTR cardiac amyloidosis is unknown. Wild-type ATTR is a predominantly cardiac disease, and the only other significant extracardiac feature is a history of carpal tunnel syndrome, often preceding heart failure by 3 to 5 years. Extracardiac involvement is most unusual.
Both wild-type ATTR and ATTR due to Val122Ile are diseases of the >60-year age group and are often misdiagnosed as hypertensive heart disease. Wild-type ATTR has a strong male predominance, and the natural history remains poorly understood, but studies suggest a median survival of about 7 years from presentation. Recent developments in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), which have greatly improved detection of cardiac amyloid during life, suggest that wild-type ATTR is more common than previously thought: It accounted for 0.5% of all patients seen at the UK amyloidosis center until 2001 but now accounts for 7% of 1100 cases with amyloidosis seen since the end of 2009. There appears to be an association between wild-type ATTR and history of myocardial infarctions, G/G (Val/Val) exon 24 polymorphism in the alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M), and the H2 haplotype of the tau gene36; the association of tau with Alzheimer’s disease raises interesting questions as both are amyloid-associated diseases of aging.
ECG of a patient with cardiac AL amyloidosis showing small QRS voltages (defined as ≤6 mm height), predominantly in the limb leads and pseudoinfarction pattern in the anterior leads.
Echocardiography is characteristic. Typical findings include concentric ventricular thickening with right ventricular involvement, poor biventricular long-axis function with normal/near-normal ejection fraction and valvular thickening (particularly in wild-type or variant ATTR). Diastolic dysfunction is the earliest echocardiographic abnormality and may occur before cardiac symptoms develop. Biatrial dilatation in presence of biventricular, valvular, and interatrial septal thickening 53 is a useful clue to the diagnosis.
Transthoracic echocardiogram with speckle tracking. The red and yellow lines represent longitudinal motion in the basal segments, whereas the purple and green lines represent apical motion. This shows loss of longitudinal ventricular contraction at the base compared to apex.

Biomarkers.

High-sensitivity troponin is abnormal in >90% of cardiac AL patients, and the combination of BNP/NT-proBNP plus troponin measurements is used to stage and risk-stratify patients with AL amyloidosis at diagnosis. Very interestingly, the concentration of BNP/NT-proBNP in AL amyloidosis may fall dramatically within weeks after chemotherapy that substantially reduces the production of amyloidogenic light chains. The basis for this very rapid phenomenon, which is not mirrored by changes on echocardiography or CMR, remains uncertain, but a substantial fall is associated with improved outcomes.

Cardiac Magnetic Resonance.

CMR provides functional and morphological information on cardiac amyloid in a similar way to echocardiography, though the latter is superior for evaluating and quantifying diastolic abnormalities. An advantage of CMR is in myocardial tissue characterization. Amyloidotic myocardium reveals subtle precontrast abnormalities (T1, T2), but extravascular contrast agents based on chelated gadolinium provide the key information.

CMR with the classic amyloid global, subendocardial late gadolinium enhancement pattern in the left ventricle with blood and mid-/epimyocardium nulling together.
Recently, the technique of equilibrium contrast CMR has demonstrated much higher extracellular myocardial volume in cardiac amyloid than any other measured disease. It is anticipated that accurate measurements of the expanded interstitium in amyloidosis will prove useful in serial quantification of cardiac amyloid burden.
Sequential static images from a CMR TI scout sequence. As the inversion time (TI) increases, myocardium nulls first (arrow in image 3), followed by blood afterwards (arrow in image 6), implying that there is more gadolinium contrast in the myocardium than blood—a degree of interstitial expansion such that the “myocrit” is smaller than the hematocrit.

Tissue biopsy.

To confirm amyloidosis, including familial TTR amyloidosis, the demonstration of amyloid deposition on biopsied tissues is essential. With Congo red staining, amyloid deposits show a characteristic yellow-green birefringence under polarized light. Tissues suitable for biopsy include: subcutaneous fatty tissue of the abdominal wall, skin, gastric or rectal mucosa, sural nerve, and peritendinous fat from specimens obtained at carpal tunnel surgery. Sensitivity of endoscopic biopsy of gastrointestinal mucosa is around 85%; biopsy of the sural nerve is less sensitive. It is ideal to show that these amyloid deposits are specifically immunolabeled by anti-TTR antibodies.

Serum variant TTR protein.

TTR protein normally circulates in serum or plasma as a soluble protein having a tetrameric structure [Kelly 1998, Rochet & Lansbury 2000]. Normal plasma TTR concentration is 20-40 mg/dL (0.20-0.40 mg/mL).  Pathogenic mutations in TTR cause conformational change in the TTR protein molecule, disrupting the stability of the TTR tetramer, which is then more easily dissociated into pro-amyloidogenic monomers.

After immunoprecipitation with anti-TTR antibody, serum variant TTR protein can be detected by mass spectrometry. Approximately 90% of TTR variants so far identified are confirmed by this method. Mass shift associated with each variant TTR protein is indicated.

Molecular genetic testing.

  • TTR is the only gene in which mutations are known to cause familial TTR amyloidosis.
  • Identified in many individuals of different ethnic backgrounds; found in large clusters in Portugal, Sweden, and Japan.
  • The gene has four exons; and all the hitherto-identified mutations are in exons 2, 3, or 4.
GeneReviews designates a molecular genetic test as clinically available only if the test is listed in the GeneTests Laboratory Directory by either a US CLIA-licensed laboratory or a non-US clinical laboratory.
  • Molecular genetic testing of TTR by sequence analysis (may be preceded by targeted mutation analysis)
  • Although deletion/duplication testing is available clinically, no exonic or whole-gene deletions or duplications involving TTR have been reported to cause familial transthyretin amyloidosis.
  • However, with newly available deletion/duplication testing methods, it is theoretically possible that such mutations may be identified in affected individuals in whom prior testing by sequence analysis of the entire coding region was negative.
  • Predictive testing for at-risk asymptomatic adult family members requires prior identification of the disease-causing mutation in the family.
  • Prenatal diagnosis and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for at-risk pregnancies require prior identification of the disease-causing mutation in the family.

Genetically Related (Allelic) Disorders

Familial euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia is caused by normal allelic variants in TTR, including Gly6Ser, Ala109Thr, Ala109Val, and Thr119Met (see Table 5) [Nakazato 1998, Benson 2001, Saraiva 2001]. The TTR protein binds approximately 15% of serum thyroxine. These mutations increase total serum thyroxine concentration because of their increased affinity for thyroxine, however, they increase neither free thyroxine nor free triiodothyronine. Therefore, individuals with these sequence variants develop no clinical symptoms (i.e., they are euthyroid).
Senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA; previously called senile cardiac amyloidosis) results from the pathologic deposition of wild-type TTR, predominantly in the heart. Pathologic deposits are also seen in the lungs, blood vessels, and the renal medulla of the kidneys [Westermark et al 2003]. SSA affects mainly the elderly but is rarely diagnosed during life.
Sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic neuropathy progress over ten to 20 years. Various types of cardiac conduction block frequently appear. Cachexia is a common feature at the late stage of the disease. Affected individuals usually die of cardiac failure, renal failure, or infection.

Cardiac amyloidosis.

Cardiac amyloidosis, mainly characterized by progressive cardiomyopathy, has been reported with more than two thirds of TTR mutations. In some families with specific TTR mutations, such as Asp18Asn, Val20Ile, Pro24Ser, Ala45Thr, Ala45Ser, His56Arg, Gly57Arg, Ile68Leu, Ala81Thr, Ala81Val, His88Arg, Glu92Lys, Arg103Ser, Leu111Met, or Val122Ile, cardiomyopathy without peripheral neuropathy is a main feature of the disease.

Cardiac amyloidosis is usually late onset. Most individuals develop cardiac symptoms after age 50 years; cardiac amyloidosis generally presents with restrictive cardiomyopathy. The typical electrocardiogram shows a pseudoinfarction pattern with prominent Q wave in leads II, III, aVF, and V1-V3, presumably resulting from dense amyloid deposition in the anterobasal or anteroseptal wall of the left ventricle. The echocardiogram reveals left ventricular hypertrophy with preserved systolic function. The thickened walls present “a granular sparkling appearance.”
Among the mutations responsible for cardiac amyloidosis, Val122Ile is notable for its prevalence in African Americans. Approximately 3.0%-3.9% of African Americans are heterozygous for Val122Ile . The high frequency of Val122Ile partly explains the observation that in individuals in the US older than age 60 years, cardiac amyloidosis is four times more common among blacks than whites.

Leptomeningeal (oculoleptomeningeal) amyloidosis.

Amyloid deposition is seen in the pial and arachnoid membrane, as well as in the walls of vessels in the subarachnoid space associated with TTR mutations including Leu12Pro, Asp18Gly, Ala25Thr, Val30Gly, Ala36Pro, Gly53Glu, Gly53Ala, Phe64Ser, Tyr69His, or Tyr114Cys.  Individuals with leptomeningeal amyloidosis show CNS signs and symptoms including: dementia, psychosis, visual impairment, headache, seizures, motor paresis, ataxia, myelopathy, hydrocephalus, or intracranial hemorrhage. When associated with vitreous amyloid deposits, leptomeningeal amyloidosis is known as familial oculolepto-meningeal amyloidosis (FOLMA). In leptomeningeal amyloidosis protein concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid is usually high, and gadolinium-enhanced MRI typically shows extensive enhancement of the surface of the brain, ventricles, and spinal cord.

Genotype-Phenotype Correlations.

In subsets of families with the Val30Met mutation, considerable variation in phenotypic manifestations and age of onset is observed. It is hypothesized that genetic modifiers and non-genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of familial TTR amyloidosis. The vast majority of individuals with familial TTR amyloidosis are heterozygous for a TTR mutation. It has been clinically and experimentally demonstrated that the normal allelic variant c.416C>T (Thr119Met) has a protective effect on amyloidogenesis in individuals who have the Val30Met mutation.

