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Posts Tagged ‘Unfolded Protein Response (UPR)’


Molecular Pathogenesis of Progressive Lung Diseases

Author: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

 

Abstract

The lung and its airways are constantly exposed to the air we breath, its contaminants, microparticulates (asbestose), and incidental microorganisms, such as viruses. These are sources of acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. Just as the lung remodels in normal growth and development, the lung remodels following acute injuries, but in the case of chronic conditions, the remodeling capacity is stressed. The lung is potentially stressed even without exposure to external contaminants or viruses. This stress is related to its normal function of gas exchange between oxygen and carbon dioxide across the alveolar wall. This involves a mechanism for tissue repair initiated by signaling pathways that are triggered in response to oxidative stress that result in a process called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR does not necessarily lead to tissue damage. Damage only occurs when there is sustained stress that exceeds the ability of the tissue to repair the cellular framework. Here, we shall visit the underlying repair process that may be undermined in different lung diseases, all of which involve the inflammatory response, but not necessarily under the same course and conditions.

 

Introduction

The lung develops as an outpouching of the foregut and consists of the trachea and bronchi, and the alveoli. Air exchange occurs in the alveoli. In utero, the lungs are filled with fluid, and breathing occurs at the time of birth. When birth is premature, the surfactant produced by the alveolar lining cells that is necessary for passage of air into and expand the lungs may be insufficient, leading to alveolar collapse. Another problem may be neonatal hypertension. The discussion that follows will only deal with a common metabolic condition that underlies the conditions that underlie the development of chronic pulmonary diseases in the neonate and the adult.

The main feature of the alveoli is that they consist of a single layer of epithelium lining the airspaces beneath which lies a capillary, ideally suited for the exchange of O2 and CO2. There is a basement membrane between the epithelial cells and the capillaries. Two types of alveolar epithelial cells cover 90% of the airway surface. The alveolar type I epithelial cells (ATI), whose main function is gas interchange, are the larger flattened phenotype. Alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATII) are the most abundant epithelial cell type functioning to maintain the alveolar space by secretion of several types of surfactant proteins and other ECM components. There is also a basement membrane beneath the epithelium to be considered. Secretory Clara and goblet cells, ciliated, basal and neuroendocrine cells are also found in the tracheo-bronchial pseudostratified epithelium. Ciliated and secretory cells are involved in clearing the airway passages from microorganisms, air pollutants and other inhaled pathogens. Mucous and goblet cells secrete mucous into the apical surface of the epithelium, which traps foreign particles. These are then cleared out by the action of ciliated cells.

In cellular senescence there are secretory phenotypes that produce pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic factors. In the case of subepithelial fibrosis immune cells, like macrophages and neutrophils as well as activated myofibroblasts populate the subcellular matrix and release of pro-fibrotic transforming growth factor beta and continuous deposition of ECM stiffens the basement membrane. This is accompanied by interstitial fibrosis (1).

The remainder of this review will consider how the lung reacts to stresses that may be functionally inherent, genetic mediated, environmental, or virus. This requires an understanding of the UPR, a common mechanism for cellular repair in response to oxidative and nitrosative stress, which is the common mechanism for protecting the alveolar cell, but becomes pathogenic when the stress exceeds the clearance mechanism.

 

The unfolded protein response (UPR)

The mitochondria (mi) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) play key roles in the response to stress, and the mitochondria are also involved by way of signaling mechanisms. We shall begin by considering the ER role (ERUPR). The ER are tubular structures that have smooth and rough portions. The rough ER are essential for translation of the genetic code into an amino acid sequence. The smooth ER is involved in lipid synthesis, and other processes. Just as tRNAs are important building blocks for protein, microRNAs come into the picture as well. The microRNAs have a regulatory role in that they are noncoding, but they repress gene expression and thereby, protein homeostasis (protostasis) under the influence of ERUPR signaling. They have their expression under the influence of UPR signaling when there is oxidative/nitrosative stress (2).

The ER-induced ERUPR is mediated by three major ER-resident transmembrane sensors named PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6a and isoforms), and inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1a and isoforms)(2-4). BiP is an abundant ER chaperone that dissociates from these three sensors, leading to their activation of the ER stress response.

The first step is activation of IRE1a, which dimerizes, forms oligomers, and autophosphorylates. This results in a conformational change that activates RNAse. IRE1a RNAse excises a 26-nucleotide intron of the mRNA encoding the transcription factor X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1). This in turn is ligated resulting in a coding reading phase frame shift in the mRNA and leads to the expression of a more stable and active transcription factor, termed XBP1 spliced (XBP1s). XBP1s trans-activates target genes, which depends on the context of tissue and the stress stimuli. The targets of XBP1s are genes involved in protein folding, endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), protein translocation to the ER, and protein secretion. IRE1a also signals through the assembly of many adapter proteins and regulators, referred to as the UPRosome, as well as control gene expression through ER stress-dependent XBP1 mRNA splicing (2-5)).

The ER is the site where protein is synthesis and maturation occurs. It is also where the transportation and release of correctly folded proteins together with the Golgi apparatus. ER dysfunction has been viewed in the context of adaptation to protein processing and folding in the ER lumen (3).

Activation of the UPR results in accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells devoid of PERK. ATF4 and PERK knockout cells require amino acid and cysteine supplementation. This is thought to be to replenish amino acids lost during secretion and to increase glutathione levels. ATF4 is essential for regulating amino acid metabolism and oxidative stress response. (In addition, PERK knockout cells cannot activate eIF2a dependent translational up-regulation of ATF4, and ATF4-/- cells lack ATF4 protein. ATF4 induces the transcription of genes involved in amino acid import, glutathione biosynthesis and resistance to oxidative stress (3).

NFD-kB is released from its inhibitor IkB as a result of PERK-mediated attenuation of translation. A variety of different genes involved in inflammatory pathways are expressed, such as those encoding the cytokines IL-1 and TNF-a, as NF-kB moves to the nucleus and switches on. Activated IRE1a recruits tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a)-receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) in the second branch of the UPR. TRAF2 then activates JNK and IkB kinase (IKK). These are inflammatory kinases that phosphorylate and activate downstream mediators of inflammation. The third branch of the UPR, the ATF6 pathway, also activates NF-kB. The crosstalk between the three branches is evidenced by the spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s) and ATF4 both inducing production of the cytokines IL-8, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) by endothelial cells. XBP1s and IFN-b are both initiated in IFN-b production when ER stress is combined with activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and in IFN-a production by dendritic cells. ER calcium stores are mediated in calcium-dependent inflammatory responses that produce IL-8. The XBP1s expand the capacity of the ER for protein folding and results in the assembly of the metainflammasome. This protein complex integrates pathogen and nutrient sensing with ER stress, inflammatory kinases, insulin action, and metabolic homeostasis. The eIF2a kinase PKR (double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase) is a core component of the metaflammasome which interacts directly with several inflammatory kinases such as IKK and JNK, insulin receptor signaling components such as IRS1, and the translational machinery via eIF2a (4).

The conformational alteration of IRE1 via phosphorylation which exposes the RNAse that removes an intron from XBP1 mRNA generates of a protein that is a transcriptional regulator of genes involved in protein folding and degradation, both necessary mechanisms needed to restore ER homeostasis. GRP78 dissociation activates PERK, which in turn phosphorylates eIF2a, an inhibitor of new protein translation and activator of the transcription factor ATF4. The phosphorylation of PERK observed in primary aveolar epithelial cells comes with significant increase in the expression of ATF4 (5).

ER stress-dependent activation of UPR-mediated ER Ca2+ store expansion (via XBP-1 mRNA splicing) is induced by inflammation. This response is coupled to amplification of Ca2+-dependent inflammation and may be beneficial or adverse for the airways. This depends on whether airways are competent to clear or are obstructed. In normal airways (competent to clear), the airway epithelial ER Ca2+ store expansion provides a beneficial response, and reverses the expanded ER Ca2+ stores back to normal levels. However, the airway epithelial ER Ca2+ store expansion-mediated amplification of airway inflammation may be maladaptive for CF and COPD airways. This results in persistent airway epithelial ER Ca2+ store expansion that leads to chronic airway inflammation (3).

XBP1s launches a transcriptional program to produce chaperones (such as Grp78) and proteins involved in ER biogenesis, phospholipid synthesis, ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD), and secretion alone or in conjunction with ATF6a, which are key regulators of the transcriptional response programs.

There are five proteins that have sequence similarity with ATF6a and are anchored to the ER and in response to activation by specific stimuli. They undergo regulated intramembrane proteolysis in the Golgi and subsequent translocation to the nucleus. They all have been implicated in the ER stress response due to their ability to respond to traditional ER stressors. They activate known UPR targets, or show activity at UPR response elements.

Activation of the third arm of the UPR through PERK results in phosphorylation of eukaryotic translational initiation factor 2a (eIF2a) converting eIF2a to a competitor of eIF2b, which then results in reduced global protein synthesis. PERK is one of four protein kinases that can mediate eIF2a phosphorylation; the other three kinases are double stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), GCN2 general control non-derepressible kinase 2 (GCN2), and heme-regulated inhibitor kinase (HRI)(4).

