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Posts Tagged ‘Cardiac muscle’


CaKMII Inhibition in Obese, Diabetic Mice leads to Lower Blood Glucose Levels

Reporter: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

This recent publication was reported in MedPage today. It is different than, but highly suggestive of our recent report about the Univesity of Iowa discovery of “Oxidized CaKMII inhibition” as a therapeutic target for atrial arrhythmia.

Oxidized Calcium Calmodulin Kinase and Atrial Fibrillation
Author: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/10/26/oxidized-calcium-calmodulin-kinase-and-atrial-fibrillation/
This is a review of a recent work from the laboratory of Mark E. Anderson and associates at the University of Iowa.  We have covered the role of CaMKII in calcium signaling and myocardiocyte contraction, as well as signaling in smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, and nerve transmission.  There are tissue specific modus operandi, partly related to the ryanogen receptor, and also related to tissue specific isoenzymes of CaMKII.  There is much ground that has been traversed in exploring these mechanisms, most recently, the discoverey of hormone triggering by the release from vesicles at the nerve muscle junction, and much remains open to investigation.  The recently published work by Mark E. Anderson and associates in Mannheim and Heidelberg, Germany, clarifies the relationship between the oxidized form of CaMKII and the triggering of atrial fibrillation. The following studies show:
  • Ang II infusion increased the susceptibility of mice to AF induction by rapid right atrial pacing and established a framework for us to test the hypothesized role of ox-CaMKII in promoting AF. ox-CaMKII is critical for AF.
    • Established a critical role of ox-CaMKII in promoting AF
  • Ang II induced increases in ROS production seen in WT atria were absent in atria from MsrA TG mice suggesting that MsrA sensitive targets represent an important component of Ang II mediated atrial oxidation.
    • The protection from AF in MsrA TG mice appeared to be independent of pressor effects that are critical for the proarrhythmic actions.
  • These findings suggest that NADPH oxidase dependent ROS and elevated ox-CaMKII
    • drive Ang II -pacing-induced AF and that
  • targeted antioxidant therapy, by MsrA over-expression,
    • can reduce or prevent AF in Ang -II-infused mice.
Atrial myocytes from Ang II treated WT mice showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in spontaneous Ca2+ sparks compared to atrial myocytes from saline treated control mice
In contrast to findings in WT mice, the atrial myocytes isolated from Ang II treated MM-VV mice did not show an increase in Ca2+ sparks compared to saline treated MM-VV mice
These data to suggest that  in ox–the proarrhythmic effects of Ang II infusion depend upon an increaseCaMKII, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak and DADs.
Enhanced CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of serine 2814 on RyR2
  • is associated with an increased susceptibility to acquired arrhythmias, including AF
Proarrhythmic actions of ox-CaMKII
  • require access to RyR2 serine 2814.
Mutant S2814A knock-in mice (lacking serine 2814) were highly resistant to Ang II mediated AF
AC3-I mice with transgenic myocardial expression of a CaMKII inhibitory peptide were also resistant to the proarrhythmic effects of Ang II infusion on pacing-induced AF
S2814A, AC3-I and WT mice, all developed similar BP increases and cardiac hypertrophy in response to Ang II, indicating that
  • these mice were not resistant to the hemodynamic effects of Ang II, but were nevertheless protected from AF.
selectively targeted antioxidant therapies could be effective in preventing or reducing AF
half of patients enrolled in the Mode Selection Trial (MOST) with sinus node dysfunction had a history of AF
Ang II and diabetes-induced CaMKII oxidation caused sinus node dysfunction by increased pacemaker cell death and fibrosis
 ox-CaMKII increases susceptibility for AF via increased diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release
clinical association between sinus node dysfunction and AF might have a mechanistic basis because
  • sinus node dysfunction and AF are downstream consequences of elevated ox-CaMKII.
We refer the reader to the following related articles published in pharmaceutical Intelligence:
  1. Contributions to cardiomyocyte interactions and signaling
    Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP  and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/10/21/contributions-to-cardiomyocyte-interactions-and-signaling/
  2. Cardiac Contractility & Myocardium Performance: Therapeutic Implications for Ryanopathy (Calcium Release-related Contractile Dysfunction) and Catecholamine Responses
    Editor: Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC, Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, and Article Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/28/cardiac-contractility-myocardium-performance-ventricular-arrhythmias-and-non-ischemic-heart-failure-therapeutic-implications-for-cardiomyocyte-ryanopathy-calcium-release-related-contractile/
  3. Part I. Identification of Biomarkers that are Related to the Actin Cytoskeleton
    Curator and Writer: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/10/identification-of-biomarkers-that-are-related-to-the-actin-cytoskeleton/
  4. Part II: Role of Calcium, the Actin Skeleton, and Lipid Structures in Signaling and Cell Motility
    Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Stephen Williams, PhD and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/26/role-of-calcium-the-actin-skeleton-and-lipid-structures-in-signaling-and-cell-motility/
  5. Part IV: The Centrality of Ca(2+) Signaling and Cytoskeleton Involving Calmodulin Kinases and Ryanodine Receptors in Cardiac Failure, Arterial Smooth Muscle, Post-ischemic Arrhythmia, Similarities and Differences, and Pharmaceutical Targets
    Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/09/08/the-centrality-of-ca2-signaling-and-cytoskeleton-involving-calmodulin-kinases-and-ryanodine-receptors-in-cardiac-failure-arterial-smooth-muscle-post-ischemic-arrhythmia-similarities-and-differen/
  6. Part VI: Calcium Cycling (ATPase Pump) in Cardiac Gene Therapy: Inhalable Gene Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Percutaneous Intra-coronary Artery Infusion for Heart Failure: Contributions by Roger J. Hajjar, MD
    Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/01/calcium-molecule-in-cardiac-gene-therapy-inhalable-gene-therapy-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-and-percutaneous-intra-coronary-artery-infusion-for-heart-failure-contributions-by-roger-j-hajjar/
  7. Part VII: Cardiac Contractility & Myocardium Performance: Ventricular Arrhythmias and Non-ischemic Heart Failure – Therapeutic Implications for Cardiomyocyte Ryanopathy (Calcium Release-related Contractile Dysfunction) and Catecholamine Responses
    Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/28/cardiac-contractility-myocardium-performance-ventricular-arrhythmias-and-non-ischemic-heart-failure-therapeutic-implications-for-cardiomyocyte-ryanopathy-calcium-release-related-contractile/
  8. Part VIII: Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis: Cardiomyocytes and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: The Cardiac and Cardiovascular Calcium Signaling Mechanism
    Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/09/12/disruption-of-calcium-homeostasis-cardiomyocytes-and-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-the-cardiac-and-cardiovascular-calcium-signaling-mechanism/
  9. Part IX: Calcium-Channel Blockers, Calcium Release-related Contractile Dysfunction (Ryanopathy) and Calcium as Neurotransmitter Sensor
    Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/09/16/calcium-channel-blocker-calcium-as-neurotransmitter-sensor-and-calcium-release-related-contractile-dysfunction-ryanopathy/
  10. Part X: Synaptotagmin functions as a Calcium Sensor: How Calcium Ions Regulate the fusion of vesicles with cell membranes during Neurotransmission
    Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/09/10/synaptotagmin-functions-as-a-calcium-sensor-how-calcium-ions-regulate-the-fusion-of-vesicles-with-cell-membranes-during-neurotransmission/
  11. Genetic Analysis of Atrial Fibrillation
    Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP ,  and Curator: Aviva-Lev Ari, PhD, RN
    https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/10/27/genetic-analysis-of-atrial-fibrillation/
This article is a followup of the wonderful study of the effect of oxidation of a methionine residue in calcium dependent-calmodulin kinase Ox-CaMKII on stabilizing the atrial cardiomyocyte, giving protection from atrial fibrillation.  It is also not so distant from the work reviewed, mostly on the ventricular myocyte and the calcium signaling by initiation of the ryanodyne receptor (RyR2) in calcium sparks and the CaMKIId isoenzyme.

Diabetes: Mouse Studies Point to Kinase as Treatment Target

Published: Nov 24, 2013
By Kristina Fiore, Staff Writer, MedPage Today
Targeting a pathway that plays a major role in both hepatic glucose production and insulin sensitivity may eventually help treat type 2 diabetes, researchers reported.
In a series of experiments in mice, researchers found that inhibition of the kinase CaKMII — or even some of its downstream components — lowered blood glucose and insulin levels, Ira Tabas, MD, PhD, of Columbia University Medical Center in New York City, and colleagues reported online in Cell Metabolism.
The pathway is activated by glucagon signaling in the liver, and appears to have roles in both insulin resistance as well as hepatic glucose production in the liver.
In an earlier study, Tabas and colleagues showed that inhibiting the CaKMII pathway lowered hepatic glucose production by suppressing p38-mediated FoxO1 nuclear localization.
In the current study, they found CaKMII inhibition suppresses levels of the pseudo-kinase TRB3 to improve Akt-phosphorylation, thereby improving insulin sensitivity.
Thus this single pathway targets “two cardinal features of type 2 diabetes — hyperglycemia and defective insulin signaling,” the researchers wrote.
“When we realized we had one common pathway that was responsible for these two disparate processes that, in essence, comprises all of type 2 diabetes, we though it would be an ideal target for new drug therapy,” Tabas told MedPage Today.
Tabas and colleagues conducted several experiments to evaluate the CaKMII pathway.
In one experiment in obese mice, they found that no matter how CaKMII was knocked out, it led to lower blood glucose levels and lower fasting plasma insulin levels in response to a glucose challenge.
The improvements also occurred when they
  • knocked out downstream processes, including p38 and MAPK-activating protein kinase 2 (MK2).
“Thus liver p38 and MK2, like CaKMII, play an important role in the development of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in obese mice,” they wrote.
In further analyses, the researchers discovered deleting or inhibiting any of these three elements ultimately
  • improved insulin-induced Akt-phosphorylation in obese mice —
  • an important part of improving insulin sensitivity.
And unlike the effects on hepatic glucose production,
  • these changes didn’t occur through effects on FoxO1.
Instead, inhibiting the CaKMII pathway suppressed levels of the pseudo-kinase TRB3, which likely occurred because of
  • suppression of ATF4 — all of which led to an
  • increase in Akt-phosphorylation and insulin sensitivity.
Indeed, when mice were made to overexpress TRB3, the improvement in phosphorylation disappeared, “indicating that
  • the suppression of TRB3 by CaKMII deficiency is
  • causally important in the improvement in insulin signaling,
As a result, there “appear to be two separate CaKMII pathways”,
  1. one involved in CaKMII-p38-FoxO1 dependent hepatic glucose production, and
  2. the other involved in defective insulin-induced p-Akt,
The findings suggest the possibility of a drug that can target
  • both hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes
The authors have started developing such an agent. Although kinases can act very generally, Tabas said he and colleagues are working on
  • an allosteric version that will more specifically target MK2
  • by binding to a site that is unique to this enzyme.
He said this should help to avoid problems with drugs that targeted p38 but ultimately failed, with little efficacy and too many side effects.
The reason for this is now known at a very detailed level –
  • when you inhibit p38 by that mechanism, mainly by inhibiting MK2,
  • you avoid the adverse effects,
“When we realized all of this and had to make a choice [for further development], the obvious choice was MK2.”
  • CaKMII inhibitors are in development for heart failure and
  • MK2 inhibitors are being looked at as an alternative to p38 inhibitors for inflammatory diseases.
Tabas also said the drug may be valuable in treating prediabetes, since early data have suggested that
  • CaKMII is generally overactive in obese patients
  • who have not yet progressed to full blown diabetes, but is not overactive in lean people.
“One of the areas we’re most excited about in potential clinical use is in obese people before they get diabetic,” Tabas told MedPage Today. “There are hundreds of millions of people who are obese but not yet diabetic even though
  • they have the hallmarks that they’re going to get diabetes.”
This recent publication was reported in MedPage Today. [CaKMII overactivity in obesity]  Tabas noted that his group’s early human data “suggest that our pathway is turned on in prediabetes. If we can block that pathway before people get diabetes, it would even be better.”
The study was supported by the NIH, the American Heart Association, the German Center for Cardiovascular Research, the German Ministry of Education and Research, and the European Union.
Tabas and a co-author are among the founders of  Tabomedex Biosciences, which is developing MK2 inhibitors.
Primary source: Cell Metabolism
Source reference: Ozcan L, et al. “Activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in obesity mediates suppression of hepatic insulin signaling” Cell Metab 2013.
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Intracoronary Transplantation of Progenitor Cells after Acute MI

Curators: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

Transcoronary Transplantation of Progenitor Cells after Myocardial Infarction

Birgit Assmus, M.D., Jörg Honold, M.D., Volker Schächinger, M.D., Martina B. Britten, M.D., Ulrich Fischer-Rasokat, M.D., et al.
From the Division of Cardiology and Mo­lecular Cardiology, Department of Medi­cine III (B.A., J.H., V.S., M.B.B., U.F.-R., R.L., C.T., K.P., S.D., A.M.Z.), Division of He­matology, Department of Medicine II (H.M.), and the Department of Diagnos­tic and Interventional Radiology (N.D.A.), Johann Wolfgang Goethe University; and the Institute for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology, Red Cross Blood Donor Service, Baden–Württem-berg–Hessen (T.T.) — both in Frankfurt, Germany.

N Engl J Med 2006;355:1222-32.

Background

Pilot studies suggest that intracoronary transplantation of progenitor cells derived from bone marrow (BMC) or circulating blood (CPC) may improve left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. The effects of cell transplantation in patients with healed myocardial infarction are unknown.

METHODS

After an initial pilot trial involving 17 patients, we randomly assigned, in a controlled crossover study, 75 patients with stable ischemic heart disease who had had a myo­cardial infarction at least 3 months previously to receive either no cell infusion (23 patients) or infusion of CPC (24 patients) or BMC (28 patients) into the patent coro­nary artery supplying the most dyskinetic left ventricular area. The patients in the control group were

  • subsequently randomly assigned to receive CPC or BMC, and
  • the patients who initially received BMC or CPC crossed over to receive CPC or BMC, respectively, at 3 months’ follow-up.

RESULTS

The absolute change in left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly greater among patients receiving BMC (+2.9 percentage points) than among those receiving CPC (−0.4 percentage point, P = 0.003) or no infusion (−1.2 percentage points, P<0.001). The increase in global cardiac function was related to significantly

  • en­hanced regional contractility in the area targeted by intracoronary infusion of BMC.

The crossover phase of the study revealed that intracoronary infusion of BMC was associated with a significant increase in global and regional left ventricular func­tion, regardless of whether patients crossed over from control to BMC or from CPC to BMC.

CONCLUSIONS

Intracoronary infusion of progenitor cells is safe and feasible in patients with healed myocardial infarction. Transplantation of BMC is associated with moderate but significant improvement in the left ventricular ejection fraction after 3 months. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00289822.)

Introduction

HRONIC HEART FAILURE IS COMMON, and its prevalence continues to increase.1 Ischemic heart disease is the principal cause of heart failure.2 Although myocardial salvage due to early reperfusion therapy has significantly re­duced early mortality rates,3

  • postinfarction heart failure resulting from ventricular remodeling re­mains a problem.4

One possible approach to re­versing postinfarction heart failure is

  • enhance­ment of the regeneration of cardiac myocytes as well as
  • stimulation of neovascularization within the infarcted area.

Initial clinical pilot studies have suggested that

  • intracoronary infusion of pro­genitor cells is feasible and may
  • beneficially af­fect postinfarction remodeling processes in pa­tients with acute myocardial infarction.5-9

However, it is currently unknown whether such a treatment strategy may also be associated with

  • improvements in cardiac function in patients with persistent left ventricular dysfunction due to healed myocardial infarction with established scar formation.

Therefore, in the prospective TOPCARE-CHD (Transplantation of Progenitor Cells and Recovery of LV [Left Ventricular] Function in Patients with Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease) trial, we inves­tigated

  • whether intracoronary infusion of pro­genitor cells into the infarct-related artery at least 3 months after myocardial infarction improves global and regional left ventricular function.

Patient Outcome Criteria

The primary end point of the study was the absolute change in global left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) as measured by quantitative left ventricular angiography 3 months after cell infu­sion. Secondary end points included quantitative variables relating to the regional left ventricular function of the target area, as well as left ven­tricular volumes derived from serial left ventric­ular angiograms. In addition, functional status was assessed by NYHA classification. Finally, event-free survival was defined as freedom from death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or rehospi­talization for worsening heart failure. Causes of rehospitalization during follow-up were verified by review of the discharge letters or charts of hospital stays.

DETECTION OF VIABLE MYOCARDIUM

All patients underwent low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography, combined thallium sin­gle-photon-emission computed tomography and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomog­raphy, or both, as previously described.6 It was pos­sible to analyze regional left ventricular viability in 80 patients (87%).

RESULTS

BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PATIENTS

A total of 92 patients were enrolled in the study. Of these, 35 patients received BMC as their ini­tial treatment (in phases 1 and 2 of the trial), 34 patients received CPC (in phases 1 and 2), and 23 patients received no intracoronary cell infu­sion (in phase 2, as the control group). Table 1 illustrates that the three groups of patients were well matched.

EFFECTS OF PROGENITOR-CELL INFUSION

Quantitative Characteristics of Left Ventricular Function

Patients with an adverse clinical event (six), sub­total stenosis of the target vessel at follow-up (three), an intraventricular thrombus precluding performance of left ventricular angiography (one), or atrial flutter or fibrillation at follow-up (one) were excluded from the exploratory analysis. In addition, of the 81 eligible patients, left ventricu­lar angiograms could not be quantitatively ana­lyzed in 4 because of inadequate contrast opaci-fication, in 1 because of ventricular extrasystoles, and in 4 because of the patients’ refusal to un­dergo invasive follow-up. Thus, a total of 72 of 81 serial paired left ventricular angiograms were available for quantitative analysis (28 in the BMC group, 26 in the CPC group, and 18 in the control group).

Table 2 summarizes the angiographic charac­teristics of the 75 patients included in the ran­domized phase of the study. At baseline, the three groups did not differ with respect to global LVEF, the extent or magnitude of regional left ventricu­lar dysfunction, left ventricular volumes, or stroke volumes.

The absolute change in global LVEF from base­line to 3 months did significantly differ among the three groups of patients. Patients receiving BMC had a significantly larger change in LVEF than patients receiving CPC (P = 0.003) and those in the control group (P<0.001). Similar results were ob­tained when patients from the first two phases of the study (the pilot phase and the randomized phase) were pooled. The results did not differ when patients without evidence of viable myo­cardium before inclusion were analyzed sepa­rately. The change in LVEF was −0.3±3.4 percent­age points in the control group (9 patients), +0.4±3.0 percentage points in the CPC group (18 patients), and +3.7±4.0 percentage points in the BMC group (18 patients) (P = 0.02 for the com­parison with the control group and P = 0.02 for the comparison with the CPC group).

In the subgroup of 35 patients who underwent serial assessment of left ventricular function by MRI, MRI-derived global LVEF increased signifi­cantly, by 4.8±6.0% (P = 0.03) among those receiv­ing BMC (11 patients) and by 2.8±5.2% (P = 0.02) among those receiving CPC (20 patients), where­as no change was observed in 4 control patients (P = 0.14). Thus, MRI-derived assessment of left ventricular function further corroborated the re­sults obtained from the total patient population.

Analysis of regional left ventricular function revealed that BMC treatment significantly in­creased contractility in the center of the left ven­tricular target area (Table 2). Likewise, MRI-derived regional analysis of left ventricular function re­vealed that the number of hypocontractile seg­ments was significantly reduced, from 10.1±3.6 to 8.7±3.6 segments (P = 0.02), and the number of normocontractile segments significantly in­creased, from 3.8±4.5 to 5.4±4.6 segments (P = 0.01), in the BMC group, whereas no significant changes were observed in the CPC group. MRI-derived infarct size, as measured by late enhance­ment volume normalized to left ventricular mass, remained constant both in the CPC group (25± 18% at baseline and 23±14% at 3 months,13 patients) and in the BMC group (20±10% at both time points, 9 patients). Thus, taken together, the data suggest that intracoronary infusion of BMC is associated with significant improvements in global and regional left ventricular contractile function among patients with persistent left ven­tricular dysfunction due to prior myocardial in­farction.

To identify independent predictors of improved global LVEF, a stepwise multivariate regression analysis was performed; it included classic deter­minants of LVEF as well as various baseline characteristics of the three groups (Table 3). The multivariate analysis identified the type of pro­genitor cell infused and the baseline stroke vol­ume as the only statistically significant indepen­dent predictors of LVEF recovery.

Functional Status

The functional status of the patients, as assessed by NYHA classification, improved significantly in the BMC group (from 2.23±0.6 to 1.97±0.7, P = 0.005). It did not improve significantly either in the CPC group (class, 2.16±0.8 at baseline and 1.93±0.8 at 3 months; P = 0.13) or in the control group (class, 1.91±0.7 and 2.09±0.9, respectively; P = 0.27).

RANDOMIZED CROSSOVER PHASE

Of the 24 patients who initially were randomly assigned to CPC infusion, 21 received BMC at the time of their first follow-up examination. Likewise, of the 28 patients who initially were randomly assigned to BMC infusion,

  • 24 received CPC after 3 months.

Of the 23 patients of the control group, 10 patients received CPC and 11 received BMC at their reexamination at 3 months (Fig. 1). As illustrated in Figure 2, regardless of whether patients received BMC as initial treatment, as crossover treatment after CPC infusion, or as crossover treatment after no cell infusion,

  • glob­al LVEF increased significantly after infusion of BMC. In contrast,
  • CPC treatment did not significantly alter LVEF when given either before or after BMC.

Thus, the intrapatient comparison of the dif­ferent treatment strategies not only documents the superiority of intracoronary infusion of BMC over the infusion of CPC for improving global left ventricular function, but also corroborates our findings in the analysis of data according to initial treatment assignment. The

  • preserved im­provement in cardiac function observed among patients who initially received BMC treatment and
  • then crossed over to CPC treatment demon­strates that the initially achieved differences in cardiac function persisted for at least 6 months after intracoronary infusion of BMC.
 Table 1. Baseline Characteristics of the Patients.* (not copied)  

Table 2. Quantitative Variables Pertaining to Left Ventricular Function, as Assessed by Left Ventricular Angiography.*

copy protected

Figure 2. Absolute Change in Quantitative Global Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) during the Crossover Phase of the Trial.

Data at 3 and 6 months are shown for all patients crossing over from BMC to CPC infusion (18 patients), from CPC to BMC infusion
(18 patients), and from no cell infusion to either CPC infusion (10 patients) or BMC infusion (11 patients). I bars represent standard
errors.

Table 3. Stepwise Linear Regression Analysis for Predictors of Improvement in Global Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.*

Variable Nonstandardized Coefficient B

95% CI for B

P Value

Treatment group

1.49

0.53 to 2.46

0.003
Baseline stroke volume

−0.13

−0.22 to –0.05

0.002
No. of cardiovascular risk factors 0.76
Time since most recent MI 0.48
Concomitant PCI 0.60
Age 0.82
Baseline ejection fraction 0.72
Baseline end-diastolic volume 0.88

* Values are shown only for significant differences. MI denotes myocardial infarc­tion, and PCI percutaneous coronary intervention. For the overall model, the ad­justed R2 was 0.29; P<0.001 by analysis of variance.

 

DISCUSSION

Intrapatient comparison in the crossover phase of the trial rules out the possibility that differences in the patient populations studied may have affected outcomes. However, the mechanisms involved in mediating improved contractile function after intracoronary progenitor-cell infusion are not well understood.

Experimentally, although there is no definitive proof that cardiac myocytes may be regenerated, BMC were shown to contribute to functional re­covery of left ventricular contraction when in­jected into freshly infarcted hearts,13-15 whereas CPC profoundly stimulated ischemia-induced neovascularization.16,17 Both cell types were shown to prevent cardiomyocyte apoptosis and reduce the development of myocardial fibrosis and there­by improve cardiac function after acute myocar­dial infarction.18,19 Indeed, in our TOPCARE-AMI (Transplantation of Progenitor Cells and Regen­eration Enhancement in Acute Myocardial Infarc­tion) studies,6,7,9 intracoronary infusion of CPC was associated with functional improvements similar to those found with the use of BMC im­mediately after myocardial infarction. In the cur­rent study, however, which involved patients who had had a myocardial infarction at least 3 months before therapy,

  • transcoronary adminis­tration of CPC was significantly inferior to administration of BMC in altering global left ven­tricular function.

CPC obtained from patients with chronic ischemic heart disease show pro­found functional impairments,20,21 which might limit their recruitment, after intracoronary infu­sion, into chronically reperfused scar tissue many months or years after myocardial infarction. Thus, additional studies in which larger numbers of functionally enhanced CPC are used will be re­quired to increase the response to intracoronary infusion of CPC.

The magnitude of the improvement after in-tracoronary infusion of BMC, with absolute increases in global LVEF of approximately 2.9 percentage points according to left ventricular angiography and 4.8 percentage points accord­ing to MRI, was modest. However, it should be noted that the improvement in LVEF occurred in the setting of full conventional pharmacologic treatment: more than 90% of the patients were receiving beta-blocker and angiotensin-convert-ing–enzyme inhibitor treatment. Moreover, results from trials of contemporary reperfusion for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, which is regarded as the most effective treatment strat­egy for improving left ventricular contractile per­formance after ischemic injury, have reported in­creases in global LVEF of 2.8% (in the CADILLAC [Controlled Abciximab and Device Investigation to Lower Late Angioplasty Complications] trial) and 4.1% (in the ADMIRAL [Abciximab before Direct Angioplasty and Stenting in Myocardial Infarction Regarding Acute and Long-Term Fol­low-up] trial).22,23

The number of patients, as well as the dura­tion of follow-up, is not sufficient to address the question of whether the moderate improvement in LVEF associated with one-time intracoronary BMC infusion is associated with reduced mortal­ity and morbidity among patients with heart fail­ure secondary to previous myocardial infarction. We conclude that intracoronary infusion of BMC is associated with persistent improvements in regional and global left ventricular function and improved functional status among patients who have had a myocardial infarction at least 3 months previously. Given the reasonable short-term safety profile of this therapeutic ap­proach, studies on a larger scale are warranted to examine its potential effects on morbidity and mortality among patients with postinfarction heart failure.

REFERENCES (1-8/23)

  1. 2001 Heart and stroke statistical up­date. Dallas: American Heart Association, 2000.
  2. Braunwald E. Cardiovascular medicine at the turn of the millennium: triumphs, concerns, and opportunities. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1360-9.
  3. Lange RA, Hillis LD. Reperfusion ther­apy in acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2002;346:954-5.
  4. Sutton MG, Sharpe N. Left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction: pathophysiology and therapy. Circulation 2000;101:2981-8.
  5. Strauer BE, Brehm M, Zeus T, et al. Re­pair of infarcted myocardium by autologous intracoronary mononuclear bone marrow cell transplantation in humans. Circula­tion 2002;106:1913-8.
  6. Assmus B, Schachinger V, Teupe C, et al. Transplantation of Progenitor Cells and Regeneration Enhancement in Acute Myo­cardial Infarction (TOPCARE-AMI). Circu­lation 2002;106:3009-17.
  7. Britten MB, Abolmaali ND, Assmus B, et al. Infarct remodeling after intra-coronary progenitor cell treatment in pa­tients with acute myocardial infarction (TOPCARE-AMI): mechanistic insights from serial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation 2003;108: 2212-8.
  8. Wollert KC, Meyer GP, Lotz J, et al. In-tracoronary autologous bone-marrow cell transfer after myocardial infarction: the BOOST randomised controlled clinical trial. Lancet 2004;364:141-8.

 

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Neoangiogenic Effect of Grafting an Acellular 3-Dimensional Collagen Scaffold Onto Myocardium

Author: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

and

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

This is Part 3 of a series of contributions on cardiac regeneration after myocardial infarct with stem cells.

Progenitor Cell Transplant for MI and Cardiogenesis (Part 1)
Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013-10-27/larryhbern/Progenitor-Cell-Transplant-for-MI,-and-cardiogenesis/

Source of Stem Cells to Ameliorate Damage Myocardium (Part 2)
Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013-10-29/larryhbern/Source_of_Stem_Cells_to_Ameliorate_ Damaged_Myocardium/

An Acellular 3-Dimensional Collagen Scaffold  Induces Neo-angiogenesis (Part 3)
Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013-10-29/larryhbern/An_Acellular_3-Dimensional_Collagen_Scaffold _Induces_Neo-angiogenesis/

This series of articles discusses the difficulties we have encountered in adopting stem cell research to clinical therapeutics in regeneration of cardiac tissue damaged post myocardial infarct.  Enormous problems have been encountered in the selection of progenitor cells, the growth into compatible and functional myocardial tissue, and the survival of the myocardium.  Part I went into some detail on a method of obtaining suitable cells, growing them in sheets, and transferring the sheets to the surface for regeneration and repair, which is now going into clinical trials.  Part I will be confined to the importance of source of progenitor cells, whether adult stem cells or umbilical cord blood.

These are issues that need to be considered

  • Adult stem cells
  • Umbilical cord tissue sourced cells
  • Sheets of stem cells
  • Available arterial supply at the margins
  • Infarct diameter
  • Depth of ischemic necrosis
  • Distribution of stroke pressure
  • Stroke volume
  • Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)
  • Location of infarct
  • Ratio of myocytes to fibrocytes
  • Coexisting heart disease and, or
  • Comorbidities predisposing to cardiovascular disease, hypertension
  • Inflammatory reaction against the graft

Despite successes in pre-clinical animal models with stem cells, a problem arises with respect to the biology of the transplanted progenitor cells.  In Part II, we discovered that neo-angiogenesis occurs without evidence of myocyte generation.  That is the topic we discuss here.

Grafting an Acellular 3-Dimensional Collagen Scaffold Onto a Non-transmural Infarcted Myocardium Induces Neo-angiogenesis and Reduces Cardiac Remodeling

MA Gaballa,a JNE Sunkomat,a H Thai,a,b E Morkin,a G Ewy,a and S Goldman,a,b
From the aSection of Cardiology, University of Arizona Sarver Heart Center, Tucson, Arizona and bSouthern Arizona Veterans Administration Health Care System, Tucson, Arizona.
J Heart Lung Transplant 2006; 25: 946–54.

Background: This study was designed to determine whether tissue engineering could be used to reduce ventricular remodeling in a rat model of non-transmural, non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

Methods: We grafted an acellular 3-dimensional (3D) collagen type 1 scaffold (solid porous foam) onto infarcted myocardium in rats. Three weeks after grafting, the scaffold was integrated into the myocardium and retarded cardiac remodeling by reducing left ventricular (LV) dilation. The LV inner and outer diameters, measured at the equator at zero LV pressure, decreased (p < 0.05) from 11,040 ± 212 to 9,144 ± 135 pm, and 13,469 ± 187 to 11,673 ± 104 pm (N = 12), after scaffold transplantation onto infarcted myocardium. The scaffold also shifted the LV pressure–volume curve to the left toward control and induced neo-angiogenesis (700 ± 25 vs 75 ± 11 neo-vessels/cm2, N = 5, p < 0.05). These vessels (75 ± 11%) ranged in diameter from 25 to 100 pm and connected to the native coronary vasculature. Systemic treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), 50 pg/kg/day for 5 days immediately after myocardial injury, increased (p < 0.05) neo-vascular density from 700 ± 25 to 978 ± 57 neo-vessels/cm2.

Conclusions: A 3D collagen type 1 scaffold grafted onto an injured myocardium induced neo-vessel formation and reduced LV remodeling. Treatment with G-CSF further increased the number of vessels in the myocardium, possibly due to mobilization of bone marrow cells.

Introduction

Despite advances in the treatment of heart failure after myocardial infarction, the incidence and prevalence of this disease is increasing steadily. This is due in part to recent advances in treatment of the acute ischemic event; however, even when patients survive a large myocardial infarction, they are left with damaged ventricles, often leading to heart failure without another ischemic event. Cardiomyocytes may not possess sufficient regenerative capacity after birth because loss of these cells in the acute setting results in a fibrous scar and associated regional contractile dysfunction. Transplantation of exogenous cardiac or stem/progenitor cells has been proposed as treatment for heart failure.1,2 Despite the apparent success of stem-cell therapy, there are conflicting reports about the fate of these cells and their effects on cardiac function.3–6 Previous studies in tissue engineering show that grafting an alginate or collagen scaffold seeded with either fetal cardiomyocytes or fibroblasts on injured myocardium induces neovascularization, but the morphology of these new vessels is abnormal.7–9 Our hypothesis is that grafting of a biodegradable 3D collagen type 1 scaffold onto infarcted rat myocardium would provide temporary mechanical support for the ventricular wall, induce neovascularization, and reduce cardiac remodeling.

We used the cryoinjury approach to create a model of a non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NON-STEMI). Our model of a relatively small non-transmural injury is similar to what is seen clinically in patients with acute ischemic injury. We speculate that the scaffold provides an initial mechanical support to retard myocardial dila¬tion after acute MI and a later collateralization between native viable blood vessels in the injured myocardium and the newly formed vessels within the scaffold. Because mobilization of progenitor/stem cells using granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported to increase vascularization and improve car diac function after MI,10 G-CSF treatment is performed at the time of grafting to further enhance neo-vascular-ization in our model. This study was designed as a “proof of concept” with the ultimate clinical goal to surgically graft a matrix onto the heart in patients with acute MI. This could be done using a minimally invasive approach, such as video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) with or without robotics.

METHODS

Six-month-old adult male Fisher 344 rats (inbred strain) were used in this study.6 Fifty infarcted and 10 non-injured rats were used. Six groups of rats were studied:
(1) sham (n = 5);
(2) cryoinjury (n = 14);
(3) sham scaffold (n = 5);
(4) infarction scaffold (n = 12);
(5) infarction G-CSF (n = 12); and
(6) infarction scaffold G-CSF (n = 12).

Scaffolds were grafted immediately after cryoinjury. Six weeks after grafting –

  • hemodynamics,
  • LV pressure–volume,
  • vascular density,
  • immunohistochemistry and
  • LV remodeling measurements were performed.

The experimental protocol was carried out as described in what follows.

Experimental Myocardial Infarction Model

Myocardial infarction was produced as previously de-scribed.11 In brief, after anesthesia with ketamine, xylazine, acepromazine and atropine, a left lateral thoracotomy was performed through the third and fourth intercostal space. A 4-mm stainless-steel probe was submersed in liquid nitrogen and placed on the LV free-wall for 10 seconds. The heart was assessed visibly for viability, and the injury procedure was repeated once at the same site. Before closing the chest, the collagen scaffold was engrafted onto the injured myocardium as described in what follows. The lungs were inflated, the chest was closed, and the animal was allowed to recover. In the sham rats the chest was opened but the cold probe was not placed on the myocardium.

Grafting of 3D Collagen Type 1 Scaffold

Immediately after infarction, while the chest was still open, the scaffold was sutured to the injured myocardium at four different points along the outer boundary of the scaffold. The scaffold, a circular collagen type 1 foam disk 5 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm in thickness (Suwelack Co., Billerback, Germany), was prepared from porcine skin collagen. The scaffold is highly flexible with a porosity of 70% and an average pore diameter of 30 to 60 m as determined by scanning electron microscopy. Di-isocyanate was used to elimi-nate toxic residue after cross-linking, which is common with the use of glutaraldhyde polymers. Before engrafting, the scaffold was washed with distilled water, allowed to dry overnight, treated with rat serum, and again allowed to dry overnight.

Cytokine Treatment

Immediately after scaffold grafting, rats in Groups 5 and 6 received subcutaneous injection of G-CSF (50 g/kg/ day; Amgen Biologicals) for 5 days. Control rats and Groups 2 and 4 were treated with saline. Rats were studied 6 weeks after grafting.

All of the following measurements were performed at 6 weeks after grafting and in all groups, unless otherwise specified.

Hemodynamics

Six weeks after grafting, rats were anesthetized with inactin (100 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) and placed on a specially equipped operating table with a heating pad to maintain constant body temperature. After endotracheal intubation and placement on a rodent ventilator (Harvard Instruments), a 2F solid-state micromanometer-tipped catheter with two pressure sensors (Millar) was inserted via the right femoral artery, with one sensor located in the left ventricle and another in the ascending aorta. The pressure sensor was equilibrated in 37°C saline before obtaining baseline pressure measurements. After a period of stabilization, LV and aortic pressures and heart rate were recorded and digitized at a rate of 1,000 Hz using a PC equipped with an analog-to-digital converter and customized soft-ware. From these data, LV dP/dt was calculated.

Left Ventricular Pressure–Volume Relationships

Six weeks after grafting and after completing the hemodynamic measurements, LV pressure–volume relations were measured in four randomly selected rats from each group as outlined in our previous publications.12 In brief, a catheter, consisting of PE-90 tubing with telescoped PE-10 tubing inside and a water-filled bal-loon attached, was inserted in the left ventricle via the left atrial appendage. Previous testing of the balloon showed essentially infinite compliance up to 0.68 ml of volume; thus, all LV infusions were kept at 0.68 ml. One end of the double-lumen LV catheter was con-nected to a volume infusion pump (Harvard Apparatus) while the other end was connected to a pressure transducer zeroed at the level of the heart. A drainage tube was also placed in the LV cavity, and the right ventricle was partially incised to prevent loading on the LV. After 2 minutes of perfusion with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), the LV was filled (0.6 ml/min) and unfilled while pressure was recorded onto a physiologic recorder (Gould). Volume infused is a function of filling rate. The ventricle was infused to 60 mm Hg for all experiments and recordings were done in triplicate.

Communication Between the Newly Formed Vessels Within the Scaffold and Native Vessels in Surviving Myocardium

To determine whether the newly formed vessels within the scaffold were connected to the native circulation in the surviving myocardium, isolated hearts were perfused with Evans blue at the aortic root. In brief, the hearts were perfused at 100 mm Hg with PBS just to clear the blood from the coronary circulation. The hearts were then perfused at 100 mm Hg with 4 mg/ml Evans blue in PBS for 30 seconds. Standard 35-mm photographs were taken within the first 1 to 1.5 minutes after starting Evans blue perfusion. The hearts were than washed with PBS and used for morphologic and histologic analysis as described in what follows.

Morphology, Histology and Immunohistochemistry

LV remodeling (morphology).
After completing all the aforementioned measurements, the hearts were per-fused-fixed with glutaraldhyde at 100 mm Hg via the coronary circulation at zero LV pressure. In the in-farcted group, the lesion area, which is slightly larger than the steel-probe cross-sectional area, was visually measured using standard techniques developed in our laboratory to measure infarct size.13,14 However, in the infarction scaffold groups, it was difficult to measure the lesion area 6 weeks after grafting because the scaffolds were absorbed by the heart tissue and it was difficult to distinguish between the scaffold tissue and the scarred area. Each heart was cut in the short axis to five segments from the apex to the base. The inner and outer diameters were measured in the segment located at the short-axis equator using a computer attached to a digital camera.14
Vascular density within the scaffold.
The perfused-fixed hearts were dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. Five-micron-thick transverse sections, which included the scaffold, were processed for hematoxylin–eosin staining. Selected sections were stained using Factor VIII–like antigen (von Willebrand factor) to identify the endothelial cells. Sections were re-hydrated and antigen retrieval was accomplished by incubation twice in 10 mmol/liter citric acid (pH 6.0) at 95°C for 5 minutes. Endogenous peroxidase activities were removed by incubation for 10 minutes in a PBS solution containing 0.6% H2O2. Slides were incubated with primary antibody and biotinylated rabbit anti-rat IgG (Dako) as secondary antibody. After rinsing with PBS, 0.05% diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride and 0.01% hydrogen peroxide were applied for 5 minutes and washed with water. Muscle sections were examined for positive (brown color) staining. Vascular density was measured by light microscopy at x40 magnification. The number of cross-section vessels per field was counted. Average measurements from six different fields were recorded for each value. Knowing the area of the optical field, data were reported as number of vessels/mm2.
Vascular smooth muscle cells.
Vascular smooth muscle cells were detected by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis in selected myocardial sections, using antibody directed against -smooth-muscle actin (M0951, Dako).15 Tissue fixation and antibody incubation and detection were performed as described earlier for the vascular density measurements.

Cardiac myocytes.

To determine whether the cells that migrated into the scaffold exhibit a cardiomyocyte-like phenotype, myocardial sections including the scaffold were incubated with mouse monoclonal IgGs primary antibody against either sarcomeric myosin heavy chain, MF20 (1:100 dilution, hybridoma supernatant; Hybrid-oma Bank, University of Iowa) or cardiac troponin T-C (Santa Cruz Biotechnology). Immunostaining on deparaffinized sections was performed using peroxidase standard protocols (as described earlier).

Statistical Analysis

Data are presented as mean +/- SD.  p  < 0.05 indicates statistical significance. For Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, a 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA; injury and scaffold-graft¬ing as the 2 factors) was performed, followed by multiple comparisons using Student–Newman–Keuls test. A second 2-way ANOVA (scaffold grafting and G-CSF treatment as the 2 factors), followed by multiple comparisons using Student–Newman–Keuls test, was performed on Groups 2, 4, 5 and 6.

RESULTS

A total of 50 infarcted and 10 non-infarcted rats were used in this study. Immediately after injury, the 3D collagen type 1 scaffold was grafted onto the infarcted myocardium. All major findings of this study were obtained at 6 weeks after scaffold grafting. In a small sub-set of animals, the scaffold was examined at 3 weeks after grafting and was found to be integrated (i.e., attached to the underlying myocardium), not only at the four suture points along the perimeter of the scaffold, but also in the middle section of the scaffold (n =2). Six weeks after grafting, when all subsequent measurements were obtained, the scaffold was mostly absorbed by the underlying myocardial tissue and the distinction between the scaffold tissue and the underlying scar became difficult to identify (n = 36).

Hemodynamics and LV Remodeling After Scaffold Grafting

Non-transmural injury resulted in LV dilation. Six weeks after infarction the LV lumen and the outer diameters, measured at the equator at zero LV pressure, were increased (p < 0.05) from 8,726 ± 189 to 11,041 ± 212 um, and 12,006 ± 99 to 13,469 ± 189 um, respectively (N = 12). Six weeks after scaffold transplantation onto infarcted myocardium, reduced myocardial dilation was detected. The LV inner lumen diameter (Di) and the outer diameter (Do) measured at the short-axis equator at zero LV pressure were decreased from 11,041 ± 212 to 9,144 ± 135 um (N = 12, p < 0.05) and from 13,469 ± 187 to 11,673 ± 104 um (N = 12, p < 0.05), respectively. The scaffold also improved cardiac remodeling by shifting of the LV pressure–volume curve to the left toward the sham (control) curve (Figure 1). In this study, the extent of damage by cryoinjury was small, with no changes in hemodynamic parameters in the injured rats with or without the scaffold at 6 weeks after grafting. Specifically, there were no changes  (nopt shown)

  • in LV end-diastolic pressure,
  • mean arterial pressure or
  • LV dP/dt (Table 1).

Figure 1. Pressure–volume curves for the four groups

Figure 1. Pressure–volume curves for the four groups. Solid line: treatment group (infarcted rats with collagen scaffold); dashed line: untreated sham and sham treated with collagen scaffold; dotted line: untreated infarcted groups (cryoinjury). The curve for sham with collagen scaffold is superimposed upon the untreated sham curve. Note that, 6 weeks after transplantation, the P-V curve is shifted to the left. N = 4 for each group. *p < 0.05.

Induction of Large Vessel Formation 6 Weeks After 3D Collagen Type 1 Scaffold Transplantation

Six weeks after grafting the collagen scaffold onto the infarcted myocardium, large vessels within the graft were observed (Figure 2A). These vessels differed from the typical angiogenesis achieved during wound heal¬ing, which is characterized by thin-walled, leaky vessels (Figure 2B). Vascular density was measured by counting the number of Factor VIII positively stained cells (Figure 3). This microscopic evaluation was carried out by a histologist without knowledge of the intervention. The scaffold induced neo-angiogenesis (700 ± 25 vs 75 ± 11 neo-vessels/cm2, N = 5). These vessels (75 ± 11%) ranged in diameter from 25 to 100 um. Note the presence of mural cells within the vessel wall, which were positive for a-smooth-muscle actin (Figure 4). Finally, the scaffold transplantation onto infarcted hearts decreased (p < 0.05) the scar area (12 ± 3% vs 21 ± 8%, N = 8) compared with infarction alone. However, it was difficult to distinguish the scar tissue from the scaffold at 6 weeks after grafting.

Figure 2. Engrafted scaffold showing vessels

Figure 2. (A) High magnification (original magnification 40) of the H&E stain of the engrafted scaffold showing large vessel (arrows). These vessels are thick-walled and have multiple cell layers. (B) Same magnification as (A) of the H&E staining of infarcted myocardium without the scaffold. Note that the ischemia-induced vascularization is characterized by thin-walled vessels.

Figure 3.  Neovascularization in scaffold

Figure 3. (A) A typical Factor VII staining for endothelial cells in cryoinjured heart with scaffold shows neo-vascularization in the scaffold (top) at 6 weeks after grating onto native myocardium (bottom). (B) A different field from the same section.

Figure 4. Smooth muscle actin staining

Figure 4. Vascular a-smooth-muscle actin staining. (A) Native (non-injured) myocardium (control). (B) Scaffold. Brown staining within the neo-vessels indicates the presence of mural cells 6 weeks after grafting.

Effects of Cytokine Treatment on Vessel Formation 6 Weeks After Scaffold Engraftment

Comparing infarcted + scaffold to infarcted + scaffold + G-CSF rats, systemic treatment with G-CSF 50 ug/kg/ day for 5 days started immediately after cryoinjury increased (p < 0.05) neo-vascular density within the scaffold from 700 ± 25 to 978 ± 57 neo-vessels/mm2 (Figure 5). No effects were observed for systemic treatment with G-CSF in LV remodeling or pressure– volume (P-V) curves when infarcted + scaffold + G-CSF were compared with untreated infarcted + scaffold rats.

Figure 5. Effects of scaffold grafting with and without G-CSF

Figure 5. Effects of scaffold grafting, with and without G-CSF administration, on vascular density. Vascular density increased by 8-fold with the scaffold alone and by 40% with scaffold and G-CSF treatment. *p < 0.05 infarcted scaffold compared with infarcted alone. **p < 0.05 infarcted scaffold G-CSF compared with infarcted scaffold. N  = 5 for each group.

Communication Between Newly Formed Vessels Within the Scaffold and Native Coronary Circulation

In both infarcted + scaffold and cryoinjured + scaffold + G-CSF groups, 6 weeks after grafting, isolated hearts, perfused with Evans blue at the aortic root, showed that the newly formed vessels within the scaffold were connected to the native vessels in the surviving myo-cardium, as indicated by the presence of blue dye within the scaffold (Figure 6B). To confirm if the newly formed vessels within the scaffold are connected to the native coronary circulation, hearts perfused with Evans blue were sectioned (5 um), hematoxylin–eosin (H&E)-stained, and examined under a fluorescence micros-copy. Evans blue showed red under fluorescence (white arrows, Figure 7).

Figure 6. coronary artery prfusion of isolated hearts

Figure 6. Coronary artery perfusion of isolated hearts with Evans blue. (A) Infarcted heart without scaffold (control). (B) Infarcted heart with scaffold. Note the neovasculature within the scaffold that perfuses blue, indicating a connection to the coronary arteries.

not shown

Figure 7. Micrographs showing Evans blue within myocardial vessels (white arrows, red color). H&E myocardial sections examined under fluorescence microscopy (original magnification 40). (A) Non-infarcted myocardium. (B) 3D scaffold.