Cardiac amyloidosis is caused by Asp18Asn, Val20Ile, Pro24Ser, Ala45Thr, Ala45Ser, His56Arg, Gly57Arg, Ile68Leu, Ala81Thr, Ala81Val, His88Arg, Glu92Lys, Arg103Ser, Leu111Met, or Val122Ile. Peripheral and autonomic neuropathy are absent or less evident in persons with these mutations.
Leptomeningeal amyloidosis is associated with Leu12Pro, Asp18Gly, Ala25Thr, Val30Gly, Ala36Pro, Gly53Glu, Gly53Ala, Phe64Ser, Tyr69His, or Tyr114Cys.

Penetrance.

It is generally accepted that the penetrance is much higher in individuals in endemic foci than outside of endemic foci. In Portugal, cumulative disease risk in individuals with the Val30Met mutation is estimated at 80% by age 50 and 91% by age 70 years, whereas the risk in French heterozygotes is 14% by age 50 and 50% by age 70 years. In Sweden, the penetrance is much lower: 1.7% by age 30, 5% by age 40, 11% by age 50, 22% by age 60, 36% by age 70, 52% by age 80, and 69% by age 90, respectively.

Nomenclature

The neuropathy associated with TTR mutations, now called familial TTR amyloidosis, was formerly referred to as one of the following:
  • Familial amyloid polyneuropathy type I (or the Portuguese-Swedish-Japanese type)
  • Familial amyloid polyneuropathy type II (or the Indiana/Swiss or Maryland/German type)

Prevalence

The Val30Met mutation, found worldwide, is the most widely studied TTR variant and is responsible for the well-known large foci of individuals with TTR amyloid polyneuropathy in Portugal, Sweden, and Japan. Numerous families with various non-Val30Met mutations have also been identified worldwide.

 Small transthyretin (TTR) ligands as possible therapeutic agents in TTR amyloidoses.

Almeida MR, Gales L, Damas AM, Cardoso I, Saraiva MJ. Porto, Portugal.
Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord. 2005 Oct;4(5):587-96.
In transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis TTR variants deposit as amyloid fibrils giving origin, in most cases, to peripheral polyneuropathy, cardiomyopathy, carpal tunnel syndrome and/or amyloid deposition in the eye. The amino acid substitutions in the TTR variants destabilize the tetramer, which may dissociate into non native monomeric intermediates that aggregate and polymerize in amyloid fibrils that further elongate. Since this is a multi-step process there is the possibility to impair TTR amyloid fibril formation at different stages of the process namely by tetramer stabilization, inhibition of fibril formation or fibril disruption. Based on the proposed mechanism for TTR amyloid fibril formation we discuss the action of some of the proposed TTR stabilizers such as derivatives of some NSAIDs (diflunisal, diclofenac, flufenamic acid, and derivatives) and the action of amyloid disrupters such as 4′-iodo-4′-deoxydoxorubicin (I-DOX) and tetracyclines. Among all these compounds, TTR stabilizers seem to be the most interesting since they would impair very early the process of amyloid formation and could also have a prophylactic effect.

Clusterin regulates transthyretin amyloidosis.

Lee KW, Lee DH, Son H, Kim YS, Park JY, et al.  Gyeongnam National University, South Korea
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009;388(2):256-60.   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.07.166.
Clusterin has recently been proposed to play a role as an extracellular molecular chaperone, affecting the fibril formation of amyloidogenic proteins. The ability of clusterin to influence amyloid fibril formation prompted us to investigate whether clusterin is capable of inhibiting TTR amyloidosis. Here, we report that clusterin strongly interacts with wild-type TTR and TTR variants V30M and L55P under acidic conditions, and blocks the amyloid fibril formation of TTR variants. In particular, the amyloid fibril formation of V30M TTR in the presence of clusterin is reduced to level similar to wild-type TTR. We also demonstrated that clusterin is an effective inhibitor of L55P TTR amyloidosis, the most aggressive form of TTR diseases. The mechanism by which clusterin inhibits TTR amyloidosis appears to be through stabilization of TTR tetrameric structure.

Prognosis.

Cardiac amyloidosis in general has a poor prognosis, but this differs according to amyloid type and availability and response to therapy. Treatment may be classified as follows: supportive therapy (ie, modified heart-failure treatment including device therapy); therapies that suppress production of the respective amyloid fibril precursor protein (eg, chemotherapy in AL amyloidosis); and novel strategies to inhibit amyloid fibril formation or to directly target the amyloid deposits or stabilize the precursor protein (especially in ATTR with drugs such as tafamidis or diflunisal). Cardiac transplantation, although rarely feasible, can be very successful in carefully selected patients.

Reducing Amyloid Fibril Precursor Protein Production

Treatment of amyloidosis is currently based on the concept of reducing the supply of the respective amyloid fibril precursor protein. In AL amyloidosis, therapy is directed toward the clonal plasma cells using either cyclical combination chemotherapy or high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation.
The newer treatment options include bortezomib (a proteosome inhibitor)105 and the newer immunomodulatory drugs lenalidomide and pomalidomide. Bortezomib combinations appear to be especially efficient in amyloidosis with high rates of near-complete clonal responses, which appear to translate into early cardiac responses.106–108 Phase II (bortezomib in combination with cyclophosphamide or doxorubicin) and phase III (bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone compared to melphalan and dexamethasone as front-line treatment) trials are underway.
AA amyloidosis is the only other type of amyloidosis in which production of the fibril precursor protein can be effectively suppressed by currently available therapies. Anti-inflammatory therapies, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor agents in rheumatoid arthritis, can substantially suppress serum amyloid A protein production, but very little experience has been obtained regarding cardiac involvement, which is very rare in this particular type of amyloidosis.
TTR is produced almost exclusively in the liver, and TTR amyloidosis has lately become a focus for novel drug developments aimed at reducing production of TTR through silencing RNA and antisense oligonucleotide therapies. ALN-TTR01, a systemically delivered silencing RNA therapeutic, is already in phase I clinical trial. Liver transplantation has been used as a treatment for variant ATTR for 20 years, to remove genetically variant TTR from the plasma. Although this is a successful approach in ATTR Val30Met, it has had disappointing results in patients with other ATTR variants, which often involve the heart. The procedure commonly results in progressive cardiac amyloidosis through ongoing accumulation of wild-type TTR on the existing template of variant TTR amyloid. The role of liver transplantation in non-Val30Met–associated hereditary TTR amyloidosis thus remains very uncertain.

Inhibition of Amyloid Formation

Amyloid fibril formation involves massive conformational transformation of the respective precursor protein into a completely different form with predominant β-sheet structure. The hypothesis that this conversion might be inhibited by stabilizing the fibril precursor protein through specific binding to a pharmaceutical has lately been explored in TTR amyloidosis. A key step in TTR amyloid fibril formation is the dissociation of the normal TTR tetramer into monomeric species that can autoaggregate in a misfolded form. In vitro studies identified that diflunisal, a now little used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic, is bound by TTR in plasma, and that this enhances the stability of the normal soluble structure of the protein. Studies of diflunisal in ATTR are in progress. Tafamidis is a new compound without anti-inflammatory analgesic properties that has a similar mechanism of action. Tafamidis has just been licensed for neuropathic ATTR, but its role in cardiac amyloidosis remains uncertain, and clinical trial results are eagerly awaited. Higher-affinity “superstabilizers” are also in development.

Conclusion

Cardiac amyloidosis remains challenging to diagnose and to treat. Key “red flags” that should raise suspicion include clinical features indicating multisystem disease and concentric LV thickening on echocardiography in the absence of increased voltage on ECG; the pattern of gadolinium enhancement on CMR appears to be very characteristic. Confirmation of amyloid type is now possible in most cases through a combination of immunohistochemistry, DNA analysis, and proteomics. A variety of novel specific therapies are on the near horizon, with potential to both inhibit new amyloid formation and enhance clearance of existing deposits.