 

Oxidative stress

Several oxidants give rise to reactive oxygen species (ROS) by inflammatory and epithelial cells within the lung as part of an inflammatory-immune response. These interfere with protein folding in the ER and the compensatory response is the ‘‘unfolded protein response’’ (UPR). Superoxide radicals (O2 •−) can either react with nitric oxide (NO) to form highly reactive peroxynitrite molecules (ONOO) or are rapidly converted into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under the influence of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by activation of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) on macrophages, neutrophils and epithelium. The non-enzymatic production of damaging hydroxyl radical (OH) from H2O2 occurs in the presence of Fe2+. Glutathione peroxidases (Gpxs) and catalase catalyze H2O2 to formH2O and O2. The ROS O2•−, ONOO, H2O2 andOH trigger extensive inflammation, DNA damage, protein denaturation and lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation products are 8-isoprostane, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-OH-2-nonenal) and malondialdehyde (MDA)], LTB4, carbon monoxide and myeloperoxidase (MPO)(6).

 

Mitochondrial phase of UPR (mtUPR)

Mitochondria have a role in regulating alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) programmed cell death (apoptosis), and they are impaired by the generation of ROS, previously discussed. mtDNA encodes for 13 proteins, and that includes several essential for oxidative phosphorylation. The role of hemoglobin in O2/CO2 exchange given the redox state of iron, and the significant concentration of mitochondria in the AEC provides a suitable environment for the generation of ROS, which trigger an AEC mtDNA damage response and apoptosis (7). AEC mtDNA damage repair depends on 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO-2), as they actively maintain mtDNA integrity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-driven mitochondrial metabolism is modulated by SIRTs. Indeed, SIRT3 is a mitochondrial deactylase linked to mitochondrial metabolism and mtDNA integrity. Moreover, it is known that there is crosstalk between mitochondrial ROS production, mtDNA damage, p53 activation, OGG1, and ACO-2 acting as a mitochondrial redox-sensor involved in mtDNA maintenance (7). Oxidative stress-induced mtROS induces mtDNA damage. It decreases the concentration of SIRT3, ACo-2 and mtOGG1 in AEC, and thereby causes a defective electron transport (ETC) that results in mitochondrial dysfunction, AEC apoptosis, and pulmonary fibrosis.

MtDNA encodes only 3% of mitochondrial proteins, and the rest are nuclear DNA proteins that are transported into the mitochondrion by transfer from the cytosol into the inner membrane. However, OGG1, ACO-2, mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) are among those proteins encoded by nDNA essential for maintaining mtDNA integrity, as are those proteins involved in mtDNA repair. Nevertheless, mtDNA is ~50-fold more sensitive to oxidative damage because of proximity to the ETC, and are without histone protection, and repair mechanisms are limited. Consequently, stress-induced mtDNA damage has a mutation rate that is 10-fold greater than nDNA mtDNA damage. mtDNA mutations can then lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, including the collapse in the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and release of pro-apoptogenic agents (7).

The mitochondrial ETC generates hydroxyl radicals (HO), superoxide anions (O2•−), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated from redox-active ferrous (Fe2+) iron or contact with asbestos fibers that impair ETC function by decreasing SIRT3, ACo-2 and mtOGG1 in AEC, causing mtDNA damage creating energy imbalance leading to apoptosis. (Not shown. from Seok-Jo Kim, P Cheresh, RP Jablonski, DB Williams and DW Kamp. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015; 16: 21486-21519. http://dx.doi.org:/10.3390/ijms160921486)

 

AEC apoptosis and pulmonary fibrosis

AEC apoptosis is followed by pulmonary fibrosis (PF) because of mutation –related damage to AEC Type 2 (AT2) cells (i.e., surfactant C and A2 genes, MUC5b). Oxidative stress occurs in the majority of AT2 cells, many of them having shortened telomeres, and PF occurs in the underlying matrix (7). This is evidenced with activation by various fibrotic stimuli that stimulate pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members action (i.e., ROS, DNA damage, asbestos, etc.). The intrinsic apoptotic death pathway acting in mitochondria results in increased permeability of the outer mitochondrial membrane, reduced ΔΨm. This is accompanied by the release of apoptotic proteins, such as cytochrome c, that activate pro-apoptotic caspase-9 and caspase-3.

Pulmonary fibrosis is driven by PINK1 expression and AEC apoptosis. Pro-apoptotic Bim activation is associated with mitochondria-regulated apoptosis and fibrosis. In addition, mitochondrial quality control pathway disruptions lead to accumulation of mtDNA mutations. These mtDNA mutations may compromise ETC function, and they also drive AEC to aerobic glycolysis, associated with the lung cancer phenotype (7).

AEC mtDNA damage is modulated by p53 in the pro-fibrotic lung response (8). In this process, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) promotes AEC apoptosis, and at the same time reduces fibroblast proliferation and collagen production. At the same time there is crosstalk between the p53-uPA fibrinolytic system in AT2 cells. A change in phenotype in lung fibroblasts and tissue injury includes lung fibrosis. This is brought on by mtDNA damage and a DNA damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) that activates innate immun responses, especially toll like receptor (TLR)-9 signaling (8).
Concurrently, ACO-2 can be relocated from the TCA cycle to the nucleosome to stabilize the mtDNA with subsequent removal of oxidized Aco-2 by Lon protease (9).

Consider the role that UPR plays a role in lung diseases caused by the expression of genetically mutated, misfolded proteins. In cystic fibrosis, The UPR in airway epithelial cells is activated by mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) delta F508, which interferes with CFTR expression and activates the innate immune response. The UPR in AT2 induces AT2 apoptosis concomitant with epithelial–mesenchymal transformation and extracellular matrix production in mutant surfactant protein C–induced interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)(10). It also is assumed to play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Potential mechanisms that activate the UPR in AT2 cells include direct oxidation of client proteins or chaperones, impaired function of the proteasome or autophagosomes, and decreased expression of miRNAs.

 

Disease specific UPR involvement in pulmonary fibrosis

  • Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by repeated injury to the alveolar epithelium with loss of lung epithelial cells and abnormal tissue repair, which results in accumulation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, deposit of extracellular matrix components and distorted lung architecture (11). The expression of heme oxygenase-1, a critical defender against oxidative stress, is decreased in macrophages of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients, suggesting an oxidant–antioxidant imbalance in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (12).

Epithelial apoptosis leads to the release of growth factors and chemokines, which recruit fibroblasts to the site of injury (fibroblastic foci). Thus, myofibroblasts proliferate and extracellular matrix is deposited continues unabated in IPF. The transformation of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells is a process known as epithelial mesenchymal transition. It allows direct communication between cells, and may explain the buildup of myofibroblasts in interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). When the distal epithelium in the lung becomes injured the basement membrane loses its integrity. It has to re-epithelialize the surface. Growth factors locally produced can potentially recruit fibroblasts or myofibroblasts (11). TGFb
-/- mice are devoid of avb6 integrin. Hence, they are unable to activate latent TGF-b1 and are protected from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Primary AECs were found to produce ET-1 at physiologically active levels and increased synthesis of TGF-b1 and the induction of EMT in AECs (11). The fibrosis of IPF occurs only in the lung, is the major source of surfactant proteins (SPs), such as SP-C. This protein appears vulnerable to mutations that disrupt folding and secretion. Recent studies found that IPF patients carry increased number of apoptotic cells in alveolar and bronchial epithelia. The bleomycin mouse model supports an hypothesis that inhibition of epithelial cell apoptosis prevents the development of the fibrosis (1).

  • Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)

IPF is the most common variety of lung fibrosis and carries a sobering mortality approaching 50% at 3–4 years (7). Increased oxidative DNA damage is seen in IPF, silicosis, and asbestosis patients, as well in experimental animal models. Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), is a protein encoded by the RAC1 gene found in human cells, which has a variety of alternatively spliced versions of the Rac1 protein (13). The UPR is activated in AT2 cells and induces epithelial–mesenchymal transformation, extracellular matrix production, and type II cell apoptosis In mutant surfactant protein C–induced interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (10). The fibrotic phenotype of activated myofibroblasts show inhibition of the ER stress-induced IRE1a signaling pathway by using the inhibitor 4l8C that blocks TGFb-induced activation of myofibroblasts in vitro (13). IRE1a cleaves miR-150 releasing the suppressive effect that miR-150 exerts on aSMA expression through c-Myb. It also blocks ER expansion through an XBP-1-dependent pathway. In addition, prominent expression of UPR markers in AECs has been shown in the lungs of patients with surfactant protein C (SFTPC) mutation-associated fibrosis (14). Patients without SFTPC mutations with familial interstitial pneumonia and patients with sporadic IPF had selective UPR activation of AECs lining areas where there was fibrotic remodeling.
Activation of the UPR pathways may result from altered surfactant protein processing or chronic herpesvirus infection.

Fibroblasts in fibroblastic foci of IPF showed immunoreactivity for GRP78. In addition, TGF-b1 increased expression of GRP78, XBP-1, and ATF6a, which was accompanied by increases in a-SMA and collagen type I expression in mouse and human fibroblasts (15). TGF-b1–induced UPR and a-SMA and collagen type I induction were suppressed by the 4-PBA chaperone. Therefore, UPR is involved in myofibroblastic differentiation during fibrosis.