Induction of Myofibril-like Tissue Within the Scaffold 6 Weeks After Scaffold Engraftment

Six weeks after collagen scaffold grafting onto infarcted myocardium and after treatment with G-CSF for 5 days, there was some evidence of a limited number of myofibril-like cells identified within the scaffold (Figure 8A). These myofibril-like cells were positive for the sarcomeric myosin heavy chain antibody (Figure 8A), MF20 (Hybridoma Bank, University of Iowa) and car-diac troponin T-C (sc-8121, Santa Cruz Biotechnology; Figure 8B). In that section, where these myofibril-like cells are found, there was < 0.01% per field.

Figure 8. cardiac myofibril bundle in scaffold

Figure 8. (A) Detection of cardiac myofibril bundle within the scaffold (left) by MF20 (A) and cardiac troponin T (B) immunohistochemical staining (brown, arrows) in the infarcted scaffold groups. Native myocardium is shown on the right. (C) Control staining for sham rats (uninjured myocardium).

DISCUSSION

In the present study we have shown that, in the presence of a non-transmural MI:

(1) grafting of a 3D extracellular matrix scaffold onto injured myocardium results in neo-vascularization and reduces cardiac re-modeling;

(2) mobilization of bone marrow cells using cytokine treatment further increases this neo-vascularization; and

(3) the resulting vasculature consists of large vessels, which are connected to the native coronary circulation in the surviving myocardium.

The further increase in neo-vascularization by G-CSF treatment suggests that bone marrow cells may contribute to this process. This report shows that, as a “proof of principle,” it is possible to graft a biodegradable scaffold matrix onto an injured heart to promote neo-vascularization and to possibly provide a stable platform in which circulating and/or resident progenitor cells can flourish.
We used an infarcted non-transmural MI model to examine neovascularization at the early stages of an ischemic injury that occurs without severe hemodynamic insult. The clinical correlate of our model is the non–ST-elevation MI (NON-STEMI). Interestingly, similar to our experimental model, in this clinical infarction model

  • there is LV remodeling with chamber dilation without changes in hemodynamics.

The finding that the collagen scaffold prevents this remodeling suggests that this type of approach may have a role in the treatment of early stages of ischemic injury.
Our extracellular matrix scaffold

  • induced large vessels containing vascular smooth muscle cells as evidenced by α-smooth-muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive staining.

These data differ from a previous report, which showed that grafting a scaffold based on a 3D human fibroblast patch on infarcted myocardium induced thin-walled vessels.8 The difference between these two approaches may be due in part to the scaffold itself. The scaffold we used is highly flexible with a moderate pore size (30 to 60 m) and high porosity (70%), thus allowing for cell attachment, migration, delivery of nutrients and waste removal. It also has the advantage that cells and/or growth factors can be delivered in a controlled setting before grafting. More importantly, cyclic stretch applied to the scaffold in vivo, during the cardiac cycle, may help explain the induction of large vessels within the scaffold.
In our NON-STEMI model, adverse remodeling occurs without major hemodynamic insult. The grafted scaffold

  • prevents LV dilation and thinning of the infarcted myocardium.

Preservation of LV geometry may be the main mechanism of the improved P-V relationship after grafting. The scaffold may act as a temporary mechanical support for the injured ventricular wall. Theoretically, the scaffold could also act as a homing site for the injury-mobilized cells that may reduce cardiac remodeling by induction of neovascularization. This is consistent with a previous report in which neovascularization has been suggested to improve cardiac remodeling and function.16
Several different types of myocyte preparations have been directly injected into the myocardium, such as

  • smooth muscle cells,
  • skeletal muscle cells and
  • satellite skeletal muscle cells,

all of which have been shown to enhance cardiac function.

  1. autologous transplantation of skeletal muscle has been shown to reverse LV remodeling.17–19
    1. this approach has been complicated by the induction of arrhythmias that may be due to the lack of electromechanical coupling between the injected skeletal muscle cells and the native myocardium.20
    2. repopulate the infarcted myocardium by direct injection with the patient’s own bone marrow progenitor cells.2,21–23

While these reports have even led to preliminary clinical trials,23 the fate of exogenously delivered cells directly into the myocardium is still unclear.5,6 It is beyond the scope of this report to reconcile this debate. Recently, intramyocardial transplantation of a pouch containing a mixture of collagen type 1 gel and embryonic stem cells was reported to restore infarcted myocardium.24 The approach outlined here for the heart is analogous to the reports of bone marrow cells contributing to the endothelialization of vascular autografts.25
In the present study, we grafted a 3D collagen type 1 scaffold onto the myocardium immediately after cryoinjury. This model was purposely chosen over infarction by coronary artery ligation because cryoinjury with our technique creates a well-defined, non-transmural, reproducible, similarly sized scar every time, as opposed to the coronary ligation model, in which the infarct size is transmural and variable depending upon how proximal the ligature is on the coronary artery. Cryoinjury also results in a non-transmural necrosis, potentially

  • allowing the still-viable native circulation in the surviving myocardium underneath the scar to connect to the newly formed vessels within the scaffold.

The scaffold was applied soon after infarction because we believe that injury is a strong stimulus for recruiting cells into the scaffold in vivo. After acute MI, mRNA expressions of cytokines, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), flk-1 and flt-1, are elevated initially throughout the entire heart.27 Our finding of increased density of neo-vessels in the infarcted myocardium with the scaffold is consistent with data showing that the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells increases after myocardial injury.28
The fact that we could increase the level of neovascularization with G-CSF suggests that mobilization of bone marrow cells and possible migration to the injured myocardium may be responsible for the increase in neovascularization. Although this relationship has not been directly tested in the current study, it is consistent with previous studies demonstrating that exogenous administration of cytokines such as VEGF, stromal cell–derived factor (SDF-1) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1)

  1. increase the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells,
  2. their recruitment to sites of active inflammation, and
  3. induction of angiogenesis.29,30

Taken together, this study has shown that a 3D collagen type 1 scaffold immediately grafted onto an acutely injured myocardium

  • integrates with the tissue;
  • allows for cell population,
  • growth and differentiation;
  • induces large-vessel formation within the graft; and
  • retards LV remodeling.

The further increase in neovascularization after cytokine treatment with G-CSF suggests that mobilized bone marrow cells contribute to this process. Several pre-clinical and clinical trials reported beneficial effects of cell-based therapy after MI. However, due to lack of standardization (i.e., different cell type, cell number, route of administration, etc.) in both clinical and pre-clinical studies, the efficacy of these trials is still unclear. We have shown that grafting of a biodegradable scaffold may be an effective approach for cardiac re-vascularization. Our scaffold could provide a supporting structure with the appropriate milieu for new blood vessel growth.

REFERENCES

1. Sunkomat JN, Gaballa MA. Stem cell therapy in ischemic heart disease. Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2003;21:327–42.

2. Orlic D, Kajstura J, Chimenti S, et al. Bone marrow cells regenerate infarcted myocardium. Nature 2001;410:701–5.

3. Murry CE, Soonpaa MH, Reinecke H, et al. Haematopoi-etic stem cells do not transdifferentiate into cardiac myocytes in myocardial infarcts. Nature 2004;428:664–8.

4. Balsam LB, Wagers AJ, Christensen JL, et al. Haematopoi-etic stem cells adopt mature haematopoietic fates in ischaemic myocardium. Nature 2004;428:668–73.

5. Zhang M, Methot D, Poppa V, Fujio Y, Walsh K, Murry CE. Cardiomyocyte grafting for cardiac repair: graft cell death and anti-death strategies. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2001;33:907–21.

6. Kajstura J, Rota M, Whang B, et al. Bone marrow cells differentiate in cardiac cell lineages after infarction inde-pendently of cell fusion. Circ Res 2005;96:127–37.

7. Leo J, Aboulafia-Etzion S, Dar A, et al. Bioengineered cardiac grafts: a new approach to repair the infarcted myocardium? Circulation 2000;102(suppl III):III-56–61.

8. Kellar RS, Landeen LK, Shepherd BR, Naughtom GK, Ratcliffe A, Willams SK. Scaffold-based 3-D human fibro¬blast culture provides a structural matrix that support angiogenesis in infarcted heart tissue. Circulation 2001; 104:2063–8.

9. Nugent HM, Edelman ER. Tissue engineering therapy for cardiovascular disease. Circ Res 2003;92:1068–78.

10. Orlic D, Kajstura J, Chimenti S, et al. Mobilized bone marrow cells repair the infarcted heart, improving function and survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001;98:10344–9.

11. Li RK, Jia ZQ, Weisel RD, et al. Cardiomyocyte transplan¬tation improves heart function. Ann Thorac Surg 1996; 62:654–61.

12. Raya TE, Gaballa M, Anderson P, Goldman S. Left ventric¬ular function and remodeling after myocardial infarction in aging rats. Am J Physiol 1997;273:H2652–8.

13. Gaballa MA, Raya TE, Goldman S. Large artery remodeling after myocardial infarction. Am J Physiol 1995;268: H2092–3.

 

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Progenitor Cell Transplant for MI and Cardiogenesis  (Part 1

Author and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP
and
Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
This article is Part I of a review of three perspectives on stem cell transplantation onto a substantial size of infarcted myocardium to generate cardiogenesis in tissue that is composed of both repair fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes, after essentially nontransmural myocardial infarct.

Progenitor Cell Transplant for MI and Cardiogenesis (Part 1)

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/10/28/progenitor-cell-transplant-for-mi-and-cardiogenesis/

Source of Stem Cells to Ameliorate Damage Myocardium (Part 2)

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013-10-29/larryhbern/Source_of_Stem_Cells_to_Ameliorate_ Damaged_Myocardium/

An Acellular 3-Dimensional Collagen Scaffold Induces Neo-angiogenesis
 (Part 3)

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013-10-29/larryhbern/An_Acellular_3-Dimensional_Collagen_Scaffold _Induces_Neo-angiogenesis/

The same approach is considered for stroke in one of these studies.  These are issues that need to be considered
  1. Adult stem cells
  2. Umbilical cord tissue sourced cells
  3. Sheets of stem cells
  4. Available arterial supply at the margins
  5. Infarct diameter
  6. Depth of ischemic necrosis
  7. Distribution of stroke pressure
  8. Stroke volume
  9. Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)
  10. Location of infarct
  11. Ratio of myocytes to fibrocytes
  12. Coexisting heart disease and, or
  13. Comorbidities predisposing to cardiovascular disease, hypertension
  14. Inflammatory reaction against the graft

Transplantation of cardiac progenitor cell sheet onto infarcted heart promotes cardiogenesis and improves function

L Zakharova1, D Mastroeni1, N Mutlu1, M Molina1, S Goldman2,3, E Diethrich4, and MA Gaballa1*
1Center for Cardiovascular Research, Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, AZ; 2Cardiology Section, Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, and 3Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; and 4Arizona Heart Institute, Phoenix, AZ
Cardiovascular Research (2010) 87, 40–49   http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvq027

Abstract

Aims

Cell-based therapy for myocardial infarction (MI) holds great promise; however, the ideal cell type and delivery system have not been established. Obstacles in the field are the massive cell death after direct injection and the small percentage of surviving cells differentiating into cardiomyocytes. To overcome these challenges we designed a novel study to deliver cardiac progenitor cells as a cell sheet.

Methods and results

Cell sheets composed of rat or human cardiac progenitor cells (cardiospheres), and cardiac stromal cells were transplanted onto the infarcted myocardium after coronary artery ligation in rats. Three weeks later, transplanted cells survived, proliferated, and differentiated into cardiomyocytes (14.6 ± 4.7%). Cell sheet transplantation suppressed cardiac wall thinning and increased capillary density (194 ± 20 vs. 97 ± 24 per mm2, P < 0.05) compared with the untreated MI. Cell migration from the sheet was observed along the necrotic trails within the infarcted area. The migrated cells were located in the vicinity of stromal-derived factor (SDF-1) released from the injured myocardium, and about 20% of these cells expressed CXCR4, suggesting that the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis plays, at least, a role in cell migration. Transplantation of cell sheets resulted in a preservation of cardiac contractile function after MI, as was shown by a greater ejection fraction and lower left ventricular end diastolic pressure compared with untreated MI.

Conclusion

The scaffold-free cardiosphere-derived cell sheet approach seeks to efficiently deliver cells and increase cell survival.These transplanted cells effectively rescue myocardium function after infarction by promoting not only neovascular-ization but also inducing a significant level of cardiomyogenesis
Keywords  Myocardial infarction • Cardiac progenitor cells • Cardiospheres • Cardiac regeneration • Contractility

Introduction

Despite advances in cardiac treatment after myocardial infarction (MI), congestive heart failure remains the number one killer world-wide. MI results in an irreversible loss of functional cardiomyocytes followed by scar tissue formation. To date, heart transplant remains the gold standard for treatment of end-stage heart failure, a procedure which will always be limited by the availability of a donor heart. Hence, developing a new form of therapy is vital.
A number of adult non-cardiac progenitor cells have been tested for myocardial regeneration, including skeletal myoblasts,1 bone-marrow2, and endothelial progenitor cells.3,4 In addition, several cardiac resident stem cell populations have been characterized based on the expression of stem cell marker proteins.5–8 Among these, the c-Kit+ population has been reported to promote myocardial repair.5,9 Recently, an ex vivo method to expand cardiac-derived progenitor cells from human myocardial biopsies and murine hearts was developed.10 Using this approach, undifferentiated cells (or cardiospheres) grow as self-adherent clusters from postnatal atrium or ventricular biopsy specimens.11
To date, the most common technique for cell delivery is direct injection into the infarcted myocardium.12 This approach is inefficient because more than 90% of the delivered cells die by apoptosis and only a small number of the survived cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes.13 An alternative approach to cell delivery is a biodegradable scaffold-based engineered tissue.14,15 This approach has the clear advantage in creating tissue patches of different shapes and sizes and in creating a beating heart by decellularization technology.16 Advances are being made to overcome the issue of small patch thickness and to minimize possible toxicity of the degraded substances from the scaffold.15 Recently, scaffold-free cell sheets were created from fibroblasts, mesenchymal cells, or neonatal myocytes.17,18 Transplantation of these sheets resulted in a limited improvement in cardiac function due to induced neovascularization and angiogenesis through secretion of angiogenic factors.17–19 However, few of those progenitor cells have differentiated into cardiomyocytes.17 The need to improve cardiac contractile function suggests focusing on cells with higher potential to differentiate to cardiomyocytes with an improved delivery method.
In the present study, we report a cell-based therapeutic strategy that surpasses limitation inherent in previously used methodologies. We have created a scaffold-free sheet composed of cardiac progenitor cells (cardiospheres) incorporated into a layer of cardiac stromal cells. The progenitor cells survived when transplanted as a cell sheet onto the infarcted area, improved cardiac contractile functions, and supported recovery of damaged myocardium by promoting not only vascularization but also a significant level of cardiomyogenesis. We also showed that cells from a sheet can be recruited to the site of injury driven, at least partially, by the stromal-derived factor (SDF-1) gradient.

Methods

Detailed methods are provided in the Supplementary Methods

Animals

Three-month-old Sprague Dawley male rats were used. Rats were randomly placed into four groups:
(1) sham-operated rats, n = 12;
(2) MI, n = 12;
(3) MI treated with rat sheet, n = 10; and
(4) MI treated with human sheet, n = 10.

Myocardial infarction

MI was created by the ligation of the left coronary artery.20 Animals were intubated and ventilated using a small animal ventilator (Harvard Apparatus). A left thoracotomy was performed via the third intercostal rib, and the left coronary artery was ligated. The extent of infarct was verified by measuring the area at risk: heart was perfused with PBS containing 4 mg/mL Evans Blue as previously described by our laboratory.20 The area at risk was estimated by recording the size of the under-perfused (pale-colored) area of myocardium (see Supplementary material online, Figure S1). Only animals with an area at risk >30% were used in the present study. Post-mortem infarct size was measured using triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining as previously described by our laboratory.20

Isolation of cardiosphere-forming cells

Cardiospheres were generated as described10 from atrial tissues obtained from:
(1) human atrial resection samples obtained from patients (aged from 53 to 73 years old) undergoing cardiac bypass surgery at Arizonam Heart Hospital (Phoenix, AZ) in compliance with Institutional Review Board protocol (n = 10),
(2) 3-month-old SD rats (n = 10). Briefly, tissues were cut into 1–2 mm3 pieces and tissue fragments were cultured ‘as explants’ in a complete explants medium for 4 weeks (Supplementary Methods).
Cell sheet preparation, labelling, handling, and transplantation
Cardiosphere-forming cells (CFCs) combined with cardiac stromal cells were seeded on double-coated plates (poly-L-lysine and collagen type IV from human placenta) in cardiosphere growing medium (Supplementary Methods). The sheets created from the same cell donors were divided into two groups,
one for transplantation and the other for characterization by immunostaining and RT–PCR (Supplementary Methods).
Prior to transplantation, rat cell sheets were labelled with 2 mM 1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine, DiI, for tracking transplanted cells in rat host myocardium (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR). Sheets created using human cells were transplanted unlabelled. Sheets were gently peeled off the collagen-coated plate and folded twice to form four layers. The entire sheet with 200 ml of media was
  • gently aspirated into the pipette tip,
  • transferred to the supporting polycarbonate filter (Costar) and
  • spread off by adding media drops on the sheet (Figure 2A).
Polycarbonate filter was used as a flexible mechanical support for cell sheet to facilitate handling during the transplantation. Immediately after LAD occlusion, the cell sheet was transplanted onto the infarcted area, allowed to adhere to the ventricle for 5–7 min, and the filter was removed before closing the chest (Figure 2A).

Cardiac function

Three weeks after MI, closed-chest in vivo cardiac function was measured using a Millar pressure conductance catheter system (Millar Instruments, Houston, TX) (Supplementary Methods).

Cell sheet survival, engraftment, and cell migration

Rat host myocardium and cell sheet composition after transplantation were characterized by immunostaining (Supplementary Methods). Rat-originated cells were traced by DiI, while human-originated cells were identified by immunostaining with anti-human nuclei or human lamin antibodies.
  1. To assess sheet-originated cardiomyocytes within the host myocardium, the number of cells positive for both human nuclei and myosin heavy chain (MHC) (human sheet); or both DiI and MHC (rat sheet) were counted.
  2. To assess sheet-originated capillaries within the rat host myocardium, the number of cells positive for both human nuclei and von Willebrand factor (vWf) (human sheet); or both DiI and vWf (rat sheet) were counted. Cells were counted in five microscopic fields within cell sheet and area of infarct (n = 5). The number of cells expressing specific markers was normalized to the total number of cells determined by 40,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining of the nuclei DNA.
  3. To assess the survival of transplanted cells, sections were stained with Ki-67 antibody followed by fluorescent detection and caspase 3 primary antibodies followed by DAB detection (Supplementary Methods).
  4. To evaluate human sheet engraftment, sections were stained with human lamin antibody followed by fluorescent detection (Supplementary Methods).
  5. Rat host inflammatory response to the transplanted human cell sheet 21 days after transplantation was evaluated by counting tissue mononuclear phagocytes and neutrophils (Supplementary Methods).

Imaging

Images were captured using Olympus IX70 confocal microscope (Olympus Corp, Tokyo, Japan) equipped with argon and krypton lasers or Olympus IX-51 epifluorescence microscope using excitation/emission maximum filters: 490/520 nm, 570 /595 nm, and 355 /465 nm. Images were processed using DP2-BSW software (Olympus Corp).

Statistics

All data are represented as mean ± SE Significance (P < 0.05) was deter-mined using ANOVA (StatView).

Results

Generation of cardiospheres

Cardiospheres were generated from atrial tissue explants. After 7–14 days in culture, a layer of stromal cells arose from the attached explants (Supplementary material online, Figure S2a). CFCs, small phase-bright single cells, emerged from explants and bedded down on the stromal cell layer (Supplementary material online, Figure S2b).
  • After 4 weeks, single CFCs, as well as cardiospheres (spherical colonies generated from CFCs) were observed (Supplementary material online, Figure S2c).
Cellular characteristics of cardiospheres in vitro
Immunocytochemical analysis of dissociated cardiospheres revealed that
  • 30% of cells were c-Kitþ indicating that the CFCs maintain multi-potency. About
  • 22 and 28% of cells expressed a, b-MHC and cardiac troponin I, respectively.
These cells represent an immature cardiomyocyte population because they were smaller (10–15 pm in length vs. 60–80 pm for mature cardiomyocytes) and no organized structure of MHC was detected. Furthermore
  • 17% of the cells expressed a-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and
  • 6% were positive for vimentin,
    • both are mesenchymal cell markers (Supplementary material online, Figure S3a and b).
  • Less then 5% of cells were positive for endothelial cell marker; vWf.
Cell characteristics of human cardiospheres are similar to those from rat tissues (Supplementary material online, Figure S3c).
Cardiospheres were further characterized based on the expression of c-Kit antigen. RT–PCR analysis was performed on both c-Kitþ and c-Kit2 subsets isolated from re-suspended cardiospheres. KDR, kinase domain protein receptor, was recently identified as a marker for cardiovascular lineage progenitors in differentiating embryonic stem cells.21 Here, we found that
  • the c-Kitþ cells were also Nkx2.5 and GATA4-positive, but were low or negative for KDR (Supplementary material online, Figure S3d). In contrast,
  • c-Kit2 cells strongly expressed KDR and GATA4, but were negative for Nkx2.5.
  • Both c-Kitþ and c-Kit2 subsets did not express Isl1, a marker for multipotent secondary heart field progenitors.22
Characteristics of cell sheet prior to transplantation
The cell sheet is a layer of cardiac stromal cells in which the cardiospheres were incorporated at a frequency of 21 ± 0.5 spheres per 100,000 viable cells (Figure 1A). The average diameter of cardiospheres within a sheet was 0.13 ± 0.02 mm and their average area was 0.2 ± 0.06 mm2 (Figure 1A). After sheets were peeled off the plate, it exhibited a heterogeneous thickness ranging from 0.05– 0.1 mm (n 1/4 10), H&E staining (Figure1B) and Masson’s Trichrome staining (Figure 1C) of the sheet sections revealed tissue-like organized structures composed of muscle tissue intertwined with streaks of collagen with no necrotic core. Based on the immunostaining results, sheet compiled of several cell types including
  • SMAþ cardiac stromal cells (50%),
  • MHCþ cardiomyocytes (20%), and
  • vWfþ endothelial cells (10%) (Figure 1D and E).
  • 15% of the sheet-forming cells were c-Kitþ suggesting the cells multipotency (Figure 1E).
  • Cells within the sheet expressed gap-junction protein C43, an indicator of electromechanical coupling between cells (Figure 1D).
  • 40% of cells were positive for the proliferation marker Ki-67 suggesting an active cell cycle state (Figure 1D, middle panel).
Human sheet expressed genes
  1. known to be upregulated in undifferentiated cardiovascular progenitors such as c-Kit and KDR;
  2. cardiac transcription factors Nkx2.5 and GATA4; genes related to adhesion, cell homing, and
  3. migration such as ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), CXCR4 (receptor for SDF-1), and
  4. matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP2).
No expression of Isl1 was detected in human sheet (Figure 1F).
sheet transplant on MI_Image_2
Figure 1 Cell sheet characteristics. (A) Fully formed cell sheet. Arrow indicates integrated cardiosphere. (B) H&E staining; pink colour (arrowhead) indicates cytosol and blue (arrows) indicates nuclear stain. Note that there is no necrotic core within the cell sheet. (C) Masson’s Trichrome staining of sheet section. Arrowhead indicates collagen deposition within the sheet. (D and E) Sheet sections were labelled with antibodies against following markers: (D) vWf (green), Ki-67 (green), C43 (green); (E) c-Kit (green), MHC (red), SMA (red) as indicated on top of each panel. Nuclei were labelled with blue fluorescence of 40,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). (F) Gene expression analysis of the cell sheet. Scale bars, 200 pm (A) or 50 pm (B–E).

Cell sheet survival and proliferation

Two approaches were used to track transplanted cells in the host myocardium.
  • rat cell sheets were labelled with red fluorescent dye, DiI, prior to the transplantation.
  • the sheet created from human cells (human sheet) were identified in rat host myocardium by immunostaining with human nuclei antibodies.
DiI-labelling together with trichrome staining showed engraftment of the cardiosphere-derived cell sheet to the infarcted myocardium (Figure 2B–D). In vivo sheets grew into a stratum with heterogeneous thickness ranging from 0.1–0.5 mm over native tissue. The percentage of Ki-67þ cells within the sheet was 37.5 ± 6.5 (Figure 2F) whereas host tissue was mostly negative (except for the vasculature).
To assess the viability of transplanted cells, the heart sections were stained with the apoptosis marker, caspase 3. A low level of caspase 3 was detected within the sheet, suggesting that the majority of transplanted cells survived after transplantation (Figure 2G).
sheet transplant on MI_Image_3
Figure 2 Transplantation and growth of cell sheet after transplantation.
(A) Sheet transplantation onto infarcted heart. Detached cell sheet on six-well plate (left); cell sheet folded on filter (middle); and transplanted onto left ventricle (right). Scale bar 2 mm. DiI-labelled cell sheets grafted above MI area at day 3
(B) and day 21
(C) after transplantation.
(D) LV section of untreated MI rat at day 21 showing no significant red fluorescence background.
Bottom row (B–D) demonstrates the enlargement of box-selected area of corresponding top panels.
(E) Similar sections stained with Masson’s Trichrome. Section of rat (F) or human (G) sheet treated rat at day 21 after MI.
(F) Section was stained with antibody against Ki-67 (green). Cell sheet was pre-labelled with DiI (red). Nuclei stained with blue fluorescence of DAPI.
(G) Section was double stained with human nuclei (blue) and caspase 3 (brown, arrows) antibodies and counterstained with eosin.
Asterisks (**) indicate cell sheet area. Scale bars 200 mm (B–D, top row), 100 mm (B–D, bottom row, and E) or 50 mm (F, G).
Identification of inflammatory response
Twenty-one days after transplantation of human cell sheet, inflammatory response of rat host was examined. Transplantation of human sheet on infarcted rats reduced the number of mononuclear phagocytes (ED1-like positive cells) compared with untreated MI control (Supplementary material online, Figure S4a–e and l). In addition, the number of neutrophils was similar in both control untreated MI and sheet-treated sections (Supplementary material online, Figure S4f–k and m). These data suggest that at 21 days post transplantation, human cell sheet was not associated with significant infiltration of host immune cells.

Cell sheet engraftment and migration

Development of new vasculature was determined in cardiac tissue sections by co-localization of DiI labelling and vWf staining (Figure 3C). Three weeks after transplantation, the capillary density of ischaemic myocardium in the sheet-treated group significantly increased compared with MI animals (194 ± 20 vs. 97 ± 24 per mm2, P < 0.05, Figure 3A and B). The capillaries originated from the sheet ranged in diameter from 10 to 40 jim (n 1/4 30). A gradient in capillary density was observed with higher density in the sheet area which was decreased towards underlying infarcted myocardium. Mature blood vessels were identified within the sheet area and in the underlying myocardium in close proximity to the sheet evident by vWf and SMA double staining (Figure 3D).
sheet transplant on MI_Image_4
Figure 3 Neovascularization of infarcted wall. (A) Frozen tissue sections stained with vWf antibody (green). LV section of control (sham), infarcted (MI), and MI treated with cell sheet (sheet) rats. Scale bar, 100 jim. (B) Capillary density decreased in the MI compared with sham (*P < 0.05) and improved after cell sheet treatment (#P < 0.05). (C) Neovascularization within cell sheet area was recognized by co-localization of DiI- (red) and vWf (green) staining. Scale bar 100 jim. (D) Mature blood vessels (arrows) were identified by co-localization of SMA (red) and vWf (green) staining. Scale bar 50 jim.
Furthermore, 3 weeks after transplantation, a large number of labelled human nuclei positive or DiI-labelled cells were detected deep within the infarcted area indicating cell migration from the epicardial surface to the infarct (Figure 4A, B, and D). Minor or no migration was detected when the cell sheet was transplanted onto non-infarcted myocardium, sham control (Figure 4C). To evaluate engraftment of sheet-originated cells, sections were labelled with anti-human nuclear lamin antibody. Quantification of engraftment was performed using two approaches: fluorescence intensity and cell counting. Fluorescence intensity of the signal was analysed and compared for different areas of myocardium (Figure 4E–J). Since the transplanted sheets are created by human cells and are stained with human nuclear lamin-labelled with green fluorescence, the signal intensity of the sheet is set to 100% (100% of cells are lamin-positive). Myocardial area with no or limited number of labelled cells had the lowest level of fluorescence signal (13%, or 3.2 ± 1.4% of total number of cells), while
  1. the area where the cell migrated from the sheet to the infarcted myocardium had higher signal intensity (47%, or 11.9 ± 1.7% of total number of cells), indicating a higher number of sheet-originated cells are engrafted in the infarcted area.) (Figure 4K and L).
  2. Migrated cells were positive for KDR (Supplementary material online, Figure S5).
sheet transplant on MI_Image_5
Figure 4 Engraftment quantification of cells migrated from the sheet into the infarcted area of MI. Animals were treated with rat (A) or human (B–F) sheets. Cardiomyocytes were labelled with MHC antibody (A, green or B, red). Rat sheet-originated cells were identified with DiI-labelling, red (A). Arrows indicate the track of migrating cells. Human sheet-originated cells were identified by immunostaining with human nuclei antibody followed by secondary antibodies conjugated with either Alexa 488 (B, E and F, green) or AP (C, D, blue). No migration was detected when the cell sheet was transplanted onto non-infarcted myocardium (C). Heart sections were counterstained with eosin, pink (C–D). Higher magnification of area selected in the box is presented (D, right). Immunofluorescence of sheet (green) grafted to the myocardium surface (E) or cells migrated to the infarction area (F). Fluorescence profiles acrossthe cell sheet itself(G, box 1), area underlying cell sheet (I, box 2) and infarction areawith migrated cells (F, box 3). Mean fluorescence intensityofthe grafted human (K) cells was determined by outlining the region of interest (ROI) and subtracting the background fluorescence for the same region. Fluorescence intensity was normalized to the area of ROI (ii 1/4 6). (L) Percent engraftment was defined as number of lamin-positive cells divided by total number of cells per ROI. ‘M’, myocardium,’S’ sheet, ‘I’ infarction. Scale bars 100 mm (A–C, D, left, E and F), or 50 mm (D, right).
To elucidate a possible mechanism of cell migration, sections were stained to detect SDF1 and its unique receptor CXCR4. The migration patterns of cells from the sheet coincided with SDF-1 expression. Within 3 days after MI, SDF-1 was expressed in the injured myocardium (Figure 5A). At 3 weeks after MI and sheet transplantation, SDF-1 was co-localized with the migrated labelled cells (Figure 5B). PCR analysis revealed CXCR4 expression in cell sheet before transplantation (Figure 1F). However, after transplantation only a fraction of migrated cells expressed CXCR4 (Figure 5C).
sheet transplant on MI_Image_6
Figure 5 Migration of sheet-originated cells into the infarcted area. Confocal images of MI animals treated with sheets from rats (A and B) or human (C). SDF1 (green) was detected at border zone of the infarct at day 3 (A) and day 21 (B). Rat sheet-originated cells were identified with DiI-labelling (red). Note co-localization of DiI-positive sheet-originated cells with SDF1 at 21 days after MI (B). Human cells were identified by immunostaining with human nuclei antibody, red, (C). Note human cells that migrated to the area of infarct express CXCR4 (green) (C). Scale bar, 200 mm (A, B) or 50 mm (C). ‘M’, myocardium, ‘S’ sheet, ‘I’ infarct.

3.7 Cardiac regeneration

The differentiation of migrating cells into cardiomyocytes was evident by the co-localization of MHC staining with either human nuclei (Figure 6A) or DiI (Figure 6B and C). In contrast to the immature cardiomyocyte-like cells within the pre-transplanted cell sheet, the migrated and newly differentiated cells within the myocardium were about 30–50 mm in size and co-expressed C43 (see Supplementary material online, Figure S6). Cardiomyogenesis within the infarcted myocardium was observed in the sheets created from either rat or human cells.
sheet transplant on MI_Image_6
Figure 6 Cardiac regeneration. Sections of MI animals treated with human (A) or rat (B, C) sheets. Human sheet was identified by immunostaining with human nuclei antibody (green). Section was double-stained with MHC (red) antibody. Newly formed cardiomyocytes was identified by co-localization of human nuclei and MHC (yellow, arrow). (B) Rat sheet-originated cells were identified by DiI labelling (red). Section was double-stained with MHC (green) antibody. Newly formed cardiomyocytes were detected by co-localization of DiI with MHC (yellow, arrows). (C) Higher magnification of area selected in the boxes (B). Scale bars 200 mm (B), or 20 mm (A, C). ‘M’, myocardium, ‘S’ sheet, ‘I’ infarct.

Cell sheet improved cardiac contractile function and retarded LV remodelling after MI

Closed-chest in vivo cardiac function was derived from left ventricle (LV) pressure–volume loops (PV loops), which were measured using a solid-state Millar conductance catheter system. MI resulted in a characteristic decline in LV systolic parameters and an increase in diastolic parameters (Table 1). Cell sheet treatment improved both systolic and diastolic parameters (Table 1). Specifically, load-dependent parameters of systolic function: ejection fraction (EF), dP/dTmax, and cardiac index (CI) were decreased in MI rats and increased towards sham control with the cell sheet treatment (Table 1). Diastolic function parameters, dP/dTmin, relaxation constant (Tau), EDV, and EDP were increased in the MI rats and returned towards sham control parameters after sheet treatment (Table 1). However, load-independent systolic function, Emax, was decreased after MI. Treatment with human sheet improved Emax, while treatment with rat sheet had no effect (Table 1). Treatment with either rat or human sheets retarded LV remodelling; as such that it increased the ratio of anteriolateral wall thickness/LV inner diameter (t/Di) and wall thickness/LV outer diameter (t/Do) (see Supplementary material online, Table S3). However, human sheets appear to further improve LV remodelling compared with rat sheets as indicated by increased ratio of wall thickness to ventricular diameter and decreased both EDV and EDP (Table 1 and see Supplementary material online, Table S3).
Table 1 Hemodynamic parameters
Table 1. hemodynamic parameters

Discussion

The majority of the cardiac progenitor cells delivered using our scaffold-free cell sheet survived after transplantation onto the infarcted heart. A significant percentage of transplanted cells migrated from the cell sheet to the site of infarction and differentiated into car-diomyocytes and vasculature leading to improving cardiac contractile function and retarding LV remodelling. Thus, delivery of cardiac progenitor cells together with cardiac mesenchymal cells in a form of scaffold-free cell sheet is an effective approach for cardiac regeneration after MI.
Consistent with previous studies,5,11 here we showed that cardio-spheres are composed of multipotent precursors, which have the capacity to differentiate to cardiomyocytes and other cardiac cell types. When we fractioned cardiospheres based on c-Kit expression, we identified two subsets: Kitþ /KDR2/low/Nkx2.5þ and Kit2/KDRþ/ Nkx2.52(Supplementary material online, Figure S3d), which are likely reflecting cardiac and vascular progenitors.20
In the present study, delivery of cardiac progenitor cells as a cell sheet facilitates cell survival after transplantation. Necrotic cores, commonly observed in tissue engineered patches,23,24 are absent in cardiosphere sheets prior to transplantation (Figure 1B and C). Poor cell survival is caused by multiple processes such as: ischemia from the lack of vasculature and anoikis due to cell detachment from sub-strate.25 A possible mechanism of cell survival within the sheet is the induction of neo-vessels soon after transplantation due to the presence of endothelial cells within the sheet before transplantation (Figure 10). The cell sheet continued to grow in vivo (Figure 2B and C), suppressed cardiac wall thinning, and prevented LV remodelling at 21 days after transplantation (see Supplementary material online, Table S3). This maybe due to the induction of neovascularization (Figure 3), which may prevents ischemia-induced cell death (Figure 2G). Another likely mechanism of cell survival is that the cells within the scaffold-free sheet maintained cell-to-cell adhesion16 as shown by ICAM expression (Figure 1F). The cells also exhibit C43-positive junctions (Figure 10, see Supplementary material online, Figure S6), which may facilitate electromechanical coupling between the transplanted cells and the native myocardium.
We observed cell migration from the sheet to the infarcted myocardium (Figure 4A and B, E and F), which may be facilitated by the strong expression of MMP2 in the cell sheet (Figure 1F). Although, the mechanism of cardiac progenitor cell migration remains unclear, previous observations showed that SDF-1 is upregulated after MI and plays a role in bone-marrow and cardiac stem cell migration.26,27 Our data suggest that SDF-1-CXCR4 axis plays, at least in part, a role in cardiac progenitor cell migration from cell sheet to the infarcted myocardium. This conclusion is based on the following observations: (1) cell sheet expresses CXCR4 prior to transplantation (Figure 1F), (2) migrated cells are located in the vicinity of SDF-1 release (Figure 5A and B), and (3) about 20% of migrated cells expressed CXCR4. Note, not all the migrated cells expressed CXCR4 suggesting other mechanisms are involved in cell migration (Figure 5C).
Here we report that implanting cardiosphere-generated cell sheet onto infarcted myocardium not only improved vascularization but also promoted cardiogenesis within the infarcted area (Figure 6). A larger number of newly formed cardiomyocytes were found deep within the infarct compared with the cell sheet periphery. Notably the transplantation of the cell sheet resulted in a significant improvement of the cardiac contractile function after MI, as was shown by an increase of EF and decrease of LV end diastolic pressure (Table 1).
The beneficial effect of cell sheet is, in part, due to the presence of a large number of activated cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (myofibroblasts) within the sheet. Myofibroblasts are known to provide a mechanical support for grafted cells, facilitating contraction28 and to induce neovascularization through the release of cytokines.17 In addition, mesenchymal cells are uniquely immunotolerant. In xenograft models unmatched mesenchymal cells transplanted to the heart of immunocompetent rats were shown to suppress host immune response29 presumably due to inhibition of T-cell activation.30 Consistently with previous study from our laboratory,31 here, we demonstrated host tolerance to the cell sheet 21 days after MI. Finally, phase II and III clinical trials are currently undergoing in which allogeneic MSCs are used to treat MI in patients (Osiris Therapeutic, Inc.).
In summary, our results show that cardiac progenitor cells can be delivered as a cell sheet, composed of a layer of cardiac stromal cells impregnated with cardiospheres. After transplantation, cells from the cell sheet migrated to the infarct, partially driven by SDF-1 gradient, and differentiated into cardiomyocytes and vasculature. Transplantation of cell sheet was associated with prevention of LV remodelling, reconstitution of cardiac mass, reversal of wall thinning, and significant improvement in cardiac contractile function after MI. Our data also suggest that strategies, which utilize undigested cells, intact cell–cell interactions, and combined cell types such as our scaffold-free cell sheet should be considered in designing effective cell therapy.

References

Fuchs JR, Nasseri BA, Vacanti JP, Fauza DO. Postnatal myocardial augmentation with skeletal myoblast-based fetal tissue engineering. Surgery 2006;140:100–107.
Orlic D, Kajstura J, Chimenti S, Bodine DM, Leri A, Anversa P. Bone marrow stem cells regenerate infarcted myocardium. Pediatr Transplant 2003;7(Suppl. 3):86–88.
Kawamoto A, Tkebuchava T, Yamaguchi J, Nishimura H, Yoon YS, Milliken C et al. Intramyocardial transplantation of autologous endothelial progenitor cells for therapeutic neovascularization of myocardial ischemia. Circulation 2003;107:461–468.
Iwasaki H, Kawamoto A, Ishikawa M, Oyamada A, Nakamori S, Nishimura H et al. Dose-dependent contribution of CD34-positive cell transplantation to concurrent vasculogenesis and cardiomyogenesis for functional regenerative recovery after myocardial infarction. Circulation 2006;113:1311–1325.
Beltrami AP, Barlucchi L, Torella D, Baker M, Limana F, Chimenti S et al. Adult cardiac stem cells are multipotent and support myocardial regeneration. Cell 2003;114: 763–776.
Oh H, Bradfute SB, Gallardo TD, Nakamura T, Gaussin V, Mishina Y et al. Cardiac progenitor cells from adult myocardium: homing, differentiation, and fusion after infarction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:12313–12318.
Laugwitz KL, Moretti A, Lam J, Gruber P, Chen Y, Woodard S et al. Postnatal isl1+ cardioblasts enter fully differentiated cardiomyocyte lineages. Nature 2005;433: 647–653.
Pfister O, Mouquet F, Jain M, Summer R, Helmes M, Fine A et al. CD31- but Not CD31+ cardiac side population cells exhibit functional cardiomyogenic differentiation. Circ Res 2005;97:52–61.
Dawn B, Stein AB, Urbanek K, Rota M, Whang B, Rastaldo R et al. Cardiac stem cells delivered intravascularly traverse the vessel barrier, regenerate infarcted myocardium, and improve cardiac function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005;102:3766–3771.

 

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Cardiac Contractility & Myocardial Performance: Therapeutic Implications of Ryanopathy (Calcium Release-related Contractile Dysfunction) and Catecholamine Responses

Author, and Content Consultant to e-SERIES A: Cardiovascular Diseases: Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC

Author and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

and Article Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
Voice of Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC

Catechols refer to the stress hormones that control our response to fright, flight and fight, e.g., epinephrine, also known as adrenaline. Sudden elevation of catechols increases heart rate and also the strength of heart contraction (contractility). In the short term, that provides a boost that supports special demands to run faster, work harder. Like the healthcare system, it is not sustainable in high gear. Excess catechol push causes heart failure (catechol toxicity). Race horses routinely develop pulmonary edema by the end of a race – those pretreated for that with the diuretic LASIX have an L next to their entry in the race ticket.  The same issues occur as a whole-body system and at the subcellular level. Catechols increase amount and speed of the release of calcium which in turn triggers heart muscle contraction. However, the failing heart has elevated levels of calcium that impair oxygen utilization. The following discussions address the linkages between catechols and calcium traffic, including both the catechol and calcium stimulation of speed and strength, and their detrimental effects over time.

This article is Part VII in a continuation to the following article series on tightly related topics of the Calcium Release Mechanism.

 The Series consists of the following articles:

Part I: Identification of Biomarkers that are Related to the Actin Cytoskeleton

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/10/identification-of-biomarkers-that-are-related-to-the-actin-cytoskeleton/

Part II: Role of Calcium, the Actin Skeleton, and Lipid Structures in Signaling and Cell Motility

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Stephen Williams, PhD and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/26/role-of-calcium-the-actin-skeleton-and-lipid-structures-in-signaling-and-cell-motility/

Part III: Renal Distal Tubular Ca2+ Exchange Mechanism in Health and Disease

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Stephen J. Williams, PhD
 and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/09/02/renal-distal-tubular-ca2-exchange-mechanism-in-health-and-disease/

Part IV: The Centrality of Ca(2+) Signaling and Cytoskeleton Involving Calmodulin Kinases and Ryanodine Receptors in Cardiac Failure, Arterial Smooth Muscle, Post-ischemic Arrhythmia, Similarities and Differences, and Pharmaceutical Targets

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/09/08/the-centrality-of-ca2-signaling-and-cytoskeleton-involving-calmodulin-kinases-and-ryanodine-receptors-in-cardiac-failure-arterial-smooth-muscle-post-ischemic-arrhythmia-similarities-and-differences/

Part V: Ca2+-Stimulated Exocytosis:  The Role of Calmodulin and Protein Kinase C in Ca2+ Regulation of Hormone and Neurotransmitter

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP
and
Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/23/calmodulin-and-protein-kinase-c-drive-the-ca2-regulation-of-hormone-and-neurotransmitter-release-that-triggers-ca2-stimulated-exocytosis/

Part VI: Calcium Cycling (ATPase Pump) in Cardiac Gene Therapy: Inhalable Gene Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Percutaneous Intra-coronary Artery Infusion for Heart Failure: Contributions by Roger J. Hajjar, MD

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/01/calcium-molecule-in-cardiac-gene-therapy-inhalable-gene-therapy-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-and-percutaneous-intra-coronary-artery-infusion-for-heart-failure-contributions-by-roger-j-hajjar/

Part VII: Cardiac Contractility & Myocardium Performance: Ventricular Arrhythmias and Non-ischemic Heart Failure – Therapeutic Implications for Cardiomyocyte Ryanopathy (Calcium Release-related Contractile Dysfunction) and Catecholamine Responses

Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/28/cardiac-contractility-myocardium-performance-ventricular-arrhythmias-and-non-ischemic-heart-failure-therapeutic-implications-for-cardiomyocyte-ryanopathy-calcium-release-related-contractile/

Part VIII: Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis: Cardiomyocytes and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: The Cardiac and Cardiovascular Calcium Signaling Mechanism

Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/09/12/disruption-of-calcium-homeostasis-cardiomyocytes-and-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-the-cardiac-and-cardiovascular-calcium-signaling-mechanism/

Part IXCalcium-Channel Blockers, Calcium Release-related Contractile Dysfunction (Ryanopathy) and Calcium as Neurotransmitter Sensor

Justin Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC, Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Part X: Synaptotagmin functions as a Calcium Sensor: How Calcium Ions Regulate the fusion of vesicles with cell membranes during Neurotransmission

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/09/10/synaptotagmin-functions-as-a-calcium-sensor-how-calcium-ions-regulate-the-fusion-of-vesicles-with-cell-membranes-during-neurotransmission/

Part XI: Sensors and Signaling in Oxidative Stress

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/11/01/sensors-and-signaling-in-oxidative-stress/

Part XII: Atherosclerosis Independence: Genetic Polymorphisms of Ion Channels Role in the Pathogenesis of Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction and Myocardial Ischemia (Coronary Artery Disease (CAD))

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/12/21/genetic-polymorphisms-of-ion-channels-have-a-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-and-ischemic-heart-disease/

and
Advanced Topics in Sepsis and the Cardiovascular System at its End Stage
Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP
Pharmacol Ther. 2009 August; 123(2): 151–177.
PMCID: PMC2704947

Ryanodine receptor-mediated arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death

This article has the following sections:

Introduction to Calcium Release Mechanism in Vascular Smooth Muscle and in Cardiomyocytes

Author: Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC PENDING

I. Cellular Contractility Capacity — Actin, Cellular Dynamics and Calcium Efflux: Emergence of the Calcium Release-related Contractile Dysfunction

Author: Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC

II. Integration and Interpretation of Research Results in Two Labs: Mark E Anderson’s and Roger Hajjar’s Lab

Author: Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC PENDING

Mark Anderson’s Laboratory at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine recently summarized the critical roles of calcium in heart failure and arrhythmia in an article in Circulation Research. That laboratory elucidated critical facts, such as the controlling role of phosphorylation of ryanodine receptors among other details of the control and impact of Ca²⁺ homeostatic and structural proteins, ion channels, and enzymes. Their review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of defective Ca²⁺ cycling in heart failure and knowledge of those pathways may translate into new innovative therapies. The highly conserved Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)plays an essential role in cardiac myocytes. Electrichemical activation of the cariac contraction cycle triggers a transient increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) which activates CaMKII activated through the binding of Ca2+-bound calmodulin (CaM). The activated CaMKII molecules phosphorylate many intracellular target proteins, including the sarcolemmal L-type Ca2+ channel, the ryanodine receptor, and the Ca2+ pump on the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Intersubunit autophosphorylation (positive feedback) promotes accumulation of the active CaMKII. Phosphorylated CaMKII maintains its catalytic activity until it is inactivated by constitutive phosphatase activity.