Future Prospects

Jeffery W. Kelly, the former Dean of Graduate Studies (2000-2008) and Vice President of Academic Affairs (2000-2006), currently is the Chairman of Molecular and Experimental Medicine and the Lita Annenberg Hazen Professor of Chemistry within the Skaggs Institute of Chemical Biology at The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California.
The work on folding proteins by the Kelly Group focuses on
[1] understanding protein misfolding and aggregation and on developing both chemical
[2] and biological strategies
[3] to ameliorate diseases caused by protein misfolding and/or aggregation.
Besides studying the structural and energetic basis behind protein folding, his laboratory also studies the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases linked to protein aggregation, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s Disease, and the familial gelsolin and transthyretin-based amyloidoses–publishing over 250 peer-reviewed papers in this area to date. He has also provided insight into genetic diseases associated with loss of protein function, such as lysosomal storage diseases.
Kelly has cofounded three biotechnology companies, FoldRx Pharmaceuticals (with Susan Lindquist), now owned by Pfizer, Proteostasis Therapeutics, Inc. (with Andrew Dillin and Richard Morimoto) (a private corporation) and Misfolding Diagnostics (with Xin Jiang and Justin Chapman; a private corporation). The Kelly laboratory discovered the first regulatory agency-approved drug that slows the progression of a human amyloid disease using a structure-based design approach. This drug, now called Tafamidis or Vyndaqel, slowed the progression of familial amyloid polyneuropathy in an 18 month placebo controlled trial and in an 18 month extension study sponsored by FoldRx Pharmaceuticals (acquired by Pfizer in 2010). Vyndaqel or Tafamidis  was approved for the treatment of Familial amyloid Polyneuropathy by the European Medicines Agency in late 2011. Kelly also discovered that diflunisal kinetically stabilizes transthyretin, enabling a placebo controlled clinical trial with it to ameliorate familial amyloid polyneuropathy–the results of which will be announced in 2013. Proteostasis Therapeutics, Inc. is developing first-in-class drugs that adapt the proteostasis network to ameliorate both loss-of-function misfolding diseases and gain-of-toxic function diseases linked to protein aggregation.
In addition to discovering the first drug that slows the progression of a human amyloid disease, the Kelly Laboratory is credited with demonstrating that transthyretin conformational changes alone are sufficient for amyloidogenesis, discovering the first example of functional amyloid in mammals, making major contributions toward understanding β-sheet folding, discovering the “enhanced aromatic sequon”–sequences that are more efficiently glycosylated by cells and sequences which stabilize the proteins that they are incorporated into as a consequence of N-glycosylation and was corresponding author on and contributed some of the key experimental data demonstrating that altering cellular proteostasis capacity has the potential to alleviate protein misfolding and aggregation diseases.
Native state kinetic stabilization as a strategy to ameliorate protein misfolding diseases: a focus on the transthyretin amyloidoses. Johnson SM, Wiseman RL, Sekijima Y, Green NS, Adamski-Werner SL, Kelly JW.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16359163
Small molecule-mediated protein stabilization inside or outside of the cell is a promising strategy to treat protein misfolding/misassembly diseases. Herein we focus on the transthyretin (TTR) amyloidoses and demonstrate that preferential ligand binding to and stabilization of the native state over the dissociative transition state raises the kinetic barrier of dissociation (rate-limiting for amyloidogenesis), slowing and in many cases preventing TTR amyloid fibril formation. Since T119M-TTR subunit incorporation into tetramers otherwise composed of disease-associated subunits also imparts kinetic stability on the tetramer and ameliorates amyloidosis in humans, it is likely that small molecule-mediated native state kinetic stabilization will also alleviate TTR amyloidoses.
Energetic characteristics of the new transthyretin variant A25T may explain its atypical central nervous system pathology.
Sekijima Y, Hammarström P, Matsumura M, Shimizu Y, Iwata M, Tokuda T, Ikeda S, Kelly JW.
Lab Invest. 2003 Mar;83(3):409-17.   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12649341
Transthyretin (TTR) is a tetrameric protein that must misfold to form amyloid fibrils. Misfolding includes rate-limiting tetramer dissociation, followed by fast tertiary structural changes that enable aggregation. Amyloidogenesis of wild-type (WT) TTR causes a late-onset cardiac disease called senile systemic amyloidosis. The aggregation of one of > 80 TTR variants leads to familial amyloidosis encompassing a collection of disorders characterized by peripheral neuropathy and/or cardiomyopathy. Prominent central nervous system (CNS) impairment is rare in TTR amyloidosis. Herein, we identify a new A25T TTR variant in a Japanese patient who presented with CNS amyloidosis at age 42 and peripheral neuropathy at age 44. The A25T variant is the most destabilized and fastest dissociating TTR tetramer published to date, yet, surprising, disease onset is in the fifth decade. Quantification of A25T TTR in the serum of this heterozygote reveals low levels relative to WT, suggesting that protein concentration influences disease phenotype. Another recently characterized TTR CNS variant (D18G TTR) exhibits strictly analogous characteristics, suggesting that instability coupled with low serum concentrations is the signature of CNS pathology and protects against early-onset systemic amyloidosis. The low A25T serum concentration may be explained either by impaired secretion from the liver or by increased clearance, both scenarios consistent with A25T’s low kinetic and thermodynamic stability. Liver transplantation is the only known treatment for familial amyloid polyneuropathy. This is a form of gene therapy that removes the variant protein from serum preventing systemic amyloidosis. Unfortunately, the choroid plexus would have to be resected to remove A25T from the CSF-the source of the CNS TTR amyloid. Herein we demonstrate that small-molecule tetramer stabilizers represent an attractive therapeutic strategy to inhibit A25T misfolding and CNS amyloidosis. Specifically, 2-[(3,5-dichlorophenyl)amino]benzoic acid is an excellent inhibitor of A25T TTR amyloidosis in vitro.
Prevention of Transthyretin Amyloid Disease by Changing Protein Misfolding Energetics
Per Hammarström*, R. Luke Wiseman*, Evan T. Powers, Jeffery W. Kelly†
Science 31 Jan 2003; 299(5607):713-716    http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1079589
Genetic evidence suggests that inhibition of amyloid fibril formation by small molecules should be effective against amyloid diseases. Known amyloid inhibitors appear to function by shifting the aggregation equilibrium away from the amyloid state. Here, we describe a series of transthyretin amyloidosis inhibitors that functioned by increasing the kinetic barrier associated with misfolding, preventing amyloidogenesis by stabilizing the native state. The trans-suppressor mutation, threonine 119 → methionine 119, which is known to ameliorate familial amyloid disease, also functioned through kinetic stabilization, implying that this small-molecule strategy should be effective in treating amyloid diseases.
R104H may suppress transthyretin amyloidogenesis by thermodynamic stabilization, but not by the kinetic mechanism characterizing T119 interallelic trans-suppression.
Sekijima Y, Dendle MT, Wiseman RL, White JT, D’Haeze W, Kelly JW.
Amyloid. Jun 2006;13(2):57-66.    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16911959
The tetrameric protein transthyretin (TTR) forms amyloid fibrils upon dissociation and subsequent monomer misfolding, enabling misassembly. Remarkably, the aggregation of one of over 100 destabilized TTR variants leads to familial amyloid disease. It is known that trans-suppression mediated by the incorporation of T119M subunits into tetramers otherwise composed of the most common familial variant V30M, ameliorates disease by substantially slowing the rate of tetramer dissociation, a mechanism referred to as kinetic stabilization of the native state. R104H TTR has been reported to be non-pathogenic, and recently, this variant has been invoked as a trans-suppressor of amyloid fibril formation. Here, we demonstrate that the trans-suppression mechanism of R104H does not involve kinetic stabilization of the tetrameric structure, instead its modest trans-suppression most likely results from the thermodynamic stabilization of the tetrameric TTR structure. Thermodynamic stabilization increases the fraction of tetramer at the expense of the misfolding competent monomer decreasing the ability of TTR to aggregate into amyloid fibrils. As a consequence of this stabilization mechanism, R104H may be capable of protecting patients with modestly destabilizing mutations against amyloidosis by slightly lowering the overall population of monomeric protein that can misfold and form amyloid.
Amyloidosis, Node, Congo Red. The amyloid depo...

Amyloidosis, Node, Congo Red. The amyloid deposits are strongly congophilic when viewed before white light. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Amyloidosis

Amyloidosis (Photo credit: Boonyarit Cheunsuchon)

English: Intermed. mag. (H&E). Image:Cardiac a...

English: Intermed. mag. (H&E). Image:Cardiac amyloidosis high mag he.jpg (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Intermed. mag. (H&E). Image:Cardiac a...

English: Intermed. mag. (H&E). Image:Cardiac amyloidosis high mag he.jpg (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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A Second Look at the Transthyretin Nutrition Inflammatory Conundrum

Subtitle: Transthyretin and the Systemic Inflammatory Response

 

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FACP, Clinical Pathologist, Biochemist, and Transfusion Physician

 

Brief introduction

Transthyretin  (also known as prealbumin) has been widely used as a biomarker for identifying protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and for monitoring the improvement of nutritional status after implementing a nutritional intervention by enteral feeding or by parenteral infusion. This has occurred because transthyretin (TTR) has a rapid removal from the circulation in 48 hours and it is readily measured by immunometric assay. Nevertheless, concerns have been raised about the use of TTR in the ICU setting, which prompted a review of the  benefit of using this test in acute and chronic care. TTR is easily followed in the underweight and the high risk populations in an ambulatory setting, which has a significant background risk of chronic diseases. It is sensitive to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and needs to be understood in the context of acute illness to be used effectively. There are a number of physiologic changes associated with SIRS and the injury/repair process that affect TTR. The most important point is that in the context of an ICU setting, the contribution of TTR is significant in a complex milieu.  A much better understanding of the significance of this program has emerged from studies of nitrogen and sulfur in health and disease.

Transthyretin protein structure

Transthyretin protein structure (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Age-standardised disability-adjusted life year...

Age-standardised disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rates from Protein-energy malnutrition by country (per 100,000 inhabitants). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The systemic inflammatory response syndrome C-reactive protein and transthyretin conundrum.
Larry H Bernstein
Clin Chem Lab Med 2007; 45(11):0
ICID: 939932
Article type: Editorial

The Transthyretin Inflammatory State Conundrum
Larry H. Bernstein
Current Nutrition & Food Science, 2012, 8, 00-00

Keywords: Tranthyretin (TTR), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), C- reactive protein, cytokines, hypermetabolism, catabolism, repair.

Transthyretin has been widely used as a biomarker for identifying protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and for monitoring the improvement of nutritional status after implementing a nutritional intervention by enteral feeding or by parenteral infusion. This has occurred because transthyretin (TTR) has a rapid removal from the circulation in 48 hours and it is readily measured by immunometric assay. Nevertheless, concerns have been raised about the use of TTR in the ICU setting, which prompts a review of the actual benefit of using this test in a number of settings. TTR is easily followed in the underweight and the high risk populations in an ambulatory setting, which has a significant background risk of chronic diseases. It is sensitive to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and needs to be understood in the context of acute illness to be used effectively.

There are a number of physiologic changes associated with SIRS and the injury/repair process that affect TTR and  in the context of an ICU setting, the contribution of TTR is essential.  The only consideration is the timing of initiation since the metabolic burden is sufficiently high that a substantial elevation is expected in the first 3 days post admission, although the level of this biomarker is related to the severity of injury. Despite the complexity of the situation, TTR is not to be considered a test “for all seasons”. In the context of age, prolonged poor meal intake, chronic or acute illness, TTR needs to be viewed in a multivariable lens, along with estimated lean body mass, C-reactive protein, the absolute lymphocyte count, presence of neutrophilia, and perhaps procalcitonin if there is remaining uncertainty. Furthermore, the reduction of risk of associated complication requires a systematized approach to timely identification, communication, and implementation of a suitable treatment plan.