Initial observations linking ER stress and IPF were made in cases of familial interstitial pneumonia (FIP), the familial form of IPF, in a family with a mutation in surfactant protein C (SFTPC). ER stress markers are highly expressed in the alveolar epithelium in IPF and FIP (15). ER stress is induced in the alveolar epithelium predisposed to enhanced lung fibrosis after treatment with bleomycin, which is mediated at least in part by increased alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis. In another study, aged mice developed greater ER stress in the AEC population linked to MHV68 infection as a result of increased BiP expression and increased XBP1 splicing, as well as increased AEC apoptosis, compared with young mice (16).

 

Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COPD)

Inflammatory and infectious factors are present in diseased airways that interact with G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as purinergic receptors and bradykinin (BK) receptors, to stimulate phospholipase C [PLC]. This is followed by the activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-dependent activation of IP3 channel receptors in the ER, which results in channel opening and release of stored Ca2+ into the cytoplasm. When ER Ca2+ stores are depleted a pathway for Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane is activated. This has been referred to as “capacitative Ca2+ entry”, and “store-operated calcium entry” (3). In the next step PLC mediated Ca2+ i is mobilized as a result of GPCR activation by inflammatory mediators, which triggers cytokine production by Ca2+ i-dependent activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) in airway epithelia. Ca2+ binding proteins including calmodulin, protein kinases C (PKCs) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) can link Ca2+ i mobilization to NF-kB activation. Ca2+ i from ER Ca2+ release and/or a Ca2+ influx through the plasma membrane can be sensed by Ca2+ binding proteins (3). Chronically infected/inflamed native human bronchial epithelia exhibit UPR activation-dependent XBP-1 mRNA splicing and ER Ca2+ store expansion.

Protein secretion can constitute an irreversible loss of amino acids into the extracellular environment and produce net loss of equivalents from the cell. The greater the secretory burden, the greater the loss of amino acids and reducing equivalents from the cell. Activation of the UPR results in accumulation of ROS in PERK knockout cells. ATF4(-/-) and PERK (-/-) knockout cells require amino acid and cysteine supplementation to replenish amino acids lost during secretion. ATF4 would be required to induce the transcription of genes involved in amino acid import, glutathione biosynthesis and resistance to oxidative stress (3). Oxidative stress is a hallmark of CF airways disease and ATF4-induced amino acid transport is necessary for a protective role in inflamed CF airway epithelia.

Airway epithelial infection/inflammation induces ER stress-dependent activation of UPR-mediated ER Ca2+ store expansion (via XBP-1 mRNA splicing). The airway epithelial ER Ca2+ store is beneficial to the clearing of infection in normal airways. Epithelial ER Ca2+ store expansion-mediated amplification of airway inflammation may not be adequate for cystic fibrosis (CF) and COPD airways (3).

Changes in phosphor-eIF2a and CHOP expression correlate directly with the severity of airflow obstruction in COPD (10). An increase in CHOP in COPD was associated with increases in caspase 3 and 7, suggesting that the PERK pathway was contributing to heightened apoptosis in COPD. Mucous hypersecretion contributes to symptomatology and morbidity in COPD. IRE1b expression in airway epithelial cells promotes mucus cell development and mucin production.

 

Cigarette Smoke and COPD

Cigarette smoking is the major cause of COPD and accounts for more than 95% of cases in industrialized countries. It is the third largest cause of death in the world. It is now well established that cardiovascular -related comorbidities such as stroke contribute to morbidity and mortality in COPD (18). COPD involves chronic obstructive bronchiolitis with fibrosis, obstruction of small airways, emphysema with enlargement of airspaces, destruction of lung parenchyma, and loss of lung elasticity and closure of small airways. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive airflow limitation and loss of lung function (18). Chronic obstructive bronchiolitis, emphysema and mucus plugging are all characteristic features.

Proteomes of lung samples were taken from chronic cigarette smokers. There were 26 differentially expressed proteins (20 were up-regulated, 5 were down-regulated, and 1 was detected only in the smoking group) compared with nonsmokers. Several UPR proteins were up-regulated in smokers compared with nonsmokers and ex-smokers, including the chaperones, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and calreticulin; a foldase, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), and enzymes involved in antioxidant defense (18). Indeed, a UPR response in the human lung occurs in cigarette smoking that is rapid in onset, concentration dependent, and may be partially reversible with smoking cessation.
Of the proteins reported in chronic smokers, four are involved in translation and ribosome formation (60S acidic ribosomal protein P2, heat shock protein 27, and elongation factors-1b and -1d). Heat shock protein 27 inhibits formation of the large and small ribosomal complex, and 60S acidic ribosomal protein P2 associates with elongation factor-2 to form the large and small ribosomal complex. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and ATP synthase subunit beta were up-regulated, and the inflammatory protein S100-A9/calgranulin C, an EF hand calcium-binding protein, was down-regulated (19).

Conclusion

The current status of a consolidated view of chronic pulmonary fibrotic diseases could not have been envisioned in a 19th century scientific framework. There was no scientific guideline for constructing such a perspective. I have written this perspective on lung diseases keeping in memory the contributions of my mentor, Averill A. Liebow. I have not included pulmonary carcinoma in this discussion, although it too has a place. It was in 1927 that Otto Warburg conducted his historic work with rediscovery of the observation of Louis Pasteur more than a half century earlier in his observation of aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. The mitochondrion was not known then, which he referred to as “grana”. There was no clear mechanism for such a phenomenon. This discussion based on a growing body of work brings greater clarity to the relationship between lung development, the aging of pulmonary tissue, and the process of tissue remodeling, with a more unified view of pulmonary degeneration that even applies to pulmonary hypertension.

 

References

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  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress enhances fibrosis through IRE1a-mediated degradation of miR-150 and XBP-1 splicing. F Heindryckx, F Binet, M Ponticos, K Rombouts, J Lau, J Kreuger & P Gerwins. EMBO Mol Med 2016; 8(7): 729–744. DOI 10.15252/emmm.201505925.

 

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Protein regulator of HIV replication

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

Updated 11/26/2015

 

Closing the loop on an HIV escape mechanism

University of Delaware

http://www.rdmag.com/news/2015/11/closing-loop-hiv-escape-mechanism

 

Tatyana Polenova, professor of chemistry and biochemistry at UD (background, left), with her UD research team involved in the HIV study. Next to her is Huilan Zhang. In the foreground, from left, are Guangjin Hou and Manman Lu.

http://www.rdmag.com/sites/rdmag.com/files/newsletter-ads/CHEM-Polenova_Research_Groups-111015-015.jpg

Tatyana Polenova, professor of chemistry and biochemistry at UD (background, left), with her UD research team involved in the HIV study. Next to her is Huilan Zhang. In the foreground, from left, are Guangjin Hou and Manman Lu.

 

Nearly 37 million people worldwide are living with HIV. When the virus destroys so many immune cells that the body can’t fight off infection, AIDS will develop. The disease took the lives of more than a million people last year.

For the past three and a half years, a team of researchers from six universities, led by the University of Delaware and funded by the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation, has been working to uncover new information about a protein that regulates HIV’s capability to hijack a cell and start replicating. Their findings, reported recently in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciencespoint to a new avenue for developing potential strategies to thwart the virus.

The team included scientists from UD, the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Carnegie Mellon University, the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Florida State University and Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. They used a combination of high-tech tools and techniques, including magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and computer simulations of molecules, to examine the interactions between HIV and the host-cell protein cyclophilin A (CypA), right down to the movement of individual atoms.

“In a nutshell, we found that the infectivity of HIV is regulated by the motions of these proteins,” says Tatyana Polenova, professor of chemistry and biochemistry at the University of Delaware, who led the study. “It’s a subtle regulation strategy that does not involve major structural changes in the virus.”

Sixty times smaller than a red blood cell, HIV contains a cone-shaped shell, or capsid, made of protein, which surrounds two strands of RNA and the enzymes the virus needs for replication. Like any virus, HIV can only produce copies of itself once it has invaded a host organism. Then it will begin directing certain host cells to begin producing the virus.

But how does HIV invade a cell? In humans, the protein CypA can either promote or inhibit viral infection through interactions with the HIV capsid, although the exact mechanism is not yet known. A portion of the HIV capsid protein, called the CypA loop, is responsible for binding to the CypA in the human host cell. Once this occurs, the virus typically becomes infectious.

However, a change of just one amino acid in the CypA loop can cause the virus to operate opposite from how it does normally, allowing the virus to become non-infectious when CypA is present, and to become infectious when there is no CypA present. Such changes are called “escape mutations,” Polenova says, because they allow the virus to “escape” from its dependence on CypA.

To home in on this escape mechanism, the research team examined assemblies of different variants of HIV capsid protein complexed with CypA. Using magic-angle-spinning NMR, they recorded the motions in these assemblies, atom by atom, on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to milliseconds, from a billionth of a second to a thousandth of a second.

The team found that a reduction in the naturally occurring motions in the binding region due to the mutations allowed the virus to escape from CypA dependence. Magic-angle-spinning NMR experiments provided a direct probe of these motions, recording the changes in the magnetic interactions between nuclei. Computer simulations allowed the team to visualize the motions.

Some portions of the capsid protein do not move at all or move only a little while other portions undergo large-amplitude motions distributed over a wide range of time scales, with the most dynamic region being the CypA loop. Polenova says it is rather surprising that such extensive motions are present in the assembled capsid, and that these dynamics could be detected by both NMR and computer simulations.