Roger J. Hajjar MD is the Director of the Cardiovascular Research Center, a cutting-edge translational research laboratory at Mt Sinai Medical Center. He is the Arthur & Janet C. Ross Professor of Medicine, Professor of Gene & Cell Medicine, Director of the Cardiology Fellowship Program, and Co-Director of the Transatlantic Cardiovascular Research Center, which combines Mount Sinai Cardiology Laboratories with those of the Universite de Paris – Madame Curie. He earned a bachelors of science degree in Biomedical Engineering at Johns Hopkins University and a medical degree from Harvard Medical School and the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology. He completed his fellowship in cardiology at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, then became a staff cardiologist in the Heart Failure & Cardiac Transplantation Center, followed by Director of the Cardiovascular Laboratory of Integrative Physiology and Imaging, before moving to Mt. Sinai.

Roger J. Hajjar, MD and his team of investigators translate scientific findings into therapies for cardiovascular diseases. Dr. Hajjar’s team pioneered a potential gene therapy for heart failure, AAV1.SERCA2a, which can revive malfunctioning myocardium. His laboratory has completed Phase 1 and Phase 2 First-in-Man clinical trials of SERCA2a gene transfer in patients with advanced heart failure, and Phase 3 validation began in 2011. His laboratory also studies how to block signaling pathways in cardiac hypertrophy, aging, apoptosis, and diastolic failure.

Calcium Cycling (ATPase Pump) in Cardiac Gene Therapy: Inhalable Gene Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Percutaneous Intra-coronary Artery Infusion for Heart Failure: Contributions by Roger J. Hajjar, MD

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/08/01/calcium-molecule-in-cardiac-gene-therapy-inhalable-gene-therapy-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-and-percutaneous-intra-coronary-artery-infusion-for-heart-failure-contributions-by-roger-j-hajjar/

Anderson Publications (2006-2013)

2013
•He BJ, Anderson ME. Aldosterone and Cardiovascular Disease: the heart of the matter. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 24(1):21-30, 2013. [PMID: 23040074]
•Luo M, Anderson ME, Mechanisms of altered Ca2+ handling in heart failure. Circ Res 113(6):690-708. 2013 [PMID: 23989713]
•Anderson ME. Why has it taken so long to learn what we still don’t know? Circ Res 113(7):840-2. 2013 [PMID: 24030016]
•Thomas C, Anderson ME. In memoriam: John B. Stokes, MD. Semin Nephrol. 33(3):207-8, 2013. [PMID: 23953797]
•Gyorke S, Ho HT, Anderson ME, et al. Ryanodine receptor phosphorylation by oxidized CaMKII contributes to the cardiotoxic effects of cardiac glycosides. Cardiovas Res [PMID: Accepted for publication]
•Kline J, Anderson ME, et al, βIV-spectrin and CaMKII facilitate Kir6.2 regulation in pancreatic beta cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci. [PMID: Accepted for publication]
•Maier LS, Sag C, Anderson ME, Ionizing Radiation Regulates Cardiac Ca handling via increased ROS and activated CaMKII. Bas Res in Card [PMID: Accepted for publication]
•Chen B, Guo A, Zhang C, Chen R, Zhu Y, Hong J, Kutschke W, Zimmerman K, Weiss RM, Zingman L, Anderson ME, Wehrens XH, Song LS. Critical roles of Junctophilin-2 T-tubule and excitation-contraction coupling maturation during postnatal development. Cardiovas Res 2013 Oct 1; 100(1):54-62. [PMID: 23860812] [PMC3778961]
•Purohit A, Rokita AG, Xiaoqun G, Biyi C, Koval OM, Voigt N, Neef S, Sowa T, Gao Z, Luczak E, Stefansdottir H, Behunin AC, Li N, El-Accaoui RN, Yang B, Swaminathan PD, Weiss RM, Wehrens XH, Song LS, Dobrev D, Maier LS, Anderson ME. Oxidized CaMKII Triggers Atrial Fibrillation. Circulation 2013 Sep 12 [Epub ahead of print] [PMID: 24030498]
•Yoshida-Moriguchi T, Willer T, Anderson ME, Venzke D, Whyte T, Muntoni F, Lee H, Nelson SF, Yu L, Campbell, KP. SGK196 is a glycosylation-specific O-mannose kinase required for dystroglycan function. Science 2013 Aug 23; 341(6148): 896-9. [PMID:23929950]
•Scott JA, Klutho PJ, El Accaoui R, Nguyen E, Venema AN, Xie L, Jiang S, Dibbern M, Scroggins S, Prasad AM, Luczak ED, Davis MK, Li W, Guan X, Backs J, Schlueter AJ, Weiss RM, Miller FJ, Anderson ME, Grumbach IM. The Multifunctional Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) Regulates Arteriogenesis in a Mouse Model of Flow-Mediated Remodeling. PLoS One 2013 Aug 8; 8(8):e71550. [PMID: 23951185] [PMC3738514]
•Scholten A, Preisinger C, Corradini E, Bourgonje VJ, Hennrick ML, van Veen TA, Swaminathan PD, Joiner ML, Vos MA, Anderson ME, Heck AJ. A Phosphoproteomics Study Based on In Vivo Inhibition Reveals Sites of Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase II Regulation in the Heart. J Am Heart Assoc 2013 Aug 7; 2(4):e000318. [PMID: 23926118]
•Prasad AM, Nuno DW, Koval OM, Ketsawatsomkron P, Li W, Li H, Shen Y, Joiner ML, Kutschke W, Weiss RM, Sigmund CD, Anderson ME, Lamping KG, Grumbach IM. Differential Control of Calcium Homeostatis and Vascular Reactivity by Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase II. Hypertension 2013 Aug; 62(2):434-41.[PMID:23753415]
•Sanders PN, Koval OM, Jaffer OA, Prasad AM, Businga TR, Scott JA, Hayden PJ, Luczak ED, Dickey DD, Allamargot C, Olivier AK, Meyerholz DK, Robison AJ, Winder DG, Blackwell TS, Dworski R, Sammut D, Wagner BA, Buettner GR, Pope MR, Miller FJ, Dibbern ME, Haitchi HM, Mohler PJ, Howarth PH, Zabner J, Kline JN, Grumbach IM, Anderson ME. CaMKII is Essential for the Proasthmatic Effects of Oxidation. Sci Trans Med 2013 Jul 24; 5(195):195 ra97. [PMID: 23884469] Chosen as a “From the Cover” article in STM and with a commentary in JAMA. 310(9):894. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.277035
•Wolf RM, Glynn P, Hashemi S, Zarei K, Mitchell CC, Anderson ME, Mohler PJ, Hund TJ. Atrial fibrillation and sinus node dysfunction in human ankyrin-B syndrome: A computational analysis. Am J Physiol Heart and Circ Physiol 2013 May; 304(9):H1253-66. [PMID: 23436330] [PMC3652094]
•Ather S, Wang W, Wang Q, Li N, Anderson ME, Wehrens XH. Inhibition of CaMKII Phosphorylation of RyR2 Prevents Inducible Ventricular Arrhythmias in Mice with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Heart Rhythm 2013 Apr; (10)4:592-9 [PMID: 23246599] [PMC3605194]
•Yang J, Maity B, Huang J, Gao Z, Stewart A, Weiss RM, Anderson ME, Fisher RA. G- protein inactivator RGS6 mediates myocardial cell apoptosis and cardiomyopathy caused by doxorubicin. Cancer Res 2013 Mar 15; 73(6): 1662-7. [PMID: 23338613] [PMC3602152]
•Luo M, Guan X, Luczak ED, Di L, Kutschke W, Gao Z, Yang J, Glynn P , Sossalla S, Swaminathan PD, Weiss RM, Yang B, Rokita AG,5, Maier LS, Efimov I, Hund TJ, Anderson ME. Diabetes increases mortality after myocardial infarction by oxidizing CaMKII. J Clin Invest 2013 Mar 1; 123(3):1262-74. [PMID: 23426181] [ PMC3673230]
•Sierra A, Zhu Z, Sapay N, Sharotri V, Kline CF, Luczak ED, Subbotina E, Sivaprasadarao A, Snyder PM, Mohler PJ, Anderson ME, Vivaudou M, Zingman LV, Hodgson-Zingman DM. Regulation of cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channel surface expression by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. J Biol Chem 2013 Jan 18; 288(3):1568-81. [PMID: 23223335] [PMC3548467]
•Gao Z, Rasmussen TP, Li Y , Kutschke W , Koval OM, Wu Y, Wu Y, Hall DD, Joiner ML, Wu XQ, Swaminathan PD, Purohit A, Zimmerman KA, Weiss RM, Philipson K , Song LS, Hund TJ, Anderson ME. Genetic inhibition of Na+-Ca2+ exchanger current disables fight or flight sinoatrial node activity without affecting resting heart rate. Circ Res 2013 Jan 18;112(2):309-17. [PMID: 23192947][Epub: e157-e179] [PMC3562595]
•Degrande ST, Little S, Nixon DJ, Wright P, Snyder J, Dun W, Murphy N, Kilic A, Higgins R, Binkley PF, Boyden PA, Carnes CA, Anderson ME, Hund TJ, Mohler PJ. Molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac protein phosphatase 2A regulation in heart. J Biol Chem 2013 Jan 11; 288(2):1032-46. [PMID: 23204520] [PMC3542989]
•He BJ, Anderson ME. Aldosterone and Cardiovascular Disease: the heart of the matter. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 24(1):21-30, 2013. [PMID: 23040074]
• Luo M, Anderson ME, Mechanisms of altered Ca2+ handling in heart failure. Circ Res 113(6):690-708. 2013 [PMID: 23989713]
•Anderson ME. Why has it taken so long to learn what we still don’t know? Circ Res 113(7):840-2. 2013 [PMID: 24030016]
• Thomas C, Anderson ME. In memoriam: John B. Stokes, MD. Semin Nephrol. 33(3):207-8, 2013. [PMID: 23953797]

2012
•Wang Y and Anderson ME. Chapter 22: Intracellular Signaling Pathways in Cardiac Remodeling. Muscle: Fundamental Biology and Mechanisms of Disease. J. Hill and E. Olson (Eds), Elsevier, pp 299-308, 2012.
• Ather S, Wang W, Wang Q, Li N, Anderson ME, Wehrens XH. Inhibition of CaMKII Phosphorylation of RyR2 Prevents Inducible Ventricular Arrhythmiasin Mice with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Heart Rhythm. 2012 Dec 11. doi:pii: S1547-5271(12)01450-6. 10.1016/j.hrthm.2012.12.016. PubMed PMID: 23246599.
• Sierra A, Zhu Z, Sapay N, Sharotri V, Kline CF, Luczak ED, Subbotina E, Sivaprasadarao A, Snyder PM, Mohler PJ, Anderson ME, Vivaudou M, Zingman LV, Hodgson-Zingman DM. Regulation of cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channel surface expression by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. J Biol Chem. 2012 Dec 6. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23223335.
• Degrande S, Nixon D, Koval O, Curran JW, Wright P, Wang Q, Kashef F, Chiang D, Li N, Wehrens XH, Anderson ME, Hund TJ, Mohler PJ. CaMKII inhibition rescues proarrhythmic phenotypes in the model of human ankyrin-B syndrome. Heart Rhythm. 2012 Dec;9(12):2034-41. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2012.08.026. Epub 2012 Aug 28. PubMed PMID: 23059182.
• Degrande ST, Little S, Nixon DJ, Wright P, Snyder J, Dun W, Murphy N, Kilic A, Higgins R, Binkley PF, Boyden PA, Carnes CA, Anderson ME, Hund TJ, Mohler PJ. Molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac protein phosphatase 2A regulation in heart. J Biol Chem. 2012 Nov 30. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23204520.
• Gao Z, Rasmussen TP, Li Y, Kutschke W, Koval OM, Wu Y, Wu Y, Hall DD, Joiner ML, Wu X, Dominic Swaminathan P, Purohit A, Zimmerman KA, Weiss RM, Philipson K, Song LS, Hund TJ, Anderson ME. Genetic Inhibition of Na+-Ca2+ Exchanger Current Disables Fight or Flight Sinoatrial Node Activity Without Affecting Resting Heart Rate. Circ Res. 2012 Nov 27. PubMed PMID: 23192947
• Joiner ML, Koval OM, Li J, He BJ, Allamargot C, Gao Z, Luczak ED, Hall DD, Fink BD, Chen B, Yang J, Moore SA, Scholz TD, Strack S, Mohler PJ, Sivitz WI, Song LS, Anderson ME. CaMKII determines mitochondrial stress responses in heart. Nature. 2012 Nov 8;491(7423):269-73. doi: 10.1038/nature11444. Epub 2012 Oct 10. PubMed PMID: 23051746; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3471377.
• Rokita AG, Anderson ME. New therapeutic targets in cardiology: arrhythmias and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). Circulation. 2012 Oct 23;126(17):2125-39. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.124990. Review. PubMed PMID: 23091085; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3532717.
• Koval OM, Snyder JS, Wolf RM, Pavlovicz RE, Glynn P, Curran J, Leymaster ND, Dun W, Wright PJ, Cardona N, Qian L, Mitchell CC, Boyden PA, Binkley PF, Li C, Anderson ME, Mohler PJ, Hund TJ. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-based regulation of voltage-gated Na+ channel in cardiac disease. Circulation. 2012 Oct 23;126(17):2084-94. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.105320. Epub 2012Sep 24. PubMed PMID: 23008441.
• Wagner S, Rokita AG, Anderson ME, Maier LS. Redox Regulation of Sodium and Calcium Handling. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012 Oct 3. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22900788.
• Wu Y, Luczak ED, Lee EJ, Hidalgo C, Yang J, Gao Z, Li J, Wehrens XH, Granzier H, Anderson ME. CaMKII effects on inotropic but not lusitropic force frequency responses require phospholamban. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012 Sep;53(3):429-36. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2012.06.019. Epub 2012 Jul 11. PubMed PMID: 22796260.
• Majumdar S, Anderson ME, Xu CR, Yakovleva TV, Gu LC, Malefyt TR, Siahaan TJ. Methotrexate (MTX)-cIBR conjugate for targeting MTX to leukocytes: conjugate stability and in vivo efficacy in suppressing rheumatoid arthritis. J Pharm Sci. 2012 Sep;101(9):3275-91. doi: 10.1002/jps.23164. Epub 2012 Apr 26. PubMed PMID: 22539217.
• Kashef F, Li J, Wright P, Snyder J, Suliman F, Kilic A, Higgins RS, Anderson ME, Binkley PF, Hund TJ, Mohler PJ. Ankyrin-B protein in heart failure: identification of a new component of metazoan cardioprotection. J Biol Chem. 2012 Aug 31;287(36):30268-81. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.368415. Epub 2012 Jul 9. PubMed PMID: 22778271; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3436279.
• Chen B, Guo A, Gao Z, Wei S, Xie YP, Chen SR, Anderson ME, Song LS. In situ confocal imaging in intact heart reveals stress-induced Ca(2+) release variability in a murine catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia model of type 2 ryanodine receptor(R4496C+/-) mutation. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2012 Aug 1;5(4):841-9. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.111.969733. Epub 2012 Jun 21. PubMed PMID: 22722659; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3421047.
• Swaminathan PD, Purohit A, Hund TJ, Anderson ME. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II: linking heart failure and arrhythmias. Circ Res. 2012 Jun 8;110(12):1661-77. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.243956. Review. PubMed PMID: 22679140.
• Chen B, Li Y, Jiang S, Xie YP, Guo A, Kutschke W, Zimmerman K, Weiss RM, Miller FJ, Anderson ME, Song LS. β-Adrenergic receptor antagonists ameliorate myocyte T-tubule remodeling following myocardial infarction. FASEB J. 2012 Jun;26(6):2531-7. doi: 10.1096/fj.11-199505. Epub 2012 Feb 28. PubMed PMID: 22375019; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3360148.
• Scott JA, Xie L, Li H, Li W, He JB, Sanders PN, Carter AB, Backs J, Anderson ME, Grumbach IM. The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II regulates vascular smooth muscle migration through matrix metalloproteinase 9. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012 May 15;302(10):H1953-64. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00978.2011. Epub 2012 Mar 16. PubMed PMID: 22427508; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3362103.
• Gudmundsson H, Curran J, Kashef F, Snyder JS, Smith SA, Vargas-Pinto P, Bonilla IM, Weiss RM, Anderson ME, Binkley P, Felder RB, Carnes CA, Band H, Hund TJ, Mohler PJ. Differential regulation of EHD3 in human and mammalian heart failure. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012 May;52(5):1183-90. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2012.02.008. Epub 2012 Mar 3. PubMed PMID: 22406195; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3360944.
• Singh MV, Swaminathan PD, Luczak ED, Kutschke W, Weiss RM, Anderson ME. MyD88 mediated inflammatory signaling leads to CaMKII oxidation, cardiac hypertrophy and death after myocardial infarction. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012 May;52(5):1135-44. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2012.01.021. Epub 2012 Feb 3. PubMed PMID: 22326848; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3327770.
• Qian H, Matt L, Zhang M, Nguyen M, Patriarchi T, Koval OM, Anderson ME, He K, Lee HK, Hell JW. β2-Adrenergic receptor supports prolonged theta tetanus-induced LTP. J Neurophysiol. 2012 May;107(10):2703-12. doi: 10.1152/jn.00374.2011. Epub 2012 Feb 15. PubMed PMID: 22338020; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3362273.

2011
• Xie YP, Chen B, Sanders P, Guo A, Li Y, Zimmerman K, Wang LC, Weiss RM, Grumbach IM, Anderson ME, Song LS. Sildenafil Prevents and Reverses Transverse-Tubule Remodeling and Ca2+ Handling Dysfunction in Right Ventricle Failure Induced by Pulmonary Artery Hypertension. Hypertension. 2011 Dec 27.[Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22203744.
•He BJ, Joiner ML, Singh MV, Luczak ED, Swaminathan PD, Koval OM, Kutschke W, Allamargot C, Yang J, Guan X, Zimmerman K, Grumbach IM, Weiss RM, Spitz DR, Sigmund CD, Blankesteijn WM, Heymans S, Mohler PJ, Anderson ME. Oxidation of CaMKII determines the cardiotoxic effects of aldosterone. Nat Med. 2011 Nov 13;17(12):1610-8. doi: 10.1038/nm.2506. PubMed PMID: 22081025.
• Zhu Z, Burnett CM, Maksymov G, Stepniak E, Sierra A, Subbotina E, Anderson ME, Coetzee WA, Hodgson-Zingman DM, Zingman LV. Reduction in number of sarcolemmal KATP channels slows cardiac action potential duration shortening under hypoxia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Dec 2;415(4):637-41. Epub 2011 Nov 3. PubMed PMID: 22079630; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3230708.
•Albert CM, Chen PS, Anderson ME, Cain ME, Fishman GI, Narayan SM, Olgin JE, Spooner PM, Stevenson WG, Van Wagoner DR, Packer DL; Heart Rhythm Society Research Task Force. Full report from the first annual Heart Rhythm Society Research Forum: a vision for our research future, “dream, discover, develop, deliver”. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Dec;8(12):e1-12. Epub 2011 Nov 7. PubMed PMID: 22079558.
•Cunha SR, Hund TJ, Hashemi S, Voigt N, Li N, Wright P, Koval O, Li J, Gudmundsson H, Gumina RJ, Karck M, Schott JJ, Probst V, Le Marec H, Anderson ME, Dobrev D, Wehrens XH, Mohler PJ. Defects in ankyrin-based membrane protein targeting pathways underlie atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2011 Sep 13;124(11):1212-22. Epub 2011 Aug 22. PubMed PMID: 21859974; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3211046.
•Sag CM, Köhler AC, Anderson ME, Backs J, Maier LS. CaMKII-dependent SR Ca leak contributes to doxorubicin-induced impaired Ca handling in isolated cardiac myocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011 Nov;51(5):749-59. Epub 2011 Jul 26. PubMed PMID: 21819992; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3226826.
•Swaminathan PD, Purohit A, Soni S, Voigt N, Singh MV, Glukhov AV, Gao Z, He BJ, Luczak ED, Joiner ML, Kutschke W, Yang J, Donahue JK, Weiss RM, Grumbach IM, Ogawa M, Chen PS, Efimov I, Dobrev D, Mohler PJ, Hund TJ, Anderson ME. Oxidized CaMKII causes cardiac sinus node dysfunction in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011 Aug 1;121(8):3277-88. doi: 10.1172/JCI57833. Epub 2011 Jul 25. PubMed PMID: 21785215; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3223923.
•Erickson JR, He BJ, Grumbach IM, Anderson ME. CaMKII in the cardiovascular system: sensing redox states. Physiol Rev. 2011 Jul;91(3):889-915. Review. PubMed PMID: 21742790.
•Anderson ME. Pathways for CaMKII activation in disease. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Sep;8(9):1501-3. Epub 2011 May 3. PubMed PMID: 21699838; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3163819.
•Swaminathan PD, Anderson ME. CaMKII inhibition: breaking the cycle of electrical storm? Circulation. 2011 May 24;123(20):2183-6. Epub 2011 May 9. PubMed PMID: 21555705.
•Schulman H, Anderson ME. Ca/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II in Heart Failure. Drug Discov Today Dis Mech. 2010 Summer;7(2):e117-e122. PubMed PMID: 21503275; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3077766.
•Zingman LV, Zhu Z, Sierra A, Stepniak E, Burnett CM, Maksymov G, Anderson ME, Coetzee WA, Hodgson-Zingman DM. Exercise-induced expression of cardiacATP-sensitive potassium channels promotes action potential shortening and energy conservation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011 Jul;51(1):72-81. Epub 2011 Mar 23. PubMed PMID: 21439969; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3103621.
•Gao Z, Singh MV, Hall DD, Koval OM, Luczak ED, Joiner ML, Chen B, Wu Y, Chaudhary AK, Martins JB, Hund TJ, Mohler PJ, Song LS, Anderson ME. Catecholamine-independent heart rate increases require Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011 Jun 1;4(3):379-87. Epub 2011 Mar 15. PubMed PMID: 21406683; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3116039.
•Singh MV, Anderson ME. Is CaMKII a link between inflammation and hypertrophy in heart? J Mol Med (Berl). 2011 Jun;89(6):537-43. Epub 2011 Jan 29. Review. PubMed PMID: 21279501.
•Anderson ME, Brown JH, Bers DM. CaMKII in myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011 Oct;51(4):468-73. Epub 2011 Jan 27. Review. PubMed PMID: 21276796; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3158288.
•Wagner S, Ruff HM, Weber SL, Bellmann S, Sowa T, Schulte T, Anderson ME, Grandi E, Bers DM, Backs J, Belardinelli L, Maier LS. Reactive oxygen species-activated Ca/calmodulin kinase IIδ is required for late I(Na) augmentation leading to cellular Na and Ca overload. Circ Res. 2011 Mar 4;108(5):555-65. Epub 2011 Jan 20. PubMed PMID: 21252154; PubMed Central PMCID:PMC3065330.

2010
•Hund TJ, Koval OM, Li J, Wright PJ, Qian L, Snyder JS, Gudmundsson H, Kline CF, Davidson NP, Cardona N, Rasband MN, Anderson ME, Mohler PJ. A β(IV)-spectrin/CaMKII signaling complex is essential for membrane excitability in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010 Oct 1;120(10):3508-19
•Yang J, Huang J, Maity B, Gao Z, Lõrca R, Gudmundsson H, Li J, Stewart A, Swaminathan PD, Ibeawuchi SR, Shepherd A, Chen CK, Kutschke W, Mohler PJ, Mohapatra DP, Anderson ME, Fisher RA. RGS6, a Modulator of Parasympathetic Activation in Heart. Circ Res. 2010 Sep 23. [Epub ahead of print]
•Li J, Kline CF, Hund TJ, Anderson ME, Mohler PJ. Ankyrin-B regulates Kir6.2 membrane expression and function in heart J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28723-30.
•Wei S, Guo A, Chen B, Kutschke W, Xie YP, Zimmerman K, Weiss RM, Anderson ME, Cheng H, Song LS. T-tubule remodeling during transition from hypertrophy to heart failure. Circ Res. 2010 Aug 20;107(4):520-31.
•Glukhov AV, Fedorov VV, Anderson ME, Mohler PJ, Efimov IR. Functional anatomy of the murine sinus node: high-resolution optical mapping of ankyrin-B heterozygous mice.Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010 Aug;299(2):H482-91.
•Gudmundsson H, Hund TJ, Wright PJ, Kline CF, Snyder JS, Qian L, Koval OM, Cunha SR, George M, Rainey MA, Kashef FE, Dun W, Boyden PA, Anderson ME, Band H, Mohler PJ. EH domain proteins regulate cardiac membrane protein targeting. Circ Res. 2010 Jul 9;107(1):84-95.
•Gao Z, Chen B, Joiner ML, Wu Y, Guan X, Koval OM, Chaudhary AK, Cunha SR, Mohler PJ, Martins JB, Song LS, Anderson ME .I(f) and SR Ca(2+) release both contribute to pacemaker activity in canine sinoatrial node cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010 Jul;49(1):33-40.
•Witczak CA, Jessen N, Warro DM, Toyoda T, Fujii N, Anderson ME, Hirshman MF, Goodyear LJ. CaMKII regulates contraction- but not insulin-induced glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jun;298(6):E1150-60.
•Koval OM, Guan X, Wu Y, Joiner ML, Gao Z, Chen B, Grumbach IM, Luczak ED, Colbran RJ, Song LS, Hund TJ, Mohler PJ, Anderson ME. CaV1.2 beta-subunit coordinates CaMKII-triggered cardiomyocyte death and afterdepolarizations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Mar 16;107(11):4996-5000.
•Li H, Li W, Gupta AK, Mohler PJ, Anderson ME, Grumbach IM. Calmodulin kinase II is required for angiotensin II-mediated vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010 Feb;298(2):H688-98.

2009
• Singh, M.V., Kapoun, A., Higgins, L., Kutschke, W., Thurman, J.M., Singh, M., Yang, J., Guan, X., Lowe, J., Weiss, R.M., Zimmerman, K., Zhang, R., Yull, F.E., Blackwell, T.S., Mohler, P.J., Anderson, M.E. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II triggers cell membrane injury by inducing complement factor B gene expression in the mouse heart. J. Clin. Invest. 119(4):986-996, 2009. (Commentary in Nat Med 15:375, 2009)
• Wu Y, Gao Z, Chen B, Koval O, Singh M, Guan X, Hund T, Kutschke WJ, Sarma S, Grumbach I, Wehrens X, Mohler P, Song L, Anderson M.E. Calmodulin kinase II is required for fight or flight sinoatrial node physiology. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106:5972-5977, 2009. (Commentary in Sci Signaling, 2:ec130, 2009)
• Chelu M, Sarma S, Sood S, Wang S, Oort V, Jeroen R, Skapura D, Li N, Santonastasi M, Mueller F, Schotten U, Anderson ME, Valderrabano M, Dobrev D, Wehrens XHT. Calmodulin kinase II mediated sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium leak promotes atrial fibrillation. J. Clin. Invest. 119(7): 1940-1951, 2009.
• Timmins J, Ozcan L, Seimon TA, Li G, Malagelada C, Backs J, Backs T, Bassel-Duby R, Olson EN, Anderson ME, and Tabas I. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II links endoplasmic reticulum stress with Fas and mitochondrial apoptosis pathways.J. Clin. Invest. 119(10):2925-2941, 2009.
• Chen B, Wu Y, Mohler PJ, Anderson ME, Song L-S. Local control of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in mouse sinoatrial node cells. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 47(5):706-715, 2009.
• Kline CF, Kurata HT, Hund TJ, Cunha SR, Koval OM, Wright PJ, Christensen M, Anderson ME, Nichols CG, Mohler PJ. Dual Role of K ATP channel C-terminal motif in membrane targeting and metabolic regulation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106 (39):16669-74, 2009.
• Christensen MD, Dun W, Boyden PA, Anderson ME, Mohler PJ, and Hund TJ. Oxidized calmodulin kinase II regulates conduction following myocardial infarction: A computational analysis. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009. (Accepted).

2008
•Erickson JR, Anderson ME. CaMKII and its role in cardiac arrhythmia. JCardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008 Dec;19(12):1332-6. Epub 2008 Sep 17. PubMed PMID:18803570.
•Thiel WH, Chen B, Hund TJ, Koval OM, Purohit A, Song LS, Mohler PJ, Anderson ME. Proarrhythmic defects in Timothy syndrome require calmodulin kinase II. Circulation. 2008 Nov 25;118(22):2225-34. Epub 2008 Nov 10. PubMed PMID:19001023.
•Le Scouarnec S, Bhasin N, Vieyres C, Hund TJ, Cunha SR, Koval O, Marionneau C, Chen B, Wu Y, Demolombe S, Song LS, Le Marec H, Probst V, Schott JJ, Anderson ME, Mohler PJ. Dysfunction in ankyrin-B-dependent ion channel and transporter targeting causes human sinus node disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Oct7;105(40):15617-22. Epub 2008 Oct 1. PubMed PMID: 18832177; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2563133.
•Couchonnal LF, Anderson ME. The role of calmodulin kinase II in myocardial physiology and disease. Physiology (Bethesda). 2008 Jun;23:151-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 18556468.
•Erickson JR, Joiner ML, Guan X, Kutschke W, Yang J, Oddis CV, Bartlett RK, Lowe JS, O’Donnell SE, Aykin-Burns N, Zimmerman MC, Zimmerman K, Ham AJ, Weiss RM, Spitz DR, Shea MA, Colbran RJ, Mohler PJ, Anderson ME. A dynamic pathway for calcium-independent activation of CaMKII by methionine oxidation. Cell. 2008 May 2;133(3):462-74. PubMed PMID: 18455987; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2435269.
•Werdich AA, Lima EA, Dzhura I, Singh MV, Li J, Anderson ME, Baudenbacher FJ. Differential effects of phospholamban and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II on [Ca2+]i transients in cardiac myocytes at physiological stimulation frequencies. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 May;294(5):H2352-62. Epub 2008 Mar 21. PubMed PMID: 18359893.
•Mohler PJ, Anderson ME. New insights into genetic causes of sinus node disease and atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008 May;19(5):516-8. Epub 2008 Feb 21. PubMed PMID: 18298510.
•Grueter CE, Abiria SA, Wu Y, Anderson ME, Colbran RJ. Differential regulated interactions of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with isoforms of voltage-gated calcium channel beta subunits. Biochemistry. 2008 Feb12;47(6):1760-7. Epub 2008 Jan 19.
PubMed PMID: 18205403; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2814322.
•Khoo MS, Grueter CE, Eren M, Yang J, Zhang R, Bass MA, Lwin ST, Mendes LA, Vaughan DE, Colbran RJ, Anderson ME. Calmodulin kinase II inhibition disrupts cardiomyopathic effects of enhanced green fluorescent protein. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008 Feb;44(2):405-10.
Epub 2007 Nov 28. PubMed PMID: 18048055; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2695824.
•Lowe JS, Palygin O, Bhasin N, Hund TJ, Boyden PA, Shibata E, Anderson ME, Mohler PJ. Voltage-gated Nav channel targeting in the heart requires an ankyrin-G dependent cellular pathway. J Cell Biol. 2008 Jan 14;180(1):173-86. Epub 2008 Jan7. PubMed PMID: 18180363; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2213608.

2007
•Khoo MS, Grueter CE, Eren M, Yang J, Zhang R, Bass MA, Lwin ST, Mendes LA, Vaughan DE, Colbran RJ, Anderson ME. Calmodulin kinase II inhibition disrupts cardiomyopathic effects of enhanced green fluorescent protein. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008 Feb;44(2):405-10.
Epub 2007 Nov 28. PubMed PMID: 18048055; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2695824.
•Li J, Marionneau C, Koval O, Zingman L, Mohler PJ, Nerbonne JM, Anderson ME. Calmodulin kinase II inhibition enhances ischemic preconditioning by augmenting ATP-sensitive K+ current. Channels (Austin). 2007 Sep-Oct;1(5):387-94. Epub 2007 Dec 17. PubMed PMID: 18690039.
•Werdich AA, Baudenbacher F, Dzhura I, Jeyakumar LH, Kannankeril PJ, Fleischer S, LeGrone A, Milatovic D, Aschner M, Strauss AW, Anderson ME, Exil VJ. Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and abnormal Ca2+ handling in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase null mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007
May;292(5):H2202-11. Epub 2007 Jan 5. PubMed PMID: 17209005. Anderson ME, Mohler PJ. MicroRNA may have macro effect on sudden death. Nat Med. 2007 Apr;13(4):410-1. PubMed PMID: 17415373.
•Anderson ME. Multiple downstream proarrhythmic targets for calmodulin kinase II: moving beyond an ion channel-centric focus. Cardiovasc Res. 2007 Mar 1;73(4):657-66. Epub 2006 Dec 12. Review. PubMed PMID: 17254559.
•Grimm M, El-Armouche A, Zhang R, Anderson ME, Eschenhagen T. Reduced contractile response to alpha1-adrenergic stimulation in atria from mice with chronic cardiac calmodulin kinase II inhibition. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2007 Mar;42(3):643-52. Epub 2006 Dec 28. PubMed PMID: 17292391.
•Grueter CE, Colbran RJ, Anderson ME. CaMKII, an emerging molecular driver for calcium homeostasis, arrhythmias, and cardiac dysfunction. J Mol Med. 2007 Jan;85(1):5-14. Epub 2006 Nov 21. Review. PubMed PMID: 17119905.

2006
• Wu Y, Shintani A, Greuter C, Zhang R, Yang J, Kranias EG, Colbran RJ, Anderson ME. Calmodulin kinase II determines dynamic Ca2+ responses in heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2006; 40:213-23.
• Yang Y, Zhu WZ, Joiner M-L, Zhang R, Oddis CV, Hou Y, Yang J, Price EE jr, Gleaves L, Erin M, Ni G, Vaughn DE, Xiao R-P, Anderson ME. Calmodulin kinase inhibition protects against myocardial apoptosis in vivo. Am J Physiol 2006; 291:H3065-H3075.
•Kannankeril PJ, Mitchell BM, Goonasekera SA, Chelu MG, Zhang W, Sood S, Kearney DL, Danila CI, De Biasi M, Pautler RG, Roden DM, Taffet GE, Dirksen RT, Anderson ME, Hamilton SL. Mice with the R176Q cardiac ryanodine receptor mutation exhibit catecholamine-induced ventricular tachycardia and mild cardiomyopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2006; 103:12179-12184.
• Khoo MSC, Zhang R, Ni G, Greuter C, Yang Y, Zhang W, Mendes L, Olson EN, Colbran RJ, Anderson ME. Death, cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmias due to up-regulation of calmodulin kinase II in calcineurin-induced cardiomyopathy. Circulation 2006; 114:1352-1359. Published with an accompanying editorial.
• Grueter CE, Abiria SA, Dzhura I, Wu Y, Hamm A-J, Mohler PJ, Anderson ME, Colbran RJ. Molecular basis for facilitation of native Ca2+ channels by CaMKII. Mol Cell 2006; 23:641-650. Selected as a recommended citation by the Faculty of 1000 Biology.
• Li J, Shah V, Hell J, Nerbonne JM, Anderson ME. Calmodulin kinase II inhibition shortens action potential duration by up-regulation of K+ currents. Circ Res 2006; 99:1092-1099. PMID: 17038644. Published with an accompanying editorial.
•Anderson ME, Higgins, LS, Schulman H. Disease mechanisms and emerging therapies: Protein kinases and their inhibitors in myocardial disease. Nature Clin Prac 2006; 3:437-445.

III. Therapeutic Implications of Pharmacological Agents for Cardiac  Contractility Dysfunction: “The Fire From Within The Biggest Ca2+ Channel Erupts and Dribbles” by Anderson, ME

Author: Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC PENDING – 

Therapeutic Implications of these physiological research discoveries

JDP: RECOMMEND SPLIT TO TWO: a. contractility b. arrhythmia

IV. Selective Research Contributions on Calcium Release-related Contractile Dysfunction

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Summary

Author: Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC

PENDING

Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

 PENDING

V. Bibliography on Calcium Release Mechanisms in Vascular Smooth Muscle, in Cardiomyocytes and the Role in Heart Failure

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

  • Anderson ME, General Hospital Iowa City and University of Iowa
  • Wilson S. Colucci, MD, Heart Failure Lab at BMC
  • William Gregory Stevenson, M.D. Heart Failure Lab at BWH

Introduction to Calcium Release Mechanism in Vascular Smooth Muscle and in Cardiomyocytes

Author: Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC
PENDING

I. Cellular Contractility Capacity — Actin, Cellular Dynamics and Calcium Efflux: Emergence of  the Calcium Release-related Contractile Dysfunction

Author: Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC

The pumping action of the heart is mediated by repeated cycles of the release and re-uptake of calcium stored within cardiac myocytes. Similar to skeletal muscle function, the protein complex of actinomycin creates mechanical motion when calcium interacts with the threads of the protein strand tropomyosin which are wound around an actin protein filament  with the third protein troponin strung out like beads along the string. Calcium (Ca++) released from the storage space (sarcoplasmic reticulum) combines with troponin to actuate a shift in the tropomyosin threads, exposing myosin binding sites to adenosinetriphosphate (ATP, the energy source), which, in turn, consume the high-energy bond of ATP and concommitantly break and make cross-bridges resulting in shifted position (filament sliding, contraction). The spiral layers of these filaments within the heart result in a reduction of chamber size. Normally the two atrial chambers contract first, to boost the load of blood in the ventricles, then the ventricles contract, relying on one-way valves to impose a forward direction to the blood ejected from the heart.
Calcium and Myosin in Muscle Contraction
There is barely enough ATP around to complete a single heart beat, so ATP is replenished from a higher energy storage form, phosphocreatine (PCr, aka creatinephosphate), which in turn in reconstituted during the relaxation phase of the heart (low pressure) when oxygenated blood, glucose, and fatty acids are delivered to local mitochondria to restock energy stores. Thus the contraction cycle, unlike a continual pump, provides low pressure respite after each high pressure contraction, which facilitates delivery of oxygenated nutrient blood to the heart muscle to replenish its energy for the action. When switching to a mechanical total heart replacement, it is not necessary to preserve the pulsatile pattern, which primarily serves to facilitate energizing the biologic pump.
The volume of blood ejected by the left ventricle from a single heart beat is called the stroke volume (SV). The amount of blood in the left ventricle just before the heart beat is called the end-diastolic volume (EDV), and just after, the end-systolic volume (ESV), so SV=EDV-ESV. The portion of the filled left ventricle that gets pumped forward through the aortic valve by a single heart beat is called the ejection fraction (EF). Thus EF = SV/EDV, expressed as a percentage. The cardiac output (CO) in liters/minute is simply the product of stroke volume and heart rate (HR): CO = SV x HR.
Heart failure has three clinical forms: high output failure, systolic failure and diastolic heart failure. With high output failure (elevated SV x HR), the demands of the body are elevated beyond the normal capacity of the heart to supply cardiac output. With systolic failure (low EF) the pumping action of the heart is insufficient to meet the needs of fresh blood delivery to the various organs of the body (including in particular the heart, brain, liver, and kidneys). Note that the heart does not draw any significant nutrients or oxygen from the blood in its chambers – rather, it is first in line after the oxygenated blood is pumped out through the aortic valve to tax 10% of the cardiac output via the coronary arteries. In diastolic failure, the LV resists filling (stiff LV) so the back pressure to the lungs is elevated, resulting in pulmonary congestion. Many textbooks incorrectly describe diastolic heart failure as heart failure with a normal EF; however, that would imply that diastolic heart failure (stiff LV) can be “cured” by a myocardial infarction (heart attack) so that the EF drops. Contrary to that mistaken description, the addition of reduced EF to a patient with diastolic heart failure results in combined systolic and diastolic heart failure. Inadequate delivery of blood from low EF has been called “forward failure” and pulmonary congestion from a stiff LV “backward failure” but those terms are not synonymous with systolic and diastolic failure, as low EF also contributes to congestive heart failure, and stiff LV can impede adequate filling, so each has components for forward and backward failure.
One can plot a curve relating stroke volume to the end diastolic volume, called the “Frank-Starling curve” whereby an increase in EDV is generally accommodated by an increase in SV.  That adaptive feature is achieved by a stimulation of calcium-mediated increase in contractility (speed and strength of contraction) .  In heart failure, the usual amounts of calcium stores are not adequate to meet the demands. Consequently, remodeling occurs, which includes reversion towards a fetal phenotype in which the sarcoplasmic reticulum stores and releases a greater amount of calcium. While this does result in some augmentation of contractility, it occurs at a cost. The higher levels of calcium can interfere with mitochondrial function and reduce the energy efficiency of oxygen replenishment of phosphocreatine and ATP. In research by the author of this section (JDP), the timing of oxygen uptake and utilization is adversely affected by this remodeling, as demonstrated by oxygen uptake sensitive dynamic cardiac MRI.
Thus strategies to genetically re-engineer cardiac function by modifying calcium uptake and release to elevate contractility at a given workload have potentially harmful consequences in terms of lowering the energy efficiency of the heart. If the blood supply of the heart is good (non-ischemic heart failure), one can expect opportunities for benefit. However, if the blood supply to the heart is limited (ischemic heart failure), such changes may be detrimental. Furthermore, the impediments to mitochondrial function may contribute to other adverse effects of remodeling, including in particular activation of fibrosis (adverse remodeling promoting worsened diastolic failure).

II. Integration and Interpretation of Research Results in Two Labs: Mark E Anderson’s and Roger Hajjar’s Lab

Author: Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC

PENDING

 

III. Therapeutic Implications of Pharmacological Agents for Cardiac Contractility Dysfunction: “The Fire From Within The Biggest Ca2+ Channel Erupts and Dribbles” by Anderson, ME

Treatment Selection

Author: Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC

PENDING

Positive inotropic agents

Positive inotropic agents increase myocardial contractility, and are used to support cardiac function in conditions such as decompensated congestive heart failurecardiogenic shockseptic shockmyocardial infarction,cardiomyopathy, etc. Examples of positive inotropic agents include:

Negative inotropic agents

Negative inotropic agents decrease myocardial contractility, and are used to decrease cardiac workload in conditions such as angina. While negative inotropism may precipitate or exacerbate heart failure, certain beta blockers (e.g. carvedilolbisoprolol and metoprolol) have been believed to reduce morbidity and mortality in congestive heart failure. Quite recently, however, the effectiveness of beta blockers has come under renewed critical scientific scrutiny.

Class IA antiarrhythmics such as

Class IC antiarrhythmics such as

and

Therapeutic Implications

1. Arrhythmias

2. Heart Failure

Author: Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC

 PENDING

Therapeutic Implications

Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

The above list of inotropic agents consists of agents developed to increase the contractile force of the heart and have had a long history of use.  Even though they have been proved valid, they are not part of the specific advances that we are seeing that justifies a cardiology specialty in cardiac electrophysiology, the disorders, and the treatments.  The developments we now witness were unknown and perhaps unexpected a quarter of a century ago.  The methods required to understand the myocardiocyte were not yet developed.  Our understanding is now based on a refined knowledge of the Ca(2+) release mechanism between the sarcomere and the myocyte cytoplasm, the Ca(2+) transport, the ion pores, the role of RyR2 and the phosphorylation of the Ca(2+) release mechanism.  This and more will lead to far better therapeutic advances in the next few years based on earlier detection of changes preceding heart failure, and the possibility of treatments for potential life-threatening arrhythmias will be averted.  

 

IV. Selective Research Contributions on Calcium Release-related Contractile Dysfunction

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Heart Fail Monit. 2001;1(4):122-5.

Ischemic versus non-ischemic heart failure: should the etiology be determined?

Source

Department of Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland.

Abstract

In epidemiological surveys and in large-scale therapeutic trials, the prognosis of patients with ischemic heart failure is worse than in patients with a non-ischemic etiology. Even heart transplant candidates may respond better to intensified therapy if they have non-ischemic heart failure. The term ‘non-ischemic heart failure’ includes various subgroups such as hypertensive heart disease, myocarditis, alcoholic cardiomyopathy and cardiac dysfunction due to rapid atrial fibrillation. Some of these causes are reversible. The therapeutic effect of essential drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers and diuretics does not, in general, significantly differ between ischemic and non-ischemic heart failure. However, in some trials, response to certain drugs (digoxin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inhibition with pentoxifylline, growth hormone and amiodarone) was found to be better in non-ischemic patients. Patients with ischemic heart failure and non-contracting ischemic viable myocardium may, on the other hand, considerably improve following revascularization. In view of prognostic and possible therapeutic differences, the etiology of heart failure should be determined routinely in all patients. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12634896

Upregulation of β3-Adrenoceptors and Altered Contractile Response to Inotropic Amines in Human Failing Myocardium

  1. Stéphane Moniotte, MD;
  2. Lester Kobzik, MD;
  3. Olivier Feron, PhD;
  4. Jean-Noël Trochu, MD;
  5. Chantal Gauthier, PhD;
  6. Jean-Luc Balligand, MD, PhD

+Author Affiliations


  1. From the Department of Medicine, Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Louvain Medical School (S.M., O.F., J.-L.B.), Brussels, Belgium; INSERM U533, Physiopathologie et Pharmacologie Cellulaires et Moléculaires (J.-N.T., C.G.) and Faculté des Sciences et Techniques (C.G.), Nantes, France; and Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and Physiology Program, Harvard School of Public Health (L.K.), Boston, Mass.
  1. Correspondence to Jean-Luc Balligand, Department of Medicine, Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, FATH 5349, University of Louvain Medical School, 53 avenue Mounier, B1200 Brussels, Belgium, e-mail Balligand@mint.ucl.ac.be; or Chantal Gauthier, INSERM U533, Physiopathologie et Pharmacologie Cellulaires et Moléculaires, 44093 Nantes, France,

Abstract

Background—Contrary to β1– and β2-adrenoceptors, β3-adrenoceptors mediate a negative inotropic effect in human ventricular muscle. To assess their functional role in heart failure, our purpose was to compare the expression and contractile effect of β3-adrenoceptors in nonfailing and failing human hearts.

Methods and Results—We analyzed left ventricular samples from 29 failing (16 ischemic and 13 dilated cardiomyopathic) hearts (ejection fraction 18.6±2%) and 25 nonfailing (including 12 innervated) explanted hearts (ejection fraction 64.2±3%). β3-Adrenoceptor proteins were identified by immunohistochemistry in ventricular cardiomyocytes from nonfailing and failing hearts. Contrary to β1-adrenoceptor mRNA, Western blot analysis of β3-adrenoceptor proteins showed a 2- to 3-fold increase in failing compared with nonfailing hearts. A similar increase was observed for Gαi-2 proteins that couple β3-adrenoceptors to their negative inotropic effect. Contractile tension was measured in electrically stimulated myocardial samples ex vivo. In failing hearts, the positive inotropic effect of the nonspecific amine isoprenaline was reduced by 75% compared with that observed in nonfailing hearts. By contrast, the negative inotropic effect of β3-preferential agonists was only mildly reduced.

Conclusions—Opposite changes occur in β1– and β3-adrenoceptor abundance in the failing left ventricle, with an imbalance between their inotropic influences that may underlie the functional degradation of the human failing heart.

Key Words:

http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/103/12/1649.short

Increased beta-receptor density and improved hemodynamic response to catecholamine stimulation during long-term metoprolol therapy in heart failure from dilated cardiomyopathy.