The most important point is that in the context of an ICU setting, the contribution of TTR is significant in a complex milieu.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Title: The Automated Malnutrition Assessment
Accepted 29 April 2012. http://www.nutritionjrnl.com. Nutrition (2012), doi:10.1016/j.nut.2012.04.017.
Authors: Gil David, PhD; Larry Howard Bernstein, MD; Ronald R Coifman, PhD
Article Type: Original Article

Keywords: Network Algorithm; unsupervised classification; malnutrition screening; protein energy malnutrition (PEM); malnutrition risk; characteristic metric; characteristic profile; data characterization; non-linear differential diagnosis

We have proposed an automated nutritional assessment (ANA) algorithm that provides a method for malnutrition risk prediction with high accuracy and reliability.  The problem of rapidly identifying risk and severity of malnutrition is crucial for minimizing medical and surgical complications. These are not easily performed or adequately expedited. We characterized for each patient a unique profile and mapped similar patients into a classification. We also found that the laboratory parameters were sufficient for the automated risk prediction.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Title: The Increasing Role for the Laboratory in Nutritional Assessment
Article Type: Editorial
Section/Category: Clinical Investigation
Accepted 22 May 2012. http://www.elsevier.com/locate/clinbiochem.
Clin Biochem (2012), doi:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2012.05.024
Keywords: Protein Energy Malnutrition; Nutritional Screening; Laboratory Testing
Author: Dr. Larry Howard Bernstein, MD

The laboratory role in nutritional management of the patient has seen remarkable growth while there have been dramatic changes in technology over the last 25 years, and it is bound to be transformative in the near term. This editorial is an overview of the importance of the laboratory as an active participant in nutritional care.

The discipline emerged divergently along separate paths with unrelated knowledge domains in physiological chemistry, pathology, microbiology, immunology and blood cell recognition, and then cross-linked emerging into clinical biochemistry, hematology-oncology, infectious diseases, toxicology and therapeutics, genetics, pharmacogenomics, translational genomics and clinical diagnostics.

In reality, the more we learn about nutrition, the more we uncover of metabolic diversity of individuals, the family, and societies in adapting and living in many unique environments and the basic reactions, controls, and responses to illness. This course links metabolism to genomics and individual diversity through metabolomics, which will be enlightened by chemical and bioenergetic insights into biology and translated into laboratory profiling.

Vitamin deficiencies were discovered as clinical entities with observed features as a result of industrialization (rickets and vitamin D deficiency) and mercantile trade (scurvy and vitamin C)[2].  Advances in chemistry led to the isolation of each deficient “substance”.  In some cases, a deficiency of a vitamin and what is later known as an “endocrine hormone” later have confusing distinctions (vitamin D, and islet cell insulin).

The accurate measurement and roles of trace elements, enzymes, and pharmacologic agents was to follow within the next two decades with introduction of atomic absorption, kinetic spectrophotometers, column chromatography and gel electrophoresis.  We had fully automated laboratories by the late 1960s, and over the next ten years basic organ panels became routine.   This was a game changer.

Today child malnutrition prevalence is 7 percent of children under the age of 5 in China, 28 percent in sub-Saharan African, and 43 percent in India, while under-nutrition is found mostly in rural areas with 10 percent of villages and districts accounting for 27-28 percent of all Indian underweight children. This may not be surprising, but it is associated with stunting and wasting, and it has not receded with India’s economic growth. It might go unnoticed viewed alongside a growing concurrent problem of worldwide obesity.

The post WWII images of holocaust survivors awakened sensitivity to nutritional deprivation.

In the medical literature, Studley [HO Studley.  Percentage of weight loss. Basic Indicator of surgical risk in patients with chronic peptic ulcer.  JAMA 1936; 106(6):458-460.  doi:10.1001/jama.1936.02770060032009] reported the association between weight loss and poor surgical outcomes in 1936.  Ingenbleek et al [Y Ingenbleek, M De Vissher, PH De Nayer. Measurement of prealbumin as index of protein-calorie malnutrition. Lancet 1972; 300[7768]: 106-109] first reported that prealbumin (transthyretin, TTR) is a biomarker for malnutrition after finding very low TTR levels in African children with Kwashiorkor in 1972, which went unnoticed for years.  This coincided with the demonstration by Stanley Dudrick  [JA Sanchez, JM Daly. Stanley Dudrick, MD. A Paradigm ShiftArch Surg. 2010; 145(6):512-514] that beagle puppies fed totally through a catheter inserted into the superior vena cava grew, which method was then extended to feeding children with short gut.  Soon after Bistrian and Blackburn [BR Bistrian, GL Blackburn, E Hallowell, et al. Protein status of general surgical patients. JAMA 1974; 230:858; BR Bistrian, GL Blackburn, J Vitale, et al. Prevalence of malnutrition in general medicine patients, JAMA, 1976, 235:1567] showed that malnourished hospitalized medical and surgical patients have increased length of stay, increased morbidity, such as wound dehiscence and wound infection, and increased postoperative mortality, later supported by many studies.

Michael Meguid,MD, PhD, founding editor of Nutrition [Elsevier] held a nutrition conference “Skeleton in the Closet – 20 years later” in Los Angeles in 1995, at which a Beckman Prealbumin Roundtable was held, with Thomas Baumgartner and Michael M Meguid as key participants.  A key finding was that to realize the expected benefits of a nutritional screening and monitoring program requires laboratory support. A Ross Roundtable, chaired by Dr. Lawrence Kaplan, resulted in the first Standard of Laboratory Practice Document of the National Academy of Clinical Biochemists on the use of the clinical laboratory in nutritional support and monitoring. Mears then showed a real benefit to a laboratory interactive program in nutrition screening based on TTR [E Mears. Outcomes of continuous process improvement of a nutritional care program incorporating serum prealbumin measurements. Nutrition 1996; 12 (7/8): 479-484].

A later Ross Roundtable on Quality in Nutritional Care included a study of nutrition screening and time to dietitian intervention organized by Brugler and Di Prinzio that showed a decreased length of hospital stay with $1 million savings in the first year (which repeated), which included reduced cost for dietitian evaluations and lower complication rates.

Presentations were made at the 1st International Transthyretin Congress in Strasbourg, France by Mears [E Mears.  The role of visceral protein markers in protein calorie malnutrition. Clin Chem Lab Med 2002; 40:1360-1369] on the impact of TTR in screening for PEM in a public hospital in Louisiana, and by Potter [MA Potter, G Luxton. Prealbumin measurement as a screening tool for patients with protein calorie malnutrition in emergency hospital admissions: a pilot study.  Clin Invest Med. 1999; 22(2):44-52] that indicated a 17% in-hospital mortality rate in a Canadian hospital for patients with PCM compared with 4% without PCM (p < 0.02), while only 42% of patients with PCM received nutritional supplementation. Cost analysis of screening with prealbumin level projected a saving of $414 per patient screened.  Ingenbleek and Young [Y Ingenbleek, VR Young.  Significance of transthyretin in protein metabolism.  Clin Chem Lab Med. 2002; 40(12):1281–1291.  ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: 10.1515/ CCLM.2002.222, December 2002. published online: 01/06/2005] tied the TTR to basic effects reflected in protein metabolism.

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Transthyretin as a marker to predict outcome in critically ill patients.
Arun Devakonda, Liziamma George, Suhail Raoof, Adebayo Esan, Anthony Saleh, Larry H Bernstein
Clin Biochem 2008; 41(14-15):1126-1130
ICID: 939927
Article type: Original article

TTR levels correlate with patient outcomes and are an accurate predictor of patient recovery in non-critically ill patients, but it is uncertain whether or not TTR level correlates with level of nutrition support and outcome in critically ill patients. This issue has been addressed only in critically ill patients on total parenteral nutrition and there was no association reported with standard outcome measures. We revisit this in all patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit.

Serum TTR was measured on the day of admission, day 3 and day 7 of their ICU stay. APACHE II and SOFA score was assessed on the day of admission. A registered dietician for their entire ICU stay assessed the nutritional status and nutritional requirement. Patients were divided into three groups based on initial TTR level and the outcome analysis was performed for APACHE II score, SOFA score, ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, and mortality.

TTR showed excellent concordance with the univariate or multivariate classification of patients with PEM or at high malnutrition risk, and followed for seven days in the ICU, it is a measure of the metabolic burden.  TTR levels decline from day 1 to day 7 in spite of providing nutritional support. Twenty-five patients had an initial TTR serum concentration more than 17 mg/dL (group 1), forty-eight patients had mild malnutrition with a concentration between 10 and 17 mg/dL (group 2), Forty-five patients had severe malnutrition with a concentration less than 10 mg/dL (group 3).  Initial TTR level had inverse correlation with ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, and APACHE II score, SOFA score; and predicted mortality, especially in group 3.

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A simplified nutrition screen for hospitalized patients using readily available laboratory and patient
information.
Linda Brugler, Ana K Stankovic, Madeleine Schlefer, Larry Bernstein
Nutrition 2005; 21(6):650-658
ICID: 825623
Article type: Review article
The role of visceral protein markers in protein calorie malnutrition.
Linda Brugler, Ana Stankovic, Larry Bernstein, Frederick Scott, Julie O’Sullivan-Maillet
Clin Chem Lab Med 2002; 40(12):1360-1369
ICID: 636207
Article type: Original article

The Automated Nutrition Score is a data-driven extension of continuous quality improvement.