“It is the first time that quantitative agreement between experiment and computation was achieved in a dynamics study, and it’s particularly exciting that this was attained for such a complex system,” Polenova says. “We hope this work may guide the development of new therapeutic interventions, such as small molecules that would serve as interactors with the HIV capsid and inhibit these dynamics.”

Polenova says the diverse team of researchers, with expertise in HIV virology, structural biology, biophysics and biochemistry, was critical to the study’s success, along with access to national high-field NMR facilities through the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. The team was assembled through the NIH-funded Pittsburgh Center for HIV Protein Interactions. Led by Prof. Angela Gronenborn, the center brings together high-caliber scientists and facilities to elucidate the interactions of HIV proteins with host cell factors.

 

Atomic-resolution structure of the CAP-Gly domain of dynactin on polymeric microtubules determined by magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy

 

Significance

Microtubules and their associated proteins are central to most cellular functions. They have been extensively studied at multiple levels of resolution; however, significant knowledge gaps remain. Structures of microtubule-associated proteins bound to microtubules are not known at atomic resolution. We used magic angle spinning NMR to solve a structure of dynactin’s cytoskeleton-associated protein glycine-rich (CAP-Gly) domain bound to microtubules and to determine the intermolecular interface, the first example, to our knowledge, of the atomic-resolution structure of a microtubule-associated protein on polymeric microtubules. The results reveal remarkable structural plasticity of CAP-Gly, which enables CAP-Gly’s binding to microtubules and other binding partners. This approach offers atomic-resolution information of microtubule-binding proteins on microtubules and opens up the possibility to study critical parameters such as protonation states, strain, and dynamics on multiple time scales.

 

Microtubules and their associated proteins perform a broad array of essential physiological functions, including mitosis, polarization and differentiation, cell migration, and vesicle and organelle transport. As such, they have been extensively studied at multiple levels of resolution (e.g., from structural biology to cell biology). Despite these efforts, there remain significant gaps in our knowledge concerning how microtubule-binding proteins bind to microtubules, how dynamics connect different conformational states, and how these interactions and dynamics affect cellular processes. Structures of microtubule-associated proteins assembled on polymeric microtubules are not known at atomic resolution. Here, we report a structure of the cytoskeleton-associated protein glycine-rich (CAP-Gly) domain of dynactin motor on polymeric microtubules, solved by magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. We present the intermolecular interface of CAP-Gly with microtubules, derived by recording direct dipolar contacts between CAP-Gly and tubulin using double rotational echo double resonance (dREDOR)-filtered experiments. Our results indicate that the structure adopted by CAP-Gly varies, particularly around its loop regions, permitting its interaction with multiple binding partners and with the microtubules. To our knowledge, this study reports the first atomic-resolution structure of a microtubule-associated protein on polymeric microtubules. Our approach lays the foundation for atomic-resolution structural analysis of other microtubule-associated motors.

 

How Viruses Commandeer Human Proteins

http://www.technologynetworks.com/Proteomics/news.aspx?ID=185156

 

Researchers have produced the first image of an important human protein as it binds with ribonucleic acid (RNA), a discovery that could offer clues to how some viruses, including HIV, control expression of their genetic material.

 

RNA is one of three macromolecules — along with DNA and proteins — essential to all forms of life. By understanding how hnRNP A1 binds to RNA, the scientists may find ways to jam up components of the replication machinery when the protein is coopted by disease.

The team of scientists reveals the mechanism used by the protein, hnRNP A1 to link to the section of RNA, called the ‘hairpin loop.’

They found that hnRNP A1, a protein essential to cell function and virus replication, has a significantly different structure than its only previously known form: binding to DNA.

“We solved the three-dimensional structure of the protein bound to an RNA hairpin derived from the HIV virus,” said Blanton Tolbert, a chemistry professor at Case Western Reserve. “But because the hairpin loop is found in other viruses and throughout healthy cells, our findings may help explain how the protein connects to the other hairpin targets.”

Tolbert began this research six years ago, frustrated that the only information available was the structure of the protein bound to a synthetic DNA, which isn’t its natural target.

Proteins that bind hairpins sense both the structure and the sequence information presented in the loop. The structure of the DNA complex did not demonstrate the molecular recognition that must take place to bind RNA hairpins.

The process

To discover the structure bound to RNA, the researchers combined three techniques: X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and small angle x-ray scattering. Each technique yielded a piece of the puzzle.

To bind to RNA, hnRNP A1 has two domains, RRM1 and RRM2, which are akin to hands. Scientists already knew both hands are needed to connect to RNA.

But the researchers found that, instead of each domain grabbing a section of the loop, only RRM1 makes contact with the RNA. RRM2 acts as support, helping organize RRM1 into the structure needed to conform to a certain section of the loop.

To confirm that the structures are key to binding, the researchers inserted mutations by changing amino acids on the surface of the domains.

Surprisingly, mutations on the far side of RRM1 — the surface not in contact with the RNA but with the RRM2 — caused decoupling at that site and substantially weakened the affinity for RNA.

Without the normal connection between the two domains, RRM1 fails to adopt the geometric shape that conforms to the RNA hairpin loop.

The researchers are further investigating how the protein transmits the effects of RRM2 to RRM1 and bind. They are also exploring the development of antagonistic agents that would disrupt the interaction of the protein with viruses.

 

Natural defense protein against HIV discovered

HIV-1, ERManI, antiretroviral, defense protein

Earlier research had shown that it was possible to interfere with HIV spread but the exact molecular mechanisms had not been identified. For the first time, scientists have identified ERManI (Endoplasmic Reticulum Class I α-Mannosidase) as the essential host protein that slows the spread of HIV-1. Scientists investigated how the four ER-associated glycoside hydrolase family 47 (GH47) α-mannosidases, ERManI, and ER-degradation enhancing α-mannosidase-like (EDEM) proteins 1, 2, and 3, are involved in the HIV-1 envelope (Env) degradation process. Ectopic expression of these four α-mannosidases uncovered that only ERManI inhibited HIV-1 Env expression in a dose-dependent manner. Basically, ERManI is a host enzyme that adds sugars to proteins. The Env glycoprotein is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation pathway for degradation after infecting cells. And ERManI was found to interact with the Env and initiate this degradation pathway.

With this discovery, ERManI has the potential as a new antiretroviral treatment option. Currently there is no cure for HIV-1 and once patients are infected, they have it for life. Current antiretroviral therapies can prolong life but cannot fully cure a patient. ERManI is different from current treatments in the sense that it can help the body protect itself.

 

ERManI (Endoplasmic Reticulum Class I α-Mannosidase) Is Required for HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Degradation via Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Protein Degradation Pathway (Sep 2015)

ERManI (Endoplasmic Reticulum Class I α-Mannosidase) Is Required for HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Degradation via Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Protein Degradation Pathway.

Previously, we reported that the mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) induces HIV-1 envelope (Env) degradation via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway, but the mechanism was not clear. Here we investigated how the four ER-associated glycoside hydrolase family 47 (GH47) α-mannosidases, ERManI, and ER-degradation enhancing α-mannosidase-like (EDEM) proteins 1, 2, and 3, are involved in the Env degradation process. Ectopic expression of these four α-mannosidases uncovers that only ERManI inhibits HIV-1 Env expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, genetic knock-out of the ERManI gene MAN1B1 using CRISPR/Cas9 technology disrupts the TSPO-mediated Env degradation. Biochemical studies show that HIV-1 Env interacts with ERManI, and between the ERManI cytoplasmic, transmembrane, lumenal stem, and lumenal catalytic domains, the catalytic domain plays a critical role in the Env-ERManI interaction. In addition, functional studies show that inactivation of the catalytic sites by site-directed mutagenesis disrupts the ERManI activity. These studies identify ERManI as a critical GH47 α-mannosidase in the ER-associated protein degradation pathway that initiates the Env degradation and suggests that its catalytic domain and enzymatic activity play an important role in this process.

 

T cell editing using CRISPR/Cas9 could revolutionize HIV therapeutics
September 15, 2015   

T cell therapy, HIV

Reinforcing the immune system by engineering lymphocytes to target and destroy viruses has the potential to be an effective therapy for many diseases. One potential approach to this strategy is to alter the genome of lymphocytes so that proteins that are typically hijacked by viruses are no longer present. While conceptually feasible, editing T cells has been challenging in practice; however, with the advent of mammalian cell editing using CRISPR/Cas9, T-cell editing is closer to becoming a reality.

How can CRISPR/Cas9 bring us closer to finding a cure for HIV?

In a study recently published in PNAS, scientists have optimized a protocol to introduce nucleotide replacements that would inhibit CXCR4 expression. The authors streamlined the CRISPR/Cas9 editing process by electroporating Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) into CD4+ T cells. The RNPs, consisting of both a recombinant Cas9 enzyme and guide RNA, vastly improved editing efficiency, ultimately promoting knock-out of the CXCR4 cell-surface receptor. Taken together, these result suggest the potential of a new cell therapy approach for the fight against HIV.