  1. S M Heilbrunn;
  2. P Shah;
  3. M R Bristow;
  4. H A Valantine;
  5. R Ginsburg;
  6. M B Fowler

+Author Affiliations


  1. Cardiology Division, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA.
Abstract

Severe heart failure is associated with a reduction in myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor density and an impaired contractile response to catecholamine stimulation. Metoprolol was administered during a 6-month period to 14 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy to examine its effects on these abnormalities. The mean daily dose of metoprolol for the group was 105 mg (range, 75-150 mg). Myocardial beta-receptor density, resting hemodynamic output, and peak left ventricular dP/dt response to dobutamine infusions were compared in 9, 14, and 7 patients, respectively, before and after 6 months of metoprolol therapy while the patients were on therapy. The second hemodynamic study was performed 1-2 hours after the morning dose of metoprolol had been given. Myocardial beta-receptor density increased from 39 +/- 7 to 80 +/- 12 fmol/mg (p less than 0.05). Resting hemodynamic output showed a rise in stroke work index from 27 +/- 4 to 43 +/- 3 g/m/m2, p less than 0.05, and ejection fraction rose from 0.26 +/- 0.03 to 0.39 +/- 0.03 after 6 months of metoprolol therapy, p less than 0.05. Before metoprolol therapy, dobutamine caused a 21 +/- 4% increase in peak positive left ventricular dP/dt; during metoprolol therapy, the same dobutamine infusion rate increased peak positive dP/dt by 74 +/- 18% (p less than 0.05). Thus, long-term metoprolol therapy is associated with an increase in myocardial beta-receptor density, significant improvement in resting hemodynamic output, and improved contractile response to catecholamine stimulation. These changes indicate a restoration of beta-adrenergic sensitivity associated with metoprolol therapy, possibly related to the observed up-regulation of beta-adrenergic receptors.

http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/79/3/483.short

Ryanopathy: causes and manifestations of RyR2 dysfunction in heart failure

Belevych AE, Radwański PB, Carnes CA, Györke S. College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Cardiovasc Res. 2013; 98(2):240-7. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvt024. Epub 2013 Feb 12. PMID: 23408344 PMCID: PMC3633158 [Available on 2014/5/1] The cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2), a Ca(2+) release channel on the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), plays a key role in determining the strength of the heartbeat by supplying Ca(2+) required for contractile activation. Abnormal RyR2 function is recognized as an important part of the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). While in the normal heart, the balance between the cytosolic and intra-SR Ca(2+) regulation of RyR2 function maintains the contraction-relaxation cycle, in HF, this behaviour is compromised by excessive post-translational modifications of the RyR2. Such modification of the Ca(2+) release channel impairs the ability of the RyR2 to properly deactivate leading to a spectrum of Ca(2+)-dependent pathologies that include cardiac systolic and diastolic dysfunction, arrhythmias, and structural remodeling. In this article, we present an overview of recent advances in our understanding of the underlying causes and pathological consequences of abnormal RyR2 function in the failing heart. We also discuss the implications of these findings for HF therapy.

Circ Res. 2005 Dec 9;97(12):1314-22. Epub 2005 Nov 3.

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase modulates cardiac ryanodine receptor phosphorylation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak in heart failure.

Source

Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Abstract

Abnormal release of Ca from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) may contribute to contractile dysfunction and arrhythmogenesis in heart failure (HF). We previously demonstrated decreased Ca transient amplitude and SR Ca load associated with increased Na/Ca exchanger expression and enhanced diastolic SR Ca leak in an arrhythmogenic rabbit model of nonischemic HF. Here we assessed expression and phosphorylation status of key Ca handling proteins and measured SR Ca leak in control and HF rabbit myocytes. With HF, expression of RyR2 and FK-506 binding protein 12.6 (FKBP12.6) were reduced, whereas inositol trisphosphate receptor (type 2) and Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) expression were increased 50% to 100%. The RyR2 complex included more CaMKII (which was more activated) but less calmodulin, FKBP12.6, and phosphatases 1 and 2A. The RyR2 was more highly phosphorylated by both protein kinase A (PKA) and CaMKII. Total phospholamban phosphorylation was unaltered, although it was reduced at the PKA site and increased at the CaMKII site. SR Ca leak in intact HF myocytes (which is higher than in control) was reduced by inhibition of CaMKII but was unaltered by PKA inhibition. CaMKII inhibition also increased SR Ca content in HF myocytes. Our results suggest that CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2 is involved in enhanced SR diastolic Ca leak and reduced SR Ca load in HF, and may thus contribute to arrhythmias and contractile dysfunction in HF.

Editorial Comment on the above article abstract made by Anderson, ME

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16269653

The Fire From Within – The Biggest Ca2+ Channel Erupts and Dribbles

  1. Mark E. Anderson

+Author Affiliations


  1. From the University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City.
  1. Correspondence to Mark E. Anderson, MD, PhD, University of Iowa, Carver College ofMedicine, 200 Hawkins Drive, Room E 315 GH, Iowa City, IA 53342-1081. E-mail mark-e-anderson@uiowa.edu

Key Words:

See related article, pages 1314–1322

CaMKII Is a Pluripotent Signaling Molecule in Heart

The multifunctional Ca2+ and calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a serine threonine kinase that is abundant in heart where it phosphorylates Ca2+ihomeostatic proteins. It seems likely that CaMKII plays an important role in cardiac physiology because these target proteins significantly overlap with the more extensively studied serine threonine kinase, protein kinase A (PKA), which is a key arbiter of catecholamine responses in heart. However, the physiological functions of CaMKII remain poorly understood, whereas the potential role of CaMKII in signaling myocardial dysfunction and arrhythmias has become an area of intense focus. CaMKII activity and expression are upregulated in failing human hearts and in many animal models of structural heart disease.1 CaMKII inhibitory drugs can prevent cardiac arrhythmias2,3 and suppress afterdepolarizations4 that are a probable proximate focal cause of arrhythmias in heart failure. CaMKII inhibition in mice reduces left ventricular dilation and prevents disordered intracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+i) homeostasis after myocardial infarction.5 CaMKII overexpression in mouse heart causes severe cardiac hypertrophy, dysfunction, and sudden death that is heralded by increased SR Ca2+ leak6; these findings go a long way to making a case for CaMKII as a causative signal in heart disease and arrhythmias but do not identify critical molecular targets or test the potential role of CaMKII in a large non-rodent animal model. The work by Ai et al in this issue of Circulation Research makes an important contribution by demonstrating CaMKII upregulation causes increased Ca2+ leak from ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ release channels in a clinically-relevant model of structural heart disease.7

Ryanodine Receptors Are Central

Ca2+i release controls cardiac contraction, and most of the Ca2+i for contraction is released from the intracellular sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through ryanodine receptors (RyR). RyRs are huge proteins (565 kDa) that assemble with a fourfold symmetry to form a functional Ca2+ release channel. Approximately 90% of the RyR is not directly required to form the pore but instead protrudes into the cytoplasm where it binds numerous proteins, including PKA, CaMKII, CaM, and FK12.6 (calstabin). Cardiac contraction is initiated when Ca2+ current (ICa), through sarcolemmal L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCC), triggers RyR opening by a Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) mechanism. LTCCs “face off” with RyRs across a highly ordered cytoplasmic cleft that delineates a kind of Ca2+furnace during each CICR-initiated heart beat (Figure). CICR has an obvious need to function reliably, so it is astounding to consider how this feed forward process is intrinsically unstable. The increased instability of CICR in heart failure is directly relevant to arrhythmias initiated by afterdepolarizations. RyRs partly rely on a collaboration of Ca2+-sensing proteins in the SR lumen to grade their opening probability and the amount of SR Ca2+ release to a given ICa stimulus. Thus the SR Ca2+ content is an important parameter for setting the inotropic state, and heart failure is generally a condition of reduced SR Ca2+ content and diminished myocardial contraction.

Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) in health and disease. Each heart beat is initiated by cell membrane depolarization that opens Ca2+channels. The Ca2+ current (ICa) induces ryanodine receptor (RyR) opening that allows release of myofilament activating Ca2+ for contraction. In healthy CICR, RyRs close during diastole while Ca2+ is removed from the cytoplasm by uptake into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In heart failure the SR has reduced Ca2+ content so that the amount of Ca2+ released to the myofilaments is smaller than in health. RyR hyperphosphorylation by CaMKII promotes repetitive RyR openings leading to a Ca2+ leak in diastole. This leak contributes to the reduction in SR Ca2+ content and can engage the electrogenic Na+-Ca2+ exchanger to trigger afterdepolarizations and arrhythmias.

Kinases Facilitate Communication Between LTCCs and RyRs

LTCCs and RyRs form the protein machinery for initiating contraction in cardiac and skeletal muscle, but in cardiac muscle communication between these proteins occurs without a requirement for physical contact. PKA is preassociated with LTCCs and RyRs, and PKA-dependent phosphorylation increases LTCC8 and RyR9opening. The resultant increase in Ca2+i is an important reason for the positive inotropic response to cathecholamines. The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by increased Ca2+I, and so catecholamine stimulation activates CaMKII in addition to PKA.5 In contrast to PKA, which is tightly linked to inotropy, CaMKII inhibition does not cause a reduction in fractional shortening during acute catecholamine stimulation in mice.5 Prolonged catecholamine exposure does reduce contractile function by uncertain mechanisms that require CaMKII.10 CaMKII colocalizes with LTCCs11 and RyRs,12 and CaMKII can also increase LTCC13 and RyR12 opening probability in cardiac myocytes. The ultrastructural environment of LTCCs and RyRs is well-suited for a Ca2+i-responsive kinase to serve as a coordinating signal between LTCCs and RyRs during CICR. The recently identified role of CaMKII in heart failure suggests the possibility that excessive CaMKII activity could cause or contribute to CICR defects present in heart failure

Heart Failure Is a Disease of Disordered Ca2+i Homeostasis

The key clinical phenotypes of contractile dysfunction and electrical instability in heart failure involve problems with Ca2+i homeostasis. Broad changes in Ca2+I-handling proteins can occur in various heart failure models, but in general heart failure is marked by a reduction in the capacity for SR Ca2+ uptake, enhanced activity of the sarcolemmal Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, and reduction in CICR-coordinated SR Ca2+ release. On the other hand, the opening probability of individual LTCCs is increased in human heart failure,14suggesting that posttranslational modifications may also be mechanistically important for understanding these Ca2+i disturbances at Ca2+ homeostatic proteins.

Is Heart Failure a Disease of Enzymatic Over-Activity?

Heart failure is marked by hyper-adrenergic tone, and beta adrenergic receptor antagonist drugs (beta blockers) are a mainstay of therapy for reducing mortality in heart failure patients. The Marks group pioneered the concept that RyRs are hyperphosphorylated by PKA in patients with heart failure and showed that successful therapies, ranging from beta blockers to left ventricular assist devices, reduce RyR phosphorylation in step with improved mechanical function. They have developed a large body of evidence in patients and in animal models that PKA phosphorylation of Ser2809 on cardiac RyRs destabilizes binding of FK12.6 to RyRs and promotes increased RyR opening that causes an insidious Ca2+ leak. This leak is potentially problematic because it can reduce SR Ca2+ content (to depress inotropy), engage pathological Ca2+-dependent transcriptional programs (to promote myocyte hypertrophy), and activate arrhythmia-initiating afterdepolarizations (to cause sudden death). Indeed, RyR hyperphosphorylation can produce arrhythmias as well as mechanical dysfunction, whereas a drug that prevents FK12.6 dissociation from RyR also reduces or prevents arrhythmias.15 Taken together these findings make a strong case that RyR hyperphosphorylation (a result of net excess kinase activity) is a central event in heart failure and sudden death.

Not all findings point to hyperphosphorylation of RyR by PKA and subsequent FK12.6 dissociation as critical determinants of heart failure16 and arrhythmias.17 For example, studies in isolated and permeabilized ventricular myocytes failed to show an increase in RyR openings, called sparks, which are monitored by photoemission of a Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye.18 FKBP12.6 dissociation is not universally reported to follow RyR phosphorylation by PKA.19 Furthermore, FKBP12.6 binding to RyR is not affected during catecholamine stimulation that results in arrhythmias in a mouse model of catecholamine-induced ventricular tachycardia,20,21 a genetic disorder of hypersensitive RyR Ca2+release. These findings challenge the PKA hypothesis and make room, conceptually, to consider the role of additional signals for modulating RyR activity in heart disease.

Both PKA and CaMKII may phosphorylate Ser2809, but recently CaMKII was found to exclusively phosphorylate Ser2815 and this phosphorylation caused increased RyR opening.12 However, the PKA and CaMKII responses may be mechanistically distinct because CaMKII evoked increased RyR opening in the absence of FK12.6 dissociation. These findings together with the fact that CaMKII activity is recruited under conditions of increased PKA activity suggest that CaMKII might also be important in regulating RyRs in heart failure.

The article by Ai et al shows that expression of a CaMKII splice variant that is resident in cytoplasm (CaMKIIδc) was increased, and there was enhanced phosphorylation of the recently identified CaMKII site (Ser2815) on RyR. Both Ser2815 and the PKA site (Ser2809) were hyperphosphorylated in failing hearts, but phosphorylation of the CaMKII site was greater than the PKA site. Because both Ser2809 and Ser2815 can increase RyR openings, it seemed likely that PKA and CaMKII would work together to increase Ca2+leak. Surprisingly, CaMKII inhibition but not PKA inhibition suppressed the leak. These experiments were performed with meticulous attention to matching SR Ca2+ load, a technically difficult accomplishment that is not performed by most groups evaluating SR Ca2+ release. Thus, differences in the SR intraluminal Ca2+ could not account for these findings. Although these experiments were carefully controlled, one potential limitation is that the experiments relied exclusively on CaMKII and PKA inhibitor drugs that are notorious for nonspecific actions at ion channel proteins. They also showed that the ratio of inositol tris phosphate receptors (IP3R) to RyRs was increased in failing left ventricular myocytes. IP3R are important for regulating Ca2+i in many cells types, including atrial myocytes, but their role in ventricle remains uncertain. The finding that the IP3R are increased at the expense of RyR suggests that Ca2+i release sites are fundamentally reordered in heart failure but leaves the impact of this change untested. IP3R are also a target for CaMKII, so interesting questions remain about the potential role for this channel and CaMKII in heart failure, at least in this model.

What We Learned and What We Need to Know

CaMKII activity seems to be part and parcel of the adrenergic signaling seen in structural heart disease. This work shows us that CaMKII can contribute directly to increased SR Ca2+ leak in a clinically relevant model of heart failure that is marked by arrhythmias and sudden death.22 Acute experiments with CaMKII inhibitory drugs strongly suggest that SR Ca2+ leak is principally linked to CaMKII rather than PKA activity. Excessive SR Ca2+ release can activate inward (forward mode) Na+-Ca2+ exchanger current to cause delayed afterdepolarizations and arrhythmias and CaMKII inhibition can prevent these inward Na+-Ca2+ exchanger currents.23 An important next step toward translating these findings will be to evaluate the effects of chronic CaMKII inhibition in this model to see whether it reverses cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias, and whether chronic CaMKII inhibitor therapy can stop the RyR leak to refill the SR. It will be necessary to have improved pharmacological agents with fewer nonspecific effects to convincingly perform these experiments. These future experiments will tell us whether CaMKII inhibition is a potentially viable therapy for structural heart disease and arrhythmias in a non-genetic non-mouse model. We need to know whether CaMKII inhibition is really a highly-specific form of beta blockade that can preserve inotropic responses to catecholamines while preventing the adverse consequences of catecholamines in heart failure.5

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by grants from the National Institutes of Health (HL070250, HL62494, and HL046681). Dr Anderson is an Established Investigator of the American Heart Association.

Footnotes

  • The opinions expressed in this editorial are not necessarily those of the editors or of the American Heart Association

References

  1. Zhang T, Brown JH. Role of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Cardiovasc Res2004; 63: 476–486.
  2. Mazur A, Roden DM, Anderson ME. Systemic administration of calmodulin antagonist W-7 or protein kinase A inhibitor H-8 prevents torsade de pointes in rabbits. Circulation1999; 100: 2437–2442.
  3. Wu Y, Temple J, Zhang R, Dzhura I, Zhang W, Trimble RW, Roden DM, Passier R, Olson EN, Colbran RJ, Anderson ME. Calmodulin kinase II and arrhythmias in a mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy. Circulation2002; 106: 1288–1293.
  4. Anderson ME, Braun AP, Wu Y, Lu T, Schulman H, Sung RJ. KN-93, an inhibitor of multifunctional Ca++/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, decreases early afterdepolarizations in rabbit heart. J Pharm Exp Ther1998; 287: 996–1006.
  5. Zhang R, Khoo MS, Wu Y, Yang Y, Grueter CE, Ni G, Price EE, Thiel W, Guatimosim S, Song LS, Madu EC, Shah AN, Vishnivetskaya TA, Atkinson JB, Gurevich VV, Salama G, Lederer WJ, Colbran RJ, Anderson ME. Calmodulin kinase II inhibition protects against structural heart disease. Nature Med2005; 11:409–417.
  6. Maier LS, Zhang T, Chen L, DeSantiago J, Brown JH, Bers DM. Transgenic CaMKIIdeltaC overexpression uniquely alters cardiac myocyte Ca2+ handling: reduced SR Ca2+ load and activated SR Ca2+ release. Circ Res2003; 92: 904–911.
  7. Ai X, Curran JW, Shannon TR, Bers DM, Pogwizd SM Ca2+/-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase modulates cardiac RyR2 phosphorylation and SR Ca2+leak in heart failure. Circ Res2005; 97: 1314–1322.
  8. Yue DT, Herzig S, Marban E. Beta-adrenergic stimulation of calcium channels occurs by potentiation of high-activity gating modes. Proc Nat Acad Sci U S A.1990; 87: 753–757.
  9. Marx SO, Reiken S, Hisamatsu Y, Jayaraman T, Burkhoff D, Rosemblit N, Marks AR. PKA phosphorylation dissociates FKBP12.6 from the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor): Defective regulation in failing hearts. Cell2000; 101:365–376.
  10. Wang W, Zhu W, Wang S, Yang D, Crow MT, Xiao RP, Cheng H. Sustained beta1-adrenergic stimulation modulates cardiac contractility by Ca2+/calmodulin kinase signaling pathway. Circ Res2004; 95: 798–806.
  11. Dzhura I, Wu Y, Colbran RJ, Corbin JD, Balser JR, Anderson ME. Cytoskeletal disrupting agents prevent calmodulin kinase, IQ domain and voltage-dependent facilitation of L-type Ca2+ channels. J Physiol2002; 545: 399–406.
  12. Wehrens XH, Lehnart SE, Reiken SR, Marks AR. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation regulates the cardiac ryanodine receptor. Circ Res.2004; 94: e61–e70.
  13. Dzhura I, Wu Y, Colbran RJ, Balser JR, Anderson ME. Calmodulin kinase determines calcium-dependent facilitation of L-type calcium channels. Nature Cell Biol2000; 2: 173–177.
  14. Schroder F, Handrock R, Beuckelmann DJ, Hirt S, Hullin R, Priebe L, Schwinger RH, Weil J, Herzig S. Increased availability and open probability of single L-type calcium channels from failing compared with nonfailing human ventricle. Circulation.1998; 98: 969–976.
  15. Wehrens XH, Lehnart SE, Reiken SR, Deng SX, Vest JA, Cervantes D, Coromilas J, Landry DW, Marks AR. Protection from cardiac arrhythmia through ryanodine receptor-stabilizing protein calstabin2. Science2004; 304: 292–296.
  16. Bers DM, Eisner DA, Valdivia HH. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ and heart failure: Roles of diastolic leak and Ca2+ transport. Circ Res2003; 93: 487–490.
  17. Houser SR. Can novel therapies for arrhythmias caused by spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release be developed using mouse models? Circ Res.2005; 96: 1031–1032.
  18. Li Y, Kranias EG, Mignery GA, Bers DM. Protein kinase A phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor does not affect calcium sparks in mouse ventricular myocytes.Circ Res2002; 90: 309–316.
  19. Xiao B, Sutherland C, Walsh MP, Chen SR. Protein kinase A phosphorylation at serine-2808 of the cardiac Ca2+-release channel (ryanodine receptor) does not dissociate 12.6-kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP12.6). Circ Res2004; 94: 487–495.
  20. Cerrone M, Colombi B, Santoro M, di Barletta MR, Scelsi M, Villani L, Napolitano C, Priori SG. Bidirectional ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation elicited in a knock-in mouse model carrier of a mutation in the cardiac ryanodine receptor. Circ Res2005;96: e77–e82.
  21. George CH, Higgs GV, Lai FA. Ryanodine receptor mutations associated with stress-induced ventricular tachycardia mediate increased calcium release in stimulated cardiomyocytes. Circ Res2003; 93: 531–540.
  22. Pogwizd SM, Schlotthauer K, Li L, Yuan W, Bers DM. Arrhythmogenesis and contractile dysfunction in heart failure: Roles of sodium-calcium exchange, inward rectifier potassium current, and residual beta-adrenergic responsiveness. Circ Res.2001; 88: 1159–1167.
  23. Wu Y, Roden DM, Anderson ME. Calmodulin kinase inhibition prevents development of the arrhythmogenic transient inward current. Circ Res1999; 84:906–912.

 SOURCE

Other tightly related articles by Prof. Anderson, ME

http://www.atgcchecker.com/pubmed/16339492

Summary

Author: Justin D Pearlman, MD, PhD, FACC

PENDING

Author: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

 PENDING

V. Bibliography on Calcium Release Mechanisms in Vascular Smooth Muscle, in Cardiomyocytes and the Role in Heart Failure 

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

  • Anderson ME, General Hospital Iowa City and University of Iowa
  • Wilson S. Colucci, MD, Heart Failure Lab at BMC
  • William Gregory Stevenson, M.D. Heart Failure Lab at BWH

Anderson ME, General Hospital Iowa City and University of Iowa

Latest 20 Publications by Prof. Anderson ME on Heart Failure, Calcium and Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II: linking heart failure and arrhythmias.

Mark E. Anderson, MD, PhD

Clinical Profile Head, Department of Internal Medicine Director, Cardiovascular Research Center Professor of Internal Medicine  – Cardiovascular Medicine Professor of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics

Contact Information

Primary Office: SE308 GH General Hospital Iowa City, IA 52242 Lab: 2270C CBRB Iowa City, IA 52242 Email: mark-e-anderson@uiowa.edu Web: Dr. Anderson’s Laboratory Web: Transatlantic CaMKII Alliance website (Fondation Leducq)

Dr. Anderson is clinically trained as a cardiac electrophysiologist. His research is focused on cellular signaling and ionic mechanisms that cause heart failure and sudden cardiac death. The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is upregulated in heart disease and arrhythmias. Work in the Anderson laboratory implicates CaMKII as a signal that drives myocardial hypertrophy, apoptosis, mechanical dysfunction and electrical instability. The laboratory work ranges from molecular structure activity analysis of CaMKII to systems physiology using genetically modified mice to dissect cellular mechanisms of CaMKII signaling in heart. http://www.medicine.uiowa.edu/dept_primary_apr.aspx?appointment=Internal%20Medicine&id=andersonmar

Results: 1 to 20 of 419

Li J, Marionneau C, Zhang R, Shah V, Hell JW, Nerbonne JM, Anderson ME. Circ Res. 2006 Nov 10;99(10):1092-9. Epub 2006 Oct 12.
PMID:

 17038644 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article

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Calmodulin kinase II inhibition enhances ischemic preconditioning by augmenting ATP-sensitive K+ current.

Li J, Marionneau C, Koval O, Zingman L, Mohler PJ, Nerbonne JM, Anderson ME. Channels (Austin). 2007 Sep-Oct;1(5):387-94. Epub 2007 Dec 17.
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Calmodulin kinase II and arrhythmias in a mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy.

Wu Y, Temple J, Zhang R, Dzhura I, Zhang W, Trimble R, Roden DM, Passier R, Olson EN, Colbran RJ, Anderson ME. Circulation. 2002 Sep 3;106(10):1288-93.
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Wu Y, Shintani A, Grueter C, Zhang R, Hou Y, Yang J, Kranias EG, Colbran RJ, Anderson ME. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2006 Feb;40(2):213-23. Epub 2006 Jan 18.
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Death, cardiac dysfunction, and arrhythmias are increased by calmodulin kinase II in calcineurin cardiomyopathy.

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RGS6, a modulator of parasympathetic activation in heart.

Yang J, Huang J, Maity B, Gao Z, Lorca RA, Gudmundsson H, Li J, Stewart A, Swaminathan PD, Ibeawuchi SR, Shepherd A, Chen CK, Kutschke W, Mohler PJ, Mohapatra DP, Anderson ME, Fisher RA. Circ Res. 2010 Nov 26;107(11):1345-9. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.224220. Epub 2010 Sep 23.
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Khoo MS, Grueter CE, Eren M, Yang J, Zhang R, Bass MA, Lwin ST, Mendes LA, Vaughan DE, Colbran RJ, Anderson ME. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008 Feb;44(2):405-10. Epub 2007 Nov 28.
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Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II triggers cell membrane injury by inducing complement factor B gene expression in the mouse heart.

Singh MV, Kapoun A, Higgins L, Kutschke W, Thurman JM, Zhang R, Singh M, Yang J, Guan X, Lowe JS, Weiss RM, Zimmermann K, Yull FE, Blackwell TS, Mohler PJ, Anderson ME. J Clin Invest. 2009 Apr;119(4):986-96. doi: 10.1172/JCI35814. Epub 2009 Mar 9.
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Wu Y, Luczak ED, Lee EJ, Hidalgo C, Yang J, Gao Z, Li J, Wehrens XH, Granzier H, Anderson ME. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012 Sep;53(3):429-36. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2012.06.019. Epub 2012 Jul 11.
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Ankyrin-B regulates Kir6.2 membrane expression and function in heart.

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CaMKII determines mitochondrial stress responses in heart.

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Publications by Prof. Wilson S. Colucci, MD on Heart Failure