Larry H Bernstein
Nutrition 2009; 25(3):316-317
ICID: 939934

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Transthyretin: its response to malnutrition and stress injury. clinical usefulness and economic implications.
LH Bernstein, Y Ingenbleek
Clin Chem Lab Med 2002; 40(12):1344-1348
ICID: 636205
Article type: Original article

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THE NUTRITIONALLY-DEPENDENT ADAPTIVE DICHOTOMY (NDAD) AND STRESS HYPERMETABOLISM
Yves Ingenbleek  MD  PhD  and  Larry Bernstein MD
J CLIN LIGAND ASSAY  (out of print)

The acute reaction to stress is characterized by major metabolic, endocrine and immune alterations. According to classical descriptions, these changes clinically present as a succession of 3 adaptive steps – ebb phase, catabolic flow phase, and anabolic flow phase. The ebb phase, shock and resuscitation, is immediate, lasts several hours, and is characterized by hypokinesis, hypothermia, hemodynamic instability and reduced basal metabolic rate. The catabolic flow phase, beginning within 24 hours and lasting several days, is characterized by catabolism with the flow of gluconeogenic substrates and ketone bodies in response to the acute injury. The magnitude of the response depends on the acuity and the severity of the stress. The last, a reparative anabolic flow phase, lasts weeks and is characterized by the accretion of amino acids (AAs) to rebuilding lean body mass.

The current opinion is that the body economy is reset during the course of stress at novel thresholds of metabolic priorities. This is exemplified mainly by proteolysis of muscle, by an effect on proliferating gut mucosa and lymphoid tissue as substrates are channeled to support wound healing, by altered syntheses of liver proteins with preferential production of acute phase proteins (APPs) and local repair in inflamed tissues (3). The first two stages demonstrate body protein breakdown exceeding the rate of protein synthesis, resulting in a negative nitrogen (N) balance, muscle wasting and weight loss. In contrast, the last stage displays reversed patterns, implying progressive recovery of endogenous N pools and body weight.

These adaptive alterations undergo continuing elucidation. The identification of cytokines, secreted by activated macrophages/monocytes or other reacting cells, has provided further insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling energy expenditure, redistribution of protein pools, reprioritization of syntheses and secretory processes.

The free fraction of hormones bound to specific binding-protein(s) [BP(s)] manifests biological activities, and any change in the BP blood level modifies the effect of the hormone on the end target organ.  The efficacy of these adaptive responses may be severely impaired in protein-energy malnourished (PEM) patients. This is especially critical with respect to changes of the circulating levels of transthyretin (TTR), retinol-binding protein (RBP) and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) conveying thyroid hormones (TH), retinol and cortisol, respectively.  This reaction is characterized by cytokine mediated autocrine, paracrine and endocrine changes. Among the many inducing molecules identified, interleukins 1 and 6 (Il-1, Il-6) and tumor necrosis factor a (TNF) are associated with enhanced production of 3 counterregulatory hormonal families (cortisol, catecholamines and glucagon). Growth hormone (GH) and TH also have roles in these metabolic adjustments.

There is overproduction of cortisol mediated by several cytokines acting on both the adrenal cortex (10) and on the pituitary through hypothalamic CRH with loss of feedback regulation of ACTH production (11). Hypercortisolemia is a major finding observed after surgery (12), sepsis (13), and medical insults, usually correlated with severity of insult and of complications. Rising cortisol values parallel hyperglycemic trends, as an effect of both gluconeogenesis and insulin resistance. Working in concert with TNF, glucocorticoids govern the breakdown of muscle mass, which is regarded as the main factor responsible for the negative N balance.

Under normal conditions, GH exerts both lipolytic and anabolic influences in the whole body economy under the dual control of the hypothalamic hormones somatocrinin (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIH). GH secretion is usually depressed by rising blood concentrations of glucose and free fatty acids (FFAs) but is paradoxicaly elevated despite hyperglycemia in stressed patients.

The oversecretion of counterregulatory hormones working in concert generates subtle equilibria between glycogenolytic/glycolytic/gluconeogenic adaptive processes. The net result is the neutralization of the main hypoglycemic and anabolic activities of insulin and the development of a persisting and controlled hyperglycemic tone in the stressed body. The molecular mechanisms whereby insulin resistance occurs in the course of stress refer to
cytokine-  and  hormone-induced  phosphorylation abnormalities affecting receptor signaling. The insulin-like anabolic processes of GH are mediated by IGF1 working as relay agent. The expected high IGF1 surge associated with GH oversecretion is not observed in severe stress as plasma values are usually found at the lower limit of normal or even in the subnormal range.  The end result of this dissociation between high GH and low IGF1 levels is to favor the proteolysis of muscle mass to release AAs for gluconeogenesis and the breakdown of adipose tissue to provide ketogenic substrates.

The acute stage of stress is associated with the onset of a low T3 syndrome typically delineated by the drop of both total (TT3) and free (FT3) triiodothyronine plasma levels in the subnormal range. In contrast, both total (TT4) and free (FT4) thyroxine values usually remain within normal ranges with declining trends observed for TT4 and rising tendencies for FT4 (44). This last free compound is regarded as the sensor reflecting the actual thyroid status and governing the release of TSH whereas FT3 works as the active hormonal mediator at nuclear receptor level. The maintenance of an euthyroid sick syndrome is compatible with the down-regulation of most metabolic and energetic processes in healthy tissues. These inhibitory effects , negatively affecting all functional steps of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis concern TSH production, iodide uptake, transport and organification into iodotyrosyl residues, peroxidase coupling activity as well as thyroglobulin synthesis and TH leakage. Taken together, the above-mentioned data indicate that the development of hyperglycemia and of insulin-resistance in healthy tissues – mainly in the muscle mass – are hallmarks resulting from the coordinated activities of the counterregulatory hormones.

A growing body of recent data suggest that the stressed territory, whatever the causal agent – bacterial or viral sepsis, auto-immune disorder, traumatic or toxic shock, burns, cancer – manifest differentiated metabolic and immune reactions. The amplitude, duration and efficacy of these responses are reportedly impaired along several ways in PEM patients. These last detrimental effects are accompanied by a number of medical, social and economical consequences, such as extended length of hospital stay and increased complication / mortality rates. It is therefore mandatory to correctly identify and follow up the nutritional status of hospitalized patients. Such approaches are prerequisite to timely and scientifically grounded nutritional and pharmacological mediated interventions.

Contrary to the rest of the body, energy requirements of the inflamed territory are primarily fulfilled by anaerobic glycolysis, an effect triggered by the inhibition of key-enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, notably pyruvate-dehydrogenase. This non-oxidative combustion of glucose reveals low conversion efficiency but offers the major advantage to maintain, in the context of hyperglycemia, fuel provision to poorly irrigated and/or edematous tissues. The depression of the 5’-monodeiodinating activity (5’-DA) plays a pivotal role in these adaptive changes, yielding inactive reverse T3 (rT3) as index of impaired T4 to T3 conversion rates, but at the same time there is an augmented supply of bioactive T3 molecules and local overstimulation of thyro-dependent processes characterized by thyroid down-regulation.  The same differentiated evolutionary pattern applies to IGF1. In spite of lowered plasma total concentrations, the proportion of IGF1 released in free form may be substantially increased owing to the proteolytic degradation of IGFBP-3 in the intravascular compartment. The digestion of  BP-3 results from the surge of several proteases occurring the course of stress, yielding biologically active IGF1 molecules available for the repair of damaged tissues. In contrast, healthy receptors oppose a strong resistance to IGF1 ligands freed in the general circulation, likely induced by an acquired phosphorylation defect very similar in nature to that for the insulin transduction pathway.

PEM is the generic denomination of a broad spectrum of nutritional disorders, commonly found in hospital settings, and whose extreme poles are identified as marasmus and kwashiorkor. The former condition is usually regarded as the result of long-lasting starvation leading to the loss of lean body mass and fat reserves but relatively well-preserved liver function and immune capacities. The latter condition is typically the consequence of (sub)acute deprivation predominantly affecting the protein content of staplefood, an imbalance causing hepatic steatosis, fall of visceral proteins, edema and increased vulnerability to most stressful factors. PEM may be hypometabolic or hypermetabolic, usually coexists with other diseased states and is frequently associated with complications. Identification of PEM calls upon a large set of clinical and analytical disciplines comprising anthropometry, immunology, hematology and biochemistry.

CBG, TTR and RBP share in common the transport of specific ligands exerting their metabolic effects at nuclear receptor level. Released from their specific BPs in free form, cortisol, FT4 and retinol immediately participe to the strenghtening of the positive and negative responses to stressful stimuli. CBG is a relatively weak responder to short-term nutritional influences (73)  although long-lasting PEM is reportedly capable of causing its significant diminution (74). The dramatic drop of CBG in the course of stress appears as the combined effect of Il-6-induced posttranscriptional blockade of its liver synthesis (75) and peripheral overconsumption by activated neutrophils (61). The divergent alterations outlined by CBG and total cortisolemia result in an increased disposal of free ligand reaching proportions considerably higher than the 4 % recorded under physiological conditions.

The appellation of negative APPs that was once given to the visceral group of carrier-proteins. The NDAD concept takes the opposite view, defending the opinion that their suppressed synthesis releases free ligands which positively contribute to strengthen all aspects of the stress reaction, justifying the ABR denomination. This implies that the role played by ABRs should no longer be interpreted in terms of concentrations but in terms of functionality.

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THE OXIDATIVE STRESS OF HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA RESULTS FROM REDUCED BIOAVAILABILITY OF SULFUR-CONTAINING REDUCTANTS.
Yves Ingenbleek. The Open Clinical Chemistry Journal, 2011, 4, 34-44.