Generation of knock-in primary human T cells using Cas9 ribonucleoproteins
Kathrin Schumann a , b , 1 Steven Lin c , 1 Eric Boyer a , b Dimitre R. Simeonov a , b , d Meena Subramaniam e , f Rachel E. Gate e , f , et al.  PNAS. 2015; 112(33): 10437-10442. http://dx.doi.org:/10.1073/pnas.1512503112

Significance

T-cell genome engineering holds great promise for cancer immunotherapies and cell-based therapies for HIV, primary immune deficiencies, and autoimmune diseases, but genetic manipulation of human T cells has been inefficient. We achieved efficient genome editing by delivering Cas9 protein pre-assembled with guide RNAs. These active Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) enabled successful Cas9-mediated homology-directed repair in primary human T cells. Cas9 RNPs provide a programmable tool to replace specific nucleotide sequences in the genome of mature immune cells—a longstanding goal in the field. These studies establish Cas9 RNP technology for diverse experimental and therapeutic genome engineering applications in primary human T cells.

 

T-cell genome engineering holds great promise for cell-based therapies for cancer, HIV, primary immune deficiencies, and autoimmune diseases, but genetic manipulation of human T cells has been challenging. Improved tools are needed to efficiently “knock out” genes and “knock in” targeted genome modifications to modulate T-cell function and correct disease-associated mutations. CRISPR/Cas9 technology is facilitating genome engineering in many cell types, but in human T cells its efficiency has been limited and it has not yet proven useful for targeted nucleotide replacements. Here we report efficient genome engineering in human CD4+ T cells using Cas9:single-guide RNA ribonucleoproteins (Cas9 RNPs). Cas9 RNPs allowed ablation of CXCR4, a coreceptor for HIV entry. Cas9 RNP electroporation caused up to ∼40% of cells to lose high-level cell-surface expression of CXCR4, and edited cells could be enriched by sorting based on low CXCR4 expression. Importantly, Cas9 RNPs paired with homology-directed repair template oligonucleotides generated a high frequency of targeted genome modifications in primary T cells. Targeted nucleotide replacement was achieved in CXCR4 and PD-1 (PDCD1), a regulator of T-cell exhaustion that is a validated target for tumor immunotherapy. Deep sequencing of a target site confirmed that Cas9 RNPs generated knock-in genome modifications with up to ∼20% efficiency, which accounted for up to approximately one-third of total editing events. These results establish Cas9 RNP technology for diverse experimental and therapeutic genome engineering applications in primary human T cells.

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microglia and brain maintenance

Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Curator

LPBI

 

Mapping mosaicism: Tracing subtle mutations in our brains

Posted on January 14, 2015 by Nancy Fliesler

Posted in All PostsInformation technology

More On: brain developmentDNA sequencinggeneticsmosaicismneurosciencesomatic mutations

DNA sequences were once thought to be the same in every cell, but the story is now known to be more complicated than that. The brain is a case in point: Mutations can arise at different times in brain development and affect only a percentage of neurons, forming a mosaic pattern.

Now, thanks to new technology described last week in Neuron, these subtle “somatic” brain mutations can be mapped spatially across the brain and even have their ancestry traced.

Like my family, who lived in Eastern Europe, migrated to lower Manhattan and branched off to Boston, California and elsewhere, brain mutations can be followed from the original mutant cells as they divide and migrate to their various brain destinations, carrying their altered DNA with them.

“Some mutations may occur on one side of the brain and not the other,” says Christopher Walsh, MD, PhD, chief of Genetics and Genomics at Boston Children’s Hospital and co-senior author on the paper. “Some may be ‘clumped,’ affecting just one gyrus [fold] of the brain, disrupting just a little part of the cortex at a time.”

This tracking capability represents a significant advance for genetics research. And for neuroscientists, it provides a new way to study both the normal brain and brain disorders like epilepsy, autism and intellectual disability.

Walsh and colleagues studied normal brain tissue from a teenage boy who had passed away from other causes. Sampling in more than 30 brain locations, they used deep, highly sensitive, whole-genome sequencing of one neuron at a time—unlike usual methods, which sequence thousands or millions of cells mixed together and simply read out an average.

http://vectorblog.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Walsh-figure3B-v2-1024×735.jpg

The blue and green boxes indicate different degrees of mosaicism (based on proportion of cells affected) in the left half of this teen’s normal brain. The blue shaded area indicates that retrotransposon mutation #1 (blue boxes) is limited to a focal area in the middle frontal gyrus. The empty boxes indicate areas where mutation #1 was not detected. (Courtesy Gilad Evrony, PhD, Boston Children’s Hospital)

Next, using technology developed by Alice (Eunjung) Lee in the lab of Peter Park, PhD, at Harvard Medical School’s Center for Biomedical Informatics, they zeroed in on inserted bits of DNA caused by retrotransposons, one type of mutation that can arise as the brain develops. These essentially served as markers that allowed cell lineages to be traced.

“Our findings are intriguing because they suggest that every normal brain may in fact be a mosaic patchwork of focal somatic mutations, though in normal individuals most are likely silent or harmless,” says Gilad Evrony, PhD, in the Walsh Lab.

http://vectorblog.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Walsh-figure5-1024×509.jpg

This model illustrates the origins of two somatic retrotransposon mutations during prenatal development and their subsequent dissemination in the brain. Insertion #2 (in green) occurred soon after conception; #1 (in blue) happened sometime later during brain development. The ‘pie slices’ show a closeup of the layers of the cerebral cortex. Later in development, additional somatic mutations occurred inside insertions #1 and #2, creating new, smaller sublineages of cells. (Courtesy Gilad Evrony, PhD)

A parallel study from Walsh’s lab in 2014 used single-neuron sequencing to find copy number variants— a different type of mutation affecting the number of copies of chromosomes or chromosome fragments. It, too, found the mutations to be present in normal brains as well as neurologically diseased brains.

Walsh and others speculate that some somatic brain mutations might play a role in autism, epilepsy, schizophrenia and other unsolved neuropsychiatric diseases whose causes are mostly still a mystery.

“It is possible that a whole new class of brain disorders may exist that has not been previously recognized,” says Evrony. “In such disorders, a somatic mutation may subtly affect only one small part of the brain involved in a specific ability, for example language, while sparing the rest of the brain.”

Read more:

 

Tracking subtle brain mutations, systematicallyTool can trace and spatially map “mosaic” mutations in the brain

http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/tracking-subtle-brain-mutations-systematically-300017369.html

BOSTON, Jan. 7, 2015 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ — DNA sequences were once thought to be identical from cell to cell, but it’s increasingly understood that mutations can arise during brain development that affect only certain groups of brain cells. A technique developed at Boston Children’s Hospital allows these subtle mutation patterns to be traced and mapped spatially for the first time. This capability is a significant advance for genetics research and provides a new way to study both the normal brain and brain disorders such as epilepsy and autism.

Described in the January 7th issue of Neuron, the technique uses “deep,” highly sensitive whole-genome sequencing of single neurons and a new technology that identifies inserted bits of DNA caused by retrotransposons, one of several kinds of so-called somatic mutations that can arise as the brain develops.

The technique picks up somatic mutations that affect just a fraction of the brain’s cells, in a “mosaic” pattern. It also allows “lineage tracing,” showing when during brain development the mutations arise and how they spread through brain tissue as the mutated cells grow, replicate and migrate, carrying the mutation with them.

“There is a lot of genetic diversity from one neuron to the other, and this work gets at how somatic mutations are distributed in the brain,” says Christopher Walsh, MD, PhD, chief of Genetics and Genomics at Boston Children’s and co-senior author on the paper. “Some mutations may occur on one side of the brain and not the other. Some may be ‘clumped,’ affecting just one gyrus [fold] of the brain, disrupting just a little part of the cortex at a time.”

The study examined brain tissue from a deceased 17-year-old who had been neurologically normal, sampling in more than 30 brain locations. It builds on work published by the Walsh lab in 2012, which developed methods to sequence the genomes of single neurons, and represents the first time single neurons have been sequenced in their entirety. The single-cell technique is better at detecting subtle mosaicism than usual DNA sequencing methods, which sequence many thousands or millions of cells mixed together and read out an average for the sample.

Somatic brain mutations, affecting just pockets of cells, can be harmful, and have been suggested as a possible cause of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, epilepsy or intellectual disability (see this review article for further background). But they also can be completely benign or have just a subtle effect.

“Our findings are intriguing because they suggest that every normal brain may in fact be a mosaic patchwork of focal somatic mutations, though in normal individuals most are likely silent or harmless,” says Gilad Evrony, PhD, in the Walsh Lab, co-first author on the Neuron paper. “These same technologies can now be used to study the brains of people who died from unexplained neuropsychiatric diseases to determine whether somatic mutations may be the cause.”

Finally, says Evrony, the findings provide a proof-of-principle for a systematic way of studying how brain cells disperse and migrate during development, “something that has not been possible to do before in humans,” he says.

Co-first author Alice Eunjung Lee, PhD, from the lab of Peter Park, PhD, at the Center for Biomedical Informatics at Harvard Medical School, developed the study’s retrotransposon analysis tool, which detects somatic retrotransposon mutations in single-cell sequencing data.

Mirroring these findings, study published by Walsh’s lab in 2014 used single-neuron sequencing to detect copy number variants—another type of mutation affecting the number of copies of chromosomes or chromosome fragments. The study found that these mutations can occur in both normal and neurologically diseased brains.