Wilson S. Colucci, MD
Title Professor
Institution Boston University School of Medicine
Department Medicine
Division Cardiovascular Medicine
Address 75 E. Newton St Boston, MA 02118
Telephone (617) 638-8706
Title Chief – Section of Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine
Institution Boston University School of Medicine
Department Medicine
Division Cardiovascular Medicine
1. Qin F, Siwik DA, Lancel S, Zhang J, Kuster GM, Luptak I, Wang L, Tong X, Kang YJ, Cohen RA, Colucci WS. Hydrogen Peroxide-Mediated SERCA Cysteine 674 Oxidation Contributes to Impaired Cardiac Myocyte Relaxation in Senescent Mouse Heart. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013; 2(4):e000184.
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2. Gopal DM, Kommineni M, Ayalon N, Koelbl C, Ayalon R, Biolo A, Dember LM, Downing J, Siwik DA, Liang CS, Colucci WS. Relationship of plasma galectin-3 to renal function in patients with heart failure: effects of clinical status, pathophysiology of heart failure, and presence or absence of heart failure. J Am Heart Assoc. 2012 Oct; 1(5):e000760.
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3. Calamaras TD, Lee C, Lan F, Ido Y, Siwik DA, Colucci WS. Post-translational Modification of Serine/Threonine Kinase LKB1 via Adduction of the Reactive Lipid Species 4-Hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) at Lysine Residue 97 Directly Inhibits Kinase Activity. J Biol Chem. 2012 Dec 7; 287(50):42400-6.
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4. Kivikko M, Nieminen MS, Pollesello P, Pohjanjousi P, Colucci WS, Teerlink JR, Mebazaa A. The clinical effects of levosimendan are not attenuated by sulfonylureas. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2012 Dec; 46(6):330-8.
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5. Kumar V, Calamaras TD, Haeussler DJ, Colucci W, Cohen RA, McComb ME, Pimental DR, Bachschmid MM. Cardiovascular Redox and Ox Stress Proteomics. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012 May 18.
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6. Qin F, Siwik DA, Luptak I, Hou X, Wang L, Higuchi A, Weisbrod RM, Ouchi N, Tu VH, Calamaras TD, Miller EJ, Verbeuren TJ, Walsh K, Cohen RA, Colucci WS. The polyphenols resveratrol and s17834 prevent the structural and functional sequelae of diet-induced metabolic heart disease in mice. Circulation. 2012 Apr 10; 125(14):1757-64.
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7. Mazzini M, Tadros T, Siwik D, Joseph L, Bristow M, Qin F, Cohen R, Monahan K, Klein M, Colucci W. Primary carnitine deficiency and sudden death: in vivo evidence of myocardial lipid peroxidation and sulfonylation of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2. Cardiology. 2011; 120(1):52-8.
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8. Schulze PC, Biolo A, Gopal D, Shahzad K, Balog J, Fish M, Siwik D, Colucci WS. Dynamics in insulin resistance and plasma levels of adipokines in patients with acute decompensated and chronic stable heart failure. J Card Fail. 2011 Dec; 17(12):1004-11.
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9. Liesa M, Luptak I, Qin F, Hyde BB, Sahin E, Siwik DA, Zhu Z, Pimentel DR, Xu XJ, Ruderman NB, Huffman KD, Doctrow SR, Richey L, Colucci WS, Shirihai OS. Mitochondrial transporter ATP binding cassette mitochondrial erythroid is a novel gene required for cardiac recovery after ischemia/reperfusion. Circulation. 2011 Aug 16; 124(7):806-13.
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10. Jessup M, Greenberg B, Mancini D, Cappola T, Pauly DF, Jaski B, Yaroshinsky A, Zsebo KM, Dittrich H, Hajjar RJ. Calcium Upregulation by Percutaneous Administration of Gene Therapy in Cardiac Disease (CUPID): a phase 2 trial of intracoronary gene therapy of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase in patients with advanced heart failure. Circulation. 2011 Jul 19; 124(3):304-13.
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11. Papanicolaou KN, Khairallah RJ, Ngoh GA, Chikando A, Luptak I, O’Shea KM, Riley DD, Lugus JJ, Colucci WS, Lederer WJ, Stanley WC, Walsh K. Mitofusin-2 maintains mitochondrial structure and contributes to stress-induced permeability transition in cardiac myocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 2011 Mar; 31(6):1309-28.
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12. Kivikko M, Sundberg S, Karlsson MO, Pohjanjousi P, Colucci WS. Acetylation status does not affect levosimendan’s hemodynamic effects in heart failure patients. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2011 Apr; 45(2):86-90.
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13. Zannad F, McMurray JJ, Krum H, van Veldhuisen DJ, Swedberg K, Shi H, Vincent J, Pocock SJ, Pitt B. Eplerenone in patients with systolic heart failure and mild symptoms. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jan 6; 364(1):11-21.
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14. Velagaleti RS, Gona P, Sundström J, Larson MG, Siwik D, Colucci WS, Benjamin EJ, Vasan RS. Relations of biomarkers of extracellular matrix remodeling to incident cardiovascular events and mortality. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010 Nov; 30(11):2283-8.
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15. Lancel S, Qin F, Lennon SL, Zhang J, Tong X, Mazzini MJ, Kang YJ, Siwik DA, Cohen RA, Colucci WS. Oxidative posttranslational modifications mediate decreased SERCA activity and myocyte dysfunction in Galphaq-overexpressing mice. Circ Res. 2010 Jul 23; 107(2):228-32.
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16. Jeong MY, Walker JS, Brown RD, Moore RL, Vinson CS, Colucci WS, Long CS. AFos inhibits phenylephrine-mediated contractile dysfunction by altering phospholamban phosphorylation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010 Jun; 298(6):H1719-26.
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17. Kuster GM, Lancel S, Zhang J, Communal C, Trucillo MP, Lim CC, Pfister O, Weinberg EO, Cohen RA, Liao R, Siwik DA, Colucci WS. Redox-mediated reciprocal regulation of SERCA and Na+-Ca2+ exchanger contributes to sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ depletion in cardiac myocytes. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010 May 1; 48(9):1182-7.
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18. Qin F, Lennon-Edwards S, Lancel S, Biolo A, Siwik DA, Pimentel DR, Dorn GW, Kang YJ, Colucci WS. Cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase identifies hydrogen peroxide-dependent and -independent phases of myocardial remodeling and prevents the progression to overt heart failure in G(alpha)q-overexpressing transgenic mice. Circ Heart Fail. 2010 Mar; 3(2):306-13.
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19. Biolo A, Fisch M, Balog J, Chao T, Schulze PC, Ooi H, Siwik D, Colucci WS. Episodes of acute heart failure syndrome are associated with increased levels of troponin and extracellular matrix markers. Circ Heart Fail. 2010 Jan; 3(1):44-50.
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20. Lazar HL, Bao Y, Siwik D, Frame J, Mateo CS, Colucci WS. Nesiritide enhances myocardial protection during the revascularization of acutely ischemic myocardium. J Card Surg. 2009 Sep-Oct; 24(5):600-5.
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21. Lancel S, Zhang J, Evangelista A, Trucillo MP, Tong X, Siwik DA, Cohen RA, Colucci WS. Nitroxyl activates SERCA in cardiac myocytes via glutathiolation of cysteine 674. Circ Res. 2009 Mar 27; 104(6):720-3.
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22. Dhingra R, Pencina MJ, Schrader P, Wang TJ, Levy D, Pencina K, Siwik DA, Colucci WS, Benjamin EJ, Vasan RS. Relations of matrix remodeling biomarkers to blood pressure progression and incidence of hypertension in the community. Circulation. 2009 Mar 3; 119(8):1101-7.
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23. Biolo A, Greferath R, Siwik DA, Qin F, Valsky E, Fylaktakidou KC, Pothukanuri S, Duarte CD, Schwarz RP, Lehn JM, Nicolau C, Colucci WS. Enhanced exercise capacity in mice with severe heart failure treated with an allosteric effector of hemoglobin, myo-inositol trispyrophosphate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 10; 106(6):1926-9.
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24. Brooks WW, Conrad CH, Robinson KG, Colucci WS, Bing OH. L-arginine fails to prevent ventricular remodeling and heart failure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Am J Hypertens. 2009 Feb; 22(2):228-34.
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25. Holubarsch CJ, Colucci WS, Meinertz T, Gaus W, Tendera M. The efficacy and safety of Crataegus extract WS 1442 in patients with heart failure: the SPICE trial. Eur J Heart Fail. 2008 Dec; 10(12):1255-63.
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26. Olshansky B, Sabbah HN, Hauptman PJ, Colucci WS. Parasympathetic nervous system and heart failure: pathophysiology and potential implications for therapy. Circulation. 2008 Aug 19; 118(8):863-71.
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27. Hare JM, Mangal B, Brown J, Fisher C, Freudenberger R, Colucci WS, Mann DL, Liu P, Givertz MM, Schwarz RP. Impact of oxypurinol in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Results of the OPT-CHF study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Jun 17; 51(24):2301-9.
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28. Torre-Amione G, Anker SD, Bourge RC, Colucci WS, Greenberg BH, Hildebrandt P, Keren A, Motro M, Moyé LA, Otterstad JE, Pratt CM, Ponikowski P, Rouleau JL, Sestier F, Winkelmann BR, Young JB. Results of a non-specific immunomodulation therapy in chronic heart failure (ACCLAIM trial): a placebo-controlled randomised trial. Lancet. 2008 Jan 19; 371(9608):228-36.
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29. Fonarow GC, Lukas MA, Robertson M, Colucci WS, Dargie HJ. Effects of carvedilol early after myocardial infarction: analysis of the first 30 days in Carvedilol Post-Infarct Survival Control in Left Ventricular Dysfunction (CAPRICORN). Am Heart J. 2007 Oct; 154(4):637-44.
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30. Wang TJ, Larson MG, Benjamin EJ, Siwik DA, Safa R, Guo CY, Corey D, Sundstrom J, Sawyer DB, Colucci WS, Vasan RS. Clinical and echocardiographic correlates of plasma procollagen type III amino-terminal peptide levels in the community. Am Heart J. 2007 Aug; 154(2):291-7.
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31. Colucci WS, Kolias TJ, Adams KF, Armstrong WF, Ghali JK, Gottlieb SS, Greenberg B, Klibaner MI, Kukin ML, Sugg JE. Metoprolol reverses left ventricular remodeling in patients with asymptomatic systolic dysfunction: the REversal of VEntricular Remodeling with Toprol-XL (REVERT) trial. Circulation. 2007 Jul 3; 116(1):49-56.
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32. Torre-Amione G, Bourge RC, Colucci WS, Greenberg B, Pratt C, Rouleau JL, Sestier F, Moyé LA, Geddes JA, Nemet AJ, Young JB. A study to assess the effects of a broad-spectrum immune modulatory therapy on mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic heart failure: the ACCLAIM trial rationale and design. Can J Cardiol. 2007 Apr; 23(5):369-76.
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33. Shibata R, Izumiya Y, Sato K, Papanicolaou K, Kihara S, Colucci WS, Sam F, Ouchi N, Walsh K. Adiponectin protects against the development of systolic dysfunction following myocardial infarction. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2007 Jun; 42(6):1065-74.
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34. Givertz MM, Andreou C, Conrad CH, Colucci WS. Direct myocardial effects of levosimendan in humans with left ventricular dysfunction: alteration of force-frequency and relaxation-frequency relationships. Circulation. 2007 Mar 13; 115(10):1218-24.
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35. Louhelainen M, Vahtola E, Kaheinen P, Leskinen H, Merasto S, Kytö V, Finckenberg P, Colucci WS, Levijoki J, Pollesello P, Haikala H, Mervaala EM. Effects of levosimendan on cardiac remodeling and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in hypertensive Dahl/Rapp rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Apr; 150(7):851-61.
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36. Kuster GM, Siwik DA, Pimentel DR, Colucci WS. Role of reversible, thioredoxin-sensitive oxidative protein modifications in cardiac myocytes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006 Nov-Dec; 8(11-12):2153-9.
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37. Arnlöv J, Evans JC, Benjamin EJ, Larson MG, Levy D, Sutherland P, Siwik DA, Wang TJ, Colucci WS, Vasan RS. Clinical and echocardiographic correlates of plasma osteopontin in the community: the Framingham Heart Study. Heart. 2006 Oct; 92(10):1514-5.
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38. Pimentel DR, Adachi T, Ido Y, Heibeck T, Jiang B, Lee Y, Melendez JA, Cohen RA, Colucci WS. Strain-stimulated hypertrophy in cardiac myocytes is mediated by reactive oxygen species-dependent Ras S-glutathiolation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2006 Oct; 41(4):613-22.
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39. Gheorghiade M, van Veldhuisen DJ, Colucci WS. Contemporary use of digoxin in the management of cardiovascular disorders. Circulation. 2006 May 30; 113(21):2556-64.
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40. De Luca L, Colucci WS, Nieminen MS, Massie BM, Gheorghiade M. Evidence-based use of levosimendan in different clinical settings. Eur Heart J. 2006 Aug; 27(16):1908-20.
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41. Cohn JN, Colucci W. Cardiovascular effects of aldosterone and post-acute myocardial infarction pathophysiology. Am J Cardiol. 2006 May 22; 97(10A):4F-12F.
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42. Izumiya Y, Shiojima I, Sato K, Sawyer DB, Colucci WS, Walsh K. Vascular endothelial growth factor blockade promotes the transition from compensatory cardiac hypertrophy to failure in response to pressure overload. Hypertension. 2006 May; 47(5):887-93.
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43. Kotlyar E, Vita JA, Winter MR, Awtry EH, Siwik DA, Keaney JF, Sawyer DB, Cupples LA, Colucci WS, Sam F. The relationship between aldosterone, oxidative stress, and inflammation in chronic, stable human heart failure. J Card Fail. 2006 Mar; 12(2):122-7.
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44. Ahmed A, Rich MW, Love TE, Lloyd-Jones DM, Aban IB, Colucci WS, Adams KF, Gheorghiade M. Digoxin and reduction in mortality and hospitalization in heart failure: a comprehensive post hoc analysis of the DIG trial. Eur Heart J. 2006 Jan; 27(2):178-86.
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45. Bianchi P, Kunduzova O, Masini E, Cambon C, Bani D, Raimondi L, Seguelas MH, Nistri S, Colucci W, Leducq N, Parini A. Oxidative stress by monoamine oxidase mediates receptor-independent cardiomyocyte apoptosis by serotonin and postischemic myocardial injury. Circulation. 2005 Nov 22; 112(21):3297-305.
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46. Maytin M, Colucci WS. Cardioprotection: a new paradigm in the management of acute heart failure syndromes. Am J Cardiol. 2005 Sep 19; 96(6A):26G-31G.
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47. Shiojima I, Sato K, Izumiya Y, Schiekofer S, Ito M, Liao R, Colucci WS, Walsh K. Disruption of coordinated cardiac hypertrophy and angiogenesis contributes to the transition to heart failure. J Clin Invest. 2005 Aug; 115(8):2108-18.
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48. Sam F, Kerstetter DL, Pimental DR, Mulukutla S, Tabaee A, Bristow MR, Colucci WS, Sawyer DB. Increased reactive oxygen species production and functional alterations in antioxidant enzymes in human failing myocardium. J Card Fail. 2005 Aug; 11(6):473-80.
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49. Rude MK, Duhaney TA, Kuster GM, Judge S, Heo J, Colucci WS, Siwik DA, Sam F. Aldosterone stimulates matrix metalloproteinases and reactive oxygen species in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Hypertension. 2005 Sep; 46(3):555-61.
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50. Pfister O, Mouquet F, Jain M, Summer R, Helmes M, Fine A, Colucci WS, Liao R. CD31- but Not CD31+ cardiac side population cells exhibit functional cardiomyogenic differentiation. Circ Res. 2005 Jul 8; 97(1):52-61.
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51. Communal C, Colucci WS. The control of cardiomyocyte apoptosis via the beta-adrenergic signaling pathways. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 2005 Mar; 98(3):236-41.
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52. Kuster GM, Pimentel DR, Adachi T, Ido Y, Brenner DA, Cohen RA, Liao R, Siwik DA, Colucci WS. Alpha-adrenergic receptor-stimulated hypertrophy in adult rat ventricular myocytes is mediated via thioredoxin-1-sensitive oxidative modification of thiols on Ras. Circulation. 2005 Mar 8; 111(9):1192-8.
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53. McMurray J, Køber L, Robertson M, Dargie H, Colucci W, Lopez-Sendon J, Remme W, Sharpe DN, Ford I. Antiarrhythmic effect of carvedilol after acute myocardial infarction: results of the Carvedilol Post-Infarct Survival Control in Left Ventricular Dysfunction (CAPRICORN) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Feb 15; 45(4):525-30.
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54. Bianchi P, Pimentel DR, Murphy MP, Colucci WS, Parini A. A new hypertrophic mechanism of serotonin in cardiac myocytes: receptor-independent ROS generation. FASEB J. 2005 Apr; 19(6):641-3.
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55. Kuster GM, Kotlyar E, Rude MK, Siwik DA, Liao R, Colucci WS, Sam F. Mineralocorticoid receptor inhibition ameliorates the transition to myocardial failure and decreases oxidative stress and inflammation in mice with chronic pressure overload. Circulation. 2005 Feb 1; 111(4):420-7.
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56. Taniyama Y, Ito M, Sato K, Kuester C, Veit K, Tremp G, Liao R, Colucci WS, Ivashchenko Y, Walsh K, Shiojima I. Akt3 overexpression in the heart results in progression from adaptive to maladaptive hypertrophy. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005 Feb; 38(2):375-85.
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57. Colucci WS (Editor): Atlas of Heart Failure – Cardiac Function and Dysfunction, Fourth Edition, Braunwald E (Series Editor). Current Medicine. 2005.
58. Shibata R, Ouchi N, Ito M, Kihara S, Shiojima I, Pimentel DR, Kumada M, Sato K, Schiekofer S, Ohashi K, Funahashi T, Colucci WS, Walsh K. Adiponectin-mediated modulation of hypertrophic signals in the heart. Nat Med. 2004 Dec; 10(12):1384-9.
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59. Freudenberger RS, Schwarz RP, Brown J, Moore A, Mann D, Givertz MM, Colucci WS, Hare JM. Rationale, design and organisation of an efficacy and safety study of oxypurinol added to standard therapy in patients with NYHA class III – IV congestive heart failure. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2004 Nov; 13(11):1509-16.
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60. Trueblood NA, Inscore PR, Brenner D, Lugassy D, Apstein CS, Sawyer DB, Colucci WS. Biphasic temporal pattern in exercise capacity after myocardial infarction in the rat: relationship to left ventricular remodeling. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Jan; 288(1):H244-9.
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61. Sundström J, Evans JC, Benjamin EJ, Levy D, Larson MG, Sawyer DB, Siwik DA, Colucci WS, Wilson PW, Vasan RS. Relations of plasma total TIMP-1 levels to cardiovascular risk factors and echocardiographic measures: the Framingham heart study. Eur Heart J. 2004 Sep; 25(17):1509-16.
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62. Ito M, Adachi T, Pimentel DR, Ido Y, Colucci WS. Statins inhibit beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulated apoptosis in adult rat ventricular myocytes via a Rac1-dependent mechanism. Circulation. 2004 Jul 27; 110(4):412-8.
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63. Gheorghiade M, Adams KF, Colucci WS. Digoxin in the management of cardiovascular disorders. Circulation. 2004 Jun 22; 109(24):2959-64.
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64. Sundström J, Evans JC, Benjamin EJ, Levy D, Larson MG, Sawyer DB, Siwik DA, Colucci WS, Sutherland P, Wilson PW, Vasan RS. Relations of plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 to clinical cardiovascular risk factors and echocardiographic left ventricular measures: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2004 Jun 15; 109(23):2850-6.
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65. Colucci WS. Landmark study: the Carvedilol Post-Infarct Survival Control in Left Ventricular Dysfunction Study (CAPRICORN). Am J Cardiol. 2004 May 6; 93(9A):13B-6B.
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66. Mann DL, McMurray JJ, Packer M, Swedberg K, Borer JS, Colucci WS, Djian J, Drexler H, Feldman A, Kober L, Krum H, Liu P, Nieminen M, Tavazzi L, van Veldhuisen DJ, Waldenstrom A, Warren M, Westheim A, Zannad F, Fleming T. Targeted anticytokine therapy in patients with chronic heart failure: results of the Randomized Etanercept Worldwide Evaluation (RENEWAL). Circulation. 2004 Apr 6; 109(13):1594-602.
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67. Vasan RS, Evans JC, Benjamin EJ, Levy D, Larson MG, Sundstrom J, Murabito JM, Sam F, Colucci WS, Wilson PW. Relations of serum aldosterone to cardiac structure: gender-related differences in the Framingham Heart Study. Hypertension. 2004 May; 43(5):957-62.
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68. Maytin M, Siwik DA, Ito M, Xiao L, Sawyer DB, Liao R, Colucci WS. Pressure overload-induced myocardial hypertrophy in mice does not require gp91phox. Circulation. 2004 Mar 9; 109(9):1168-71.
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69. Sam F, Xie Z, Ooi H, Kerstetter DL, Colucci WS, Singh M, Singh K. Mice lacking osteopontin exhibit increased left ventricular dilation and reduced fibrosis after aldosterone infusion. Am J Hypertens. 2004 Feb; 17(2):188-93.
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70. Giles TD, Chatterjee K, Cohn JN, Colucci WS, Feldman AM, Ferrans VJ, Roberts R. Definition, classification, and staging of the adult cardiomyopathies: a proposal for revision. J Card Fail. 2004 Feb; 10(1):6-8.
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71. Siwik DA, Colucci WS. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinases by cytokines and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species in the myocardium. Heart Fail Rev. 2004 Jan; 9(1):43-51.
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72. Sawyer DB, Colucci WS. Oxidative stress in heart failure; (Chapter 12). In: Mann DL (ed) Heart Failure: A Companion to Braunwald’s Heart Disease. Saunders. 2004; 181-92.
73. Maytin M, Sawyer DB and Colucci WS. Role of reactive oxygen species in the regulation of cardiac myocyte phenotype. In: Pathophysiology of Cardiovascular Disease. Dhalla NS, Rupp H, Angel A and Pierce GN (eds). 51-7:Kluwer Academic Publishers . 2004.
74. Kuramochi Y, Lim CC, Guo X, Colucci WS, Liao R, Sawyer DB. Myocyte contractile activity modulates norepinephrine cytotoxicity and survival effects of neuregulin-1beta. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004 Feb; 286(2):C222-9.
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75. Torre-Amione G, Young JB, Colucci WS, Lewis BS, Pratt C, Cotter G, Stangl K, Elkayam U, Teerlink JR, Frey A, Rainisio M, Kobrin I. Hemodynamic and clinical effects of tezosentan, an intravenous dual endothelin receptor antagonist, in patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Jul 2; 42(1):140-7.
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76. Kwon SH, Pimentel DR, Remondino A, Sawyer DB, Colucci WS. H(2)O(2) regulates cardiac myocyte phenotype via concentration-dependent activation of distinct kinase pathways. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2003 Jun; 35(6):615-21.
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77. Communal C, Singh M, Menon B, Xie Z, Colucci WS, Singh K. beta1 integrins expression in adult rat ventricular myocytes and its role in the regulation of beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulated apoptosis. J Cell Biochem. 2003 May 15; 89(2):381-8.
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78. Gheorghiade M, Colucci WS, Swedberg K. Beta-blockers in chronic heart failure. Circulation. 2003 Apr 1; 107(12):1570-5.
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79. Remondino A, Kwon SH, Communal C, Pimentel DR, Sawyer DB, Singh K, Colucci WS. Beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulated apoptosis in cardiac myocytes is mediated by reactive oxygen species/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-dependent activation of the mitochondrial pathway. Circ Res. 2003 Feb 7; 92(2):136-8.
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80. Kivikko M, Lehtonen L, Colucci WS. Sustained hemodynamic effects of intravenous levosimendan. Circulation. 2003 Jan 7; 107(1):81-6.
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81. Sam F, Sawyer DB and Colucci WS. Myocardial nitric oxide in cardiac remodeling. In: Inflammation and Cardiac Diseases. Feuerstein GZ, Libby P and Mann DL (eds). Birkhäuser. 2003; 155-170.
82. Siwik DA, Pimentel DR, Xiao L, Singh K, Sawyer DB, and Colucci WS. Adrenergic and mechanical regulation of oxidative stress in the myocardium. In: Kukin ML, Fuster V (eds). Oxidative Stress and Cardiac Failure. Armonk, NY:Futura Publishing Co., Inc.. 2003; 153-171.
83. Ooi H, Colucci WS, Givertz MM. Endothelin mediates increased pulmonary vascular tone in patients with heart failure: demonstration by direct intrapulmonary infusion of sitaxsentan. Circulation. 2002 Sep 24; 106(13):1618-21.
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84. Hare JM, Nguyen GC, Massaro AF, Drazen JM, Stevenson LW, Colucci WS, Fang JC, Johnson W, Givertz MM, Lucas C. Exhaled nitric oxide: a marker of pulmonary hemodynamics in heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 Sep 18; 40(6):1114-9.
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85. Maytin M, Colucci WS. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of myocardial remodeling. J Nucl Cardiol. 2002 May-Jun; 9(3):319-27.
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86. Xiao L, Pimentel DR, Wang J, Singh K, Colucci WS, Sawyer DB. Role of reactive oxygen species and NAD(P)H oxidase in alpha(1)-adrenoceptor signaling in adult rat cardiac myocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002 Apr; 282(4):C926-34.
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87. Sawyer DB, Siwik DA, Xiao L, Pimentel DR, Singh K, Colucci WS. Role of oxidative stress in myocardial hypertrophy and failure. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2002 Apr; 34(4):379-88.
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88. Communal C, Colucci WS, Remondino A, Sawyer DB, Port JD, Wichman SE, Bristow MR, Singh K. Reciprocal modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 and 2 in failing human myocardium. J Card Fail. 2002 Apr; 8(2):86-92.
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89. Cuffe MS, Califf RM, Adams KF, Benza R, Bourge R, Colucci WS, Massie BM, O’Connor CM, Pina I, Quigg R, Silver MA, Gheorghiade M. Short-term intravenous milrinone for acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002 Mar 27; 287(12):1541-7.
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90. Leier CV, Silver MA, Rich MW, Eichhorn EJ, Fowler MB, Giles TD, Johnstone DE, Le Jemtel TH, Lachmann JS, Levine TB, Armstrong PW, Dec WG, Jessup M, Howlett J, Hershberger RE, Cohn JN, Adams KF, Colucci WS, Warner-Stevenson L, Hosenpud JD, Bristow MR, Pina I, Baughman KL, Binkley PF, Ventura HO, Francis GS, White M, Miller LW, Berry B, Missov E. Nuggets, pearls, and vignettes of master heart failure clinicians. Part 4–treatment. Congest Heart Fail. 2002 Mar-Apr; 8(2):98-124.
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91. Colucci WS (Section Editor, “Heart Failure”): In: Cardiovascular Therapeutics, Antman E (Editor-in-Chief) Philadelphia: Saunders, 2002. . Colucci WS (Section Editor, “Heart Failure”). In: Cardiovascular Therapeutics, Antman E (Editor-in-Chief). Saunders. 2002.
92. Sawyer DB, Colucci WS. Molecular and cellular events in myocardial hypertrophy and failure. In: “Heart Failure: Cardiac Function and Dysfunction”, Colucci WS (ed): In: Atlas of Heart Diseases, Third Edition, Braunwald E (Editor-in-Chief). Philadelphia:Current Medicine. 2002.
93. Givertz MM, Colucci WS. Beta-Blockers. In: “Heart Failure: Cardiac Function and Dysfunction”, Colucci WS (ed): In: Atlas of Heart Diseases, Third Edition, Braunwald E (Editor-in-Chief). Philadelphia:Current Medicine. 2002.
94. Givertz MM, Colucci WS. Treatment of heart failure: New approaches. In: “Heart Failure: Cardiac Function and Dysfunction”, Colucci WS (ed): In: Atlas of Heart Diseases, Third Edition, Braunwald E (Editor-in-Chief). Philadelphia:Current Medicine. 2002.
95. Colucci WS (Editor): Atlas of Heart Failure – Cardiac Function and Dysfunction, Third Edition, Braunwald E (Series Editor). Philadelphia:Current Medicine. 2002.
96. Singh K, Xiao L, Remondino A, Sawyer DB, Colucci WS. Adrenergic regulation of cardiac myocyte apoptosis. J Cell Physiol. 2001 Dec; 189(3):257-65.
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97. Pimentel DR, Amin JK, Xiao L, Miller T, Viereck J, Oliver-Krasinski J, Baliga R, Wang J, Siwik DA, Singh K, Pagano P, Colucci WS, Sawyer DB. Reactive oxygen species mediate amplitude-dependent hypertrophic and apoptotic responses to mechanical stretch in cardiac myocytes. Circ Res. 2001 Aug 31; 89(5):453-60.
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98. Sam F, Sawyer DB, Xie Z, Chang DL, Ngoy S, Brenner DA, Siwik DA, Singh K, Apstein CS, Colucci WS. Mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase have improved left ventricular contractile function and reduced apoptotic cell death late after myocardial infarction. Circ Res. 2001 Aug 17; 89(4):351-6.
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99. Xie Z, Pimental DR, Lohan S, Vasertriger A, Pligavko C, Colucci WS, Singh K. Regulation of angiotensin II-stimulated osteopontin expression in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells: role of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase and reactive oxygen species. J Cell Physiol. 2001 Jul; 188(1):132-8.
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100. Loh E, Elkayam U, Cody R, Bristow M, Jaski B, Colucci WS. A randomized multicenter study comparing the efficacy and safety of intravenous milrinone and intravenous nitroglycerin in patients with advanced heart failure. J Card Fail. 2001 Jun; 7(2):114-21.
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101. Trueblood NA, Xie Z, Communal C, Sam F, Ngoy S, Liaw L, Jenkins AW, Wang J, Sawyer DB, Bing OH, Apstein CS, Colucci WS, Singh K. Exaggerated left ventricular dilation and reduced collagen deposition after myocardial infarction in mice lacking osteopontin. Circ Res. 2001 May 25; 88(10):1080-7.
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102. Givertz MM, Slawsky MT, Moraes DL, McIntyre KM, Colucci WS. Noninvasive determination of pulmonary artery wedge pressure in patients with chronic heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 2001 May 15; 87(10):1213-5; A7.
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103. Yancy CW, Fowler MB, Colucci WS, Gilbert EM, Bristow MR, Cohn JN, Lukas MA, Young ST, Packer M. Race and the response to adrenergic blockade with carvedilol in patients with chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2001 May 3; 344(18):1358-65.
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104. Fowler MB, Vera-Llonch M, Oster G, Bristow MR, Cohn JN, Colucci WS, Gilbert EM, Lukas MA, Lacey MJ, Richner R, Young ST, Packer M. Influence of carvedilol on hospitalizations in heart failure: incidence, resource utilization and costs. U.S. Carvedilol Heart Failure Study Group. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 May; 37(6):1692-9.
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105. Jain M, DerSimonian H, Brenner DA, Ngoy S, Teller P, Edge AS, Zawadzka A, Wetzel K, Sawyer DB, Colucci WS, Apstein CS, Liao R. Cell therapy attenuates deleterious ventricular remodeling and improves cardiac performance after myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2001 Apr 10; 103(14):1920-7.
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106. Xiao L, Pimental DR, Amin JK, Singh K, Sawyer DB, Colucci WS. MEK1/2-ERK1/2 mediates alpha1-adrenergic receptor-stimulated hypertrophy in adult rat ventricular myocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2001 Apr; 33(4):779-87.
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107. Podesser BK, Siwik DA, Eberli FR, Sam F, Ngoy S, Lambert J, Ngo K, Apstein CS, Colucci WS. ET(A)-receptor blockade prevents matrix metalloproteinase activation late postmyocardial infarction in the rat. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001 Mar; 280(3):H984-91.
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108. Colucci WS. Nesiritide for the treatment of decompensated heart failure. J Card Fail. 2001 Mar; 7(1):92-100.
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109. Givertz MM, Sawyer DB, Colucci WS. Antioxidants and myocardial contractility: illuminating the “Dark Side” of beta-adrenergic receptor activation? Circulation. 2001 Feb 13; 103(6):782-3.
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110. Siwik DA, Pagano PJ, Colucci WS. Oxidative stress regulates collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase activity in cardiac fibroblasts. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001 Jan; 280(1):C53-60.
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111. Amin JK, Xiao L, Pimental DR, Pagano PJ, Singh K, Sawyer DB, Colucci WS. Reactive oxygen species mediate alpha-adrenergic receptor-stimulated hypertrophy in adult rat ventricular myocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2001 Jan; 33(1):131-9.
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112. Ooi H and Colucci WS. Pharmacological Treatment of Heart Failure; (Chapter 34). In: Hardman JG, Limbird LE and Gilman AG (eds): Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 10th Edition, McGraw Hill. McGraw Hill. 2001; 901-932.
113. Colucci WS and Braunwald E. Pathophysiology of Heart Failure, (Chapter 16). In: Braunwald E (ed): Heart Disease. 6th Edition. Philadelphia:WB Saunders Co. 2001; 503-533.
114. Colucci WS and Schoen FJ. Primary Tumors of the Heart; (Chapter 49). In: Braunwald E. (ed): Heart Disease. 6th Edition. Philadelphia:WB Saunders Co. 2001; 1807-22.
115. Ooi H and Colucci WS. Congestive Heart Failure. In: Rakel & Bope: Conn’s Current Therapy. Philadelphia:WB Saunders Co. 2001; pp. 310-14.
116. Colucci WS. Heart Failure. In: Essential Atlas of Heart Diseases, Second Edition, Braunwald E (Editor–in-Chief). Philadelphia:Current Medicine. 2001.
117. Holubarsch CJ, Colucci WS, Meinertz T, Gaus W, Tendera M. Survival and prognosis: investigation of Crataegus extract WS 1442 in congestive heart failure (SPICE)–rationale, study design and study protocol. Eur J Heart Fail. 2000 Dec; 2(4):431-7.
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118. Lim CC, Apstein CS, Colucci WS, Liao R. Impaired cell shortening and relengthening with increased pacing frequency are intrinsic to the senescent mouse cardiomyocyte. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2000 Nov; 32(11):2075-82.
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119. Nagata K, Communal C, Lim CC, Jain M, Suter TM, Eberli FR, Satoh N, Colucci WS, Apstein CS, Liao R. Altered beta-adrenergic signal transduction in nonfailing hypertrophied myocytes from Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000 Nov; 279(5):H2502-8.
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120. Slawsky MT, Colucci WS, Gottlieb SS, Greenberg BH, Haeusslein E, Hare J, Hutchins S, Leier CV, LeJemtel TH, Loh E, Nicklas J, Ogilby D, Singh BN, Smith W. Acute hemodynamic and clinical effects of levosimendan in patients with severe heart failure. Study Investigators. Circulation. 2000 Oct 31; 102(18):2222-7.
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121. Satoh N, Suter TM, Liao R, Colucci WS. Chronic alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation modulates the contractile phenotype of cardiac myocytes in vitro. Circulation. 2000 Oct 31; 102(18):2249-54.
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122. Moraes DL, Colucci WS, Givertz MM. Secondary pulmonary hypertension in chronic heart failure: the role of the endothelium in pathophysiology and management. Circulation. 2000 Oct 3; 102(14):1718-23.
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123. Singh K, Communal C, Colucci WS. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 induces apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes: role of adrenergic receptor stimulation. Basic Res Cardiol. 2000 Oct; 95(5):389-96.
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124. Colucci WS, Elkayam U, Horton DP, Abraham WT, Bourge RC, Johnson AD, Wagoner LE, Givertz MM, Liang CS, Neibaur M, Haught WH, LeJemtel TH. Intravenous nesiritide, a natriuretic peptide, in the treatment of decompensated congestive heart failure. Nesiritide Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jul 27; 343(4):246-53.
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125. Sam F, Sawyer DB, Chang DL, Eberli FR, Ngoy S, Jain M, Amin J, Apstein CS, Colucci WS. Progressive left ventricular remodeling and apoptosis late after myocardial infarction in mouse heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000 Jul; 279(1):H422-8.
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126. Givertz MM, Colucci WS, LeJemtel TH, Gottlieb SS, Hare JM, Slawsky MT, Leier CV, Loh E, Nicklas JM, Lewis BE. Acute endothelin A receptor blockade causes selective pulmonary vasodilation in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation. 2000 Jun 27; 101(25):2922-7.
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127. Siwik DA, Chang DL, Colucci WS. Interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha decrease collagen synthesis and increase matrix metalloproteinase activity in cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. Circ Res. 2000 Jun 23; 86(12):1259-65.
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128. Communal C, Colucci WS, Singh K. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway protects adult rat ventricular myocytes against beta -adrenergic receptor-stimulated apoptosis. Evidence for Gi-dependent activation. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jun 23; 275(25):19395-400.
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129. Brooks WW, Bing OH, Boluyt MO, Malhotra A, Morgan JP, Satoh N, Colucci WS, Conrad CH. Altered inotropic responsiveness and gene expression of hypertrophied myocardium with captopril. Hypertension. 2000 Jun; 35(6):1203-9.
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130. Sanders GP, Mendes LA, Colucci WS, Givertz MM. Noninvasive methods for detecting elevated left-sided cardiac filling pressure. J Card Fail. 2000 Jun; 6(2):157-64.
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131. Colucci WS, Sawyer DB, Singh K, Communal C. Adrenergic overload and apoptosis in heart failure: implications for therapy. J Card Fail. 2000 Jun; 6(2 Suppl 1):1-7.
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132. Bisognano JD, Weinberger HD, Bohlmeyer TJ, Pende A, Raynolds MV, Sastravaha A, Roden R, Asano K, Blaxall BC, Wu SC, Communal C, Singh K, Colucci W, Bristow MR, Port DJ. Myocardial-directed overexpression of the human beta(1)-adrenergic receptor in transgenic mice. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2000 May; 32(5):817-30.
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133. Sawyer DB, Colucci WS. Mitochondrial oxidative stress in heart failure: “oxygen wastage” revisited. Circ Res. 2000 Feb 4; 86(2):119-20.
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134. Singh K, Communal C, Sawyer DB, Colucci WS. Adrenergic regulation of myocardial apoptosis. Cardiovasc Res. 2000 Feb; 45(3):713-9.
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135. Cuffe MS, Califf RM, Adams KF, Bourge RC, Colucci W, Massie B, O’Connor CM, Pina I, Quigg R, Silver M, Robinson LA, Leimberger JD, Gheorghiade M. Rationale and design of the OPTIME CHF trial: outcomes of a prospective trial of intravenous milrinone for exacerbations of chronic heart failure. Am Heart J. 2000 Jan; 139(1 Pt 1):15-22.
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136. Sawyer DB, Colucci, WS. Myocardial Nitric Oxide in Heart Failure. In: Loscalzo J and Vita JA, (ed): Contemporary Cardiology: Nitric Oxide and the Cardiovascular System. Totowa, NJ:Humana Press Inc. 2000; pp. 309-19.
137. Sawyer DB, Colucci WS. Role of oxidative stress, cytokines and apoptosis in myocardial dysfunction. In: Tardiff J-C and Bourassa MG, ed. Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Disease. Dordrecht:Kluwar. 2000.
138. Communal C, Singh K, Sawyer DB, Colucci WS. Opposing effects of beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptors on cardiac myocyte apoptosis : role of a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. Circulation. 1999 Nov 30; 100(22):2210-2.
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139. Sam F, Colucci WS. Role of endothelin-1 in myocardial failure. Proc Assoc Am Physicians. 1999 Sep-Oct; 111(5):417-22.
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140. Siwik DA, Tzortzis JD, Pimental DR, Chang DL, Pagano PJ, Singh K, Sawyer DB, Colucci WS. Inhibition of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase induces cell growth, hypertrophic phenotype, and apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes in vitro. Circ Res. 1999 Jul 23; 85(2):147-53.
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141. Singh K, Sirokman G, Communal C, Robinson KG, Conrad CH, Brooks WW, Bing OH, Colucci WS. Myocardial osteopontin expression coincides with the development of heart failure. Hypertension. 1999 Feb; 33(2):663-70.
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142. Givertz MM, Colucci WS. Treatment of heart failure: New approaches. In: “Heart Failure: Cardiac Function and Dysfunction”, Colucci WS (ed): In: Atlas of Heart Diseases, Second Edition, Braunwald E (Editor-in-Chief). Philadelphia:Current Medicine. 1999.
143. Colucci WS (Editor): Atlas of Heart Failure – Cardiac Function and Dysfunction, Second Edition, Braunwald E (Series Editor). Philadelphia:Current Medicine. 1999.
144. Sawyer DB, Colucci WS. Molecular and cellular events in myocardial hypertrophy and failure. In: “Heart Failure: Cardiac Function and Dysfunction”, Colucci WS (ed): In: Atlas of Heart Diseases, Second Edition, Braunwald E (Editor-in-Chief). Philadelphia:Current Medicine. 1999.
145. Colucci WS. The effects of norepinephrine on myocardial biology: implications for the therapy of heart failure. Clin Cardiol. 1998 Dec; 21(12 Suppl 1):I20-4.
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146. Sawyer DB, Colucci WS. Nitric oxide in the failing myocardium. Cardiol Clin. 1998 Nov; 16(4):657-64, viii.
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147. Communal C, Singh K, Pimentel DR, Colucci WS. Norepinephrine stimulates apoptosis in adult rat ventricular myocytes by activation of the beta-adrenergic pathway. Circulation. 1998 Sep 29; 98(13):1329-34.
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148. Sam F, Colucci WS. Endothelin-1 in heart failure: does it play a role? Cardiologia. 1998 Sep; 43(9):889-92.
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149. Pagano PJ, Chanock SJ, Siwik DA, Colucci WS, Clark JK. Angiotensin II induces p67phox mRNA expression and NADPH oxidase superoxide generation in rabbit aortic adventitial fibroblasts. Hypertension. 1998 Aug; 32(2):331-7.
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150. Givertz MM, Colucci WS. New targets for heart-failure therapy: endothelin, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress. Lancet. 1998 Aug; 352 Suppl 1:SI34-8.
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151. Eberli FR, Sam F, Ngoy S, Apstein CS, Colucci WS. Left-ventricular structural and functional remodeling in the mouse after myocardial infarction: assessment with the isovolumetrically-contracting Langendorff heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1998 Jul; 30(7):1443-7.
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152. Lo MW, Toh J, Emmert SE, Ritter MA, Furtek CI, Lu H, Colucci WS, Uretsky BF, Rucinska E. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral losartan in patients with heart failure. J Clin Pharmacol. 1998 Jun; 38(6):525-32.
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153. Calderone A, Thaik CM, Takahashi N, Chang DL, Colucci WS. Nitric oxide, atrial natriuretic peptide, and cyclic GMP inhibit the growth-promoting effects of norepinephrine in cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts. J Clin Invest. 1998 Feb 15; 101(4):812-8.
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154. Hare JM, Givertz MM, Creager MA, Colucci WS. Increased sensitivity to nitric oxide synthase inhibition in patients with heart failure: potentiation of beta-adrenergic inotropic responsiveness. Circulation. 1998 Jan 20; 97(2):161-6.
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155. Colucci WS. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of myocardial failure. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Dec 4; 80(11A):15L-25L.
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156. Cohn JN, Fowler MB, Bristow MR, Colucci WS, Gilbert EM, Kinhal V, Krueger SK, Lejemtel T, Narahara KA, Packer M, Young ST, Holcslaw TL, Lukas MA. Safety and efficacy of carvedilol in severe heart failure. The U.S. Carvedilol Heart Failure Study Group. J Card Fail. 1997 Sep; 3(3):173-9.
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157. Givertz MM, Hartley LH, Colucci WS. Long-term sequential changes in exercise capacity and chronotropic responsiveness after cardiac transplantation. Circulation. 1997 Jul 1; 96(1):232-7.
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158. Hare JM, Shernan SK, Body SC, Graydon E, Colucci WS, Couper GS. Influence of inhaled nitric oxide on systemic flow and ventricular filling pressure in patients receiving mechanical circulatory assistance. Circulation. 1997 May 6; 95(9):2250-3.
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159. Cohn JN, Bristow MR, Chien KR, Colucci WS, Frazier OH, Leinwand LA, Lorell BH, Moss AJ, Sonnenblick EH, Walsh RA, Mockrin SC, Reinlib L. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel on Heart Failure Research. Circulation. 1997 Feb 18; 95(4):766-70.
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160. Colucci WS, Braunwald E. Cardiac tumors, cardiac manifestations of systemic diseases, and traumatic cardiac injury, Chapter 241. In: Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, eds. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 14th Edition. New York:McGraw-Hill. 1997; pp 1341-4.
161. Colucci WS, Schoen FJ, Braunwald E. Primary tumors of the heart, Chapter 42. In: Braunwald E, ed. Heart Disease, 5th Edition. Philadelphia:WB Saunders Co. 1997; pp 1464-77.
162. Colucci WS, Braunwald E. Pathophysiology of heart failure, Chapter 13. In: Braunwald E, ed. Heart Disease, 5th Edition. Philadelphia:WB Saunders Co. 1997; pp 394-420.
163. Colucci WS. Heart Failure. In: Essential Atlas of Heart Diseases, First Edition, Braunwald E (Editor–in-Chief). Philadelphia:Current Medicine. 1997.
164. Braunwald E, Colucci WS, Grossman W. Clinical aspects of heart failure, Chapter 15. In: Braunwald E, ed. Heart Disease, 5th Edition. Philadelphia:WB Saunders Co.. 1997; pp 445-70.
165. Newton GE, Parker AB, Landzberg JS, Colucci WS, Parker JD. Muscarinic receptor modulation of basal and beta-adrenergic stimulated function of the failing human left ventricle. J Clin Invest. 1996 Dec 15; 98(12):2756-63.
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166. Keaney JF, Hare JM, Balligand JL, Loscalzo J, Smith TW, Colucci WS. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase augments myocardial contractile responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation. Am J Physiol. 1996 Dec; 271(6 Pt 2):H2646-52.
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167. Faggiano P, Colucci WS. The force-frequency relation in normal and failing heart. Cardiologia. 1996 Dec; 41(12):1155-64.
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168. Packer M, Colucci WS, Sackner-Bernstein JD, Liang CS, Goldscher DA, Freeman I, Kukin ML, Kinhal V, Udelson JE, Klapholz M, Gottlieb SS, Pearle D, Cody RJ, Gregory JJ, Kantrowitz NE, LeJemtel TH, Young ST, Lukas MA, Shusterman NH. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of carvedilol in patients with moderate to severe heart failure. The PRECISE Trial. Prospective Randomized Evaluation of Carvedilol on Symptoms and Exercise. Circulation. 1996 Dec 1; 94(11):2793-9.
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169. Colucci WS, Packer M, Bristow MR, Gilbert EM, Cohn JN, Fowler MB, Krueger SK, Hershberger R, Uretsky BF, Bowers JA, Sackner-Bernstein JD, Young ST, Holcslaw TL, Lukas MA. Carvedilol inhibits clinical progression in patients with mild symptoms of heart failure. US Carvedilol Heart Failure Study Group. Circulation. 1996 Dec 1; 94(11):2800-6.
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170. Givertz MM, Hare JM, Loh E, Gauthier DF, Colucci WS. Effect of bolus milrinone on hemodynamic variables and pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction: a rapid test for reversibility of pulmonary hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996 Dec; 28(7):1775-80.
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171. Colucci WS. Apoptosis in the heart. N Engl J Med. 1996 Oct 17; 335(16):1224-6.
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172. Snider GL, Colucci WS, Sawin CT. A trial of increased access to primary care. N Engl J Med. 1996 Sep 19; 335(12):896; author reply 897-8.
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173. Packer M, Bristow MR, Cohn JN, Colucci WS, Fowler MB, Gilbert EM, Shusterman NH. The effect of carvedilol on morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. U.S. Carvedilol Heart Failure Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1996 May 23; 334(21):1349-55.
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174. Colucci WS. Myocardial endothelin. Does it play a role in myocardial failure? Circulation. 1996 Mar 15; 93(6):1069-72.
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175. Maki T, Gruver EJ, Davidoff AJ, Izzo N, Toupin D, Colucci W, Marks AR, Marsh JD. Regulation of calcium channel expression in neonatal myocytes by catecholamines. J Clin Invest. 1996 Feb 1; 97(3):656-63.
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176. Colucci WS. Pathophysiologic and clinical considerations in the treatment of heart failure: An overview. Chapter 8. In: Cardiovascular Therapeutics, Smith TW (Editor-in-Chief). Philadelphia:WB Saunders. 1996; pp 171-175.
177. Stevenson LW, Colucci WS. Management of patients hospitalized with heart failure, Chapter 10. In Cardiovascular Therapeutics, Smith TW (Editor-in-Chief). Philadelphia:WB Saunders. 1996; pp 199-209.
178. Colucci WS. Principles and practice of inotropic therapy, Chapter 126. In: Messerli FH, ed. Cardiovascular Drug Therapy, 2nd Edition. Philadelphia:WB Saunders Co. 1996; pp 1146-1150.
179. Colucci WS (Section Editor, “Heart Failure”). In: Cardiovascular Therapeutics, Smith TW (Editor-in-Chief). Philadelphia:Saunders. 1996.
180. Calderone A, Takahashi N, Izzo NJ, Thaik CM, Colucci WS. Pressure- and volume-induced left ventricular hypertrophies are associated with distinct myocyte phenotypes and differential induction of peptide growth factor mRNAs. Circulation. 1995 Nov 1; 92(9):2385-90.
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181. Hare JM, Loh E, Creager MA, Colucci WS. Nitric oxide inhibits the positive inotropic response to beta-adrenergic stimulation in humans with left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation. 1995 Oct 15; 92(8):2198-203.
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182. Parker JD, Newton GE, Landzberg JS, Floras JS, Colucci WS. Functional significance of presynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors in failing and nonfailing human left ventricle. Circulation. 1995 Oct 1; 92(7):1793-800.
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183. Hare JM, Colucci WS. Role of nitric oxide in the regulation of myocardial function. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1995 Sep-Oct; 38(2):155-66.
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184. Thaik CM, Calderone A, Takahashi N, Colucci WS. Interleukin-1 beta modulates the growth and phenotype of neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. J Clin Invest. 1995 Aug; 96(2):1093-9.
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185. Levy AP, Levy NS, Loscalzo J, Calderone A, Takahashi N, Yeo KT, Koren G, Colucci WS, Goldberg MA. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in cardiac myocytes. Circ Res. 1995 May; 76(5):758-66.
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186. Loh E, Barnett JV, Feldman AM, Couper GS, Vatner DE, Colucci WS, Galper JB. Decreased adenylate cyclase activity and expression of Gs alpha in human myocardium after orthotopic cardiac transplantation. Circ Res. 1995 May; 76(5):852-60.
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187. Hare JM, Keaney JF, Balligand JL, Loscalzo J, Smith TW, Colucci WS. Role of nitric oxide in parasympathetic modulation of beta-adrenergic myocardial contractility in normal dogs. J Clin Invest. 1995 Jan; 95(1):360-6.
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188. Colucci WS (Editor): Atlas of Heart Failure – Cardiac Function and Dysfunction, First Edition, Braunwald E (Series Editor). Philadelphia:Current Medicine. 1995.
189. Colucci WS. Treatment of stable heart failure: New approaches. In “Heart Failure: Cardiac Function and Dysfunction”, Colucci WS (ed): In: Atlas of Heart Diseases, Braunwald E (Editor-in-Chief). Philadelphia:Current Medicine. 1995.
190. Thaik C, Colucci WS. Molecular and cellular abnormalities in hypertrophied and failing myocardium. In “Heart Failure: Cardiac Function and Dysfunction”, Colucci WS (ed): In: Atlas of Heart Diseases, Braunwald E (Editor-in-Chief). Philadelphia:Current Medicine. 1995.
191. Colucci WS. Secondary molecular alterations in failing human myocardium. In: Molecular Interventions and Local Drug Delivery in Cardiovascular Disease, Edelman ER (ed). London:WB Saunders. 1995.
192. Loh E, Stamler JS, Hare JM, Loscalzo J, Colucci WS. Cardiovascular effects of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation. 1994 Dec; 90(6):2780-5.
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193. Takahashi N, Calderone A, Izzo NJ, Mäki TM, Marsh JD, Colucci WS. Hypertrophic stimuli induce transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression in rat ventricular myocytes. J Clin Invest. 1994 Oct; 94(4):1470-6.
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194. Izzo NJ, Colucci WS. Regulation of alpha 1B-adrenergic receptor half-life: protein synthesis dependence and effect of norepinephrine. Am J Physiol. 1994 Mar; 266(3 Pt 1):C771-5.
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195. Izzo NJ, Tulenko TN, Colucci WS. Phorbol esters and norepinephrine destabilize alpha 1B-adrenergic receptor mRNA in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 1994 Jan 21; 269(3):1705-10.
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196. Landzberg JS, Parker JD, Gauthier DF, Colucci WS. Effects of intracoronary acetylcholine and atropine on basal and dobutamine-stimulated left ventricular contractility. Circulation. 1994 Jan; 89(1):164-8.
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197. Matoba Y, Colucci WS, Fields BN, Smith TW. The reovirus M1 gene determines the relative capacity of growth of reovirus in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. J Clin Invest. 1993 Dec; 92(6):2883-8.
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198. Colucci WS, Sonnenblick EH, Adams KF, Berk M, Brozena SC, Cowley AJ, Grabicki JM, Kubo SA, LeJemtel T, Littler WA, et al. Efficacy of phosphodiesterase inhibition with milrinone in combination with converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with heart failure. The Milrinone Multicenter Trials Investigators. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993 Oct; 22(4 Suppl A):113A-118A.
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199. Schmidt TA, Allen PD, Colucci WS, Marsh JD, Kjeldsen K. No adaptation to digitalization as evaluated by digitalis receptor (Na,K-ATPase) quantification in explanted hearts from donors without heart disease and from digitalized recipients with end-stage heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 1993 Jan 1; 71(1):110-4.
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200. Packer M, Narahara KA, Elkayam U, Sullivan JM, Pearle DL, Massie BM, Creager MA, and the Principal Investigators of the Reflect Study. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of flosequinan in patients with chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993; 22:65-72.
201. Colucci WS. In situ assessment of – and -Adrenergic responses in failing human myocardium. Circulation. 1993; 87(Suppl VII):63-7.
202. Feldman AM, Bristow MR, Parmley WW, Carson PE, Pepine CJ, Gilbert EM, Strobeck JE, Hendrix GH, Powers ER, Bain RP, White BH, for the Vesnarinone Study Group. Effects of vesnarinone on morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1993; 329:149-55.
203. Bialecki RA, Kulik TJ, Colucci WS. Stretching increases calcium influx and efflux in cultured pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol. 1992 Nov; 263(5 Pt 1):L602-6.
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204. Sen L, Bialecki RA, Smith E, Smith TW, Colucci WS. Cholesterol increases the L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channel current in arterial smooth muscle cells. Circ Res. 1992 Oct; 71(4):1008-14.
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205. Willich SN, Tofler GH, Brezinski DA, Schafer AI, Muller JE, Michel T, Colucci WS. Platelet alpha 2 adrenoceptor characteristics during the morning increase in platelet aggregability. Eur Heart J. 1992 Apr; 13(4):550-5.
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206. Bialecki RA, Tulenko TN, Colucci WS. Cholesterol enrichment increases basal and agonist-stimulated calcium influx in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. J Clin Invest. 1991 Dec; 88(6):1894-900.
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207. Kulik TJ, Bialecki RA, Colucci WS, Rothman A, Glennon ET, Underwood RH. Stretch increases inositol trisphosphate and inositol tetrakisphosphate in cultured pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991 Oct 31; 180(2):982-7.
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208. Landzberg JS, Parker JD, Gauthier DF, Colucci WS. Effects of myocardial alpha 1-adrenergic receptor stimulation and blockade on contractility in humans. Circulation. 1991 Oct; 84(4):1608-14.
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209. Parker JD, Landzberg JS, Bittl JA, Mirsky I, Colucci WS. Effects of beta-adrenergic stimulation with dobutamine on isovolumic relaxation in the normal and failing human left ventricle. Circulation. 1991 Sep; 84(3):1040-8.
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210. Creager MA, Quigg RJ, Ren CJ, Roddy MA, Colucci WS. Limb vascular responsiveness to beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation in patients with congestive heart failure. Circulation. 1991 Jun; 83(6):1873-9.
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211. Colucci WS. Cardiovascular effects of milrinone. Am Heart J. 1991 Jun; 121(6 Pt 2):1945-7.
View in: PubMed
212. Sperti G, Colucci WS. Calcium influx modulates DNA synthesis and proliferation in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 1991 Apr 25; 206(4):279-84.
View in: PubMed
213. Sen L, Liang BT, Colucci WS, Smith TW. Enhanced alpha 1-adrenergic responsiveness in cardiomyopathic hamster cardiac myocytes. Relation to the expression of pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein and alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. Circ Res. 1990 Nov; 67(5):1182-92.
View in: PubMed
214. Colucci WS. In vivo studies of myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor pharmacology in patients with congestive heart failure. Circulation. 1990 Aug; 82(2 Suppl):I44-51.
View in: PubMed
215. Izzo NJ, Seidman CE, Collins S, Colucci WS. Alpha 1-adrenergic receptor mRNA level is regulated by norepinephrine in rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Aug; 87(16):6268-71.
View in: PubMed
216. Arnold JM, Ribeiro JP, Colucci WS. Muscle blood flow during forearm exercise in patients with severe heart failure. Circulation. 1990 Aug; 82(2):465-72.
View in: PubMed
217. Creager MA, Hirsch AT, Dzau VJ, Nabel EG, Cutler SS, Colucci WS. Baroreflex regulation of regional blood flow in congestive heart failure. Am J Physiol. 1990 May; 258(5 Pt 2):H1409-14.
View in: PubMed
218. Treasure CB, Vita JA, Cox DA, Fish RD, Gordon JB, Mudge GH, Colucci WS, Sutton MG, Selwyn AP, Alexander RW, et al. Endothelium-dependent dilation of the coronary microvasculature is impaired in dilated cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 1990 Mar; 81(3):772-9.
View in: PubMed
219. Ribeiro JP, White HD, Hartley LH, Colucci WS. Acute increase in exercise capacity with milrinone: lack of correlation with resting hemodynamic responses. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1990; 23(11):1069-78.
View in: PubMed
220. Bialecki RA, Izzo NJ, Colucci WS. Endothelin-1 increases intracellular calcium mobilization but not calcium uptake in rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Oct 16; 164(1):474-9.
View in: PubMed
221. Colucci WS. Myocardial and vascular actions of milrinone. Eur Heart J. 1989 Aug; 10 Suppl C:32-8.
View in: PubMed
222. Quigg RJ, Rocco MB, Gauthier DF, Creager MA, Hartley LH, Colucci WS. Mechanism of the attenuated peak heart rate response to exercise after orthotopic cardiac transplantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1989 Aug; 14(2):338-44.
View in: PubMed
223. Colucci WS, Ribeiro JP, Rocco MB, Quigg RJ, Creager MA, Marsh JD, Gauthier DF, Hartley LH. Impaired chronotropic response to exercise in patients with congestive heart failure. Role of postsynaptic beta-adrenergic desensitization. Circulation. 1989 Aug; 80(2):314-23.
View in: PubMed
224. Denniss AR, Colucci WS, Allen PD, Marsh JD. Distribution and function of human ventricular beta adrenergic receptors in congestive heart failure. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1989 Jul; 21(7):651-60.
View in: PubMed
225. Denniss AR, Marsh JD, Quigg RJ, Gordon JB, Colucci WS. Beta-adrenergic receptor number and adenylate cyclase function in denervated transplanted and cardiomyopathic human hearts. Circulation. 1989 May; 79(5):1028-34.
View in: PubMed
226. Colucci WS. Positive inotropic/vasodilator agents. Cardiol Clin. 1989 Feb; 7(1):131-44.
View in: PubMed
227. Colucci WS. Observations on the intracoronary administration of milrinone and dobutamine to patients with congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 1989 Jan 3; 63(2):17A-22A.
View in: PubMed
228. Arai Y, Saul JP, Albrecht P, Hartley LH, Lilly LS, Cohen RJ, Colucci WS. Modulation of cardiac autonomic activity during and immediately after exercise. Am J Physiol. 1989 Jan; 256(1 Pt 2):H132-41.
View in: PubMed
229. Colucci WS, Parker JD. Effects of beta-adrenergic agents on systolic and diastolic myocardial function in patients with and without heart failure. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989; 14 Suppl 5:S28-37.
View in: PubMed
230. Leatherman GF, Shook TL, Leatherman SM, Colucci WS. Use of a conductance catheter to detect increased left ventricular inotropic state by end-systolic pressure-volume analysis. Basic Res Cardiol. 1989; 84 Suppl 1:247-56.
View in: PubMed
231. Colucci WS, Akers M, Wise GM. Differential effects of norepinephrine and phorbol ester on alpha-1 adrenergic receptor number and surface-accessibility in DDT1 MF-2 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Oct 31; 156(2):924-30.
View in: PubMed
232. Colucci WS. Do positive inotropic agents adversely affect the survival of patients with chronic congestive heart failure? III. Antagonist’s viewpoint. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988 Aug; 12(2):566-9.
View in: PubMed
233. Creager MA, Hirsch AT, Nabel EG, Cutler SS, Colucci WS, Dzau VJ. Responsiveness of atrial natriuretic factor to reduction in right atrial pressure in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988 Jun; 11(6):1191-8.
View in: PubMed
234. Saul JP, Arai Y, Berger RD, Lilly LS, Colucci WS, Cohen RJ. Assessment of autonomic regulation in chronic congestive heart failure by heart rate spectral analysis. Am J Cardiol. 1988 Jun 1; 61(15):1292-9.
View in: PubMed
235. Lee RT, Mudge GH, Colucci WS. Coronary artery fistula after mitral valve surgery. Am Heart J. 1988 May; 115(5):1128-30.
View in: PubMed
236. Fish RD, Sperti G, Colucci WS, Clapham DE. Phorbol ester increases the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium conductance in a vascular smooth muscle cell line. Circ Res. 1988 May; 62(5):1049-54.
View in: PubMed
237. Colucci WS, Denniss AR, Leatherman GF, Quigg RJ, Ludmer PL, Marsh JD, Gauthier DF. Intracoronary infusion of dobutamine to patients with and without severe congestive heart failure. Dose-response relationships, correlation with circulating catecholamines, and effect of phosphodiesterase inhibition. J Clin Invest. 1988 Apr; 81(4):1103-10.
View in: PubMed
238. Givertz MM, Colucci WS. Inotropic and vasoactive agents in the cardiac intensive care unit, Chapter 45. In: Brown DL, ed. Cardiac Intensive Care. Philadelphia:WB Saunders Co. 1988; pp. 545-54.
239. Colucci WS, Leatherman GF, Ludmer PL, Gauthier DF. Beta-adrenergic inotropic responsiveness of patients with heart failure: studies with intracoronary dobutamine infusion. Circ Res. 1987 Oct; 61(4 Pt 2):I82-6.
View in: PubMed
240. Nabel EG, Colucci WS, Lilly LS, Cutler SS, Majzoub JA, St John Sutton MG, Dzau VJ, Creager MA. Relationship of cardiac chamber volume to baroreflex activity in normal humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987 Sep; 65(3):475-81.
View in: PubMed
241. Ribeiro JP, Knutzen A, Rocco MB, Hartley LH, Colucci WS. Periodic breathing during exercise in severe heart failure. Reversal with milrinone or cardiac transplantation. Chest. 1987 Sep; 92(3):555-6.
View in: PubMed
242. Ludmer PL, Baim DS, Antman EM, Gauthier DF, Rocco MB, Friedman PL, Colucci WS. Effects of milrinone on complex ventricular arrhythmias in congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 1987 Jun 1; 59(15):1351-5.
View in: PubMed
243. Colucci WS. Usefulness of calcium antagonists for congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 1987 Jan 30; 59(3):52B-58B.
View in: PubMed
244. Ribeiro JP, White HD, Arnold JM, Hartley LH, Colucci WS. Exercise responses before and after long-term treatment with oral milrinone in patients with severe heart failure. Am J Med. 1986 Nov; 81(5):759-64.
View in: PubMed
245. Arnold JM, Ludmer PL, Wright RF, Ganz P, Braunwald E, Colucci WS. Role of reflex sympathetic withdrawal in the hemodynamic response to an increased inotropic state in patients with severe heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1986 Aug; 8(2):413-8.
View in: PubMed
246. Baim DS, Colucci WS, Monrad ES, Smith HS, Wright RF, Lanoue A, Gauthier DF, Ransil BJ, Grossman W, Braunwald E. Survival of patients with severe congestive heart failure treated with oral milrinone. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1986 Mar; 7(3):661-70.
View in: PubMed
247. Colucci WS, Wright RF, Jaski BE, Fifer MA, Braunwald E. Milrinone and dobutamine in severe heart failure: differing hemodynamic effects and individual patient responsiveness. Circulation. 1986 Mar; 73(3 Pt 2):III175-83.
View in: PubMed
248. Colucci WS, Alexander RW. Norepinephrine-induced alteration in the coupling of alpha 1-adrenergic receptor occupancy to calcium efflux in rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Mar; 83(6):1743-6.
View in: PubMed
249. Colucci WS, Gimbrone MA, Alexander RW. Phorbol diester modulates alpha-adrenergic receptor-coupled calcium efflux and alpha-adrenergic receptor number in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Circ Res. 1986 Mar; 58(3):393-8.
View in: PubMed
250. Colucci WS, Wright RF, Braunwald E. New positive inotropic agents in the treatment of congestive heart failure. Mechanisms of action and recent clinical developments. 2. N Engl J Med. 1986 Feb 6; 314(6):349-58.
View in: PubMed
251. Colucci WS. Adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic-monophosphate-dependent regulation of alpha 1-adrenergic receptor number in rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells. Circ Res. 1986 Feb; 58(2):292-7.
View in: PubMed
252. Colucci WS, Wright RF, Braunwald E. New positive inotropic agents in the treatment of congestive heart failure. Mechanisms of action and recent clinical developments. 1. N Engl J Med. 1986 Jan 30; 314(5):290-9.
View in: PubMed
253. Ludmer PL, Wright RF, Arnold JM, Ganz P, Braunwald E, Colucci WS. Separation of the direct myocardial and vasodilator actions of milrinone administered by an intracoronary infusion technique. Circulation. 1986 Jan; 73(1):130-7.
View in: PubMed
254. Powers RE, Colucci WS. An increase in putative voltage dependent calcium channel number following reserpine treatment. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1985 Oct 30; 132(2):844-9.
View in: PubMed
255. White HD, Ribeiro JP, Hartley LH, Colucci WS. Immediate effects of milrinone on metabolic and sympathetic responses to exercise in severe congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 1985 Jul 1; 56(1):93-8.
View in: PubMed
256. Colucci WS, Brock TA, Gimbrone MA, Alexander RW. Nonlinear relationship between alpha 1-adrenergic receptor occupancy and norepinephrine-stimulated calcium flux in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1985 May; 27(5):517-24.
View in: PubMed
257. Kern MJ, Horowitz JD, Ganz P, Gaspar J, Colucci WS, Lorell BH, Barry WH, Mudge GH. Attenuation of coronary vascular resistance by selective alpha 1-adrenergic blockade in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1985 Apr; 5(4):840-6.
View in: PubMed
258. Fifer MA, Colucci WS, Lorell BH, Jaski BE, Barry WH. Inotropic, vascular and neuroendocrine effects of nifedipine in heart failure: comparison with nitroprusside. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1985 Mar; 5(3):731-7.
View in: PubMed
259. Colucci WS, Fifer MA, Lorell BH, Wynne J. Calcium channel blockers in congestive heart failure: theoretic considerations and clinical experience. Am J Med. 1985 Feb 22; 78(2B):9-17.
View in: PubMed
260. Jaski BE, Fifer MA, Wright RF, Braunwald E, Colucci WS. Positive inotropic and vasodilator actions of milrinone in patients with severe congestive heart failure. Dose-response relationships and comparison to nitroprusside. J Clin Invest. 1985 Feb; 75(2):643-9.
View in: PubMed
261. Colucci WS, Ludmer PL, Wright RF, Arnold JM, Ganz P, Braunwald E. Myocardial and vascular effects of intracoronary versus intravenous milrinone. Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 1985; 98:136-45.
View in: PubMed
262. Colucci WS, Brock TA, Atkinson WJ, Alexander RW, Gimbrone MA. Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells: an in vitro system for study of alpha-adrenergic receptor coupling and regulation. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1985; 7 Suppl 6:S79-86.
View in: PubMed
263. Monrad ES, McKay RG, Baim DS, Colucci WS, Fifer MA, Heller GV, Royal HD, Grossman W. Improvement in indexes of diastolic performance in patients with congestive heart failure treated with milrinone. Circulation. 1984 Dec; 70(6):1030-7.
View in: PubMed
264. Colucci WS, Gimbrone MA, Alexander RW. Regulation of myocardial and vascular alpha-adrenergic receptor affinity. Effects of guanine nucleotides, cations, estrogen, and catecholamine depletion. Circ Res. 1984 Jul; 55(1):78-88.
View in: PubMed
265. Braunwald E, Colucci WS. Evaluating the efficacy of new inotropic agents. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1984 Jun; 3(6):1570-4.
View in: PubMed
266. Ganz P, Gaspar J, Colucci WS, Barry WH, Mudge GH, Alexander RW. Effects of prostacyclin on coronary hemodynamics at rest and in response to cold pressor testing in patients with angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol. 1984 Jun 1; 53(11):1500-4.
View in: PubMed
267. Colucci WS, Brock TA, Gimbrone MA, Alexander RW. Regulation of alpha 1-adrenergic receptor-coupled calcium flux in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Hypertension. 1984 Mar-Apr; 6(2 Pt 2):I19-24.
View in: PubMed
268. Braunwald E, Colucci WS. Vasodilator therapy of heart failure. Has the promissory note been paid? N Engl J Med. 1984 Feb 16; 310(7):459-61.
View in: PubMed
269. Colucci WS, Braunwald E. Adrenergic receptors: new concepts and implications for cardiovascular therapeutics. Cardiovasc Clin. 1984; 14(3):39-59.
View in: PubMed
270. Colucci WS, Jaski BE, Fifer MA, Wright RF, Braunwald E. Milrinone: a positive inotropic vasodilator. Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 1984; 97:124-33.
View in: PubMed
271. Polak JF, Holman BL, Wynne J, Colucci WS. Right ventricular ejection fraction: an indicator of increased mortality in patients with congestive heart failure associated with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1983 Aug; 2(2):217-24.
View in: PubMed
272. Colucci WS. New developments in alpha-adrenergic receptor pharmacology: implications for the initial treatment of hypertension. Am J Cardiol. 1983 Feb 24; 51(4):639-43.
View in: PubMed
273. Colucci WS, Lorell BH, Schoen FJ, Warhol MJ, Grossman W. Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy due to Fabry’s disease. N Engl J Med. 1982 Oct 7; 307(15):926-8.
View in: PubMed
274. Colucci WS. Alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin. Consideration of hypertension, heart failure, and potential new applications. Ann Intern Med. 1982 Jul; 97(1):67-77.
View in: PubMed
275. Colucci WS, Gimbrone MA, McLaughlin MK, Halpern W, Alexander RW. Increased vascular catecholamine sensitivity and alpha-adrenergic receptor affinity in female and estrogen-treated male rats. Circ Res. 1982 Jun; 50(6):805-11.
View in: PubMed
276. Rude RE, Grossman W, Colucci WS, Benotti JR, Carabello BA, Wynne J, Malacoff R, Braunwald E. Problems in assessment of new pharmacologic agents for the heart failure patient. Am Heart J. 1981 Sep; 102(3 Pt 2):584-90.
View in: PubMed
277. Colucci WS, Alexander RW, Mudge GH, Rude RE, Holman BL, Wynne J, Grossman W, Braunwald E. Acute and chronic effects of pirbuterol on left ventricular ejection fraction and clinical status in severe congestive heart failure. Am Heart J. 1981 Sep; 102(3 Pt 2):564-8.
View in: PubMed
278. Colucci WS, Williams GH, Braunwald E. Clinical, hemodynamic, and neuroendocrine effects of chronic prazosin therapy for congestive heart failure. Am Heart J. 1981 Sep; 102(3 Pt 2):615-21.
View in: PubMed
279. Colucci WS, Alexander RW, Williams GH, Rude RE, Holman BL, Konstam MA, Wynne J, Mudge GH, Braunwald E. Decreased lymphocyte beta-adrenergic-receptor density in patients with heart failure and tolerance to the beta-adrenergic agonist pirbuterol. N Engl J Med. 1981 Jul 23; 305(4):185-90.
View in: PubMed
280. Colucci WS, Holman BL, Wynne J, Carabello B, Malacoff R, Grossman W, Braunwald E. Improved right ventricular function and reduced pulmonary vascular resistance during prazosin therapy of congestive heart failure. Am J Med. 1981 Jul; 71(1):75-80.
View in: PubMed
281. Colucci WS, Williams GH, Alexander RW, Braunwald E. Mechanisms and implications of vasodilator tolerance in the treatment of congestive heart failure. Am J Med. 1981 Jul; 71(1):89-99.
View in: PubMed
282. Rude RE, Turi Z, Brown EJ, Lorell BH, Colucci WS, Mudge GH, Taylor CR, Grossman W. Acute effects of oral pirbuterol on myocardial oxygen metabolism and systemic hemodynamics in chronic congestive heart failure. Circulation. 1981 Jul; 64(1):139-45.
View in: PubMed
283. Dzau VJ, Colucci WS, Hollenberg NK, Williams GH. Relation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to clinical state in congestive heart failure. Circulation. 1981 Mar; 63(3):645-51.
View in: PubMed
284. Colucci WS, Gimbrone MA, Alexander RW. Regulation of the postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptor in rat mesenteric artery. Effects of chemical sympathectomy and epinephrine treatment. Circ Res. 1981 Jan; 48(1):104-11.
View in: PubMed
285. Colucci WS, Williams GH, Braunwald E. Increased plasma norepinephrine levels during prazosin therapy for severe congestive heart failure. Ann Intern Med. 1980 Sep; 93(3):452-3.
View in: PubMed
286. Dzau VJ, Colucci WS, Williams GH, Curfman G, Meggs L, Hollenberg NK. Sustained effectiveness of converting-enzyme inhibition in patients with severe congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1980 Jun 19; 302(25):1373-9.
View in: PubMed
287. Colucci WS, Gimbrone MA, Alexander RW. Characterization of postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors by [3H]-dihydroergocryptine binding in muscular arteries from the rat mesentery. Hypertension. 1980 Mar-Apr; 2(2):149-55.
View in: PubMed
288. Colucci WS, Wynne J, Holman BL, Braunwald E. Long-term therapy of heart failure with prazosin: a randomized double blind trial. Am J Cardiol. 1980 Feb; 45(2):337-44.
View in: PubMed
289. Poole-Wilson PA, Colucci WS, Chatterjee K, Coats AJS, Massie BM (Editors). Heart Failure. New York:Churchill Livingstone. 1977.