Vegetarian subjects consuming subnormal amounts of methionine (Met) are characterized by subclinical protein malnutrition causing reduction in size of their lean body mass (LBM) best identified by the serial measurement of plasma transthyretin (TTR). As a result, the transsulfuration pathway is depressed at cystathionine-β-synthase (CβS) level triggering the upstream sequestration of homocysteine (Hcy) in biological fluids and promoting its conversion to Met. Maintenance of beneficial Met homeostasis is counterpoised by the drop of cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH) values downstream to CβS causing in turn declining generation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from enzymatic sources. The biogenesis of H2S via non-enzymatic reduction is further inhibited in areas where earth’s crust is depleted in elemental sulfur (S8) and sulfate oxyanions. Combination of subclinical malnutrition and S8-deficiency thus maximizes the defective production of Cys, GSH and H2S reductants, explaining persistence of unabated oxidative burden. The clinical entity increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and stroke in underprivileged plant-eating populations regardless of Framingham criteria and vitamin-B status. Although unrecognized up to now, the nutritional disorder is one of the commonest worldwide, reaching top prevalence in populated regions of Southeastern Asia. Increased risk of hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress may also affect individuals suffering from intestinal malabsorption or westernized communities having adopted vegan dietary lifestyles.

Metabolic pathways: Met molecules supplied by dietary proteins are submitted to TM processes allowing to release Hcy which may in turn either undergo Hcy – Met RM pathways or be irreversibly committed into TS decay. Impairment of CbS activity, as described in protein malnutrition, entails supranormal accumulation of Hcy in body fluids, stimulation of activity and maintenance of Met homeostasis. This last beneficial effect is counteracted by decreased concentration of most components generated downstream to CbS, explaining the depressed CbS- and CbL-mediated enzymatic production of H2S along the TS cascade. The restricted dietary intake of elemental S further operates as a limiting factor for its non-enzymatic reduction to H2S which contributes to downsizing a common body pool. Combined protein- and S-deficiencies work in concert to deplete Cys, GSH and H2S from their body reserves, hence impeding these reducing molecules to properly face the oxidative stress imposed by hyperhomocysteinemia.

see also …

McCully, K.S. Vascular pathology of homocysteinemia: implications for the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. Am. J. Pathol., 1996, 56, 111-128.

Cheng, Z.; Yang, X.; Wang, H. Hyperhomocysteinemia and endothelial dysfunction. Curr. Hypertens. Rev., 2009, 5,158-165.

Loscalzo, J. The oxidant stress of hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. J. Clin.Invest., 1996, 98, 5-7.

Ingenbleek, Y.; Hardillier, E.; Jung, L. Subclinical protein malnutrition is a determinant of hyperhomocysteinemia. Nutrition, 2002, 18, 40-46.

Ingenbleek, Y.; Young, V.R. The essentiality of sulfur is closely related to nitrogen metabolism: a clue to hyperhomocysteinemia. Nutr. Res. Rev., 2004, 17, 135-153.

Hosoki, R.; Matsuki, N.; Kimura, H. The possible role of hydrogen sulfide as an endogenous smooth muscle relaxant in synergy with nitric oxide. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 1997, 237, 527-531.

Tang, B.; Mustafa, A.; Gupta, S.; Melnyk, S.; James S.J.; Kruger, W.D. Methionine-deficient diet induces post-transcriptional downregulation of cystathionine-􀀁-synthase. Nutrition, 2010, 26, 1170-1175.

Elshorbagy, A.K.; Valdivia-Garcia, M.; Refsum, H.; Smith, A.D.; Mattocks, D.A.; Perrone, C.E. Sulfur amino acids in methioninerestricted rats: Hyperhomocysteinemia. Nutrition, 2010, 26, 1201- 1204.

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Yves Ingenbleek. Plasma Transthyretin Reflects the Fluctuations of Lean Body Mass in Health and Disease. Chapter 20. In S.J. Richardson and V. Cody (eds.), Recent Advances in Transthyretin Evolution, Structure and Biological Functions, DOI: 10.1007/978‐3‐642‐00646‐3_20, # Springer‐Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009.

Transthyretin (TTR) is a 55-kDa protein secreted mainly by the choroid plexus and the liver. Whereas its intracerebral production appears as a stable secretory process allowing even distribution of intrathecal thyroid hormones, its hepatic synthesis is influenced by nutritional and inflammatory circumstances working concomitantly. Both morbid conditions are governed by distinct pathogenic mechanisms leading to the reduction in size of lean body mass (LBM). The liver production of TTR integrates the dietary and stressful components of any disease spectrum, explaining why it is the sole plasma protein whose evolutionary patterns closely follow the shape outlined by LBM fluctuations. Serial measurement of TTR therefore provides unequalled information on the alterations affecting overall protein nutritional status. Recent advances in TTR physiopathology emphasize the detecting power and preventive role played by the protein in hyperhomocysteinemic states, acquired metabolic disorders currently ascribed to dietary restriction in water-soluble vitamins. Sulfur (S)-deficiency is proposed as an additional causal factor in the sizeable proportion of hyperhomocysteinemic patients characterized by adequate vitamin intake but experiencing varying degrees of nitrogen (N)-depletion. Owing to the fact that N and S coexist in plant and animal tissues within tightly related concentrations, decreasing LBM as an effect of dietary shortage and/or excessive hypercatabolic losses induces proportionate S-losses. Regardless of water-soluble vitamin status, elevation of homocysteine plasma levels is negatively correlated with LBM reduction and declining TTR plasma levels. These findings occur as the result of impaired cystathionine-b-synthase activity, an enzyme initiating the transsulfuration pathway and whose suppression promotes the upstream accumulation and remethylation of homocysteine molecules. Under conditions of N- and S-deficiencies, the maintenance of methionine homeostasis indicates high metabolic priority.

Schematically, the human body may be divided into two major compartments, namely fat mass (FM) and FFM that is obtained by substracting
FM from body weight (BW). The fat cell mass sequesters about 80% of the total body lipids, is poorly hydrated and contains only small quantities of lean tissues and nonfat constituents. FFM comprises the sizeable part of lean tissues and minor mineral compounds among which are Ca, P, Na, and Cl pools totaling about 1.7 kg or 2.5% of BW in a healthy man weighing 70 kg. Subtraction of mineral mass from FFM provides LBM, a composite aggregation of organs and tissues with specific functional properties. LBM is thus nearly but not strictly equivalent to FFM. With extracellular mineral content subtracted, LBM accounts for most of total body proteins (TBP) and of TBN assuming a mean 6.25 ratio between protein and N content.

SM accounts for 45% of TBN whereas the remaining 55% is in nonmuscle lean tissues. The LBM of the reference man contains 98% of total
body potassium (TBK) and the bulk of total body sulfur (TBS). TBK and TBS reach equal intracellular amounts (140 g each) and share distribution patterns (half in SM and half in the rest of cell mass).  The body content of K and S largely exceeds that of magnesium (19 g), iron (4.2 g) and zinc (2.3 g). The average hydration level of LBM in healthy subjects of all age is 73% with the proportion of the intracellular/extracellular fluid spaces being 4:3. SM is of particular relevance in nutritional studies due to its capacity to serve as a major reservoir of amino acids (AAs) and as a dispenser of gluconeogenic substrates. An indirect estimate of SM size consists in the measurement of urinary creatinine, end-product of the nonenzymatic hydrolysis of phosphocreatine which is limited to muscle cells.

During ageing, all the protein components of the human body decrease regularly. This shrinking tendency is especially well documented for SM  whose absolute amount is preserved until the end of the fifth decade, consistent with studies showing unmodified muscle structure, intracellular K content and working capacit. TBN and TBK are highly correlated in healthy subjects and both parameters manifest an age-dependent curvilinear decline
with an accelerated decrease after 65 years.  The trend toward sarcopenia is more marked and rapid in elderly men than in elderly women decreasing strength and functional capacity. The downward SM slope may be somewhat prevented by physical training or accelerated by supranormal cytokine status as reported in apparently healthy aged persons suffering low-grade inflammation. 2002) or in critically ill patients whose muscle mass undergoes proteolysis and contractile dysfunction.

The serial measurement of plasma TTR in healthy children shows that BP values are low in the neonatal period and rise linearly with superimposable concentrations in both sexes during infant growth consistent with superimposable N accretion and protein synthesis rates. Starting from the sixties, TTR values progressively decline showing steeper slopes in elderly males. The lowering trend seems to be initiated by the attenuation of androgen influences and trophic stimuli with increasing age. The normal human TTR trajectory from birth to death has been well documented by scientists belonging to the Foundation for Blood Research. TTR is the first plasma protein to decline in response to marginal protein restricion, thus working as an early signal warning that adaptive mechanisms maintaining homeostasis are undergoing decompensation.

TTR was proposed as a marker of protein nutritional status following a clinical investigation undertaken in 1972 on protein-energy malnourished (PEM) Senegalese children (Ingenbleek et al. 1972). By comparison with ALB and transferrin (TF) plasma values, TTR revealed a much higher degree of sensitivity to changes in protein status that has been attributed to its shorter biological half-life (2 days) and to its unusual Trp richness (Ingenbleek et al. 1972, 1975a). Transcription of the TTR gene in the liver is directed by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) bound to hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) under the control of several other HNFs. The mechanism responsible for the suppressed TTR synthesis in PEM-states is a restricted AA and energy supply working as limiting factors (Ingenbleek and Young 2002). The rapidly turning over TTR protein is highly responsive to any change in protein flux and energy supply, being clearly situated on the cutting edge of the equipoise.

LBM shrinking may be the consequence of either dietary restriction reducing protein syntheses to levels compatible with survival or that of cytokine-induced tissue proteolysis exceeding protein synthesis and resulting in a net body negative N balance. The size of LBM in turn determines plasma TTR concentrations whose liver production similarly depends on both dietary provision and inflammatory conditions. In animal cancer models, reduced TBN pools were correlated with decreasing plasma TTR values and provided the same predictive ability. In kidney patients, LBM is proposed as an excellent predictor of outcome working in the same direction as TTR plasma levels.  High N intake, supposed to preserve LBM reserves, reduces significantly the mortality rate of kidney patients and is positively correlated with the alterations of TTR plasma concentrations appearing as the sole predictor of final outcome. It is noteworthy that most SELDI or MALDI workers interested in defining protein nutritional status have chosen TTR as a biomarker, showing that there exists a large consensus considering the BP as the most reliable indicator of protein depletion in most morbid circumstances.