Evrony and Lee are first authors on the Neuron paper; Walsh and Park are senior authors. The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health (MSTP grant T32GM007753), the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (R01 NS079277 and R01 NS032457), the Louis Lange III Scholarship in Translational Research, the Eleanor and Miles Shore Fellowship, the Research Connection and the Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research at Boston Children’s Hospital, the Paul G. Allen Family Foundation and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

SOURCE Boston Children’s Hospital

 

Beth Stevens: A transformative thinker in neuroscience

Posted on September 29, 2015 by Nancy Fliesler

Posted in All PostsDrug discoveryProfiles

 

More On: Alzheimer’s diseaseautismFM Kirby Neurobiology Centerglial cellsneurosciencesynapse development

http://vector.childrenshospital.org/2015/09/beth-stevens-a-transformative-thinker-in-neuroscience/

https://youtu.be/6DOYTpXkLOY

When 2015 MacArthur “genius” grant winner Beth Stevens, PhD, began studying the role of glia in the brain in the 1990s, these cells—“glue” from the Greek—weren’t given much thought. Traditionally, glia were thought to merely protect and support neurons, the brain’s real players.

But Stevens, from the Department of Neurology and the F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center at Boston Children’s Hospital, has made the case that glia are key actors in the brain, not just caretakers. Her work—at the interface between the nervous and immune systems—is helping transform how neurologic disorders like autism, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia are viewed.

Soon after college graduation in 1993, without prior experience in neuroscience, she helped discoveran interplay between neurons and glial cells known as Schwann cells that controlled production of the nerve insulation known as myelin It was one of the early pieces of evidence that glia and neurons talk to each other.

In 2007, while still a postdoctoral fellow, Stevens showed how star-shaped glial cells called astrocytes influence the development of synapses, or brain connections. Studying neurons, her lab showed that a gene called C1q was markedly more active when astrocytes were present. C1q is an immune gene, one nobody had expected to see in a normal brain. In the context of disease, it initiates the complement cascade, an immunologic pathway for tagging unwanted cells and debris for clearance by other immune cells.

But in healthy developing brains, Stevens showed, C1q was concentrated at developing synapses, or brain connections, apparently marking certain synapses for pruning.

Then in 2012, the Stevens lab showed that microglia—another type of glia usually thought of as immune cells themselves—actively sculpt the brain’s wiring. They literally trim away unwanted, inappropriate synapses by eating them—in the same way they’d engulf and destroy invading bacteria.

http://19g6dy4by8jx1b5cx74fh0f2.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Microglial-cell.jpg

That paper was cited by the journal Neuron as the year’s most influential paper.

The same year, she received a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, honoring her innovative research and scientific leadership.

Stevens’s current investigations are looking at synapse loss—a hallmark of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s—and trying to understand why it occurs. Her lab’s recent work suggests that normal pruning mechanisms that are active during early brain development get re-activated later in life. Intervening with this activation could lead to a new treatment approach, she believes.

Stevens isn’t the only brain researcher at Boston Children’s to become a MacArthur fellow. Neurosurgeon Benjamin Warf, MD, received the honor in 2012.

For more:

 

 

Immune cells “sculpt” brain circuits — by eating excess connections

Posted on June 5, 2012 by Nancy Fliesler

Posted in All PostsDrug discoveryPediatrics

More On: ALSAlzheimer’s diseaseautismbrain developmentepilepsyglaucomaHuntington’s diseaseLou Gehrig’s disease,Parkinson’s diseasesynapse development

https://youtu.be/wb8UAyf8Nhw

The above movie shows an immune cell caught in the act of tending the brain—it’s just eaten away unnecessary connections, or synapses, between neurons.

That’s not something these cells, known as microglia, were previously thought to do. As immune cells, it was thought that their job was to rid the body of unwanted pathogens and debris, by engulfing and digesting them.

The involvement of microglia in the brain’s development has started to be recognized only recently. The latest research finds that microglia tune into the brain’s cues, akin to the way they survey their environment for invading microbes, and get rid of excess synapses the same way they’d dispatch these invaders—by eating them.

It’s a whole other way of understanding how the healthy brain develops—at the hands of cells that were once thought to be merely nerve “glue” (the literal meaning of “glia” from the Greek), playing a protective role to neurons, say investigators Beth Stevens, PhD, and Dori Schafer, PhD, of the F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center at Boston Children’s Hospital.

“In the field of neuroscience, glia have often been ignored,” says Stevens. “But glia aren’t the nerve glue, they’re actively communicating with neurons. People have gotten a new respect for glia and are hungry to know more about them.”

Such knowledge could eventually shed light on brain disorders ranging from autism to Alzheimer’s.

The “eat me” sign

We’re all born with more brain connections than we need. As we begin to encounter our world, they’re trimmed back to fine-tune our circuitry. It’s a bit of an oversimplification, but Stevens and Schafer demonstrated last week in the journal Neuron that when two neurons start talking to each other less – because their connection is no longer important to our lives– the microglia notice that and prune the synapse away.

To study microglia’s pruning activity, Stevens and Schafer used a time-honored model: the visual system. When you cover one eye soon after birth, you force the brain to rewire: Brain connections with the covered eye weaken and those synapses eventually get eliminated.

Using this model, Stevens and Schafer showed that microglia take their cues from a set of signals also used by the immune system, known as the complement cascade. Specifically, microglia carry receptors that recognize the complement protein C3—the same protein found on synapses that are destined for elimination.

“We think that weaker synapses are being tagged with C3, and that microglia are eliminating them just as macrophages would eliminate bacteria,” says Schafer.  “C3 is like an ‘eat me’ signal.”

As a postdoctoral fellow in 2007, Stevens showed that neurons are loaded with complement proteins soon after birth, just when pruning is at its peak. In the new study, she and Schafer deliberately disrupted complement signaling in mice—stripping the microglia of C3 receptors, or blocking those receptors with a drug. When they did so, pruning of irrelevant synapses didn’t occur.

Stevens thinks their findings might have relevance for brain disorders. Developmental brain disorders such as autism, epilepsy or schizophrenia are increasingly seen as disorders of synapse development, and some data suggest that microglia and/or the complement cascade are involved.

At the other end of the spectrum, scientists have noted that microglia—normally in a resting state in adults—are activated in neurodegenerative diseases like glaucoma, Alzheimer’s disease, Lou Gehrig’s disease, Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Subtle changes have been found in synapses that might cause them to be targeted for elimination.

So could targeting microglia or the complement cascade prevent synapse loss or alter pruning in these diseases?  “All this is still very speculative,” Stevens cautions. “We first need to understand normal brain development.”

 

Beth Stevens

Neuroscientist

Assistant Professor of Neurology, F. M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children’s Hospital

Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School

Boston, Massachusetts

Age: 45

Published September 28, 2015

https://www.macfound.org/fellows/946/#sthash.GpHuiEC6.dpuf

Beth Stevens is a neuroscientist whose research on microglial cells is prompting a significant shift in thinking about neuron communication in the healthy brain and the origins of adult neurological diseases. Until recently, it was believed that the primary function of microglia was immunological; they protected the brain by reducing inflammation and removing foreign bodies.

Stevens identified an additional, yet critical, role: the microglia are responsible for the “pruning” or removal of synaptic cells during brain development. Synapses form the connections, or means of communication, between nerve cells, and these pathways are the basis for all functions or jobs the brain performs. Using a novel model system that allows direct visualization of synapse pruning at various stages of brain development, Stevens demonstrated that the microglia’s pruning depends on the level of activity of neural pathways. She identified immune proteins called complement that “tag” (or bind) excess synapses with an “eat me” signal in the healthy developing brain. Through a process of phagocytosis, the microglia engulf or “eat” the synapses identified for elimination. This pruning optimizes the brain’s synaptic arrangements, ensuring that it has the most efficient “wiring.”

Stevens’s discoveries indicate that our adult neural circuitry is determined not only by the nerve cells but also by the brain’s immune cells. Her work suggests that adult diseases caused by deficient neural architecture (such as autism and schizophrenia) or states of neurodegeneration (such as Alzheimer’s or Huntington’s disease) may be the result of impaired microglial function and abnormal activation of this pruning pathway. Stevens is redefining our understanding of how the wiring in the brain occurs and changes in early life and shedding new light on how the nervous and immune systems interact in the brain, both in health and disease.

Beth Stevens received B.S. (1993) from Northeastern University and a Ph.D. (2003) from the University of Maryland. She was a postdoctoral fellow (2005–2008) at Stanford University and is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Neurology at Harvard Medical School and the F. M. Kirby Neurobiology Center at Boston Children’s Hospital. She is also an Institute Member of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. Her scientific papers have appeared in such journals as NeuronScienceProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, and Nature Neuroscience, among others.

– See more at: https://www.macfound.org/fellows/946/#sthash.GpHuiEC6.dpuf

Portraits of scientists who are making a mark on autism research.

http://spectrumnews.org/news/profiles/beth-stevens-casting-immune-cells-as-brain-sculptors/

Beth Stevens: Casting immune cells as brain sculptors

BY NICHOLETTE ZELIADT  /  24 SEPTEMBER 2015

Shortly after Beth Stevens launched her lab at Boston Children’s Hospital in 2008, she invited students from the Newton Montessori School, in a nearby suburb, to come for a visit. The children peered at mouse and rat brains bobbing in fluid-filled jars. They also learned how to position delicate slices of brain tissue on glass slides and inspect them with a microscope.