Publications on Heart Failure by Prof. William Gregory Stevenson, M.D.

Title Professor of Medicine
Institution Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Department Medicine
Address Brigham and Women’s Hospital Cardiovascular 75 Francis St Boston MA 02115
Phone 617/732-7535
Fax 617/732-7134
  1. Givertz MM, Teerlink JR, Albert NM, Westlake Canary CA, Collins SP, Colvin-Adams M, Ezekowitz JA, Fang JC, Hernandez AF, Katz SD, Krishnamani R, Stough WG, Walsh MN, Butler J, Carson PE, Dimarco JP, Hershberger RE, Rogers JG, Spertus JA, Stevenson WG, Sweitzer NK, Tang WH, Starling RC. Acute decompensated heart failure: update on new and emerging evidence and directions for future research. J Card Fail. 2013 Jun; 19(6):371-89.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Tokuda M, Kojodjojo P, Tung S, Tedrow UB, Nof E, Inada K, Koplan BA, Michaud GF, John RM, Epstein LM, Stevenson WG. Acute failure of catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia due to structural heart disease: causes and significance. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013; 2(3):e000072.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Ng J, Barbhaiya C, Chopra N, Reichlin T, Nof E, Tadros T, Stevenson WG, John RM. Automatic external defibrillators-friend or foe? Am J Emerg Med. 2013 Aug; 31(8):1292.e1-2.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Steven D, Sultan A, Reddy V, Luker J, Altenburg M, Hoffmann B, Rostock T, Servatius H, Stevenson WG, Willems S, Michaud GF. Benefit of pulmonary vein isolation guided by loss of pace capture on the ablation line: results from a prospective 2-center randomized trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Jul 2; 62(1):44-50.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Kojodjojo P, Tokuda M, Bohnen M, Michaud GF, Koplan BA, Epstein LM, Albert CM, John RM, Stevenson WG, Tedrow UB. Electrocardiographic left ventricular scar burden predicts clinical outcomes following infarct-related ventricular tachycardia ablation. Heart Rhythm. 2013 Aug; 10(8):1119-24.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Nof E, Stevenson WG, Epstein LM, Tedrow UB, Koplan BA. Catheter Ablation of Atrial Arrhythmias After Cardiac Transplantation: Findings at EP Study Utility of 3-D Mapping and Outcomes. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2013 May; 24(5):498-502.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Michaud GF, Stevenson WG. Feeling a little loopy? J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2013 May; 24(5):553-5.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Epstein AE, Dimarco JP, Ellenbogen KA, Estes NA, Freedman RA, Gettes LS, Gillinov AM, Gregoratos G, Hammill SC, Hayes DL, Hlatky MA, Newby LK, Page RL, Schoenfeld MH, Silka MJ, Stevenson LW, Sweeney MO, Tracy CM, Epstein AE, Darbar D, Dimarco JP, Dunbar SB, Estes NA, Ferguson TB, Hammill SC, Karasik PE, Link MS, Marine JE, Schoenfeld MH, Shanker AJ, Silka MJ, Stevenson LW, Stevenson WG, Varosy PD, Anderson JL, Jacobs AK, Halperin JL, Albert NM, Creager MA, Demets D, Ettinger SM, Guyton RA, Hochman JS, Kushner FG, Ohman EM, Stevenson W, Yancy CW. 2012 ACCF/AHA/HRS Focused Update Incorporated Into the ACCF/AHA/HRS 2008 Guidelines for Device-Based Therapy of Cardiac Rhythm Abnormalities: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation. 2013 Jan 22; 127(3):e283-352.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Tracy CM, Epstein AE, Darbar D, Dimarco JP, Dunbar SB, Mark Estes NA, Ferguson TB, Hammill SC, Karasik PE, Link MS, Marine JE, Schoenfeld MH, Shanker AJ, Silka MJ, Stevenson LW, Stevenson WG, Varosy PD, Epstein AE, Dimarco JP, Ellenbogen KA, Mark Estes NA, Freedman RA, Gettes LS, Marc Gillinov A, Gregoratos G, Hammill SC, Hayes DL, Hlatky MA, Kristin Newby L, Page RL, Schoenfeld MH, Silka MJ, Warner Stevenson L, Sweeney MO, Anderson JL, Jacobs AK, Halperin JL, Albert NM, Creager MA, Demets D, Ettinger SM, Guyton RA, Hochman JS, Kushner FG, Ohman EM, Stevenson W, Yancy CW. 2012 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update of the 2008 guidelines for device-based therapy of cardiac rhythm abnormalities: A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012 Dec; 144(6):e127-45.
    View in: PubMed
  10. John RM, Tedrow UB, Koplan BA, Albert CM, Epstein LM, Sweeney MO, Miller AL, Michaud GF, Stevenson WG. Ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Lancet. 2012 Oct 27; 380(9852):1520-9.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Tracy CM, Epstein AE, Darbar D, DiMarco JP, Dunbar SB, Estes NA, Ferguson TB, Hammill SC, Karasik PE, Link MS, Marine JE, Schoenfeld MH, Shanker AJ, Silka MJ, Stevenson LW, Stevenson WG, Varosy PD, Ellenbogen KA, Freedman RA, Gettes LS, Gillinov AM, Gregoratos G, Hayes DL, Page RL, Stevenson LW, Sweeney MO. 2012 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update of the 2008 guidelines for device-based therapy of cardiac rhythm abnormalities: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2012 Oct 2; 126(14):1784-800.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Tracy CM, Epstein AE, Darbar D, Dimarco JP, Dunbar SB, Estes NA, Ferguson TB, Hammill SC, Karasik PE, Link MS, Marine JE, Schoenfeld MH, Shanker AJ, Silka MJ, Stevenson LW, Stevenson WG, Varosy PD. 2012 ACCF/AHA/HRS Focused Update of the 2008 Guidelines for Device-Based Therapy of Cardiac Rhythm Abnormalities: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Heart Rhythm. 2012 Oct; 9(10):1737-53.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Tokuda M, Tedrow UB, Kojodjojo P, Inada K, Koplan BA, Michaud GF, John RM, Epstein LM, Stevenson WG. Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic heart disease. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2012 Oct 1; 5(5):992-1000.
    View in: PubMed
  14. John RM, Stevenson WG. Ventricular arrhythmias in patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2012 Oct; 22(7):169-73.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Waldo AL, Wilber DJ, Marchlinski FE, Stevenson WG, Aker B, Boo LM, Jackman WM. Safety of the open-irrigated ablation catheter for radiofrequency ablation: safety analysis from six clinical studies. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2012 Sep; 35(9):1081-9.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Tedrow UB, Sobieszczyk P, Stevenson WG. Transvenous ethanol ablation of ventricular tachycardia. Heart Rhythm. 2012 Oct; 9(10):1640-1.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Stevenson WG, Tedrow UB. Ablation for ventricular tachycardia during stable sinus rhythm. Circulation. 2012 May 8; 125(18):2175-7.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Wissner E, Stevenson WG, Kuck KH. Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy: where are we today? A clinical review. Eur Heart J. 2012 Jun; 33(12):1440-50.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Vollmann D, Stevenson WG, Lüthje L, Sohns C, John RM, Zabel M, Michaud GF. Misleading long post-pacing interval after entrainment of typical atrial flutter from the cavotricuspid isthmus. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Feb 28; 59(9):819-24.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Stevenson WG, Hernandez AF, Carson PE, Fang JC, Katz SD, Spertus JA, Sweitzer NK, Tang WH, Albert NM, Butler J, Westlake Canary CA, Collins SP, Colvin-Adams M, Ezekowitz JA, Givertz MM, Hershberger RE, Rogers JG, Teerlink JR, Walsh MN, Stough WG, Starling RC. Indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy: 2011 update from the Heart Failure Society of America Guideline Committee. J Card Fail. 2012 Feb; 18(2):94-106.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Inada K, Tokuda M, Roberts-Thomson KC, Steven D, Seiler J, Tedrow UB, Stevenson WG. Relation of high-pass filtered unipolar electrograms to bipolar electrograms during ventricular mapping. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2012 Feb; 35(2):157-63.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Albert CM, Chen PS, Anderson ME, Cain ME, Fishman GI, Narayan SM, Olgin JE, Spooner PM, Stevenson WG, Van Wagoner DR, Packer DL. Full report from the first annual Heart Rhythm Society Research Forum: a vision for our research future, “dream, discover, develop, deliver”. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Dec; 8(12):e1-12.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Stevenson WG, John RM. Ventricular arrhythmias in patients with implanted defibrillators. Circulation. 2011 Oct 18; 124(16):e411-4.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Tokuda M, Sobieszczyk P, Eisenhauer AC, Kojodjojo P, Inada K, Koplan BA, Michaud GF, John RM, Epstein LM, Sacher F, Stevenson WG, Tedrow UB. Transcoronary ethanol ablation for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after failed catheter ablation: an update. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011 Dec; 4(6):889-96.
    View in: PubMed
  25. John RM, Stevenson WG. Catheter-based ablation for ventricular arrhythmias. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2011 Oct; 13(5):399-406.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Martinek M, Stevenson WG, Inada K, Tokuda M, Tedrow UB. QRS characteristics fail to reliably identify ventricular tachycardias that require epicardial ablation in ischemic heart disease. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2012 Feb; 23(2):188-93.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Asimaki A, Tandri H, Duffy ER, Winterfield JR, Mackey-Bojack S, Picken MM, Cooper LT, Wilber DJ, Marcus FI, Basso C, Thiene G, Tsatsopoulou A, Protonotarios N, Stevenson WG, McKenna WJ, Gautam S, Remick DG, Calkins H, Saffitz JE. Altered desmosomal proteins in granulomatous myocarditis and potential pathogenic links to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011 Oct; 4(5):743-52.
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  28. Wijnmaalen AP, Roberts-Thomson KC, Steven D, Klautz RJ, Willems S, Schalij MJ, Stevenson WG, Zeppenfeld K. Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia after left ventricular reconstructive surgery for ischemic cardiomyopathy. Heart Rhythm. 2012 Jan; 9(1):10-7.
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  29. Stevenson WG, Couper GS. A surgical option for ventricular tachycardia caused by nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011 Aug; 4(4):429-31.
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  30. Tokuda M, Kojodjojo P, Epstein LM, Koplan BA, Michaud GF, Tedrow UB, Stevenson WG, John RM. Outcomes of cardiac perforation complicating catheter ablation of ventricular arrhythmias. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011 Oct; 4(5):660-6.
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  31. Kosmidou I, Inada K, Seiler J, Koplan B, Stevenson WG, Tedrow UB. Role of repeat procedures for catheter ablation of postinfarction ventricular tachycardia. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Oct; 8(10):1516-22.
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  32. Bohnen M, Stevenson WG, Tedrow UB, Michaud GF, John RM, Epstein LM, Albert CM, Koplan BA. Incidence and predictors of major complications from contemporary catheter ablation to treat cardiac arrhythmias. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Nov; 8(11):1661-6.
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  33. Wijnmaalen AP, Stevenson WG, Schalij MJ, Field ME, Stephenson K, Tedrow UB, Koplan BA, Putter H, Epstein LM, Zeppenfeld K. ECG identification of scar-related ventricular tachycardia with a left bundle-branch block configuration. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011 Aug; 4(4):486-93.
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  34. Steven D, Roberts-Thomson KC, Inada K, Seiler J, Koplan BA, Tedrow UB, Sweeney MO, Epstein LE, Stevenson WG. Long-term follow-up in patients with presumptive Brugada syndrome treated with implanted defibrillators. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2011 Oct; 22(10):1115-9.
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  35. Bohnen M, Shea JB, Michaud GF, John R, Stevenson WG, Epstein LM, Tedrow UB, Albert C, Koplan BA. Quality of life with atrial fibrillation: do the spouses suffer as much as the patients? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2011 Jul; 34(7):804-9.
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  36. Fuster V, Rydén LE, Cannom DS, Crijns HJ, Curtis AB, Ellenbogen KA, Halperin JL, Kay GN, Le Huezey JY, Lowe JE, Olsson SB, Prystowsky EN, Tamargo JL, Wann LS, Smith SC, Priori SG, Estes NA, Ezekowitz MD, Jackman WM, January CT, Lowe JE, Page RL, Slotwiner DJ, Stevenson WG, Tracy CM, Jacobs AK, Anderson JL, Albert N, Buller CE, Creager MA, Ettinger SM, Guyton RA, Halperin JL, Hochman JS, Kushner FG, Ohman EM, Stevenson WG, Tarkington LG, Yancy CW. 2011 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused updates incorporated into the ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Circulation. 2011 Mar 15; 123(10):e269-367.
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  37. Wann LS, Curtis AB, Ellenbogen KA, Estes NA, Ezekowitz MD, Jackman WM, January CT, Lowe JE, Page RL, Slotwiner DJ, Stevenson WG, Tracy CM, Fuster V, Rydén LE, Cannom DS, Crijns HJ, Curtis AB, Ellenbogen KA, Halperin JL, Kay GN, Le Heuzey JY, Lowe JE, Olsson SB, Prystowsky EN, Tamargo JL, Wann LS, Jacobs AK, Anderson JL, Albert N, Creager MA, Ettinger SM, Guyton RA, Halperin JL, Hochman JS, Kushner FG, Ohman EM, Stevenson WG, Yancy CW. 2011 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update on the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (update on Dabigatran): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Circulation. 2011 Mar 15; 123(10):1144-50.
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  38. Wann LS, Curtis AB, Ellenbogen KA, Estes NA, Ezekowitz MD, Jackman WM, January CT, Lowe JE, Page RL, Slotwiner DJ, Stevenson WG, Tracy CM. 2011 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update on the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (update on dabigatran): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Mar 15; 57(11):1330-7.
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  39. Wann LS, Curtis AB, Ellenbogen KA, Estes NA, Ezekowitz MD, Jackman WM, January CT, Lowe JE, Page RL, Slotwiner DJ, Stevenson WG, Tracy CM, Fuster V, Rydén LE, Cannom DS, Crijns HJ, Curtis AB, Ellenbogen KA, Halperin JL, Kay GN, Le Heuzey JY, Lowe JE, Olsson SB, Prystowsky EN, Tamargo JL, Wann LS, Jacobs AK, Anderson JL, Albert N, Creager MA, Ettinger SM, Guyton RA, Halperin JL, Hochman JS, Kushner FG, Ohman EM, Stevenson WG, Yancy CW. 2011 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update on the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (update on dabigatran). A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Mar; 8(3):e1-8.
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  40. Dukkipati SR, d’Avila A, Soejima K, Bala R, Inada K, Singh S, Stevenson WG, Marchlinski FE, Reddy VY. Long-term outcomes of combined epicardial and endocardial ablation of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011 Apr; 4(2):185-94.
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  41. Tedrow UB, Stevenson WG. Recording and interpreting unipolar electrograms to guide catheter ablation. Heart Rhythm. 2011 May; 8(5):791-6.
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  42. Wann LS, Curtis AB, January CT, Ellenbogen KA, Lowe JE, Estes NA, Page RL, Ezekowitz MD, Slotwiner DJ, Jackman WM, Stevenson WG, Tracy CM, Fuster V, Rydén LE, Cannom DS, Le Heuzey JY, Crijns HJ, Lowe JE, Curtis AB, Olsson SB, Ellenbogen KA, Prystowsky EN, Halperin JL, Tamargo JL, Kay GN, Wann LS, Jacobs AK, Anderson JL, Albert N, Hochman JS, Buller CE, Kushner FG, Creager MA, Ohman EM, Ettinger SM, Stevenson WG, Guyton RA, Tarkington LG, Halperin JL, Yancy CW. 2011 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update on the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (Updating the 2006 Guideline): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Jan 11; 57(2):223-42.
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  43. Wann LS, Curtis AB, January CT, Ellenbogen KA, Lowe JE, Estes NA, Page RL, Ezekowitz MD, Slotwiner DJ, Jackman WM, Stevenson WG, Tracy CM, Fuster V, Rydén LE, Cannom DS, Le Heuzey JY, Crijns HJ, Lowe JE, Curtis AB, Olsson S, Ellenbogen KA, Prystowsky EN, Halperin JL, Tamargo JL, Kay GN, Wann LS, Jacobs AK, Anderson JL, Albert N, Hochman JS, Buller CE, Kushner FG, Creager MA, Ohman EM, Ettinger SM, Stevenson WG, Guyton RA, Tarkington LG, Halperin JL, Yancy CW. 2011 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update on the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (Updating the 2006 Guideline): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Jan; 8(1):157-76.
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  44. Wann LS, Curtis AB, January CT, Ellenbogen KA, Lowe JE, Estes NA, Page RL, Ezekowitz MD, Slotwiner DJ, Jackman WM, Stevenson WG, Tracy CM, Fuster V, Rydén LE, Cannom DS, Le Heuzey JY, Crijns HJ, Lowe JE, Curtis AB, Olsson S, Ellenbogen KA, Prystowsky EN, Halperin JL, Tamargo JL, Kay GN, Wann L, Jacobs AK, Anderson JL, Albert N, Hochman JS, Buller CE, Kushner FG, Creager MA, Ohman EM, Ettinger SM, Stevenson WG, Guyton RA, Tarkington LG, Halperin JL, Yancy CW. 2011 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update on the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (updating the 2006 guideline): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2011 Jan 4; 123(1):104-23.
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  45. Stevenson WG, Asirvatham SJ. Teaching rounds in cardiac electrophysiology. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2010 Dec; 3(6):563.
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  46. Rosman JZ, John RM, Stevenson WG, Epstein LM, Tedrow UB, Koplan BA, Albert CM, Michaud GF. Resetting criteria during ventricular overdrive pacing successfully differentiate orthodromic reentrant tachycardia from atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia despite interobserver disagreement concerning QRS fusion. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Jan; 8(1):2-7.
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  47. Gautam S, John RM, Stevenson WG, Jain R, Epstein LM, Tedrow U, Koplan BA, McClennen S, Michaud GF. Effect of therapeutic INR on activated clotting times, heparin dosage, and bleeding risk during ablation of atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2011 Mar; 22(3):248-54.
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  48. Inada K, Seiler J, Roberts-Thomson KC, Steven D, Rosman J, John RM, Sobieszczyk P, Stevenson WG, Tedrow UB. Substrate characterization and catheter ablation for monomorphic ventricular tachycardia in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2011 Jan; 22(1):41-8.
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  49. Sacher F, Roberts-Thomson K, Maury P, Tedrow U, Nault I, Steven D, Hocini M, Koplan B, Leroux L, Derval N, Seiler J, Wright MJ, Epstein L, Haissaguerre M, Jais P, Stevenson WG. Epicardial ventricular tachycardia ablation a multicenter safety study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 May 25; 55(21):2366-72.
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  50. Britton KA, Stevenson WG, Levy BD, Katz JT, Loscalzo J. Clinical problem-solving. The beat goes on. N Engl J Med. 2010 May 6; 362(18):1721-6.
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  51. Ross JJ, Britton KA, Desai AS, Stevenson WG. Interactive medical case. The beat goes on. N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 15; 362(15):e53.
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  52. Tedrow UB, Stevenson WG. Arrhythmias: Catheter ablation for prevention of ventricular tachycardia. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2010 Apr; 7(4):181-2.
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  53. Sacher F, Wright M, Tedrow UB, O’Neill MD, Jais P, Hocini M, Macdonald R, Davies DW, Kanagaratnam P, Derval N, Epstein L, Peters NS, Stevenson WG, Haissaguerre M. Wolff-Parkinson-White ablation after a prior failure: a 7-year multicentre experience. Europace. 2010 Jun; 12(6):835-41.
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  54. Inada K, Roberts-Thomson KC, Seiler J, Steven D, Tedrow UB, Koplan BA, Stevenson WG. Mortality and safety of catheter ablation for antiarrhythmic drug-refractory ventricular tachycardia in elderly patients with coronary artery disease. Heart Rhythm. 2010 Jun; 7(6):740-4.
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  55. Steven D, Seiler J, Roberts-Thomson KC, Inada K, Stevenson WG. Mapping of atrial tachycardias after catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation: use of bi-atrial activation patterns to facilitate recognition of origin. Heart Rhythm. 2010 May; 7(5):664-72.
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  56. Stevenson WG, Tedrow U. Preventing ventricular tachycardia with catheter ablation. Lancet. 2010 Jan 2; 375(9708):4-6.
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  57. Al-Khatib SM, Calkins H, Eloff BC, Packer DL, Ellenbogen KA, Hammill SC, Natale A, Page RL, Prystowsky E, Jackman WM, Stevenson WG, Waldo AL, Wilber D, Kowey P, Yaross MS, Mark DB, Reiffel J, Finkle JK, Marinac-Dabic D, Pinnow E, Sager P, Sedrakyan A, Canos D, Gross T, Berliner E, Krucoff MW. Planning the Safety of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Registry Initiative (SAFARI) as a Collaborative Pan-Stakeholder Critical Path Registry Model: a Cardiac Safety Research Consortium “Incubator” Think Tank. Am Heart J. 2010 Jan; 159(1):17-24.
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  58. Seiler J, Stevenson WG. Atrial fibrillation in congestive heart failure. Cardiol Rev. 2010 Jan-Feb; 18(1):38-50.
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  59. Steven D, Roberts-Thomson KC, Seiler J, Inada K, Tedrow UB, Mitchell RN, Sobieszczyk PS, Eisenhauer AC, Couper GS, Stevenson WG. Ventricular tachycardia arising from the aortomitral continuity in structural heart disease: characteristics and therapeutic considerations for an anatomically challenging area of origin. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2009 Dec; 2(6):660-6.
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  60. Roberts-Thomson KC, Seiler J, Steven D, Inada K, Michaud GF, John RM, Koplan BA, Epstein LM, Stevenson WG, Tedrow UB. Percutaneous access of the epicardial space for mapping ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias in patients with and without prior cardiac surgery. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2010 Apr; 21(4):406-11.
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  61. Steven D, Reddy VY, Inada K, Roberts-Thomson KC, Seiler J, Stevenson WG, Michaud GF. Loss of pace capture on the ablation line: a new marker for complete radiofrequency lesions to achieve pulmonary vein isolation. Heart Rhythm. 2010 Mar; 7(3):323-30.
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  62. Roberts-Thomson KC, Steven D, Seiler J, Inada K, Koplan BA, Tedrow UB, Epstein LM, Stevenson WG. Coronary artery injury due to catheter ablation in adults: presentations and outcomes. Circulation. 2009 Oct 13; 120(15):1465-73.
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  63. See VY, Roberts-Thomson KC, Stevenson WG, Camp PC, Koplan BA. Atrial arrhythmias after lung transplantation: epidemiology, mechanisms at electrophysiology study, and outcomes. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2009 Oct; 2(5):504-10.
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  64. Stevenson WG, Saltzman JR. Gastroesophageal reflux and atrial-esophageal fistula. Heart Rhythm. 2009 Oct; 6(10):1463-4.
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  65. Aliot EM, Stevenson WG, Almendral-Garrote JM, Bogun F, Calkins CH, Delacretaz E, Della Bella P, Hindricks G, Jaïs P, Josephson ME, Kautzner J, Kay GN, Kuck KH, Lerman BB, Marchlinski F, Reddy V, Schalij MJ, Schilling R, Soejima K, Wilber D. EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias: developed in a partnership with the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), a Registered Branch of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), and the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS); in collaboration with the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA). Heart Rhythm. 2009 Jun; 6(6):886-933.
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  66. Aliot EM, Stevenson WG, Almendral-Garrote JM, Bogun F, Calkins CH, Delacretaz E, Bella PD, Hindricks G, Jaïs P, Josephson ME, Kautzner J, Kay GN, Kuck KH, Lerman BB, Marchlinski F, Reddy V, Schalij MJ, Schilling R, Soejima K, Wilber D. EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias: developed in a partnership with the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), a Registered Branch of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), and the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS); in collaboration with the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA). Europace. 2009 Jun; 11(6):771-817.
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  67. Raymond JM, Sacher F, Winslow R, Tedrow U, Stevenson WG. Catheter ablation for scar-related ventricular tachycardias. Curr Probl Cardiol. 2009 May; 34(5):225-70.
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  68. Lee JC, Steven D, Roberts-Thomson KC, Raymond JM, Stevenson WG, Tedrow UB. Atrial tachycardias adjacent to the phrenic nerve: recognition, potential problems, and solutions. Heart Rhythm. 2009 Aug; 6(8):1186-91.
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  69. Steven D, Roberts-Thomson KC, Seiler J, Michaud GF, John RM, Stevenson WG. Fibrillation in the superior vena cava mimicking atrial tachycardia. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2009 Apr; 2(2):e4-7.
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  70. Roberts-Thomson KC, Seiler J, Steven D, Inada K, John R, Michaud G, Stevenson WG. Short AV response to atrial extrastimuli during narrow complex tachycardia: what is the mechanism? J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2009 Aug; 20(8):946-8.
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  71. Koplan BA, Stevenson WG. Ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death. Mayo Clin Proc. 2009 Mar; 84(3):289-97.
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  72. Khairy P, Stevenson WG. Catheter ablation in tetralogy of Fallot. Heart Rhythm. 2009 Jul; 6(7):1069-74.
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  73. Stevenson WG, Tedrow UB, Koplan BA. Management of ventricular tachycardia complicating cardiac surgery. Heart Rhythm. 2009 Aug; 6(8 Suppl):S66-9.
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  74. Lee JC, Epstein LM, Huffer LL, Stevenson WG, Koplan BA, Tedrow UB. ICD lead proarrhythmia cured by lead extraction. Heart Rhythm. 2009 May; 6(5):613-8.
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  75. Tedrow U, Stevenson WG. Strategies for epicardial mapping and ablation of ventricular tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2009 Jun; 20(6):710-3.
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  76. Stevenson WG. Ventricular scars and ventricular tachycardia. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2009; 120:403-12.
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  77. Stevenson WG, Wilber DJ, Natale A, Jackman WM, Marchlinski FE, Talbert T, Gonzalez MD, Worley SJ, Daoud EG, Hwang C, Schuger C, Bump TE, Jazayeri M, Tomassoni GF, Kopelman HA, Soejima K, Nakagawa H. Irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation guided by electroanatomic mapping for recurrent ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction: the multicenter thermocool ventricular tachycardia ablation trial. Circulation. 2008 Dec 16; 118(25):2773-82.
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  78. Seiler J, Lee JC, Roberts-Thomson KC, Stevenson WG. Intracardiac echocardiography guided catheter ablation of incessant ventricular tachycardia from the posterior papillary muscle causing tachycardia–mediated cardiomyopathy. Heart Rhythm. 2009 Mar; 6(3):389-92.
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  79. Eckart RE, Field ME, Hruczkowski TW, Forman DE, Dorbala S, Di Carli MF, Albert CE, Maisel WH, Epstein LM, Stevenson WG. Association of electrocardiographic morphology of exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmia with mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2008 Oct 7; 149(7):451-60, W82.
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  80. Goldberger JJ, Cain ME, Hohnloser SH, Kadish AH, Knight BP, Lauer MS, Maron BJ, Page RL, Passman RS, Siscovick D, Stevenson WG, Zipes DP. American Heart Association/american College of Cardiology Foundation/heart Rhythm Society scientific statement on noninvasive risk stratification techniques for identifying patients at risk for sudden cardiac death: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology Committee on Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Heart Rhythm. 2008 Oct; 5(10):e1-21.
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  81. Goldberger JJ, Cain ME, Hohnloser SH, Kadish AH, Knight BP, Lauer MS, Maron BJ, Page RL, Passman RS, Siscovick D, Siscovick D, Stevenson WG, Zipes DP. American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation/Heart Rhythm Society scientific statement on noninvasive risk stratification techniques for identifying patients at risk for sudden cardiac death: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology Committee on Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation. 2008 Sep 30; 118(14):1497-1518.
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  82. Goldberger JJ, Cain ME, Hohnloser SH, Kadish AH, Knight BP, Lauer MS, Maron BJ, Page RL, Passman RS, Siscovick D, Stevenson WG, Zipes DP. American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation/Heart Rhythm Society Scientific Statement on Noninvasive Risk Stratification Techniques for Identifying Patients at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death. A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology Committee on Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Sep 30; 52(14):1179-99.
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  83. Seiler J, Roberts-Thomson KC, Raymond JM, Vest J, Delacretaz E, Stevenson WG. Steam pops during irrigated radiofrequency ablation: feasibility of impedance monitoring for prevention. Heart Rhythm. 2008 Oct; 5(10):1411-6.
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  84. Roy D, Talajic M, Nattel S, Wyse DG, Dorian P, Lee KL, Bourassa MG, Arnold JM, Buxton AE, Camm AJ, Connolly SJ, Dubuc M, Ducharme A, Guerra PG, Hohnloser SH, Lambert J, Le Heuzey JY, O’Hara G, Pedersen OD, Rouleau JL, Singh BN, Stevenson LW, Stevenson WG, Thibault B, Waldo AL. Rhythm control versus rate control for atrial fibrillation and heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jun 19; 358(25):2667-77.
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  85. Sacher F, Tedrow UB, Field ME, Raymond JM, Koplan BA, Epstein LM, Stevenson WG. Ventricular tachycardia ablation: evolution of patients and procedures over 8 years. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2008 Aug; 1(3):153-61.
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  86. Vest JA, Seiler J, Stevenson WG. Clinical use of cooled radiofrequency ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008 Jul; 19(7):769-73.
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  87. Stevenson WG, Berul CI. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology: the eagle can land. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2008 Apr; 1(1):1.
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  88. Roberts-Thomson KC, Seiler J, Raymond JM, Stevenson WG. Exercise induced tachycardia with atrioventricular dissociation: what is the mechanism? Heart Rhythm. 2009 Mar; 6(3):426-8.
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  89. Zeppenfeld K, Stevenson WG. Ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients with structural heart disease. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2008 Mar; 31(3):358-74.
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  90. Cooper JM, Sapp JL, Robinson D, Epstein LM, Stevenson WG. A rewarming maneuver demonstrates the contribution of blood flow to electrode cooling during internally irrigated RF ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008 Apr; 19(4):409-14.
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  91. Zeppenfeld K, Schalij MJ, Bartelings MM, Tedrow UB, Koplan BA, Soejima K, Stevenson WG. Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia after repair of congenital heart disease: electroanatomic identification of the critical right ventricular isthmus. Circulation. 2007 Nov 13; 116(20):2241-52.
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  92. Eckart RE, Hruczkowski TW, Tedrow UB, Koplan BA, Epstein LM, Stevenson WG. Sustained ventricular tachycardia associated with corrective valve surgery. Circulation. 2007 Oct 30; 116(18):2005-11.
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  93. Sacher F, Sobieszczyk P, Tedrow U, Eisenhauer AC, Field ME, Selwyn A, Raymond JM, Koplan B, Epstein LM, Stevenson WG. Transcoronary ethanol ventricular tachycardia ablation in the modern electrophysiology era. Heart Rhythm. 2008 Jan; 5(1):62-8.
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  94. Sacher F, Vest J, Raymond JM, Stevenson WG. Incessant donor-to-recipient atrial tachycardia after bilateral lung transplantation. Heart Rhythm. 2008 Jan; 5(1):149-51.
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  95. Sacher F, Vest J, Raymond JM, Stevenson WG. Atrial pacing inducing narrow QRS tachycardia followed by wide complex tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2007 Nov; 18(11):1213-5.
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  96. Stevenson WG, Soejima K. Catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia. Circulation. 2007 May 29; 115(21):2750-60.
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  97. Koplan BA, Stevenson WG. Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome. Heart. 2007 May; 93(5):547-8.
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  98. Parkash R, Stevenson WG. Atrial fibrillation and clinical events in chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Jan 23; 49(3):376; author reply 376-7.
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  99. Sacher F, Jais P, Stephenson K, O’Neill MD, Hocini M, Clementy J, Stevenson WG, Haissaguerre M. Phrenic nerve injury after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J. 2007; 7(1):1-6.
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  100. Tedrow UB, Stevenson WG, Wood MA, Shepard RK, Hall K, Pellegrini CP, Ellenbogen KA. Activation sequence modification during cardiac resynchronization by manipulation of left ventricular epicardial pacing stimulus strength. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2007 Jan; 30(1):65-9.
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  101. Dzau VJ, Antman EM, Black HR, Hayes DL, Manson JE, Plutzky J, Popma JJ, Stevenson W. The cardiovascular disease continuum validated: clinical evidence of improved patient outcomes: part I: Pathophysiology and clinical trial evidence (risk factors through stable coronary artery disease). Circulation. 2006 Dec 19; 114(25):2850-70.
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  102. Dzau VJ, Antman EM, Black HR, Hayes DL, Manson JE, Plutzky J, Popma JJ, Stevenson W. The cardiovascular disease continuum validated: clinical evidence of improved patient outcomes: part II: Clinical trial evidence (acute coronary syndromes through renal disease) and future directions. Circulation. 2006 Dec 19; 114(25):2871-91.
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  103. Stevenson WG, Tedrow U. Management of atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure. Heart Rhythm. 2007 Mar; 4(3 Suppl):S28-30.
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  104. Tedrow U, Stevenson WG. Substrate mapping and the aging atrium. Heart Rhythm. 2007 Feb; 4(2):145-6.
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  105. Eckart RE, Hruczkowski TW, Stevenson WG, Epstein LM. Myopotentials leading to ventricular fibrillation detection after advisory defibrillator generator replacement. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2006 Nov; 29(11):1273-6.
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  106. Perloff JK, Middlekauf HR, Child JS, Stevenson WG, Miner PD, Goldberg GD. Usefulness of post-ventriculotomy signal averaged electrocardiograms in congenital heart disease. Am J Cardiol. 2006 Dec 15; 98(12):1646-51.
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  107. Koplan BA, Epstein LM, Albert CM, Stevenson WG. Survival in octogenarians receiving implantable defibrillators. Am Heart J. 2006 Oct; 152(4):714-9.
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  108. Veenhuyzen GD, Hruczkowski T, Dhir SK, Stevenson WG. Another way to prove the presence and participation of an accessory pathway in supraventricular tachycardia? J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006 Oct; 17(10):1147-9.
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  109. Yan AT, Shayne AJ, Brown KA, Gupta SN, Chan CW, Luu TM, Di Carli MF, Reynolds HG, Stevenson WG, Kwong RY. Characterization of the peri-infarct zone by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful predictor of post-myocardial infarction mortality. Circulation. 2006 Jul 4; 114(1):32-9.
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  110. Sapp JL, Cooper JM, Zei P, Stevenson WG. Large radiofrequency ablation lesions can be created with a retractable infusion-needle catheter. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006 Jun; 17(6):657-61.
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  111. Field ME, Miyazaki H, Epstein LM, Stevenson WG. Narrow complex tachycardia after slow pathway ablation: continue ablating? J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006 May; 17(5):557-9.
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  112. Tedrow UB, Kramer DB, Stevenson LW, Stevenson WG, Baughman KL, Epstein LM, Lewis EF. Relation of right ventricular peak systolic pressure to major adverse events in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy. Am J Cardiol. 2006 Jun 15; 97(12):1737-40.
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  113. Ames A, Stevenson WG. Cardiology patient page. Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2006 Apr 4; 113(13):e666-8.
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  114. Koplan BA, Soejima K, Baughman K, Epstein LM, Stevenson WG. Refractory ventricular tachycardia secondary to cardiac sarcoid: electrophysiologic characteristics, mapping, and ablation. Heart Rhythm. 2006 Aug; 3(8):924-9.
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  115. Zei PC, Stevenson WG. Epicardial catheter mapping and ablation of ventricular tachycardia. Heart Rhythm. 2006 Mar; 3(3):360-3.
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  116. Miyazaki H, Stevenson WG, Stephenson K, Soejima K, Epstein LM. Entrainment mapping for rapid distinction of left and right atrial tachycardias. Heart Rhythm. 2006 May; 3(5):516-23.
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  117. Parkash R, Stevenson WG, Epstein LM, Maisel WH. Predicting early mortality after implantable defibrillator implantation: a clinical risk score for optimal patient selection. Am Heart J. 2006 Feb; 151(2):397-403.
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  118. Stevenson WG, Epstein LM. Endpoints for ablation of atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm. 2006 Feb; 3(2):146-7.
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  119. Stevenson LW, Stevenson WG. Cost-effectiveness of ICDs. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jan 12; 354(2):205-7; author reply 205-7.
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  120. Nazarian S, Maisel WH, Miles JS, Tsang S, Stevenson LW, Stevenson WG. Impact of implantable cardioverter defibrillators on survival and recurrent hospitalization in advanced heart failure. Am Heart J. 2005 Nov; 150(5):955-60.
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  121. Intini A, Goldstein RN, Jia P, Ramanathan C, Ryu K, Giannattasio B, Gilkeson R, Stambler BS, Brugada P, Stevenson WG, Rudy Y, Waldo AL. Electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI), a novel diagnostic modality used for mapping of focal left ventricular tachycardia in a young athlete. Heart Rhythm. 2005 Nov; 2(11):1250-2.
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  122. Parkash R, Maisel WH, Toca FM, Stevenson WG. Atrial fibrillation in heart failure: high mortality risk even if ventricular function is preserved. Am Heart J. 2005 Oct; 150(4):701-6.
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  123. Reynolds DW, Chen PS, Deal BJ, Donahue JK, Ellenbogen KA, Epstein AE, Friedman PA, Hammill SC, Hohnloser SH, Kanter RJ, Lindsay BD, Natale A, Saffitz J, Stevenson WG. Highlights of Heart Rhythm 2005, the Annual Scientific Sessions of the Heart Rhythm Society, May 4-7, 2005, New Orleans, Louisiana. Heart Rhythm. 2005 Sep; 2(9):1025-33.
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  124. Stevenson WG, Soejima K. Recording techniques for clinical electrophysiology. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005 Sep; 16(9):1017-22.
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  125. Tedrow U, Stevenson WG, Benzaquen LR. Apical left ventricular aneurysm presenting with malignant ventricular tachycardia responsive to aneurysmectomy. Heart. 2005 May; 91(5):623.
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  126. Brunckhorst CB, Delacretaz E, Soejima K, Maisel WH, Friedman PL, Stevenson WG. Impact of changing activation sequence on bipolar electrogram amplitude for voltage mapping of left ventricular infarcts causing ventricular tachycardia. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2005 Mar; 12(2):137-41.
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  127. Stevenson WG. Catheter ablation of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2005 Jan; 20(1):42-7.
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  128. Stevenson WG. To freeze or burn the epicardium? Heart Rhythm. 2005 Jan; 2(1):91-2.
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  129. Stevenson WG, Chaitman BR, Ellenbogen KA, Epstein AE, Gross WL, Hayes DL, Strickberger SA, Sweeney MO. Clinical assessment and management of patients with implanted cardioverter-defibrillators presenting to nonelectrophysiologists. Circulation. 2004 Dec 21; 110(25):3866-9.
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  130. Tedrow U, Maisel WH, Epstein LM, Soejima K, Stevenson WG. Feasibility of adjusting paced left ventricular activation by manipulating stimulus strength. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Dec 7; 44(11):2249-52.
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  131. Stevenson WG, Stevenson LW. Atrial fibrillation and heart failure–five more years. N Engl J Med. 2004 Dec 2; 351(23):2437-40.
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  132. Brunckhorst CB, Delacretaz E, Soejima K, Jackman WM, Nakagawa H, Kuck KH, Ben-Haim SA, Seifert B, Stevenson WG. Ventricular mapping during atrial and right ventricular pacing: relation of electrogram parameters to ventricular tachycardia reentry circuits after myocardial infarction. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2004 Dec; 11(3):183-91.
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  133. Curtis AB, Abraham WT, Chen PS, Ellenbogen KA, Epstein AE, Friedman PA, Hohnloser SH, Kanter RJ, Stevenson WG. Highlights of Heart Rhythm 2004, the Annual Scientific Sessions of the Heart Rhythm Society: May 19 to 22, 2004, in San Francisco, California. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Oct 19; 44(8):1550-6.
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  134. Stevenson WG, Cooper J, Sapp J. Optimizing RF output for cooled RF ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2004 Oct; 15(10 Suppl):S24-7.
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  135. Soejima K, Stevenson WG. Athens, athletes, and arrhythmias: the cardiologist’s dilemma. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Sep 1; 44(5):1059-61.
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  136. Cooper JM, Sapp JL, Tedrow U, Pellegrini CP, Robinson D, Epstein LM, Stevenson WG. Ablation with an internally irrigated radiofrequency catheter: learning how to avoid steam pops. Heart Rhythm. 2004 Sep; 1(3):329-33.
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  137. Soejima K, Couper G, Cooper JM, Sapp JL, Epstein LM, Stevenson WG. Subxiphoid surgical approach for epicardial catheter-based mapping and ablation in patients with prior cardiac surgery or difficult pericardial access. Circulation. 2004 Sep 7; 110(10):1197-201.
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  138. Brunckhorst CB, Delacretaz E, Soejima K, Maisel WH, Friedman PL, Stevenson WG. Identification of the ventricular tachycardia isthmus after infarction by pace mapping. Circulation. 2004 Aug 10; 110(6):652-9.
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  139. Friedman PL, Dubuc M, Green MS, Jackman WM, Keane DT, Marinchak RA, Nazari J, Packer DL, Skanes A, Steinberg JS, Stevenson WG, Tchou PJ, Wilber DJ, Worley SJ. Catheter cryoablation of supraventricular tachycardia: results of the multicenter prospective “frosty” trial. Heart Rhythm. 2004 Jul; 1(2):129-38.
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  140. Sapp JL, Soejima K, Cooper JM, Epstein LM, Stevenson WG. Ablation lesion size correlates with pacing threshold: a physiological basis for use of pacing to assess ablation lesions. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2004 Jul; 27(7):933-7.
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  141. Soejima K, Stevenson WG, Sapp JL, Selwyn AP, Couper G, Epstein LM. Endocardial and epicardial radiofrequency ablation of ventricular tachycardia associated with dilated cardiomyopathy: the importance of low-voltage scars. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 May 19; 43(10):1834-42.
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  142. Tedrow U, Sweeney MO, Stevenson WG. Physiology of cardiac resynchronization. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2004 May; 6(3):189-93.
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  143. Sapp JL, Cooper JM, Soejima K, Sorrell T, Lopera G, Satti SD, Koplan BA, Epstein LM, Edelman E, Rogers C, Stevenson WG. Deep myocardial ablation lesions can be created with a retractable needle-tipped catheter. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2004 May; 27(5):594-9.
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  144. Stevenson WG, Sweeney MO. Single site left ventricular pacing for cardiac resynchronization. Circulation. 2004 Apr 13; 109(14):1694-6.
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  145. Koplan BA, Parkash R, Couper G, Stevenson WG. Combined epicardial-endocardial approach to ablation of inappropriate sinus tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2004 Feb; 15(2):237-40.
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  146. Lopera G, Stevenson WG, Soejima K, Maisel WH, Koplan B, Sapp JL, Satti SD, Epstein LM. Identification and ablation of three types of ventricular tachycardia involving the his-purkinje system in patients with heart disease. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2004 Jan; 15(1):52-8.
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  147. Blomström-Lundqvist C, Scheinman MM, Aliot EM, Alpert JS, Calkins H, Camm AJ, Campbell WB, Haines DE, Kuck KH, Lerman BB, Miller DD, Shaeffer CW, Stevenson WG, Tomaselli GF, Antman EM, Smith SC, Alpert JS, Faxon DP, Fuster V, Gibbons RJ, Gregoratos G, Hiratzka LF, Hunt SA, Jacobs AK, Russell RO, Priori SG, Blanc JJ, Budaj A, Burgos EF, Cowie M, Deckers JW, Garcia MA, Klein WW, Lekakis J, Lindahl B, Mazzotta G, Morais JC, Oto A, Smiseth O, Trappe HJ. ACC/AHA/ESC guidelines for the management of patients with supraventricular arrhythmias–executive summary. a report of the American college of cardiology/American heart association task force on practice guidelines and the European society of cardiology committee for practice guidelines (writing committee to develop guidelines for the management of patients with supraventricular arrhythmias) developed in collaboration with NASPE-Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Oct 15; 42(8):1493-531.
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  148. Blomström-Lundqvist C, Scheinman MM, Aliot EM, Alpert JS, Calkins H, Camm AJ, Campbell WB, Haines DE, Kuck KH, Lerman BB, Miller DD, Shaeffer CW, Stevenson WG, Tomaselli GF, Antman EM, Smith SC, Alpert JS, Faxon DP, Fuster V, Gibbons RJ, Gregoratos G, Hiratzka LF, Hunt SA, Jacobs AK, Russell RO, Priori SG, Blanc JJ, Budaj A, Burgos EF, Cowie M, Deckers JW, Garcia MA, Klein WW, Lekakis J, Lindahl B, Mazzotta G, Morais JC, Oto A, Smiseth O, Trappe HJ. ACC/AHA/ESC guidelines for the management of patients with supraventricular arrhythmias–executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Supraventricular Arrhythmias). Circulation. 2003 Oct 14; 108(15):1871-909.
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  149. Delacretaz E, Soejima K, Brunckhorst CB, Maisel WH, Friedman PL, Stevenson WG. Assessment of radiofrequency ablation effect from unipolar pacing threshold. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2003 Oct; 26(10):1993-6.
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  150. Soejima K, Stevenson WG. Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients with ischemic heart disease. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2003 Sep; 5(5):364-8.
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  151. Tung S, Soejima K, Maisel WH, Suzuki M, Epstein L, Stevenson WG. Recognition of far-field electrograms during entrainment mapping of ventricular tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Jul 2; 42(1):110-5.
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  152. Stevenson WG, Soejima K. Inside or out? Another option for incessant ventricular tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Jun 4; 41(11):2044-5.
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  153. Brunckhorst CB, Stevenson WG, Soejima K, Maisel WH, Delacretaz E, Friedman PL, Ben-Haim SA. Relationship of slow conduction detected by pace-mapping to ventricular tachycardia re-entry circuit sites after infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Mar 5; 41(5):802-9.
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  154. Koplan BA, Stevenson WG, Epstein LM, Aranki SF, Maisel WH. Development and validation of a simple risk score to predict the need for permanent pacing after cardiac valve surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Mar 5; 41(5):795-801.
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  155. Ellison KE, Stevenson WG, Sweeney MO, Epstein LM, Maisel WH. Management of arrhythmias in heart failure. Congest Heart Fail. 2003 Mar-Apr; 9(2):91-9.
    View in: PubMed
  156. Stevenson WG, Epstein LM. Predicting sudden death risk for heart failure patients in the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator age. Circulation. 2003 Feb 4; 107(4):514-6.
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  157. Maisel WH, Stevenson WG, Epstein LM. Changing trends in pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator generator advisories. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2002 Dec; 25(12):1670-8.
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  158. Khan HH, Maisel WH, Ho C, Suzuki M, Soejima K, Solomon S, Stevenson WG. Effect of radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia on left ventricular function in patients with prior myocardial infarction. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2002 Dec; 7(3):243-7.
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  159. Fenelon G, Stambler BS, Huvelle E, Brugada P, Stevenson WG. Left ventricular dysfunction is associated with prolonged average ventricular fibrillation cycle length in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2002 Dec; 7(3):249-54.
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  160. Soejima K, Stevenson WG, Maisel WH, Sapp JL, Epstein LM. Electrically unexcitable scar mapping based on pacing threshold for identification of the reentry circuit isthmus: feasibility for guiding ventricular tachycardia ablation. Circulation. 2002 Sep 24; 106(13):1678-83.
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  161. Maisel WH, Stevenson WG. Syncope–getting to the heart of the matter. N Engl J Med. 2002 Sep 19; 347(12):931-3.
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  162. Maisel WH, Stevenson WG, Epstein LM. Reduced atrial blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease. Coron Artery Dis. 2002 Aug; 13(5):283-90.
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  163. Soejima K, Stevenson WG. Ventricular tachycardia associated with myocardial infarct scar: a spectrum of therapies for a single patient. Circulation. 2002 Jul 9; 106(2):176-9.
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  164. Brunckhorst CB, Stevenson WG, Jackman WM, Kuck KH, Soejima K, Nakagawa H, Cappato R, Ben-Haim SA. Ventricular mapping during atrial and ventricular pacing. Relationship of multipotential electrograms to ventricular tachycardia reentry circuits after myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 2002 Jul; 23(14):1131-8.
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  165. Friedman RA, Walsh EP, Silka MJ, Calkins H, Stevenson WG, Rhodes LA, Deal BJ, Wolff GS, Demaso DR, Hanisch D, Van Hare GF. NASPE Expert Consensus Conference: Radiofrequency catheter ablation in children with and without congenital heart disease. Report of the writing committee. North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2002 Jun; 25(6):1000-17.
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  166. Stevenson WG, Ellison KE, Sweeney MO, Epstein LM, Maisel WH. Management of arrhythmias in heart failure. Cardiol Rev. 2002 Jan-Feb; 10(1):8-14.
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  167. Maisel WH, Rawn JD, Stevenson WG. Atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Dec 18; 135(12):1061-73.
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  168. Sapp J, Soejima K, Couper GS, Stevenson WG. Electrophysiology and anatomic characterization of an epicardial accessory pathway. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2001 Dec; 12(12):1411-4.
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  169. Sweeney MO, Ellison KE, Stevenson WG. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators in heart failure. Cardiol Clin. 2001 Nov; 19(4):653-67.
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  170. Maisel WH, Stevenson WG, Tung S, Blier LE, Brunckhorst CB. Less is more: 4:2:1 block. Circulation. 2001 Sep 4; 104(10):E50.
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  171. Delacrétaz E, Stevenson WG. Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients with coronary heart disease. Part II: Clinical aspects, limitations, and recent developments. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2001 Sep; 24(9 Pt 1):1403-11.
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  172. Maisel WH, Sweeney MO, Stevenson WG, Ellison KE, Epstein LM. Recalls and safety alerts involving pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator generators. JAMA. 2001 Aug 15; 286(7):793-9.
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  173. Soejima K, Suzuki M, Maisel WH, Brunckhorst CB, Delacretaz E, Blier L, Tung S, Khan H, Stevenson WG. Catheter ablation in patients with multiple and unstable ventricular tachycardias after myocardial infarction: short ablation lines guided by reentry circuit isthmuses and sinus rhythm mapping. Circulation. 2001 Aug 7; 104(6):664-9.
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  174. Delacretaz E, Stevenson WG. Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients with coronary heart disease: part I: Mapping. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2001 Aug; 24(8 Pt 1):1261-77.
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  175. Delacretaz E, Ganz LI, Soejima K, Friedman PL, Walsh EP, Triedman JK, Sloss LJ, Landzberg MJ, Stevenson WG. Multi atrial maco-re-entry circuits in adults with repaired congenital heart disease: entrainment mapping combined with three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 May; 37(6):1665-76.
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  176. Soejima K, Delacretaz E, Suzuki M, Brunckhorst CB, Maisel WH, Friedman PL, Stevenson WG. Saline-cooled versus standard radiofrequency catheter ablation for infarct-related ventricular tachycardias. Circulation. 2001 Apr 10; 103(14):1858-62.
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  177. Soejima K, Stevenson WG, Maisel WH, Delacretaz E, Brunckhorst CB, Ellison KE, Friedman PL. The N + 1 difference: a new measure for entrainment mapping. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Apr; 37(5):1386-94.
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  178. Delacretaz E, Soejima K, Gottipaty VK, Brunckhorst CB, Friedman PL, Stevenson WG. Single catheter determination of local electrogram prematurity using simultaneous unipolar and bipolar recordings to replace the surface ECG as a timing reference. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2001 Apr; 24(4 Pt 1):441-9.
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  179. Stevenson WG, Maisel WH. Electrocardiography artifact: what you do not know, you do not recognize. Am J Med. 2001 Apr 1; 110(5):402-3.
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  180. Stevenson WG, Soejima K. Knowing where to look. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2001 Mar; 12(3):367-8.
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  181. Stevenson WG, Stevenson LW. Prevention of sudden death in heart failure. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2001 Jan; 12(1):112-4.
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  182. Stevenson WG, Delacretaz E. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia. Heart. 2000 Nov; 84(5):553-9.
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  183. Stevenson WG, Delacretaz E. Strategies for catheter ablation of scar-related ventricular tachycardia. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2000 Nov; 2(6):537-44.
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  184. Soejima K, Stevenson WG, Delacretaz E, Brunckhorst CB, Maisel WH, Friedman PL. Identification of left atrial origin of ectopic tachycardia during right atrial mapping: analysis of double potentials at the posteromedial right atrium. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2000 Sep; 11(9):975-80.
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  185. Weinfeld MS, Drazner MH, Stevenson WG, Stevenson LW. Early outcome of initiating amiodarone for atrial fibrillation in advanced heart failure. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2000 Jul; 19(7):638-43.
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  186. Maisel WH, Stevenson WG. Sudden death and the electrophysiological effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. J Card Fail. 2000 Jun; 6(2):80-2.
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  187. Ellison KE, Stevenson WG, Sweeney MO, Lefroy DC, Delacretaz E, Friedman PL. Catheter ablation for hemodynamically unstable monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2000 Jan; 11(1):41-4.
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  188. Delacretaz E, Stevenson WG, Ellison KE, Maisel WH, Friedman PL. Mapping and radiofrequency catheter ablation of the three types of sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic heart disease. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2000 Jan; 11(1):11-7.
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  189. Delacretaz E, Soejima K, Stevenson WG, Friedman PL. Short ventriculoatrial intervals during orthodromic atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia: what is the mechanism? J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2000 Jan; 11(1):121-4.
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  190. Soejima K, Delacretaz E, Stevenson WG, Friedman PL. DDD-pacing-induced cardiomyopathy following AV node ablation for persistent atrial tachycardia. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 1999 Dec; 3(4):321-3.
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  191. Stevenson WG, Stevenson LW. Atrial fibrillation in heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1999 Sep 16; 341(12):910-1.
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  192. Kocovic DZ, Harada T, Friedman PL, Stevenson WG. Characteristics of electrograms recorded at reentry circuit sites and bystanders during ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999 Aug; 34(2):381-8.
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  193. Delacretaz E, Stevenson WG, Winters GL, Mitchell RN, Stewart S, Lynch K, Friedman PL. Ablation of ventricular tachycardia with a saline-cooled radiofrequency catheter: anatomic and histologic characteristics of the lesions in humans. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1999 Jun; 10(6):860-5.
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  194. Delacretaz E, Stevenson WG, Winters GL, Friedman PL. Radiofrequency ablation of atrial flutter. Circulation. 1999 Apr 13; 99(14):E1-2.
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  195. Friedman PL, Stevenson WG. Proarrhythmia. Am J Cardiol. 1998 Oct 16; 82(8A):50N-58N.
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  196. Ellison KE, Friedman PL, Ganz LI, Stevenson WG. Entrainment mapping and radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in right ventricular dysplasia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998 Sep; 32(3):724-8.
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  197. Lefroy DC, Fang JC, Stevenson LW, Hartley LH, Friedman PL, Stevenson WG. Recipient-to-donor atrioatrial conduction after orthotopic heart transplantation: surface electrocardiographic features and estimated prevalence. Am J Cardiol. 1998 Aug 15; 82(4):444-50.
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  198. Stevenson WG, Friedman PL, Kocovic D, Sager PT, Saxon LA, Pavri B. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction. Circulation. 1998 Jul 28; 98(4):308-14.
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  199. Stevenson WG, Delacretaz E, Friedman PL, Ellison KE. Identification and ablation of macroreentrant ventricular tachycardia with the CARTO electroanatomical mapping system. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1998 Jul; 21(7):1448-56.
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  200. Lefroy DC, Ellison KE, Friedman PL, Stevenson WG. Arrhythmia of the month: shortening of ventriculoatrial conduction time during radiofrequency catheter ablation of a concealed accessory pathway. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1998 Apr; 9(4):445-7.
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  201. Ganz LI, Couper GS, Friedman PL, Stevenson WG, Ellison K. Use of telemetered permanent pacemaker intracardiac electrograms to diagnose ventricular tachycardia. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Dec 1; 80(11):1511-3.
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  202. stevenson WG, Friedman PL, Ganz LI. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia late after myocardial infarction. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1997 Nov; 8(11):1309-19.
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  203. Stevenson WG, Ellison KE, Lefroy DC, Friedman PL. Ablation therapy for cardiac arrhythmias. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Oct 23; 80(8A):56G-66G.
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  204. Ellison KE, Stevenson WG, Couper GS, Friedman PL. Ablation of ventricular tachycardia due to a postinfarct ventricular septal defect: identification and transection of a broad reentry loop. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1997 Oct; 8(10):1163-6.
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  205. Harada T, Stevenson WG, Kocovic DZ, Friedman PL. Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction: relation of endocardial sinus rhythm late potentials to the reentry circuit. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997 Oct; 30(4):1015-23.
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  206. Stevenson WG, Sweeney MO. Arrhythmias and sudden death in heart failure. Jpn Circ J. 1997 Sep; 61(9):727-40.
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  207. Maisel WH, Kuntz KM, Reimold SC, Lee TH, Antman EM, Friedman PL, Stevenson WG. Risk of initiating antiarrhythmic drug therapy for atrial fibrillation in patients admitted to a university hospital. Ann Intern Med. 1997 Aug 15; 127(4):281-4.
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  208. Stevenson WG, Sweeney MO. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment of ventricular arrhythmias in heart failure. Curr Opin Cardiol. 1997 May; 12(3):242-50.
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  209. Stevenson WG, Friedman PL, Sager PT, Saxon LA, Kocovic D, Harada T, Wiener I, Khan H. Exploring postinfarction reentrant ventricular tachycardia with entrainment mapping. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997 May; 29(6):1180-9.
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  210. Hadjis TA, Stevenson WG, Harada T, Friedman PL, Sager P, Saxon LA. Preferential locations for critical reentry circuit sites causing ventricular tachycardia after inferior wall myocardial infarction. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1997 Apr; 8(4):363-70.
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  211. Hadjis TA, Harada T, Stevenson WG, Friedman PL. Effect of recording site on postpacing interval measurement during catheter mapping and entrainment of postinfarction ventricular tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1997 Apr; 8(4):398-404.
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  212. Merliss AD, Seifert MJ, Collins RF, Higgins JP, Reimold SC, Lee RT, Friedman PL, Stevenson WG. Catheter ablation of idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia associated with a false tendon. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1996 Dec; 19(12 Pt 1):2144-6.
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  213. Stevenson WG, Stevenson LW, Middlekauff HR, Fonarow GC, Hamilton MA, Woo MA, Saxon LA, Natterson PD, Steimle A, Walden JA, Tillisch JH. Improving survival for patients with atrial fibrillation and advanced heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996 Nov 15; 28(6):1458-63.
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  214. Stevenson WG, Ridker PM. Should survivors of myocardial infarction with low ejection fraction be routinely referred to arrhythmia specialists? JAMA. 1996 Aug 14; 276(6):481-5.
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  215. Friedman PL, Stevenson WG, Kocovic DZ. Autonomic dysfunction after catheter ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1996 May; 7(5):450-9.
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  216. Ganz LI, Stevenson WG. Catheter mapping and ablation of ventricular tachycardia. Coron Artery Dis. 1996 Jan; 7(1):29-35.
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  217. Stevenson WG, Stevenson LW, Middlekauff HR, Fonarow GC, Hamilton MA, Woo MA, Saxon LA, Natterson PD, Steimle A, Walden JA, et al. Improving survival for patients with advanced heart failure: a study of 737 consecutive patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995 Nov 15; 26(6):1417-23.
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  218. Stevenson WG. Ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction: from arrhythmia surgery to catheter ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1995 Oct; 6(10 Pt 2):942-50.
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  219. Bartlett TG, Mitchell R, Friedman PL, Stevenson WG. Histologic evolution of radiofrequency lesions in an old human myocardial infarct causing ventricular tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1995 Aug; 6(8):625-9.
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  220. Stevenson WG, Sager PT, Natterson PD, Saxon LA, Middlekauff HR, Wiener I. Relation of pace mapping QRS configuration and conduction delay to ventricular tachycardia reentry circuits in human infarct scars. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995 Aug; 26(2):481-8.
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  221. Stevenson WG. Mechanisms and management of arrhythmias in heart failure. Curr Opin Cardiol. 1995 May; 10(3):274-81.
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  222. Stevenson WG, Sager PT, Friedman PL. Entrainment techniques for mapping atrial and ventricular tachycardias. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1995 Mar; 6(3):201-16.
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  223. Stevenson WG. Functional approach to site-by-site catheter mapping of ventricular reentry circuits in chronic infarctions. J Electrocardiol. 1994; 27 Suppl:130-8.
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Heart Vasculature – Regeneration and Protection of Coronary Artery Endothelium and Smooth Muscle: A Concept-based Pharmacological Therapy of a Combination Three Drug Regimen including THYMOSIN 