Total homocysteine (tHcy) is a S-containing AA not found in customary diets but endogenously produced in the body of mammals by the enzymatic transmethylation of methionine (Met), one of the eight IAAs supplied by staplefoods. tHcy may either serve as precursor substrate for the synthesis of new Met molecules along the remethylation (RM) pathway or undergo irreversible kidney leakage through a cascade of derivatives defining the transsulfuration (TS) pathway. Hcy is thus situated at the crossroad of RM and TS pathways that are regulated by three water-soluble vitamins (pyridoxine, B6; folates, B9; cobalamins, B12).

Significant positive correlations are found between tHcy and plasma urea and plasma creatinine, indicating that both visceral and muscular tissues undergo proteolytic degradation throughout the course of rampant inflammatory burden. In healthy individuals, tHcy plasma concentrations maintain positive correlations with LBM and TTR from birth until the end of adulthood. Starting from the onset of normal old age, tHcy values become disconnected from LBM control and reveal diverging trends with TTR values. Of utmost importance is the finding that, contrary to all protein
components which are downregulated in protein-depleted states, tHcy values are upregulated.  Hyperhomocysteinemia is an acquired clinical entity characterized by mild or moderate elevation in tHcy blood values found in apparently healthy individuals (McCully 1969). This distinct morbid condition appears as a public health problem of increasing importance in the general population, being regarded as an independent and graded risk factor for vascular pathogenesis unrelated to hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, diabetes and smoking.

Studies grounded on stepwise multiple regression analysis have concluded that the two main watersoluble vitamins account for only 28% of tHcy variance whereas vitamins B6, B9, and B12, taken together, did not account for more than 30–40% of variance. Moreover, a number of hyperhomocysteinemic conditions are not responsive to folate and pyridoxine supplementation. This situation prompted us to search for other causal factors which might fill the gap between the public health data and the vitamin triad deficiencies currently incriminated. We suggest that S – the forgotten element – plays central roles in nutritional epidemiology (Ingenbleek and Young 2004).

Aminoacidemia studies performed in PEM children, adult patients and elderly subjects have reported that the concentrations of plasma IAAs invariably display lowering trends as the morbid condition worsens. The depressed tendency is especially pronounced in the case of tryptophan and for the so-called branched-chain AAs (BCAAs, isoleucine, leucine, valine) the decreases in which are regarded as a salient PEM feature following the direction outlined by TTR (Ingenbleek et al. 1986). Met constitutes a notable exception to the above described evolutionary profiles, showing unusual stability in chronically protein depleted states.

Maintenance of normal methioninemia is associated with supranormal tHcy blood values in PEMadults (Ingenbleek et al. 1986) and increased tHcy leakage in the urinary output of PEM children. In contrast, most plasma and urinary S-containing compounds produced along the TS pathway downstream to CbSconverting step (Fig. 20.1) display significantly diminished values. This is notably the case for cystathionine (Ingenbleek et al. 1986), glutathione, taurine, and sulfaturia. Such distorted patterns are reminiscent of abnormalities defining homocystinuria, an inborn disease of Met metabolism characterized by CbS refractoriness to pyridoxine stimuli, thereby promoting the upstream retention of tHcy in biological fluids. It
was hypothesized more than 20 years ago (Ingenbleek et al. 1986) that PEM is apparently able to similarly depress CbS activity, suggesting that the enzyme is a N-status sensitive step working as a bidirectional lockgate, overstimulated by high Met intake (Finkelstein and Martin 1986) and downregulated under N-deprivation conditions (Ingenbleek et al. 2002). Confirmation that N dietary deprivation may inhibit CbS activity has recently provided. The tHcy precursor pool is enlarged in biological fluids, boosting Met remethylation processes along the RM pathway, consistent with studies showing overstimulation of Met-synthase activity in conditions of protein restriction. In other words, high tHcy plasma concentrations observed in PEM states are the dark side of adaptive mechanisms for maintaining Met homeostasis. This is consistent with the unique role played by Met in the preservation of N body stores.

The classical interpretation that strict vegans, who consume plenty of folates in their diet and manifest nevertheless higher tHcy plasma concentrations than omnivorous counterparts, needs to be revisited. On the basis of hematological and biochemical criteria, cobalamin deficiency is one of the most prevalent vitamin-deficiencies wordwide, being often incriminated as deficient in vegan subjects. It seems, however, likely that its true causal impact on rising tHcy values is substantially overestimated in most studies owing to the modest contribution played by cobalamins on tHcy
variance analyses. In contrast, there exists a growing body of converging data indicating that the role played by the protein component is largely underscored in vegan studies. It is worth recalling that S is the main intracellular anion coexisting with N within a constant mean S:N ratio (1:14.5) in animal tissues and dietary products of animal origin (Ingenbleek 2006). The mean S:N ratio found in plant items ranges from 1:20 to 1:35, a proportion that does not optimally meet human tissue requirements (Ingenbleek 2006), paving the way for borderline S and N deficiencies.

A recent Taiwanese investigation on hyperhomocysteinemic nuns consuming traditional vegetarian regimens consisting of mainly rice, soy products,
vegetables and fruits with few or no dairy items illustrates such clinical misinterpretation (Hung et al. 2002). The authors reported that folates and cobalamins, taken together, accounted for only 28.6% of tHcy variance in the vegetarian cohort whereas pyridoxine was inoperative (Hung et al. 2002). The daily vegetable N and Met intakes were situated highly significantly (p < 0.001) below the recommended allowances for humans (FAO/WHO/United Nations University 1985), causing a stage of unrecognized PEM documented by significantly depressed BCAA plasma
concentrations. Met levels escaped the overall decline in IAAs levels, emphasizing that efficient homeostatic mechanisms operate at the expense of an acquired hyperhomocysteinemic state. The diagnosis of subclinical PEM was missed because the authors ignored the exquisitely sensitive TTR detecting power. A proper PEM identification would have allowed the authors to confirm the previously described TTR–tHcy relationship that was established in Western Africa from comparable field studies involving country dwellers living on plant products.

The concept that acute or chronic stressful conditions may exert similar inhibitory effects on CbS activity and thereby promote hyperhomocysteinemic states is founded on previous studies showing that hypercatabolic states are characterized by increased urinary N and S losses maintaining tightly correlated depletion rates (Cuthbertson 1931; Ingenbleek and Young 2004; Sherman and Hawk 1900) which reflect the S:N ratio found in tissues undergoing cytokine induced proteolysis. This has been documented in coronary infarction and in acute pancreatitis where tHcy elevation evolves too rapidly to allow for a nutritional vitamin B-deficit explanation.  tHcy is considered stable in plasma and the two investigations report unaltered folate and cobalamin plasma concentrations.

The clinical usefulness of TTR as a nutritional biomarker, described in the early seventies (Ingenbleek et al. 1972) has been substantially disregarded by the scientific community for nearly four decades. This long-lasting reluctance expressed by many investigators is largely due to the fact that protein malnutrition and stressful disorders of various causes have combined inhibitory effects on hepatic TTR synthesis. Declining TTR plasma concentrations may result from either dietary protein and energy restrictions or from cytokine-induced transcriptional blockade (Murakami et al. 1988) of its hepatic synthesis. The proposed marker was therefore seen as having high sensitivity but poor specificity. Recent advances in protein metabolism settle the controversy by throwing further light on the relationships between TTR and the N-components of body composition.

The developmental patterns of LBM and TTR exhibit striking similarities. Both parameters rise from birth to puberty, manifest gender dimorphism during full sexual maturity then decrease during ageing. Uncomplicated PEM primarily affects both visceral and structural pools of LBM with distinct kinetics, reducing protein synthesis to levels compatible with prolonged survival. In acute or chronic stressful disorders, LBM undergoes muscle proteolysis exceeding the upregulation of protein syntheses in liver and injured areas, yielding a net body negative N balance. These adaptive responses are well identified by the measurement of TTR plasma concentrations which therefore appear as a plasma marker for LBM fluctuations.
Attenuation of stress and/or introduction of nutritional rehabilitation restores both LBM and TTR to normal values following parallel slopes. TTR fulfills, therefore, a unique position in assessing actual protein nutritional status, monitoring the efficacy of dietetic support and predicting the patient’s outcome (Bernstein and Pleban 1996).

see also…

Acosta PB, Yannicelli S, Ryan AS, Arnold G, Marriage BJ, Plewinska M, Bernstein L, Fox J, Lewis V, Miller M, Velazquez A (2005) Nutritional therapy improves growth and protein status of children with a urea cycle enzyme defect. Mol Genet Metab 86:448–455.

Arroyave G, Wilson D, Be´har M, Scrimshaw NS (1961) Serum and urinary creatinine in children with severe protein malnutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 9:176–179.

Bates CJ, Mansoor MA, van der Pols J, Prentice A, Cole TJ, Finch S (1997) Plasma total homocysteine in a representative sample of 972 British men and women aged 65 and over. Eur J Clin Nutr 51:691–697.

Battezzatti A, Bertoli S, San Romerio A, Testolin G (2007) Body composition: An important determinant of homocysteine and methionine concentrations in healthy individuals. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 17:525–534.

Bernstein LH, Bachman TE, Meguid M, Ament M, Baumgartner T, Kinosian B, Martindale R, Spiekerman M (1995) Prealbumin in nutritional care Consensus Group. Measurement of visceral protein status in assessing protein and energy malnutrition: Standard of care. Nutrition 11:169–171

Bernstein LH, Ingenbleek Y (2002) Transthyretin: Its response to malnutrition and stress injury. Clinical usefulness and economical implications. Clin Chem Lab Med 40:1344–1348.