This visit sparked a running relationship with the school, with a steady stream of students visiting the growing lab each year. Soon it became too complicated to bring so many children to the lab, so Stevens decided to take her neuroscience lessons on the road, visiting a number of local elementary schools each year. Last year, she dropped in on the classrooms of her 5- and 8-year-old daughters, Zoe and Riley.

“The kids got really excited,” Stevens says. “It’s become such a thing that the principal wants me to come back for the whole school.”

Stevens’ enthusiasm for science has left a lasting impression on researchers, too. Her pioneering work points to a surprise role in brain development formicroglia, a type of cell once considered to simply be the brain’s immune defense system, cleaning up cellular debris, damaged tissue and pathogens. But thanks to Stevens, researchers now appreciate that these non-neuronal cells also play a critical role in shaping brain circuits.

In a 2012 discovery that created a buzz among autism researchers, Stevens and her colleagues discovered that microglia prune neuronal connections, calledsynapses, in the developing mouse brain. The trimming of synapses is thought to go awry in autism. And indeed, emerging work from Stevens’ lab hints at a role for microglia in the disorder.

Stevens has already earned praise and several prizes for her work. In 2012, shereceived the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, the most prestigious award that the U.S. government bestows on young scientists. And in October, she’ll deliver one of four presidential lectures at the world’s largest gathering of neuroscientists — the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience — an honor she shares with three neuroscience heavyweights, including two Nobel laureates.

“The field is probably expecting a lot from Beth,” says Jonathan Kipnis, professor of neuroscience at the University of Virginia. Stevens has put microglia at the forefront, Kipnis says. “What used to be a stepchild of neuroscience research is now getting a lot of attention, and I think in part it’s due to her research.”

Curious mind:

Stevens was born in 1970 in Brockton, Massachusetts, where her mother taught elementary school and her father was the school’s principal. As a child, she was deeply inquisitive, eager to understand how things work. She enjoyed collecting bugs and worms, and would analyze these precious specimens in makeshift labs in her backyard.

But a career in science wasn’t on her radar until high school, when she took a biology class with an inspiring teacher named Anthony Cabral. “He totally made me realize that this could be a career, that I could be a scientist,” Stevens says. “It was that one class that changed it, and I’m like, ‘Okay, I’m going to do this.’”

In 1988, she began studying biology at Northeastern University in Boston, which offered an unusual opportunity. It had a unique cooperative education program that allowed Stevens to spend several semesters working full time in medical labs after finishing her coursework.

After that experience, Stevens knew she wanted to find a job in a research lab. After graduating in 1993, she joined her then-boyfriend Rob Graham, now her husband, in Washington, D.C., where he had landed a job in the U.S. Senate. Stevens headed to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Rockville, Maryland, to apply for a job as a research assistant.

At around the same time, neuroscientist R. Douglas Fields was launching his lab at the NIH. He studied how neural impulses influence glia — a class of non-neuronal cells that includes microglia — and shape the structure of the developing brain. Fields readily hired Stevens despite her lack of expertise in neuroscience. “I was impressed with her work ethic, energy and drive,” he says.

Stimulating research:

In Fields’ lab, Stevens used a multi-compartment cell culture system to investigate whether stimulating neurons influences the activity of Schwann cells, glial cells that produce a fatty substance called myelin, which insulates nerves1. She discovered that patterns of neural impulses similar to those that occur during early development influence the maturation of Schwann cells and the production of myelin.

The findings added to mounting evidence that glia and neurons communicate with each other, a newly emerging concept at the time.

“What I loved about the glia research was that there were so few neuroscientists studying it; it was such a mysterious part of neuroscience,” Stevens says. “Those years in Doug’s lab were really exciting because it was a new field.”

Stevens spent five years in Fields’ lab. “She was doing extraordinary work,” Fields says. “She had the potential and the interest to do neuroscience research, and I recommended that she should consider going to graduate school.”

But Stevens didn’t want to give up her position in the lab, and at that time, the NIH did not allow its researchers to have graduate students. So she and Fields convinced the University of Maryland, College Park, just 10 miles away, to allow her to take graduate courses in neuroscience while completing the necessary research for her Ph.D. in Fields’ lab.

In 2000, less than two years after starting graduate school, Stevens published a paper in Science showing that nerves in the peripheral nervous system (located outside the brain and spinal cord) use chemical signals to communicate with Schwann cells2. Two years later, she reported in Neuron that a similar form of communication occurs in the brain, between neurons and oligodendrocytes, the myelin-producing cells in the brain3.

As she was closing in on her Ph.D., Stevens sought career advice from Story Landis, then-director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Landis turned Stevens on to the possibility of starting her own lab one day. “I convinced her that she really had the abilities and energy and intelligence to run an independent research program,” Landis says.

In 2004, Stevens sought a postdoctoral fellowship with neurobiologist Ben Barres at Stanford University. “She was already seen as a leading researcher in the glial field,” recalls Barres, who promptly hired her. “She had done all sorts of beautiful work on glia.”

In Barres’ lab, Stevens continued to explore the dialogue between neurons and glia, turning her attention to star-shaped glia called astrocytes. Barres and his team had discovered that astrocytes help neurons form synapses4. To get a better handle on this process, Stevens examined how astrocytes influence gene expression in neurons in the developing mouse brain.

To her surprise, she found that astrocytes trigger neurons to produce a ‘complement’ protein that is best known for its role in the immune system. There, the protein serves as an ‘eat me’ signal, flagging pathogens and debris for removal. She found that neurons deposit this tag around immature synapses, but not mature ones, in mouse brain tissue, and mice that lack this protein have too many immature synapses. The findings suggested that astrocytes might help eliminate synapses by triggering the complement cascade5.

 

http://spectrumnews.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/20150929ProfileBethStevensChild350.jpg

Young recruit: Beth Stevens’ daughter Riley inspects brain tissue during a visit to her mother’s lab. | Courtesy of Beth Stevens

But it was still unclear exactly how the tagged synapses are cleared. The prime suspects were microglia, the only cells in the brain known to have the receptor for the ‘eat me’ signal.

Stevens set out to test this hypothesis in her own lab: After four years as a postdoc, she had decided to branch out on her own. In 2008, neuroscientist Michael Greenberg — chair of the neurobiology department at Harvard — recruited her to the Harvard-affiliated Boston Children’s Hospital. Even when her lab was in its infancy, she had little trouble convincing new staff to join her.

“A lot of people might be a little hesitant to join a new lab,” says Dorothy Schafer, a former postdoctoral fellow in Stevens’ lab who is now assistant professor of neurobiology at the University of Massachusetts-Worcester. “But I was so excited by the research, and she was so energetic and extremely positive, and just seemed like a very nice person.”

One decision Stevens made early on was to continue to studying microglia in mice rather than experiment with new model systems. “You’ll never see her working on songbirds, because she has this aversion to birds,” Schafer says. “I think they think her curly blond hair is a nest or something, and she’s had really bad experiences with many types of birds dive-bombing her head.”

Just four years into her foray as an independent researcher, Stevens found the proof she had been looking for. In 2012, her team published evidence that microglia eat synapses, especially those that are weak and unused6.

The findings pinned down a new role for microglia in wiring the brain. They also helped to explain how the brain, which starts out with a surplus of neurons, trims some of the excess away. Neuron named the paper its most influential publication of 2012.

Stevens continues to study the function of microglia in the healthy brain, most recently uncovering preliminary evidence that a certain protein serves as a ‘don’t eat me’ tag that protects synapses from being engulfed by microglia. She is also exploring the role of microglia in disorders such as autism.

Several studies suggest that microglia are more active and more numerous in the brains of people with autism than in controls. Stevens and her team are looking at whether the activity of microglia is altered during brain development in mouse models of autism.

 

Immunodulatory Thalidomides in ~ conjugants unleash proteasome degradation on ~ oncoproteins with distinct mechanisms- BRD4,MYC & PIM1 & little collteral damage to 7429 other proteins!

Imagine being able to specifically target a cancer protein for immediate destruction, slipping Robert Louis Stevenson’s notorious black spot into a crevice in the secondary structure and spelling imminent death. Well, this is what Winter et al. (2015) describe in a recent drug discovery report for Science.1 Using phthalimide conjugation, the researchers not only specifically marked BRD4, a transcriptional coactivator important in MYC oncogene upregulation, for proteasomal degradation, but also achieved reduced tumor burdens in vivo.

The research team combined two drugs, thalidomide and JQ1, exploiting the properties of each to create a bifunctional compound, dBET1, that drives the proteasomal degradation of BRD4. JQ1, which in itself is anti-oncogenic, selectively binds BET bromodomains on the transcription factor, thus competitively inhibiting BRD4 activity on chromatin. Thalidomide, a phthalimide-based drug with immunomodulatory properties, binds cereblon (CRBN) in the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complex, which is important in proteasomal protein degradation.

After confirming that the new phthalimide conjugate, dBET1, retained affinity for BRD4 and that this binding was specific, the team used a human acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) cell line, MV4;11, to show that treatment with the conjugate over 18 hours reduced BRD4 abundance. The researchers also found this with dBET1 treatment of other human cancer cell lines (SUM159, MOLM13). Following this, Winter et al. investigated the mechanisms by which dBET1 inhibits BRD4. By focusing primarily on proteasome function, the researchers determined that the reduction in BRD4 abundance in MV4;11 cells is proteasomal and dependent on CRBN binding activity.