Author & Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

ABSTRACT

A concept-based original pharmacological therapy was developed for the research results presented in Cell by Wu, Fujiwara, Cibulsky et al. (2006), Moretti, Caron, Nakano, et al. (2006) and for the research results in Nature by Smart, Risebro, Melville, et al. (2007). We propose the following concept-based original pharmacological therapy design for Preoperative and Postoperative management of cardiac injury to heart tissue, smooth muscle, to aorta and coronary artery disease. This is a treatment for Coronary Vasculogenesis, Anti-hypertention (short-acting), Vascular Anti-inflammation (vasculitis), Neovascularization of ischemic tissue and release of adult epicardium from a quiescent state while restoring its pluripotency.

VIEW VIDEO

What are Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells? (iPS Cells)

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i-QSurQWZo0

Lasker Lecture: Dr. Shinya Yamanaka, 2 of 3:

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells? (iPS Cells)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DQNoyDwCPzM

Multipotent Embryonic Isl1^+ Progenitor Cells Lead to Cardiac, Smooth Muscle, and Endothelial Cell Diversification

Alessandra A MorettiLeslie L CaronAtsushi A NakanoJason T JT LamAlexandra A Bernshausen,Yinhong Y ChenYibing Y QyangLei L BuMika M SasakiSilvia S Martin-PuigYunfu Y SunSylvia M SM EvansKarl-Ludwig KL LaugwitzKenneth R KR Chien
Cell 127(6):15 (2006), PMID 17123592

Cardiogenesis requires the generation of endothelial, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells, thought to arise from distinct embryonic precursors. We use genetic fate-mapping studies to document that isl1^+ precursors from the second heart field can generate each of these diverse cardiovascular cell types in vivo. Utilizing embryonic stem (ES) cells, we clonally amplified a cellular hierarchy of isl1^+ cardiovascular progenitors, which resemble the developmental precursors in the embryonic heart. The transcriptional signature of isl1^+/Nkx2.5^+/flk1^+ defines a multipotent cardiovascular progenitor, which can give rise to cells of all three lineages. These studies document a developmental paradigm for cardiogenesis, where muscle and endothelial lineage diversification arises from a single cell-level decision of a multipotent isl1^+ cardiovascular progenitor cell (MICP). The discovery of ES cell-derived MICPs suggests a strategy for cardiovascular tissue regeneration via their isolation, renewal, and directed differentiation into specific mature cardiac, pacemaker, smooth muscle, and endothelial cell types.

http://pubget.com/paper/17123592/Multipotent_Embryonic_Isl1___Progenitor_Cells_Lead_to_Cardiac__Smooth_Muscle__and_Endothelial_Cell_Diversification

 

Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4)

is a highly conserved, 43-amino acid acidic peptide (pI 4.6) that was first isolated from bovine thymus tissue over 25 years ago. It is present in most tissues and cell lines and is found in high concentrations in blood platelets, neutrophils, macrophages, and other lymphoid tissues. Tβ4 has numerous physiological functions, the most prominent of which being the regulation of actin polymerization in mammalian nucleated cells and with subsequent effects on actin cytoskeletal organization, necessary for cell motility, organogenesis, and other important cellular events.

Recently,

  • Tβ4 was shown to be expressed in the developing heart and found to stimulate migration of cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, promote survival of cardiomyocytes (Nature, 2004), and most recently
  • to play an essential role in all key stages of cardiac vessel development: vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and arteriogenesis (Nature 2006).
  • These results suggest that Tβ4 may have significant therapeutic potential in humans to protect myocardium and promote cardiomyocyte survival in the acute stages of ischemic heart disease.

RegeneRx Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. is developing Tβ4 for the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Such efforts presented will include the formulation, development, and manufacture of a suitable drug product for use in the clinic, the performance of nonclinical pharmacology and toxicology studies, and the implementation of a phase 1 clinical protocol to assess the safety, tolerability, and the pharmacokinetics of Tβ4 in healthy volunteers.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1196/annals.1415.051/abstract;jsessionid=BB7CC897572B7DDB60370EA64A81FC3F.d01t03?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false

EXPLORATIONS with THYMOSIN beta4 for INDUCING ADULT EPICARDIAL PROGENETOR MOBILIZATION AND NEOVASCULARIZATION is presented in

Resident-cell-based Therapy in Human Ischaemic Heart Disease: Evolution in the PROMISE of Thymosin beta4 for Cardiac Repair

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/04/30/93/

EXPLORATIONS with THYMOSIN beta4 for INDUCTION of ARTERIOGENESIS, Prevention and repair of damaged cardiac tissue post MI and other CVD related research projects are presented in

Arteriogenesis and Cardiac Repair: Two Biomaterials – Injectable Thymosin beta4 and Myocardial Matrix Hydrogel

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/02/27/arteriogenesis-and-cardiac-repair-two-biomaterials-injectable-thymosin-beta4-and-myocardial-matrix-hydrogel/

Recent research results with THYMOSIN beta4 in use for Cardiovascular Disease

appeared in 2010:

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, May 2010 Volume 1194 Pages ix–xi, 1–230

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nyas.2010.1194.issue-1/issuetoc

appeared in 2012:

  • Thymosins in Health and Disease II: 3rd International Symposium on The Emerging Clinical Applications of Tymosin beta 4 in Cardiovascular Disease

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, October 2012 Volume 1270 Pages vii-ix, 1–121.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nyas.2012.1270.issue-1/issuetoc

Allan L. Goldstein, Enrico Garaci, Editors, Thymosins in Cardiovascular Disease, November 2012, Wiley-Blackwell (paperback)

http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1573319104.html?cid=RSS_WILEY2_LIFEMED

Selected for this article are the abstracts of the following research projects, all were presented at the 2nd International Symposium, May 2010:

Thymosin β4: structure, function, and biological properties supporting current and future clinical applications

Published studies have described a number of physiological properties and cellular functions of thymosin β4 (Tβ4), the major G-actin-sequestering molecule in mammalian cells. Those activities include the promotion of cell migration, blood vessel formation, cell survival, stem cell differentiation, the modulation of cytokines, chemokines, and specific proteases, the upregulation of matrix molecules and gene expression, and the downregulation of a major nuclear transcription factor. Such properties have provided the scientific rationale for a number of ongoing and planned dermal, corneal, cardiac clinical trials evaluating the tissue protective, regenerative and repair potential of Tβ4, and direction for future clinical applications in the treatment of diseases of the central nervous system, lung inflammatory disease, and sepsis. A special emphasis is placed on the development of Tβ4 in the treatment of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction in combination with percutaneous coronary intervention, pp.179-189, May 2010.

  

Thymosin β4 and cardiac repair

Hypoxic heart disease is a predominant cause of disability and death worldwide. As adult mammals are incapable of cardiac repair after infarction, the discovery of effective methods to achieve myocardial and vascular regeneration is crucial. Efforts to use stem cells to repopulate damaged tissue are currently limited by technical considerations and restricted cell potential. We discovered that the small, secreted peptide thymosin β4 (Tβ4) could be sufficiently used to inhibit myocardial cell death, stimulate vessel growth, and activate endogenous cardiac progenitors by reminding the adult heart on its embryonic program in vivo. The initiation of epicardial thickening accompanied by increase of myocardial and epicardial progenitors with or without infarction indicate that the reactivation process is independent of injury. Our results demonstrate Tβ4 to be the first known molecule able to initiate simultaneous myocardial and vascular regeneration after systemic administration in vivo. Given our findings, the utility of Tβ4 to heal cardiac injury may hold promise and warrant further investigation, pp. 87-96, May 2010.

 

Thymosin β4 facilitates epicardial neovascularization of the injured adult heart

Ischemic heart disease complicated by coronary artery occlusion causes myocardial infarction (MI), which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans

http://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/resources/atlas/en/index.html

After MI the human heart has an impaired capacity to regenerate and, despite the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease worldwide, there is currently only limited insight into how to stimulate repair of the injured adult heart from its component parts. Efficient cardiac regeneration requires the replacement of lost cardiomyocytes, formation of new coronary blood vessels, and appropriate modulation of inflammation to prevent maladaptive remodeling, fibrosis/scarring, and consequent cardiac dysfunction. Here we show that thymosin β4 (Tβ4) promotes new vasculature in both the intact and injured mammalian heart. We demonstrate that limited EPDC-derived endothelial-restricted neovascularization constitutes suboptimal “endogenous repair,” following injury, which is significantly augmented by Tβ4 to increase and stabilize the vascular plexus via collateral vessel growth. As such, we identify Tβ4 as a facilitator of cardiac neovascularization and highlight adult EPDCs as resident progenitors which, when instructed by Tβ4, have the capacity to sustain the myocardium after ischemic damage, pp. 97-104, May 2010.

 

Thymosin β4: a key factor for protective effects of eEPCs in acute and chronic ischemia

Acute myocardial infarction is still one of the leading causes of death in the industrial nations. Even after successful revascularization, myocardial ischemia results in a loss of cardiomyocytes and scar formation. Embryonic EPCs (eEPCs), retroinfused into the ischemic region of the pig heart, provided rapid paracrine benefit to acute and chronic ischemia in a PI-3K/Akt-dependent manner. In a model of acute myocardial ischemia, infarct size and loss of regional myocardial function decreased after eEPC application, unless cell pre-treatment with thymosin β4 shRNA was performed. Thymosin ß4 peptide retroinfusion mimicked the eEPC-derived improvement of infarct size and myocardial function. In chronic ischemia (rabbit model), eEPCs retroinfused into the ischemic hindlimb enhanced capillary density, collateral growth, and perfusion. Therapeutic neovascularization was absent when thymosin ß4 shRNA was introduced into eEPCs before application. In conclusion, eEPCs are capable of acute and chronic ischemia protection in a thymosin ß4 dependent manner, pp. 105-111, May 2010.

Clinical Study Data of Thymosin beta 4 Presented

Published on October 3, 2009 at 5:10 AM

REGENERX BIOPHARMACEUTICALS, INC. (NYSE Amex:RGN) today reported on several clinical studies with Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) presented the Second International Symposium on Thymosins in Health and Disease, in Catania, Italy. The following are synopses of the presentations:

Myocardial Development of RGN-352 (Injectable Tβ4 Peptide)

David Crockford, RegeneRx’s vice president for clinical and regulatory affairs presented an overview of the biological properties that support Tβ4’s near term and long term clinical applications. Mr. Crockford noted that special emphasis is being placed on the development of RGN-352 for the systemic (injectable) treatment of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in combination with percutaneous coronary intervention, the current standard of care in most western countries for this common type of heart attack. The goal with RGN-352 is to prevent or repair continued damage to cardiac tissue post-heart attack, when such tissue around the damaged site remains at risk.

Dr. Dennis Ruff, vice president and medical director of ICON, and principal investigator, presented the most current results on the Phase I safety study with RGN-352 entitled, “A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Dose-response Phase I Study of the Safety and Tolerability of the Intravenous Administration of Thymosin Beta 4 and its Pharmacokinetics After Single and Multiple Doses in Healthy Volunteers.” Dr. Ruff discussed key aspects of the study and concluded with, “There were no dose limiting or serious adverse events throughout the dosing period. Synthetic Tβ4 administered intravenously up to 1260 mg, and for up to 14 days, appears to be well tolerated with low incidence of adverse events and no evidence of serious adverse events.”

http://www.news-medical.net/news/20091003/Clinical-study-data-of-Thymosin-beta-4-presented.aspx

RegeneRx Receives Notice of Allowance from Chinese Patent Office for Treatment and Prevention of Heart Disease

RegeneRx Receives Notice of Allowance from Chinese Patent Office for Treatment and Prevention of Heart Disease

February 7, 2013 — Rockville, MD

RegeneRx Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: RGRX) (“the Company” or “RegeneRx”) today announced that it has received a Notice of Allowance of a Chinese patent application for uses of Thymosin beta 4 (TB4) for treating, preventing, inhibiting or reducing heart tissue deterioration, injury or damage in a subject with heart failure disease. Claims also include uses for restoring heart tissue in those subjects. The patent will expire July 26, 2026 http://www.regenerx.com/wt/page/pr_1360265259

Theoretical treatment protocol differential between the Preoperative which may be between 3 to 6 month, and the Postoperative which may prolong to one year.

Proposal for Preoperative Treatment – Three drug combination involves

  • Drug # 1: Thymosin fraction 5 (a sublingual composition)
  • Drug # 2: Indomethacin (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID))
  • Drug # 3: Clevidipine (blood pressure lowering drug, (no effect on heart rate))

 

Proposal for Postoperative Treatment – Three drug combination consists of

  • Drug # 1: Thymosin fraction 5 (a sublingual composition)
  • Drug # 4: ACEI (Captopril (50mg))
  • Drug # 5: Beta Blocker and Diuretic (Metoprolol and hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg/25 mg)) Lopressor HCT

Unprecedented novel paradigm development in the scientific understanding of the origin of

  • (a) myocardial cells
  • (b) smooth muscle cells
  • (c) endothelial cells
  • (d) pace maker cells and
  • (e) heart vasculature: aorta, pulmonary artery and coronary arteries, occurred in 2006.

In a seminal article in Cell, “Developmental Origin of a Bipotential Myocardial and Smooth Muscle Cell Precursor in the Mammalian Heart” Wu, et al., (2006), described their discovery as follows:

“Despite recent advances in delineating the mechanisms involved in cardiogenesis, cellular lineage specification remains incompletely understood.” To explore the relationship between developmental fate and potential.” They “isolated a cardiac-specific Nkx2.5+ cell population from the developing mouse embryo. The majority of these cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes and conduction system cells. Some, surprisingly, adopted a smooth muscle fate. To address the clonal origin of these lineages, we isolated Nkx2.5+ cells from in vitro differentiated murine embryonic stem cells and found ~28% of these cells expressed c-kit. These c-kit+ cells possessed the capacity for long-term in vitro expansion and differentiation into both cardiomyocytes and smooth muscle cells from a single cell.” They “confirmed these findings by isolating c-kit+Nkx2.5+ cells from mouse embryos and demonstrated their capacity for bipotential differentiation in vivo. Taken together, these results support the existence of a common precursor for cardiovascular lineages in the mammalian heart.”

Another breakthrough article in Cell, “Multipotent Embryonic Isl1+ Progenitor Cells Lead to Cardiac, Smooth Muscle, and Endothelial Cell Diversification” Moretti, et al., (2006) described their discovery as follows:

“Cardiogenesis requires the generation of endothelial, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells, thought to arise from distinct embryonic precursors.” They “use genetic fate-mapping studies to document that isl1+ precursors from the second heart field can generate each of these diverse cardiovascular cell types in vivo. Utilizing embryonic stem (ES) cells”, they “clonally amplified a cellular hierarchy of isl1+ cardiovascular progenitors, which resemble the developmental precursors in the embryonic heart. The transcriptional signature of isl1+/Nkx2.5+/flk1+ defines a multipotent cardiovascular progenitor, which can give rise to cells of all three lineages. These studies document a developmental paradigm for cardiogenesis, where muscle and endothelial lineage diversification arises from a single cell-level decision of a multipotent isl1+ cardiovascular progenitor cell (MICP). The discovery of ES cell-derived MICPs suggests a strategy for cardiovascular tissue regeneration via their isolation, renewal, and directed differentiation into specific mature cardiac, pacemaker, smooth muscle, and endothelial cell types.” (Moretti, et al., 2006).

Third scientific breakthrough was reported in Nature on the roles that Thymosin beta4 play in

  • (a) coronary vessel development
  • (b) induction of adult epicardial cell migration
  • (c) cardiomyocyte survival by vascularization which is dependent on Thymosin beta4 and
  • (d) identification of the pro-angiogenic tetrapeptide AcSDKP which is produced by endoproteinase activity of Thymosin beta4 (Smart, et al., 2007).

That new level of understanding has the potential to generate new pharmaco therapies to upregulate biological processes that underlie the function of the various compartments of the cardiovascular system, as new scientific explanations became available in 2006.

We have developed a methodology for discovery of concept-based original pharmacological therapy designs for combination of several drug regimens. We carry out two types of research strategy. Methodology Strategy Type One: we develop an original pharmacological therapy design specialized in addressing medical problems identified in targeted follow up studies on mortality and morbidity of cardiovascular patients. Methodology Strategy Type One is implemented in Lev-Ari & Abourjaily (2006a, 2006b, 2006c). We designed a specialized pharmaco therapy for the research results presented in NEJM, on “Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Cardiovascular Outcomes” (Werner, Kosiol, Schiegl, et al., 2005a) and the editorial interpretation of these research results by Rosenzweig  (2005). We proposed the following concept-based original pharmacological therapy design for Endogenous Augmentation of circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Reduction of Risk for Macrovascular Cardiac Events.

 

Proposal of Treatment – Three drug combination

  • Inhibition of ET-1, ETA and ETA-ETB (Bosentan)
  • Induction of NO production and stimulation of eNOS (Nebivolol)
  • Stimulation of PPAR-gamma (substitute to Rosiglitazone)

Our Methodology Strategy Type Two involves discovery of concept-based original pharmacological therapy design for combination of several drug regimens for underlying biological processes discovered in the pursuit of basic researchers conducted in wet lab experiments by vascular biologists and molecular cardiologists. Here, we developed a concept-based original pharmacological therapy for the research results presented in Cell by Wu, Fujiwara, Cibulsky et al. (2006), Moretti, Caron, Nakano, et al. (2006) and for the research results in Nature by Smart, Risebro, Melville, et al. (2007). We propose the following concept-based original pharmacological therapy design for Preoperative and Postoperative management of cardiac injury to heart tissue, smooth muscle and to aorta and coronary artery disease. This is a treatment for Coronary Vasculogenesis, Anti-hypertention (short-acting), Vascular Anti-inflammation (vasculitis), Neovascularization of ischemic tissue and release of adult epicardium from a quiescent state and restoring its pluripotency.

 

Proposal for Preoperative Treatment – Three drug combination

  • Drug # 1:

Thymosin fraction 5 (a sublingual composition)

  • Drug # 2:

Indomethacin (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID))

  • Drug # 3:

Clevidipine (blood pressure lowering drug, no effect on heart rate)

Proposal for Postoperative Treatment – Three drugs combination

  • Drug # 1:

Thymosin fraction 5 (a sublingual composition)

  • Drug # 4:

ACEI (Captopril (50mg))

  • Drug # 5:

HCTBeta Blocker and Diuretic (Metoprolol and hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg/25 mg)) Lopressor

 

Thymosin beta4 Induces Adult Epicardial Progenitor Mobilization and Neovascularization

 

Smart et al. (2007) implicate Thymosine beta4 (Tb4) with the following functions: (a) Tb4 in regulating all three key stages of cardiac vessel development: coronary vasculogenesis, angiogenesis and arteriogenesis – collateral growth; (b) identify the adult epicardium as a potential source of vascular progenitors which, when stimulated by Tb4, migrate and differentiate into smooth muscle and endothelial cells; (c) the ability of Tb4 to promote coronary vascularization both during development and in the adult, enhances cardiomyocyte survival and contributes significantly towards Tb4-induced cardioprotection.

The reaction in the scientific community to these investigative results was most favorable.

“These results are very exciting because most humans suffering from ischemic cardiac events, either acutely or chronically, do not develop the collateral vessel growth necessary to preserve and restore heart tissue. If, in humans, we see the same effects as seen in mice, TB4 would be the first drug to prevent loss of (heart) muscle cells and restore blood flow in this manner and provide a new and much needed treatment modality for these patients,”

commented Deepak Srivastava, M.D., Professor and Director, Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, University of California San Francisco, CA. Dr. Srivastava and his colleagues published the first paper on TB4’s effects on myocardial infarction in Nature in November 2004.

http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=144396&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=932573&highlight=

VIEW VIDEO

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vjj7LSuSMAo

 

Review of the Chemistry and the Mechanism of action supporting the process by which, N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl- proline (Ac-SDKP) stimulates endothelial cell differentiation from adult epicardium, is presented in

Resident-cell-based Therapy in Human Ischaemic Heart Disease: Evolution in the PROMISE of Thymosin beta4 for Cardiac Repair

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/04/30/93/

A Concept-based Pharmacologic Therapy of a Combined Three Drug Regimen for Regeneration and Protection of Coronary Artery Endothelium and Smooth Muscle.

This is a treatment for Coronary Vasculogenesis, Anti-hypertention (short-acting), Vascular Anti-inflammation (vasculitis), Neovascularization of ischemic tissue and release of adult epicardium from a quiescent state and restoring its pluripotency.

 

Preoperative Treatment – Three drugs

  • Drug # 1:
  • Thymosin fraction 5 (a sublingual composition)
  • Drug # 2:
  • Indomethacin (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)) (25 mg PO bid)
  • Drug # 3:
  • Clevidipine (Blood pressure lowering drug, no effect on heart rate)

 

Postoperative Treatment – Three drugs

  • Drug # 1:
  • Thymosin fraction 5 (a sublingual composition)
  • Drug # 4:
  • ACEI (Captopril (50mg))
  • Drug # 5:
  • Beta Blocker and diuretic (Metoprolol and hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg/25 mg)) Lopressor HCT

Original Drug Therapy Combination Proposed

Drug # 1: Thymosin fraction 5

Drug # 2: Indomethacin

Drug # 3: Clevidipine

Drug # 1:

Sublingual compositions comprising Thymosin fraction 5

United States Patent:  6,733,791

http://www.pharmcast.com/Patents100/Yr2004/May2004/051104/6733791_Sublingual051104.htm

http://www.google.com/patents/US6733791

The compositions comprise a room temperature stable peptide or complex of peptides that may be administered in a dosage of between 0.0001 mg/ml or gm and 600 mg/ml or gm.

Thymosin beta4 is released from human blood platelets and attached by factor XIIIa (transglutaminase) to fibrin and collagen (Huff et al. 2002). They suggest that Thymosin beta4 cross-linking is mediated by factor XIIIa, a transglutaminase that is co-released from stimulated platelets. This provides a mechanism to increase the local concentration of Thymosin beta4 near sites of clots and tissue damage, where it may contribute to wound healing, angiogenesis and inflammatory responses (Al-Nedawi, et al., 2004). The beta-Thymosins constitute a family of highly conserved and extremely water-soluble 5 kDa polypeptides. Thymosin beta4 is the most abundant member; it is expressed in most cell types and is regarded as the main intracellular G-actin sequestering peptide. There is increasing evidence for extracellular functions of Thymosin beta4. For example, Thymosin beta4 increases the rate of attachment and spreading of endothelial cells on matrix components and stimulates the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. They show that Thymosin beta4 can be cross-linked to proteins such as fibrin and collagen by tissue transglutaminase. Thymosin beta4 is not cross-linked to many other proteins and its cross-linking to fibrin is competed by another family member, Thymosin beta10 (Huff et al. 2002).

Rationale for selection of Sublingual compositions comprising Thymosin fraction 5

The actin binding motif of Thymosin beta4 is an essential site for its angiogenic activity (Philip, et al. (2003). Thymosin beta4 is presented in Smart, et al. (2007) in the Nature article as a single factor that can potentially couple myocardial and coronary vascular regeneration in failing mouse hearts. They have shown that cells in the heart’s outer layer can migrate deeper into a failing organ to carry out essential repairs. The migration of progenitor cells is controlled by the protein Thymosin beta 4, already known to help reduce muscle cell loss after a heart attack.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/6143286.stm

The discovery opens up the possibility of using the protein to develop more effective treatments for heart disease. Previously it was thought that cells within the adult heart are in a state of permanent rest and that any progenitor cells that can contribute to heart tissue repair travel into the heart from the bone marrow. See 150 references on that perspective on cEPCs origin and roles, which was the scientific frontier on this topic, prior to the publication of Smart et al., (2007), in Lev-Ari & Abourjaily (2006a, 2006b, 2006c).

However, researchers at University College London have demonstrated that beneficial cells actually reside in the heart itself (Smart et al. (2007). This approach would bypass the risk of immune system rejection, a major problem with the use of stem cell transplants from another source. Allogenic rejection was the main reason for the selection of an endogenous augmentation method for cEPCs using drug therapy by Lev-Ari & Abourjaily  (2006a, 2006b, 2006c). Closer examination revealed that without the Thymosin beta 4 protein, the progenitor cells failed to move deeper into the heart and change the cells needed to build healthy blood vessels and sustain muscle tissue.

http://www.irishhealth.com/clin/cholesterol/newsstory.php?id=10581

Drug # 2:

Indomethacin

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for their anti-inflammatory effects and have been shown to have chemopreventive effects as well. NSAIDs inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) activity to exert their anti-inflammatory effects, but it is not clear whether their antitumorigenic ability is through COX inhibition. Using subtractive hybridization, Jain et al. (2004) identified a novel member of the transforming growth factor- superfamily that has antitumorigenic activity from Indomethacin-treated HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells. On further investigation of this library, they now report the identification of a new cDNA corresponding to the Thymosin beta-4 gene. Thymosin beta-4 is a small peptide that is known for its actin-sequestering function, and it is associated with the induction of angiogenesis, accelerated wound healing, and metastatic potential of tumor cells. However, only selective NSAIDs induce Thymosin beta-4 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. For example,

Indomethacin and SC-560 [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole] induce Thymosin beta-4 expression whereas sulindac sulfide does not.

They show that selective NSAIDs induce actin cytoskeletal reorganization, a precursory step to many dynamic processes regulating growth and motility including tumorigenesis. This is the first report to link Thymosin beta-4 induction with NSAIDs. These data suggest that NSAIDs alter the expression of a diverse number of genes and provide new insights into the chemopreventive and biological activity of these drugs (Jain et al. 2004).

Rationale for Indomethacin selection

 

Inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis. Inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 selective.

Suggested dosage: 25 mg PO bid.

Jain et al. (2004) report a link between Thymosin beta-4 induction with NSAIDs. We selected both drugs (drug classes) and anticipate strong synergistic therapeutic effects.

Drug # 3:

Clevidipine

Clevidipine is the first third-generation calcium channel blocker, Dr. Papadakos said. It has what he called an “ultrashort” clinically relevant half-life of about one minute and then is rapidly metabolized. The effect on blood pressure is seen within one to two minutes.

http://www.medpagetoday.com/MeetingCoverage/SCCM/tb/5091

Clevidipine is an investigational agent undergoing late-stage clinical development to evaluate its potential as an innovative, targeted, fast acting intravenous product under investigation for lowering blood pressure before, during and after surgery.

http://www.themedicinescompany.com/products_Clevidipine.shtml

The Medicines Company entered into agreements with AstraZeneca PLC in March of 2002 for the development, licensing and commercialization of Clevidipine. If approved, the product could be an excellent fit with The Medicines Company’s emerging acute cardiovascular care franchise, which is led by Angiomax® (bivalirudin), an anticoagulant approved in the U.S. and other countries for use during coronary angioplasty procedures. If Clevidipine passes further clinical hurdles — phase III trials are under way — the drug may form a useful addition to the medications available to physicians in the perioperative setting

Mechanism of Action

Clevidipine belongs to a well-known class of drugs called dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists. In vitro studies demonstrated that Clevidipine acts by selectively relaxing the smooth muscle cells that line small arteries, resulting in widening of the artery opening and reducing blood pressure within the artery (Levy, Huraux, Nordlander, 1997, 345-358).