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Pharma Intell Links

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“Seductive Nutrition”: Making Popular Dishes a Bit Healthier – Culinary Institute of America
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Nitric Oxide and Immune Responses: Part 2
Mitochondrial Damage and Repair under Oxidative Stress
Endothelial Function and Cardiovascular Disease
Nitric Oxide and Sepsis, Hemodynamic Collapse, and the Search for Therapeutic Options
Is the Warburg Effect the cause or the effect of cancer: A 21st Century View?
Sepsis, Multi-organ Dysfunction Syndrome, and Septic Shock: A Conundrum of Signaling Pathways Cascading Out of Control
Mitochondria: Origin from oxygen free environment, role in aerobic glycolysis, metabolic adaptation
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In our recent article on “Amyloidosis” we discussed about its causes and forms. One such form is familial amyloidosis (ATTR) a most common form of inherited amyloidoses.

Transthyretin protein structure

Transthyretin protein structure (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

ATTR is caused by a mutation in the transthyretin (TTR) gene that produces abnormal transthyretin protein which deposits as amyloid fibrils.

Symptoms of disease are usually:

Neuropathy (numbness and tingling in the arms and legs, dizziness upon standing, and alternating constipation and diarrhea), and

Cardiomyopathy and occur in mid to late life.

The standard treatment is liver transplantation since the transthyretin protein which causes familial amyloidosis is made in the liver, replacing this organ removes the source of mutant protein production. A new liver will make only normal transthyretin.

It is known that the transthyretin amyloidoses (ATTR) are invariably fatal diseases characterized by above mentioned progressive neuropathy and/or cardiomyopathy. The early onset TTR amyloidoses are caused by inherited TTR mutations that weaken the tetramers’ ability to stick together, producing monomers which are  more likely to aggregate into amyloids and other aggregate structures.

Transthyretin (TTR) is a tetrameric protein involved in the transport of thyroxine and the vitamin A–retinol-binding protein complex. Mutations within TTR that cause autosomal dominant forms of disease facilitate tetramer dissociation, monomer misfolding, and aggregation, although wild-type TTR can also form amyloid fibrils in elderly patients. Because tetramer dissociation is the rate-limiting step in TTR amyloidogenesis, targeted therapies have focused on small molecules that kinetically stabilize the tetramer, inhibiting TTR amyloid fibril formation.

Scientists from The Scripps Research Institute and Pfizer Inc. have published a new study showing how this type of amyloidosis can be inhibited. A new drug called tafamidis (Vyndaqel®)) has been developed to treat this deadly nerve disease caused by transthyretin (TTR) amyloid fibril formation, or the accumulation of abnormal assemblies of the TTR protein. Researchers have designed tafamidis to grab either of those thyroxine-binding sites, in a way that bridges the seam and helps keep the tetramer from coming apart.

Tafamidis binds to the natural, functional TTR structure (mutant and wild type), in a way that prevents it from deviating from this natural, functional form into the amyloid state. TTR’s natural, functional form is a “tetramer”made from four copies of the protein. Amyloidosis occurs when these tetramers come apart and the individual TTR proteins (“monomers”) undergo shape changes enabling them to misassemble into dysfunctional amyloid aggregates. Included in the TTR aggregate distribution are amyloid fibrils—protein stacks made from millions of TTR monomers—although researchers suspect that smaller, shorter-lived pre-amyloid aggregates do more direct damage to nerve cells and nerve fibers.

Tafamidis  treats ATTR by reducing the rate of amyloid formation, and clinical trials have shown that it delays the typical progression of nerve destruction in polyneuropathy patients.

This drug is approved for use in Europe and currently under review by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and it is the first medication approved by a major regulatory agency to treat an amyloid disease, a class of conditions that include Alzheimer’s.

 Source:

http://www.scripps.edu/newsandviews/e_20120604/tafamidis.html

http://www.pnas.org/content/suppl/2012/05/29/1121005109.DCSupplemental/sapp.pdf

Curated by: Dr. Venkat S. Karra, Ph.D.

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β-amyloid fibrils.

β-amyloid fibrils. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Extracellular deposition of insoluble fibrillar proteins in tissues and organs lead to a condition known as amyloidosis which is thought to be caused by misfolding of proteins. There are several types of amyloidosis, but the unifying feature of the amyloidoses is that the deposits share a common ß-pleated sheet structural conformation that confers unique staining properties.

There are several types of amyloidosis and the most common form is the primary amyloidosis (AL) for amyloid of light chain composition. Symptoms can occur in any organ of the body and the organs most often involved include the heart, kidneys, nervous system, and gastrointestinal tract.

Amyloid deposits in these organs can cause

shortness of breath,

fatigue,

edema (swelling of ankles and legs),

dizziness upon standing,

a feeling of fullness in the stomach (especially after eating),

diarrhea,

weight loss,

enlarged tongue,

numbness of the legs and arms,

protein in the urine (proteinurea) and

enlarged liver (hepatomegaly).

Primary amyloidosis (AL) is an acquired plasma cell disorder in which a monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain is produced in the bone marrow and usually found in the blood or urine. AL amyloidosis occasionally occurs with multiple myeloma. The amyloid fibrils in this type of amyloidosis are made up of immunoglobulin light chain proteins (kappa or lambda).

Amyloidosis caused by infection or inflammation is known as Secondary Amyloidosis (also known as AA amyloidosis) in which elevation of an acute phase protein, SAA, a portion of which (AA protein) deposits as amyloid fibrils. AA amyloidosis usually begins as disease in the kidneys, but other organs can be affected, and may cause protein in the urine, edema, and fatigue.

Medical or surgical treatment of the underlying chronic infection or inflammatory disease can slow down or stop the progression of this type of amyloid where as in case of AL chemotherapy is the standard practice.

Other forms of amyloidosis are familial amyloidosis (ATTR) a most common form of inherited amyloidoses caused by a mutation in the transthyretin (TTR) gene that produces abnormal transthyretin protein which deposits as amyloid fibrils. Symptoms of disease are usually neuropathy (numbness and tingling in the arms and legs, dizziness upon standing, and diarrhea) and cardiomyopathy and occur in mid to late life. The standard treatment is liver transplantation since the transthyretin protein which causes familial amyloidosis is made in the liver, replacing this organ removes the source of mutant protein production. A new liver will make only normal transthyretin. Each family has its own pattern of organ involvement and associated symptoms and the mode of transmission is autosomal dominant.

Other rare forms of inherited amyloidosis include apolipoprotein A-I (AApoAI), apolipoprotein A-II (AApoAII) gelsolin (AGel), fibrinogen (AFib), and lysozyme (ALys).

Beta-2 microglobulin amyloidosis is caused by chronic renal failure and often occurs in patients who are on dialysis for many years. Amyloid deposits are made of the beta-2 microglobulin protein that accumulated in tissues, particularly around joints, when it cannot be excreted by the kidney because of renal failure.

There are many types of localized amyloidoses. The most common and best known is Alzheimer’s disease.

Localized amyloid deposits in the airway (trachea or bronchus), eye, or urinary bladder are made up of light chain proteins, similar to those in AL amyloidosis. However, in localized amyloidosis the abnormal plasma cells producing the amyloid light chains are in the tissues, not in the bone marrow. Other localized types of amyloidosis are associated with hormone proteins, aging, or specific areas of the body, and have not been found to develop into systemic amyloidosis

Diagnosis of this disease is sometimes difficult as many of the sysmptoms are general and can occur in other diseases. Symptoms in each patient depend on the type of amyloidosis and on the type of involved organ systems.

Amyloidosis can only be diagnosed by a positive biopsy (i.e., an identification of the amyloid deposits in a piece of tissue). Initial biopsies are most commonly obtained from the abdominal fat. image from BMCIf amyloid is suspected in other organs, however, a biopsy may be needed from these specific areas. Tissue biopsies must be stained properly with Congo red, a dye which will color the amyloid if it is present and cause it to have a unique appearance when viewed under a special microscope. If amyloid is present in a tissue biopsy, further tests can be done to determine the type of the amyloid.

The Amyloid Treatment & Research Program (ATRP) at Boston Medical Center (BMC) is an international referral center that treats amyloidosis with stem cell transplantation. The Program offers a multi-disciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment of this multi-organ disorder. Amyloid doctors specializing in cardiology, pulmonary, nephrology, gastroenterology, neurology, and other systems participate in patient evaluation and care.

The ATRP at BMC studies the systemic types of amyloidoses defined under amyloid types. Other forms of amyloidosis include Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases, prion diseases, serpinopathies, some of the cystic fibroses, and others.

They have developed Amyloid Light Chain Database, called ALBase, with the support of an NHLBI P01 award, HL68705. ALBase is a curated database and collection of analytical and graphical tools designed to facilitate the analysis of amyloidogenic immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) occurring in patients with AL amyloidosis. ALBase is designed to compile and analyze Ig LC sequences from patients with AL amyloidosis, to compare their predicted protein sequence and structure to non-amyloidogenic LC sequences from patients with multiple myeloma or health controls. The hypothesis underlying this is that the primary sequence of the LC is likely to be a major determinant of secondary structure and of propensity to unfold, oligomerize, and form fibrils.

“ALBase is available to the scientific community for research purposes. Please reference the site if you make use of it.”

Two patients of Dr. David Seldin are diagnosed with systemic amyloidosis and they shared their experiences from diagnosis to treatment and recovery (You can listen to an audio of this broadcast by clicking here: Rare Disease Feature (WAER 88.3 FM)).

Both patients credit their physicians for investigating abnormal tests and nonspecific symptoms, and for referring them to amyloid specialists early in the disease course.

http://www.bu.edu/amyloid/david-c-seldin-m-d-ph-d/

http://www.bu.edu/amyloid/2012/03/08/npr-interview/

http://www.bmc.org/amyloid.htm#2012gala

Curated by: Dr. Venkat S. Karra, Ph.D

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