Phase III Clinical Trials

The Medicines Company is currently sponsoring a Phase III clinical program of five studies to evaluate safety and efficacy of Clevidipine:

Early Development

The Medicines Company’s development program for Clevidipine follows upon the data sets generated by AstraZeneca, which completed clinical pharmacology, dose-finding and efficacy studies in almost 300 patients or volunteers. In clinical studies, Clevidipine has shown to provide the desired blood pressure lowering effect without causing an increase in heart rate (Kotrly, et al. 1984). Further studies demonstrate that reductions in blood pressure are dose-dependent, are not associated with an increase in heart rate and cease rapidly after stopping Clevidipine infusions (Ericsson, et al., 2000), (Schwieler, et al., 1999). In clinical studies Clevidipine was rapidly metabolized independent of the liver and the kidneys, allowing rapid clearance of the drug from the bloodstream (Ericsson, et al., 1999a), (Ericsson, et al., 1999b). Therefore, the effects of Clevidipine are short-lived, which translates into a rapid cessation of its effect on reducing blood pressure.

The two efficacy studies are known as ESCAPE-1 and ESCAPE-2. The primary objective of these studies is to determine the efficacy of Clevidipine injection versus placebo in treating pre-operative (ESCAPE-1) and post-operative (ESCAPE-2) high blood pressure. Three safety studies are collectively known as ECLIPSE. The primary objective is to establish the safety of Clevidipine in the treatment of perioperative high blood pressure, as measured by a comparison of the incidences of death, stroke, myocardial infarction and renal dysfunction between the Clevidipine and comparative treatment groups. The comparative treatments are nitroglycerin, sodium nitroprusside and nicardipine.  The ECLIPSE trial randomized 589 patients at 40 centers in the U.S. to get either sodium nitroprusside or Clevidipine. Sodium nitroprusside was administered according to institutional practice; Clevidipine was begun at 2 mg/kg and doubled every 90 seconds until blood pressure was lowered. The primary endpoint was the difference in major clinical events — death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and renal dysfunction 30 days after surgery. The secondary endpoint was blood pressure control during the first 24 hours after surgery.

The study showed no significant differences in the elements of the primary endpoint, except for mortality, Dr. Papadakos said, where 1.7% of Clevidipine patients died, compared with 4.7 of those getting sodium nitroprusside.  The difference was statistically significant at P<0.05, but Dr. Papadakos characterized the improvement as “slight.” On the other hand, the drug did show an important difference in blood pressure control over the first 24 hours, he said:

  • Patients on Clevidipine spent an average of 4.37 minutes per hour outside the desired blood pressure range.
  • Sodium nitroprusside patients spent, on average, 10.5 minutes per hour outside the desired range.
  • The difference was statistically significant at P<0.003.

Dr. Papadakos concluded that Clevidipine is a new drug that is effective, safe, and easy to use. On 2/20/2007, Dr. Deutschman, who moderated the late-breaking session at which Dr. Papadakos spoke, said that a better comparison, would be intravenous nicardipine (Cardene IV), a second-generation calcium channel blocker that is also in wide use and is considered the standard of care. “We don’t know yet if this drug is going to be better than nicardipine,” he said.

http://www.medpagetoday.com/MeetingCoverage/SCCM/tb/5091

Rationale for Clevidipine selection

Clevidipine is an acute care product. Blood pressure management is a major component of care during the 13.4 million inpatient surgeries conducted in the U.S. each year. Blood pressure control, which is managed by an anesthesiologist, is often important in patients with both normal and high blood pressure undergoing surgery or other interventional procedures. Some of these patients require rapid, precise control of blood pressure to avoid compromising key organ function such as the heart, brain and kidney.

CONCLUSION 

This is the first study to design a novel combination drug treatment for Coronary Vasculogenesis, Anti-hypertention (short-acting), Vascular Anti-inflammation (vasculitis), Neovascularization of ischemic tissue and release of adult epicardium from a quiescent state and restoring its pluripotency. This treatment is based on the new three paradigms that were presented in Cell (2006) and Nature (2007). This combination drug therapy of three drugs, one in current use (Indomethacin), and two in clinical trials (Thymosin beta4 & Clevidipine), has not been proposed before. It represents an original concept drug combination design by Lev-Ari & Abourjaily (2007). This combination represents the cutting edge conceptualization of the field of treatment of cardiac injury based on a protein produced in the heart cells, Thymosin beta4, which function as a tissue and artery healer. Its upregulation by drug therapy will revolutionize cardiology and treatment for cardiovascular disease. The combination drug therapy consists of the following drugs:

  • Drug # 1:

Thymosin fraction 5 (a sublingual composition)

  • Drug # 2:

Indomethacin (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)) (25 mg PO bid)

  • Drug # 3:

Clevidipine (Blood pressure lowering drug, (no effect on heart rate))

 

REFERENCES

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Ericsson, H., Fakt. C., Hoglund. L., et al. (1999a). “Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Clevidipine in healthy volunteers after intravenous infusion.” Eur J Clin Pharm., 55 (1), 61-67.

Ericsson, H., Fakt, C., Jolin-Mellgard A., et al. (1999b). “Clinical and pharmacokinetic results with a new ultrashort-acting calcium antagonist, Clevidipine, following gradually increasing intravenous doses to healthy volunteers.” Br J Clin Pharm., 47 (5), 531-538.

Ericsson, H., Bredberg, U., Eriksson, U., et al. (2000). “Pharmacokinetics and arteriovenous differences in Clevidipine concentration following a short and a long-term intravenous infusion in healthy volunteers.” Anesthesiology, 92 (4), 993-1001.

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Heart can carry out own repairs, 16.11.2006

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http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/6143286.stm

Heart may be able to repair itself

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http://www.irishhealth.com/clin/cholesterol/newsstory.php?id=10581

Huff, T., Otto, A., Muller, C.S.G., Meier, M., Hannappel, E. (2002). “Thymosin ß4 is released from human blood platelets and attached by factor XIIIa (transglutaminase) to fibrin and collagen.”The FASEB Journal, 16, 691-696.

Jain, A.K., Moore, S.M., Yamaguchi, K., Eling, T.E., Baek, S.J. (2004, August). “Selective Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Induce Thymosin beta-4 and Alter Actin Cytoskeletal Organization in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 311 (3) 885-891.

Kotrly, K. J., Ebert, T. J., Vucins, E. et al. (1984). “Baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate during isoflurane anesthesia in humans.” Anesthesiology,  60, 173-179.

Lev-Ari, A. & Abourjaily, P. (2006a) “An Investigation of the Potential of circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells (cEPC) as a Therapeutic Target for Pharmacologic Therapy Design for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction.” Part I: Macrovascular Disease – Therapeutic Potential of cEPCs – Reduction methods for CV risk. Unpublished manuscript.

Lev-Ari, A. & Abourjaily, P. (2006b) “An Investigation of the Potential of circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells (cEPC) as a Therapeutic Target for Pharmacologic Therapy Design for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction.” Part II: Therapeutic Strategy for cEPCs Endogenous Augmentation: A Concept-based Treatment Protocol for a Combined Three Drug Regimen. Unpublished manuscript.

Lev-Ari, A. & Abourjaily, P. (2006c) “An Investigation of the Potential of circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells (cEPC) as a Therapeutic Target for Pharmacological Therapy Design for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction.” Part III: Biomarker for Therapeutic Targets of Cardiovascular Risk Reduction by cEPCs Endogenous Augmentation using New Combination Drug Therapy of Three Drug Classes and Several Drug Indications. A Theoretical Design for Quantification of the Endogenous EPCs Augmentation for Differential Level of CV Risk Reduction and Diagnostic Device Design for Drug Delivery. Unpublished manuscript.

Lev-Ari, A. & Abourjaily, P. (2007). Heart Vasculature – Regeneration and Protection of Coronary Artery Endothelium and Smooth Muscle: A Concept-based Pharmacological Therapy of a Combined Three Drug Regimen. Unpublished manuscript.

Levy, J. H., Huraux, C., Nordlander, M. (1997). “Treatment of perioperative hypertension.” In: Epstein M, Ed. Chapter in Calcium Antagonists in Clinical Medicine. Philadelphiea: Hanely & Belfus, pp. 345-358.

Liu, J-M, Lawrence, F., Kovacevic, M., Bignon, J., Papadimitriou, E., Lallemand, J-Y., Katsoris, P., Potier, P., Fromes, Y., Wdzieczak-Bakala, J. (2003, April) “The tetrapeptide AcSDKP, an inhibitor of primitive hematopoietic cell proliferation, induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.” Blood, 101 (8), 3014-3020

Moretti, A., Caron, L., Nakano, A., Lam, J.T., Bernshausen, A., Chen, Y., Qyang, Y., Bu, L., Sasaki, M., Martin-Puig, S., Sun, Y., Evans, S.M., Laugwitz, K-L, Chien, K.R. (2006, December) “Multipotent Embryonic Isl1+ Progenitor Cells Lead to Cardiac, Smooth Muscle, and Endothelial Cell Diversification.” Cell, 127, 1151-1165.

Protein Discovered That Can Tell Human Heart to Heal Itself

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http://www.cathlabdigest.com/displaynews.cfm?newsid=1122065

Philp D, Huff T, Gho YS, Hannappel E, Kleinman HK. (2003). “The actin binding site on Thymosin beta4 promotes angiogenesis.” FASEB Journal, published on line 9/18/2003.

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Putting the art in heart research, 15 February 2007

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http://www.ich.ucl.ac.uk/pressoffice/pressrelease_00498

Rosenzweig A., (2005). Circulating Endothelial Progenitors – Cells as Biomarkers. NEJM, 353 (10), 1055-1057.

Schwieler, J.H., Ericsson, H., Lofdahl, P., et al. (1999). “Circulatory effects and pharmacology of Clevidipine, a novel ultra short acting and vascular selective calcium antagonist, in hypertensive humans.” J Cardiovasc Pharmacology, 34 (2), 268-274.

Smart, N., Risebro, C.A., Melville, A.D., Moses, K., Schwartz, R.J., Chien, K.R., Riley, P.R. (2007, January) “Thymosin Beta4 induces adult epicardial progenitor mobilization and neovascularization.” Nature, 445, 177-182.

 

Sublingual compositions comprising Thymosin fraction 5 and methods for administration

Retrieved 3/1/2007

http://www.pharmcast.com/Patents100/Yr2004/May2004/051104/6733791_Sublingual051104.htm

 

TMSB4X  Thymosin, beta 4, X-linked

Retrieved on 3/1/2007

http://www.ihop-net.org/UniPub/iHOP/gs/92756.html

Waeckel, L., Jérôme Bignon, J., Jian-Miao Liu, J-M., Markovits, D., Ebrahimian, T.G., Vilar, J., Mees, B., Blanc-Brude, O., Barateau, V., Sophie Le ricousse-Roussanne. S., Duriez, M. Tobelem, G.,  Wdzieczak-Bakala, J., Bernard I Lévy, B.I., Silvestre, J-S. (2006) “Tetrapeptide AcSDKP Induces Postischemic Neovascularization Through Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Signaling.” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 26, 773

Wang, D., Oscar A. Carretero, O.A.,Yang, X-Y., Rhaleb, N-E., Liu, Y-H., Liao, T-D., Yang, X-P. (2004). “N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline stimulates angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.” Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol., 287, H2099-H2105.

Werner N, Junk S, Laufs L, Link A, Walenta K, Bohm M, Nickenig G., (2003).  Intravenous transfusion of endothelial progenitor cells reduces neointima formation after vascular injury. Circ Res., 93, e17– e24.

Werner N, Kosiol S, Schiegl T, Ahlers P, Walenta K, Link A, Böhm M, Nickenig G. (2005a). Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Cardiovascular Outcomes, NEJM, 353, 999-1007

Werner, N. & Nickenig, G. (2005b). Authors Reply to Correspondence to the Editor on Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells. NEJM, 353 (24), 2613-2616

Wu, S.M., Fujiwara, Y., Cibulsky, S.M., Clapham, D.E., Lien, C., Schultheiss, T.M., Orkin, S.H. (2006, December). “Developmental Origin of a Bipotential Myocardial and Smooth Muscle Cell Precursor in the Mammalian Heart.” Cell, 127, 1137-1150.

Other related articles on this Open Access Online Scientific Journal, include the following:

Saha, S. (2012b) Innovations in Bio instrumentation for Measurement of Circulating Progenetor Endothelial Cells in Human Blood.
https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/08/innovations-in-bio-instrumentation-for-measurement-of-circulating-progenitor-endothelial-cells-in-human-blood/

 

Saha, S. (2012c) Endothelial Differentiation and Morphogenesis of Cardiac Precursor
https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/17/endothelial-differentiation-and-morphogenesis-of-cardiac-precursors/

Saha, S. (2012e). Human Embryonic-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells for Myocardial Repair

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/01/human-embryonic-derived-cardiac-progenitor-cells-for-myocardial-repair/

Lev-Ari, A. 12/29/2012. Coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients referred for coronary angiography: Predicted by Serum Protein Profiles

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/12/29/coronary-artery-disease-in-symptomatic-patients-referred-for-coronary-angiography-predicted-by-serum-protein-profiles/

 

Bernstein, HL and Lev-Ari, A. 11/28/2012. Special Considerations in Blood Lipoproteins, Viscosity, Assessment and Treatment

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/28/special-considerations-in-blood-lipoproteins-viscosity-assessment-and-treatment/

 

Lev-Ari, A. 11/13/2012 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-gamma) Receptors Activation: PPARγ transrepression for Angiogenesis in Cardiovascular Disease and PPARγ transactivation for Treatment of Diabetes

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/13/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-ppar-gamma-receptors-activation-pparγ-transrepression-for-angiogenesis-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-pparγ-transactivation-for-treatment-of-dia/

 

Lev-Ari, A. 10/19/2012 Clinical Trials Results for Endothelin System: Pathophysiological role in Chronic Heart Failure, Acute Coronary Syndromes and MI – Marker of Disease Severity or Genetic Determination?

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/19/clinical-trials-results-for-endothelin-system-pathophysiological-role-in-chronic-heart-failure-acute-coronary-syndromes-and-mi-marker-of-disease-severity-or-genetic-determination/

 

Lev-Ari, A. 10/4/2012 Endothelin Receptors in Cardiovascular Diseases: The Role of eNOS Stimulation

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/04/endothelin-receptors-in-cardiovascular-diseases-the-role-of-enos-stimulation/

 

Lev-Ari, A. 10/4/2012 Inhibition of ET-1, ETA and ETA-ETB, Induction of NO production, stimulation of eNOS and Treatment Regime with PPAR-gamma agonists (TZD): cEPCs Endogenous Augmentation for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction – A Bibliography

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/10/04/inhibition-of-et-1-eta-and-eta-etb-induction-of-no-production-and-stimulation-of-enos-and-treatment-regime-with-ppar-gamma-agonists-tzd-cepcs-endogenous-augmentation-for-cardiovascular-risk-reduc/

 

Lev-Ari, A. 8/28/2012 Cardiovascular Outcomes: Function of circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells (cEPCs): Exploring Pharmaco-therapy targeted at Endogenous Augmentation of cEPCs

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/28/cardiovascular-outcomes-function-of-circulating-endothelial-progenitor-cells-cepcs-exploring-pharmaco-therapy-targeted-at-endogenous-augmentation-of-cepcs/

 

Lev-Ari, A. 8/27/2012 Endothelial Dysfunction, Diminished Availability of cEPCs, Increasing CVD Risk for Macrovascular Disease – Therapeutic Potential of cEPCs

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/27/endothelial-dysfunction-diminished-availability-of-cepcs-increasing-cvd-risk-for-macrovascular-disease-therapeutic-potential-of-cepcs/

 

Lev-Ari, A. 8/24/2012 Vascular Medicine and Biology: CLASSIFICATION OF FAST ACTING THERAPY FOR PATIENTS AT HIGH RISK FOR MACROVASCULAR EVENTS Macrovascular Disease – Therapeutic Potential of cEPCs

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/24/vascular-medicine-and-biology-classification-of-fast-acting-therapy-for-patients-at-high-risk-for-macrovascular-events-macrovascular-disease-therapeutic-potential-of-cepcs/

 

Lev-Ari, A. 7/30/2012 Biosimilars: Intellectual Property Creation and Protection by Pioneer and by Biosimilar Manufacturers

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/30/biosimilars-intellectual-property-creation-and-protection-by-pioneer-and-by-biosimilar-manufacturers/

 

Lev-Ari, A. 7/29/2012 Biosimilars: Financials 2012 vs. 2008

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/30/biosimilars-financials-2012-vs-2008/

 

Lev-Ari, A. 7/29/2012 Biosimilars: CMC Issues and Regulatory Requirements

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/29/biosimilars-cmc-issues-and-regulatory-requirements/

 

Lev-Ari, A. 7/19/2012 Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and the Role of agent alternatives in endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) Activation and Nitric Oxide Production

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/19/cardiovascular-disease-cvd-and-the-role-of-agent-alternatives-in-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-enos-activation-and-nitric-oxide-production/

 

Lev-Ari, A. 4/30/2012 Resident-cell-based Therapy in Human Ischaemic Heart Disease: Evolution in the PROMISE of Thymosin beta4 for Cardiac Repair

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/04/30/93/

Lev-Ari, A. 5/29/2012 Triple Antihypertensive Combination Therapy Significantly Lowers Blood Pressure in Hard-to-Treat Patients with Hypertension and Diabetes

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/05/29/445/

 

Lev-Ari, A. 7/2/2012 Macrovascular Disease – Therapeutic Potential of cEPCs: Reduction Methods for CV Risk

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/02/macrovascular-disease-therapeutic-potential-of-cepcs-reduction-methods-for-cv-risk/

 

Lev-Ari, A. 7/9/2012 Mitochondria Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Disease – Mitochondria: More than just the “powerhouse of the cell”

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/09/mitochondria-more-than-just-the-powerhouse-of-the-cell/

 

Lev-Ari, A. 7/16/2012 Bystolic’s generic Nebivolol – positive effect on circulating Endothelial Proginetor Cells endogenous augmentation

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/07/16/bystolics-generic-nebivolol-positive-effect-on-circulating-endothilial-progrnetor-cells-endogenous-augmentation/

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Arteriogenesis and Cardiac Repair: Two Biomaterials – Injectable Thymosin beta4 and Myocardial Matrix Hydrogel

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4)

is a highly conserved, 43-amino acid acidic peptide (pI 4.6) that was first isolated from bovine thymus tissue over 25 years ago. It is present in most tissues and cell lines and is found in high concentrations in blood platelets, neutrophils, macrophages, and other lymphoid tissues. Tβ4 has numerous physiological functions, the most prominent of which being the regulation of actin polymerization in mammalian nucleated cells and with subsequent effects on actin cytoskeletal organization, necessary for cell motility, organogenesis, and other important cellular events.

Recently,

  • Tβ4 was shown to be expressed in the developing heart and found to stimulate migration of cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, promote survival of cardiomyocytes (Nature, 2004), and most recently
  • to play an essential role in all key stages of cardiac vessel development: vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and arteriogenesis (Nature 2006).

These results suggest that Tβ4 may have significant therapeutic potential in humans to protect myocardium and promote cardiomyocyte survival in the acute stages of ischemic heart disease.

RegeneRx Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. is developing Tβ4 for the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Such efforts presented will include the formulation, development, and manufacture of a suitable drug product for use in the clinic, the performance of nonclinical pharmacology and toxicology studies, and the implementation of a phase 1 clinical protocol to assess the safety, tolerability, and the pharmacokinetics of Tβ4 in healthy volunteers.

 

SOURCE:
EXPLORATIONS with THYMOSIN beta4 FOR INDUCING ADULT EPICARDIAL PROGENETOR MOBILIZATION AND NEOVASCULARIZATION is presented in
Resident-cell-based Therapy in Human Ischaemic Heart Disease: Evolution in the PROMISE of Thymosin beta4 for Cardiac Repair

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/04/30/93/

Clinical Study Data of Thymosin beta 4 Presented

Published on October 3, 2009 at 5:10 AM

REGENERX BIOPHARMACEUTICALS, INC. (NYSE Amex:RGN) today reported on several clinical studies with Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) presented the Second International Symposium on Thymosins in Health and Disease, in Catania, Italy. The following are synopses of the presentations:

Myocardial Development of RGN-352 (Injectable Tβ4 Peptide)

David Crockford, RegeneRx’s vice president for clinical and regulatory affairs presented an overview of the biological properties that support Tβ4’s near term and long term clinical applications. Mr. Crockford noted that special emphasis is being placed on the development of RGN-352 for the systemic (injectable) treatment of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in combination with percutaneous coronary intervention, the current standard of care in most western countries for this common type of heart attack. The goal with RGN-352 is to prevent or repair continued damage to cardiac tissue post-heart attack, when such tissue around the damaged site remains at risk.

Dr. Dennis Ruff, vice president and medical director of ICON, and principal investigator, presented the most current results on the Phase I safety study with RGN-352 entitled, “A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Dose-response Phase I Study of the Safety and Tolerability of the Intravenous Administration of Thymosin Beta 4 and its Pharmacokinetics After Single and Multiple Doses in Healthy Volunteers.” Dr. Ruff discussed key aspects of the study and concluded with, “There were no dose limiting or serious adverse events throughout the dosing period. Synthetic Tβ4 administered intravenously up to 1260 mg, and for up to 14 days, appears to be well tolerated with low incidence of adverse events and no evidence of serious adverse events.”

http://www.news-medical.net/news/20091003/Clinical-study-data-of-Thymosin-beta-4-presented.aspx

RegeneRx Receives Notice of Allowance from Chinese Patent Office for Treatment and Prevention of Heart Disease

RegeneRx Receives Notice of Allowance from Chinese Patent Office for Treatment and Prevention of Heart Disease

February 7, 2013 — Rockville, Md.

RegeneRx Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: RGRX) (“the Company” or “RegeneRx”) today announced that it has received a Notice of Allowance of a Chinese patent application for uses of Thymosin beta 4 (TB4) for treating, preventing, inhibiting or reducing heart tissue deterioration, injury or damage in a subject with heart failure disease. Claims also include uses for restoring heart tissue in those subjects. The patent will expire July 26, 2026.

http://www.regenerx.com/wt/page/pr_1360265259

Active Research on Thymosins in Cardiovascular Disease Reported in 2010 and 2012 Annual Conference on Thymosins, Proceedings by NY Academy of Sciences

Use of the cardioprotectants thymosin β4 and dexrazoxane during congenital heart surgery: proposal for a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial

Neonates and infants undergoing heart surgery with cardioplegic arrest experience both inflammation and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. These processes provoke myocardial apoptosis and oxygen-free radical formation that result in cardiac injury and dysfunction. Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is a naturally occurring peptide that has cardioprotective and antiapoptotic effects. Similarly, dexrazoxane provides cardioprotection by reduction of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppression of apoptosis. We propose a pilot pharmacokinetic/safety trial of Tβ4 and dexrazoxane in children less than one year of age, followed by a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial of Tβ4 or dexrazoxane versus placebo during congenital heart surgery. We will evaluate postoperative time to resolution of organ failure, development of low cardiac output syndrome, length of cardiac ICU and hospital stays, and echocardiographic indices of cardiac dysfunction. Results could establish the clinical utility of Tβ4 and/or dexrazoxane in ameliorating ischemia-reperfusion injury during congenital heart surgery.[1]

Cardiac repair with thymosin β4 and cardiac reprogramming factors

Heart disease is a leading cause of death in newborns and in adults. We previously reported that the G-actin–sequestering peptide thymosin β4 promotes myocardial survival in hypoxia and promotes neoangiogenesis, resulting in cardiac repair after injury. More recently, we showed that reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts to cardiomyocyte-like cells in vivo after coronary artery ligation using three cardiac transcription factors (Gata4/Mef2c/Tbx5) offers an alternative approach to regenerate heart muscle. We have combined the delivery of thymosin β4 and the cardiac reprogramming factors to further enhance the degree of cardiac repair and improvement in cardiac function after myocardial infarction. These findings suggest that thymosin β4 and cardiac reprogramming technology may synergistically limit damage to the heart and promote cardiac regeneration through the stimulation of endogenous cells within the heart.[2]

NMR structural studies of thymosin α1 and β-thymosins

Thymosin proteins, originally isolated from fractionation of thymus tissue, represent a class of compounds that we now know are present in numerous other tissues, are unrelated to each other in a genetic sense, and appear to have different functions within the cell. Thymosin α1 (generic drug name thymalfasin; trade name Zadaxin) is derived from a precursor molecule, prothymosin, by proteolytic cleavage, and stimulates the immune system. Although the peptide is natively unstructured in aqueous solution, the helical structure has been observed in the presence of trifluoroethanol or unilamellar vesicles, and these studies are consistent with the presence of a dynamic helical structure whose sides are not completely hydrophilic or hydrophobic. This helical structure may occur in circulation when the peptide comes into contact with membranes. In this report, we discuss the current knowledge of the thymosin α1 structure and similar properties of thymosin β4 and thymosin β9, in different environments.[3]

Thymosin β4 sustained release from poly (lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres: synthesis and implications for treatment of myocardial ischemia

 A sustained release formulation for the therapeutic peptide thymosin β4 (Tβ4) that can be localized to the heart and reduce the concentration and frequency of dose is being explored as a means to improve its delivery in humans. This review contains concepts involved in the delivery of peptides to the heart and the synthesis of polymer microspheres for the sustained release of peptides, including Tβ4. Initial results of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres synthesized with specific tolerances for intramyocardial injection that demonstrate the encapsulation and release of Tβ4 from double-emulsion microspheres are also presented.[4]
Thymosin β4 and cardiac repair
Hypoxic heart disease is a predominant cause of disability and death worldwide. As adult mammals are incapable of cardiac repair after infarction, the discovery of effective methods to achieve myocardial and vascular regeneration is crucial. Efforts to use stem cells to repopulate damaged tissue are currently limited by technical considerations and restricted cell potential. We discovered that the small, secreted peptide thymosin β4 (Tβ4) could be sufficiently used to inhibit myocardial cell death, stimulate vessel growth, and activate endogenous cardiac progenitors by reminding the adult heart on its embryonic program in vivo. The initiation of epicardial thickening accompanied by increase of myocardial and epicardial progenitors with or without infarction indicate that the reactivation process is independent of injury. Our results demonstrate Tβ4 to be the first known molecule able to initiate simultaneous myocardial and vascular regeneration after systemic administration in vivo. Given our findings, the utility of Tβ4 to heal cardiac injury may hold promise and warrant further investigation.[7]
Thymosin β4 facilitates epicardial neovascularization of the injured adult heart
Ischemic heart disease complicated by coronary artery occlusion causes myocardial infarction (MI), which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans (http://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/resources/atlas/en/index.html). After MI the human heart has an impaired capacity to regenerate and, despite the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease worldwide, there is currently only limited insight into how to stimulate repair of the injured adult heart from its component parts. Efficient cardiac regeneration requires the replacement of lost cardiomyocytes, formation of new coronary blood vessels, and appropriate modulation of inflammation to prevent maladaptive remodeling, fibrosis/scarring, and consequent cardiac dysfunction. Here we show that thymosin β4 (Tβ4) promotes new vasculature in both the intact and injured mammalian heart. We demonstrate that limited EPDC-derived endothelial-restricted neovascularization constitutes suboptimal “endogenous repair,” following injury, which is significantly augmented by Tβ4 to increase and stabilize the vascular plexus via collateral vessel growth. As such, we identify Tβ4 as a facilitator of cardiac neovascularization and highlight adult EPDCs as resident progenitors which, when instructed by Tβ4, have the capacity to sustain the myocardium after ischemic damage.[8]
Thymosin β4 enhances repair by organizing connective tissue and preventing the appearance of myofibroblasts
Incisional wounds in rats treated locally with thymosin β4 (Tβ4) healed with minimal scaring and without loss in wound breaking strength. Treated wounds were significantly narrower in width. Polarized light microscopy treated wounds had superior organized collagen fibers, displaying a red birefringence, which is consistent with mature connective tissue. Control incisions had randomly organized collagen fibers, displaying green birefringence that is consistent with immature connective tissue. Immunohistology treated wounds had few myofibroblasts and fibroblasts with α smooth muscle actin (SMA) stained stress fibers. Polyvinyl alcohol sponge implants placed in subcutaneous pockets received either carrier or 100 μg of Tβ4 on days 2, 3, and 4. On day 14, treated implants revealed longer, thicker collagen fiber bundles with intense yellow-red birefringence by polarized light microscopy. In controls, fine, thin collagen fiber bundles were arranged in random arrays with predominantly green birefringence. Controls contained mostly myofibroblasts, while few myofibroblasts appeared in Tβ4 treated implants. Electron microscopy confirmed both cell types and the degree of collagen fiber bundle organization. Our results demonstrate that Tβ4 treated wounds appear to mature earlier and heal with minimal scaring.[9]
Thymosin β4: a key factor for protective effects of eEPCs in acute and chronic ischemia
Acute myocardial infarction is still one of the leading causes of death in the industrial nations. Even after successful revascularization, myocardial ischemia results in a loss of cardiomyocytes and scar formation. Embryonic EPCs (eEPCs), retroinfused into the ischemic region of the pig heart, provided rapid paracrine benefit to acute and chronic ischemia in a PI-3K/Akt-dependent manner. In a model of acute myocardial ischemia, infarct size and loss of regional myocardial function decreased after eEPC application, unless cell pre-treatment with thymosin β4 shRNA was performed. Thymosin ß4 peptide retroinfusion mimicked the eEPC-derived improvement of infarct size and myocardial function. In chronic ischemia (rabbit model), eEPCs retroinfused into the ischemic hindlimb enhanced capillary density, collateral growth, and perfusion. Therapeutic neovascularization was absent when thymosin ß4 shRNA was introduced into eEPCs before application. In conclusion, eEPCs are capable of acute and chronic ischemia protection in a thymosin ß4 dependent manner. [10]
Thymosin β4: a candidate for treatment of stroke?
Neurorestorative therapy is the next frontier in the treatment of stroke. An expanding body of evidence supports the theory that after stroke, certain cellular changes occur that resemble early stages of development. Increased expression of developmental proteins in the area bordering the infarct suggest an active repair or reconditioning response to ischemic injury. Neurorestorative therapy targets parenchymal cells (neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocyes, and endothelial cells) to enhance endogenous neurogenesis, angiogenesis, axonal sprouting, and synaptogenesis to promote functional recovery. Pharmacological treatments include statins, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, erythropoietin, and nitric oxide donors that have all improved funtional outcome after stroke in the preclinial arena. Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is expressed in both the developing and adult brain and it has been shown to stimulate vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and arteriogenesis in the postnatal and adult murine cardiac myocardium. In this manuscript, we describe our rationale and techniques to test our hypothesis that Tβ4 may be a candidate neurorestorative agent. [11]
Prothymosin α as robustness molecule against ischemic stress to brain and retina

Following stroke or traumatic damage, neuronal death via both necrosis and apoptosis causes loss of functions, including memory, sensory perception, and motor skills. As necrosis has the nature to expand, while apoptosis stops the cell death cascade in the brain, necrosis is considered to be a promising target for rapid treatment for stroke. We identified the nuclear protein, prothymosin alpha (ProTα) from the conditioned medium of serum-free culture of cortical neurons as a key protein-inhibiting necrosis. In the culture of cortical neurons in the serum-free condition without any supplements, ProTα inhibited the necrosis, but caused apoptosis. In the ischemic brain or retina, ProTα showed a potent inhibition of both necrosis and apoptosis. By use of anti-brain-derived neurotrophic factor or anti-erythropoietin IgG, we found that ProTα inhibits necrosis, but causes apoptosis, which is in turn inhibited by ProTα-induced neurotrophins under the condition of ischemia. From the experiment using anti-ProTα IgG or antisense oligonucleotide for ProTα, it was revealed that ProTα has a pathophysiological role in protecting neurons in stroke.[12]

 
Thymosin β4 and cardiac repair
Hypoxic heart disease is a predominant cause of disability and death worldwide. As adult mammals are incapable of cardiac repair after infarction, the discovery of effective methods to achieve myocardial and vascular regeneration is crucial. Efforts to use stem cells to repopulate damaged tissue are currently limited by technical considerations and restricted cell potential. We discovered that the small, secreted peptide thymosin β4 (Tβ4) could be sufficiently used to inhibit myocardial cell death, stimulate vessel growth, and activate endogenous cardiac progenitors by reminding the adult heart on its embryonic program in vivo. The initiation of epicardial thickening accompanied by increase of myocardial and epicardial progenitors with or without infarction indicate that the reactivation process is independent of injury. Our results demonstrate Tβ4 to be the first known molecule able to initiate simultaneous myocardial and vascular regeneration after systemic administration in vivo. Given our findings, the utility of Tβ4 to heal cardiac injury may hold promise and warrant further investigation.[13]
Thymosin β4 facilitates epicardial neovascularization of the injured adult heart
schemic heart disease complicated by coronary artery occlusion causes myocardial infarction (MI), which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans (http://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/resources/atlas/en/index.html). After MI the human heart has an impaired capacity to regenerate and, despite the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease worldwide, there is currently only limited insight into how to stimulate repair of the injured adult heart from its component parts. Efficient cardiac regeneration requires the replacement of lost cardiomyocytes, formation of new coronary blood vessels, and appropriate modulation of inflammation to prevent maladaptive remodeling, fibrosis/scarring, and consequent cardiac dysfunction. Here we show that thymosin β4 (Tβ4) promotes new vasculature in both the intact and injured mammalian heart. We demonstrate that limited EPDC-derived endothelial-restricted neovascularization constitutes suboptimal “endogenous repair,” following injury, which is significantly augmented by Tβ4 to increase and stabilize the vascular plexus via collateral vessel growth. As such, we identify Tβ4 as a facilitator of cardiac neovascularization and highlight adult EPDCs as resident progenitors which, when instructed by Tβ4, have the capacity to sustain the myocardium after ischemic damage. [14]
Thymosin β4: a key factor for protective effects of eEPCs in acute and chronic ischemia

Acute myocardial infarction is still one of the leading causes of death in the industrial nations. Even after successful revascularization, myocardial ischemia results in a loss of cardiomyocytes and scar formation. Embryonic EPCs (eEPCs), retroinfused into the ischemic region of the pig heart, provided rapid paracrine benefit to acute and chronic ischemia in a PI-3K/Akt-dependent manner. In a model of acute myocardial ischemia, infarct size and loss of regional myocardial function decreased after eEPC application, unless cell pre-treatment with thymosin β4 shRNA was performed. Thymosin ß4 peptide retroinfusion mimicked the eEPC-derived improvement of infarct size and myocardial function. In chronic ischemia (rabbit model), eEPCs retroinfused into the ischemic hindlimb enhanced capillary density, collateral growth, and perfusion. Therapeutic neovascularization was absent when thymosin ß4 shRNA was introduced into eEPCs before application. In conclusion, eEPCs are capable of acute and chronic ischemia protection in a thymosin ß4 dependent manner.[15]

 
Thymosin β4: a candidate for treatment of stroke?
Neurorestorative therapy is the next frontier in the treatment of stroke. An expanding body of evidence supports the theory that after stroke, certain cellular changes occur that resemble early stages of development. Increased expression of developmental proteins in the area bordering the infarct suggest an active repair or reconditioning response to ischemic injury. Neurorestorative therapy targets parenchymal cells (neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocyes, and endothelial cells) to enhance endogenous neurogenesis, angiogenesis, axonal sprouting, and synaptogenesis to promote functional recovery. Pharmacological treatments include statins, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, erythropoietin, and nitric oxide donors that have all improved funtional outcome after stroke in the preclinial arena. Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is expressed in both the developing and adult brain and it has been shown to stimulate vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and arteriogenesis in the postnatal and adult murine cardiac myocardium. In this manuscript, we describe our rationale and techniques to test our hypothesis that Tβ4 may be a candidate neurorestorative agent.[16]
Thymosin β4: structure, function, and biological properties supporting current and future clinical applications

Published studies have described a number of physiological properties and cellular functions of thymosin β4 (Tβ4), the major G-actin-sequestering molecule in mammalian cells. Those activities include the promotion of cell migration, blood vessel formation, cell survival, stem cell differentiation, the modulation of cytokines, chemokines, and specific proteases, the upregulation of matrix molecules and gene expression, and the downregulation of a major nuclear transcription factor. Such properties have provided the scientific rationale for a number of ongoing and planned dermal, corneal, cardiac clinical trials evaluating the tissue protective, regenerative and repair potential of Tβ4, and direction for future clinical applications in the treatment of diseases of the central nervous system, lung inflammatory disease, and sepsis. A special emphasis is placed on the development of Tβ4 in the treatment of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction in combination with percutaneous coronary intervention.[17]

The effect of thymosin treatment of venous ulcers

Venous ulcers are responsible for about 70% of the chronic ulcers of the lower limbs. Standard of care includes compression, dressings, debridement of devitalized tissue, and infection control. Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4), a synthetic copy of the naturally occurring 43 amino-acid peptide, has been found to have wound healing and anti-inflammatory properties, and is thought to exert its therapeutic effect through promotion of keratinocyte and endothelial cell migration, increased collagen deposition, and stimulation of angiogenesis. To assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of topically administered Tβ4 in patients with venous stasis ulcers, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study was conducted in eight European sites (five in Italy and three in Poland) that enrolled and randomized 73 patients. The safety profile of all doses of administered Tβ4 was deemed acceptable and comparable to placebo. Efficacy findings from this Phase 2 study suggest that a Tβ4 dose of 0.03% may have the potential to accelerate wound healing and that complete wound healing can be achieved within 3 months in about 25% of the patients, especially among those whose wounds are small to moderate in size or mild to moderate in severity.[18]

A randomized, placebo-controlled, single and multiple dose study of intravenous thymosin β4 in healthy volunteers

Synthetic thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) may have a potential use in promoting myocardial cell survival during acute myocardial infarction. Four cohorts, with 10 healthy subjects each, were given a single intravenous dose of placebo or synthetic Tβ4. Cohorts received ascending doses of either 42, 140, 420, or 1260 mg. Following safety review, subjects were given the same dose regimen daily for 14 days. Safety evaluations, incidence of Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events, and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated. Adverse events were infrequent, and mild or moderate in intensity. There were no dose limiting toxicities or serious adverse events. Pharmacokinetic profile for single dose showed a dose proportional response, and an increasing half-life with increasing dose. Synthetic Tβ4 given intravenously as a single dose or in multiple daily doses for 14 days over a dose range of 42–1260 mg was well tolerated with no evidence of dose limiting toxicity. Further development for use in cardiac ischemia should be considered.[19]

Safety and Efficacy of an Injectable Extracellular Matrix Hydrogel for Treating Myocardial Infarction

  1. Sonya B. Seif-Naraghi1,*,
  2. Jennifer M. Singelyn1,*,
  3. Michael A. Salvatore2,
  4. Kent G. Osborn1,
  5. Jean J. Wang1,
  6. Unatti Sampat1,
  7. Oi Ling Kwan1,
  8. G. Monet Strachan1,
  9. Jonathan Wong3,
  10. Pamela J. Schup-Magoffin1,
  11. Rebecca L. Braden1,
  12. Kendra Bartels1,
  13. Jessica A. DeQuach2,
  14. Mark Preul4,
  15. Adam M. Kinsey2,
  16. Anthony N. DeMaria1,
  17. Nabil Dib1 and
  18. Karen L. Christman1,

+Author Affiliations

  1. 1University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
  2. 2Ventrix, Inc., San Diego, CA 92109, USA.
  3. 3Biologics Delivery Systems, Irwindale, CA 91706, USA.
  4. 4Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ 85013, USA.

+Author Notes

  • * These authors contributed equally to this work.
  1. †To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: christman@eng.ucsd.edu

ABSTRACT

New therapies are needed to prevent heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI). As experimental treatment strategies for MI approach translation, safety and efficacy must be established in relevant animal models that mimic the clinical situation. We have developed an injectable hydrogel derived from porcine myocardial extracellular matrix as a scaffold for cardiac repair after MI. We establish the safety and efficacy of this injectable biomaterial in large- and small-animal studies that simulate the clinical setting. Infarcted pigs were treated with percutaneous transendocardial injections of the myocardial matrix hydrogel 2 weeks after MI and evaluated after 3 months. Echocardiography indicated improvement in cardiac function, ventricular volumes, and global wall motion scores. Furthermore, a significantly larger zone of cardiac muscle was found at the endocardium in matrix-injected pigs compared to controls. In rats, we establish the safety of this biomaterial and explore the host response via direct injection into the left ventricular lumen and in an inflammation study, both of which support the biocompatibility of this material. Hemocompatibility studies with human blood indicate that exposure to the material at relevant concentrations does not affect clotting times or platelet activation. This work therefore provides a strong platform to move forward in clinical studies with this cardiac-specific biomaterial that can be delivered by catheter.

  • Copyright © 2013, American Association for the Advancement of Science
Citation: S. B. Seif-Naraghi, J. M. Singelyn, M. A. Salvatore, K. G. Osborn, J. J. Wang, U. Sampat, O. L. Kwan, G. M. Strachan, J. Wong, P. J. Schup-Magoffin, R. L. Braden, K. Bartels, J. A. DeQuach, M. Preul, A. M. Kinsey, A. N. DeMaria, N. Dib, K. L. Christman, Safety and Efficacy of an Injectable Extracellular Matrix Hydrogel for Treating Myocardial Infarction.

RELATED RESOURCES ON SCIENCE SITES

In Science Translational Medicine

REFERENCES OF THYMOSIN IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

Thymosins in Health and Disease II: 3rd International Symposium on The Emerging Clinical Applications of Tymosin beta 4 in Cardiovascular Disease

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, October 2012 Volume 1270 Pages vii-ix, 1–121.

Allan L. Goldstein, Enrico Garaci, Editors, Thymosins in Cardiovascular Disease, November 2012, Wiley-Blackwell

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nyas.2012.1270.issue-1/issuetoc

http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1573319104.html?cid=RSS_WILEY2_LIFEMED

1


Use of the cardioprotectants thymosin β4 and dexrazoxane during congenital heart surgery: proposal for a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial (pages 59–65) Daniel Stromberg, Tia Raymond, David Samuel, David Crockford, William Stigall, Steven Leonard, Eric Mendeloff and Andrew Gormley
Article first published online: 10 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06710.x

2


Cardiac repair with thymosin β4 and cardiac reprogramming factors (pages 66–72) Deepak Srivastava, Masaki Ieda, Jidong Fu and Li Qian
Article first published online: 10 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06696.x

3 NMR structural studies of thymosin α1 and β-thymosins (pages 73–78) David E. Volk, Cynthia W. Tuthill, Miguel-Angel Elizondo-Riojas and David G. Gorenstein
Article first published online: 10 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06656.x

4

Thymosin β4 sustained release from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres: synthesis and implications for treatment of myocardial ischemia (pages 112–119) Jeffrey E. Thatcher, Tré Welch, Robert C. Eberhart, Zoltan A. Schelly and J. Michael DiMaio
Article first published online: 10 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06681.x

5 Corrigendum for Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 2012. 1254: 57–65 (page 121) Article first published online: 10 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06793.x
This article corrects:
A bird’s-eye view of cell therapy and tissue engineering for cardiac regeneration
Vol. 1254, Issue 1, 57–65, Article first published online: 30 APR 2012

Thymosins in Health and Disease: 2nd International Symposium,
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, May 2010 Volume 1194 Pages ix–xi, 1–230 

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nyas.2010.1194.issue-1/issuetoc

6. Preface to Thymosins in Health and Disease (pages ix–xi) Enrico Garaci and Allan L. Goldstein
Article first published online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05493.x

7.
Thymosin β4 and cardiac repair (pages 87–96) Santwana Shrivastava, Deepak Srivastava, Eric N. Olson, J. Michael DiMaio and Ildiko Bock-Marquette
Article first published online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05468.x

8.
Thymosin β4 facilitates epicardial neovascularization of the injured adult heart (pages 97–104) Nicola Smart, Catherine A. Risebro, James E. Clark, Elisabeth Ehler, Lucile Miquerol, Alex Rossdeutsch, Michael S. Marber and Paul R. Riley
Article first published online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05478.x

9.
Thymosin β4 enhances repair by organizing connective tissue and preventing the appearance of myofibroblasts (pages 118–124) H. Paul Ehrlich and Sprague W. Hazard III
Article first published online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05483.x

10. Thymosin β4: a key factor for protective effects of eEPCs in acute and chronic ischemia (pages 105–111) Rabea Hinkel, Ildiko Bock-Marquette, Antonis K. Hazopoulos and Christian Kupatt
Article first published online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05489.x
Corrected by:
Corrigendum for Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1194: 105–111
Vol. 1205, Issue 1, 284, Article first published online: 14 SEP 2010

11.

Thymosin β4: a candidate for treatment of stroke? (pages 112–117) Daniel C. Morris, Michael Chopp, Li Zhang and Zheng G. Zhang
Article first published online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05469.x

12. Prothymosin α as robustness molecule against ischemic stress to brain and retina (pages 20–26) Hiroshi Ueda, Hayato Matsunaga, Hitoshi Uchida and Mutsumi Ueda
Article first published online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05466.x

13.
Thymosin β4 and cardiac repair (pages 87–96) Santwana Shrivastava, Deepak Srivastava, Eric N. Olson, J. Michael DiMaio and Ildiko Bock-Marquette
Article first published online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05468.x

14.

Thymosin β4 facilitates epicardial neovascularization of the injured adult heart (pages 97–104) Nicola Smart, Catherine A. Risebro, James E. Clark, Elisabeth Ehler, Lucile Miquerol, Alex Rossdeutsch, Michael S. Marber and Paul R. Riley
Article first published online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05478.x

15.

Thymosin β4: a key factor for protective effects of eEPCs in acute and chronic ischemia (pages 105–111) Rabea Hinkel, Ildiko Bock-Marquette, Antonis K. Hazopoulos and Christian Kupatt
Article first published online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05489.x
Corrected by:
Corrigendum for Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1194: 105–111
Vol. 1205, Issue 1, 284, Article first published online: 14 SEP 2010

16.

Thymosin β4: a candidate for treatment of stroke? (pages 112–117) Daniel C. Morris, Michael Chopp, Li Zhang and Zheng G. Zhang
Article first published online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05469.x

17.Thymosin β4: structure, function, and biological properties supporting current and future clinical applications (pages 179–189) David Crockford, Nabila Turjman, Christian Allan and Janet Angel
Article first published online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05492.x

18.

The effect of thymosin treatment of venous ulcers (pages 207–212) G. Guarnera, A. DeRosa and R. Camerini, on behalf of 8 European sites
Article first published online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05490.x

19.
A randomized, placebo-controlled, single and multiple dose study of intravenous thymosin β4 in healthy volunteers (pages 223–229) Dennis Ruff, David Crockford, Gino Girardi and Yuxin Zhang
Article first published online: 3 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05474.x

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Gene Therapy Into Healthy Heart Muscle: Reprogramming Scar Tissue In Damaged Hearts

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/01/09/gene-therapy-into-healthy-heart-muscle-reprogramming-scar-tissue-in-damaged-hearts/

Human Embryonic-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells for Myocardial Repair

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/01/human-embryonic-derived-cardiac-progenitor-cells-for-myocardial-repair/

Human embryonic pluripotent stem cells and healing post-myocardial infarction

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/07/human-embryonic-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-healing-post-myocardial-infarction/

Resident-cell-based Therapy in Human Ischaemic Heart Disease: Evolution in the PROMISE of Thymosin beta4 for Cardiac Repair

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Heart Renewal by pre-existing Cardiomyocytes: Source of New Heart Cell Growth Discovered

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