Having established targeted proteasomal degradation using the dBET1 conjugate, Winter et al. then investigated the proteomic consequences of treatment in MV4;11 cells. Scientists at the Thermo Fisher Scientific Center for Multiplexed Proteomics (Harvard Medical School) used quantitative proteomics analysis with an isobaric tagging approach to compare the immediate effects of dBET1 treatment following two hours of incubation with the responses to JQ1 and vehicle control. Spectral data analysis identified 7,429 proteins with few differences in response to either treatment. JQ1 treatment reduced levels of MYC and oncoprotein PIM1 similarly to the response following dBET1 incubation. However, treatment with the latter also reduced BRD2, BRD3 and BRD4 abundance, findings that the research team confirmed with specific immunoblotting. Measuring expression of mRNA showed that both treatments reduced levels of MYC and PIM1 abundance. However, Winter et al. found no difference in BRD3 and BRD4, suggesting that dBET1 reduces the protein levels by post-transcriptional regulation.

Investigating the antiproliferative potential of the phthalimide conjugate, dBET1, Winter and coauthors examined apoptotic response in both MV4;11 and DHL4 lymphoma cells, and in primary human AML blast cultures. Compared to JQ1 treatment, dBET1 stimulated a profound and prolonged apoptotic response in both cell lines, suggesting that targeted degradation could be a more effective treatment than target inhibition.

shapes of proteins as they shift from one stable shape to a different, folded one Protein-structural-changes

shapes of proteins as they shift from one stable shape to a different, folded one Protein-structural-changes

Orchestrating the unfolded protein response in health and disease

Randal J. Kaufman Department of Biological Chemistry,
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA J. Clin. Invest. 110:1389–1398 (2002).   http://dx.doi.org:/10.1172/JCI200216886

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the entrance site for proteins destined to reside in the secretory pathway or the extracellular environment, is also the site of biosynthesis for steroids and for cholesterol and many lipids. Given the considerable number of resident structural proteins and biosynthetic enzymes and the high expression of many secreted proteins, the total concentration of proteins in the this organelle can reach 100 mg/ml. The ER relies on an efficient system of protein chaperones that prevent the accumulation of unfolded or aggregated proteins and correct misfolded proteins that are caught in low-energy kinetic traps (see Horwich, this Perspective series, ref. 1).

These chaperone-mediated processes expend metabolic energy to ensure high-fidelity protein folding in the lumen of the ER. For example, the most abundant ER chaperone, BiP/GRP78, uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to promote folding and prevent aggregation of proteins within the ER. In addition, the oxidizing environment of the ER creates a constant demand for cellular protein disulfide isomerases to catalyze and monitor disulfide bond formation in a regulated and ordered manner. Operating in parallel with chaperone dependent protein folding are several “quality control” mechanisms, which ensure that, of all proteins translocated into the ER lumen, only those that are properly folded transit to the Golgi compartment. Proteins that are misfolded in the ER are retained until they reach their native conformation or are retrotranslocated back into the cytosol for degradation by the 26S proteasome. The ER has evolved highly specific signaling pathways to ensure that its protein-folding capacity is not overwhelmed. These pathways, collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), are required if the cell is to survive the ER stress (see Ron, this Perspective series, ref. 2) that can result from perturbation in calcium homeostasis or redox status, elevated secretory protein synthesis, expression of misfolded proteins, sugar/glucose deprivation, or altered glycosylation. Upon accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen, the UPR is activated, reducing the amount of new protein translocated into the ER lumen, increasing retrotranslocation and degradation of ER-localized proteins, and bolstering the protein-folding capacity of the ER. The UPR is orchestrated by the coordinate transcriptional activation of multiple genes, a general decrease in translation initiation, and a concomitant shift in the mRNAs that are translated.

The recent discovery of the mechanisms of ER stress signaling, coupled with the ability to genetically engineer model organisms, has led to major new insights into the diverse cellular and physiological processes that are regulated by the UPR. Here, I summarize current discoveries that have offered insights into the complex regulation of the UPR and its relevance to human physiology and disease.

Glucose and protein folding Early studies demonstrated that both viral transformation and glucose depletion induce transcription of a set of related genes that were termed glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) (3). Since viral transformation increases both the cellular metabolic rate and ATP utilization, it became evident that, in both cases, this signal emanates from the ER as a consequence of energy deprivation. Because proteins have different ATP requirements for protein folding prior to export, it has been proposed that the threshold for UPR activation might differ among various cell types, depending on their energy stores and the amount and nature of the secretory proteins they produce (4). Glucose not only provides the metabolic energy needed by cells but also participates directly in glycoprotein folding as a component of oligosaccharide structures.

The recognition and modification of oligosaccharide structures in the lumen of the ER is intimately coupled to polypeptide folding (5). As the growing nascent chain is translocated into the lumen of the ER, a 14-oligosaccharide core (GlcNAc2Man9Glc3) is added to consensus asparagine residues. Immediately after the addition of this core, the three terminal glucose residues are cleaved by the sequential action of glucosidases I and II to yield a GlcNAc2Man9 structure. If the polypeptide is not folded properly, a UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT) recognizes the unfolded nature of the glycoprotein and reglucosylates the core structure to re-establish the glucose-α(1, 3)–mannose glycosidic linkage. Monoglucosylated oligosaccharides containing this bond bind to the ER-resident protein chaperones calnexin and calreticulin.

This quality control process ensures that unfolded glycoproteins do not exit the ER. Treatment of cells with castanospermine, a transition-state analogue inhibitor of glucosidases I and II, inhibits this monoglucosylation cycle, prevents interaction of unfolded glycoproteins with calnexin and calreticulin, and activates the UPR. Genetic alterations that reduce the nucleotide sugar precursor pool or glycosyltransferase reactions likewise activate the UPR (6). Therefore, the recognition of altered carbohydrate structures is in some manner linked to UPR activation.

The UPR in yeast and higher eukaryotes On a cellular level, the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen induces the transcription of a large set of genes whose products increase the ER’s volume or its capacity for protein folding or promote the degradation of misfolded proteins through the process of ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) (7). For example, transcription of the ER protein chaperone BiP is a classical marker for UPR activation in yeast and mammalian cells (8). BiP binds hydrophobic exposed patches on the surfaces of unfolded proteins and interactive sites on unassembled protein subunits, and it releases its polypeptide substrates upon ATP binding.

In parallel, as Ron (this Perspective series, ref. 2) details in his accompanying article, translation is attenuated to decrease the protein-folding load. The complex network of physiological responses to ER stress is regulated by only a few ER transmembrane proteins: IRE1, PERK, and ATF6 (9). IRE1, PERK, and ATF6 are proximal sensors that regulate the production and/or quality of basic leucine zipper–containing (bZIP-containing) transcription factors that may form homo- and heterodimers. Combinatorial interactions of these factors generate diversity in responses for different subsets of UPRresponsive genes. In multicellular organisms, if these adaptive responses are not sufficient to relieve ER stress, the cell dies through apoptosis or necrosis.

IRE1-dependent splicing The UPR-signaling pathway was first described less than ten years ago in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Elegant studies identified IRE1 as the sensor of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen. IRE1 is a type 1 transmembrane Ser/Thr protein kinase that also has a site-specific endoribonuclease (RNase) activity. The presence of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen promotes dimerization and trans-autophosphorylation, rendering IRE1 active as an RNase, and allowing it to cleave a 252-base intron from the mRNA encoding the transcription factor HAC1 (10). The 5′ and 3′ ends of HAC1 mRNA are spliced together by tRNA ligase in a process that is independent of the spliceosome and the usual intranuclear machinery for mRNA splicing. Splicing of HAC1 mRNA increases its translational efficiency and alters sequence of the encoded HAC1 protein, yielding a potent transcriptional activator (11) that can bind and activate the UPR elements (UPREs) upstream of many UPR-inducible genes. In S. cerevisiae, the UPR activates transcription of approximately 381 genes (7).

All eukaryotic cells appear to have maintained the essential and unique properties of the UPR present in S. cerevisiae, but higher eukaryotes possess additional sensors that generate diverse, coordinately regulated responses that promote stress adaptation or cell death. The mammalian genome contains two homologues of yeast IRE1 — IRE1α and IRE1β. Whereas IRE1α is expressed in most cells and tissues, with high-level expression in the pancreas and placenta (12), IRE1β expression is prominent only in intestinal epithelial cells (13). Both IRE1 molecules respond to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER, which activate their kinase and, thereby, their RNase activities. The cleavage specificities of IRE1α and IRE1β are similar, if not identical, suggesting that they do not recognize different sets of substrates but rather generate temporally specific and tissue-specific expression (14, 15).

Searching for transcription factors that mediate the UPR, Yoshida et al. defined a mammalian ER stress response element [ERSEI; CCAAT(N9)CCACG] that is necessary and sufficient for UPR gene activation. Using a yeast one-hybrid screen, these authors isolated XBP1, a bZIP transcription factor X-box DNA binding protein (16). Subsequently, several groups demonstrated that XBP1 mRNA is a substrate for mammalian IRE1, much as the HAC1 mRNA in S. cerevisiae is processed by the yeast IRE1; this pathway is also conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans (17–20). On activation of the UPR, XBP1 mRNA is cleaved by IRE1 to remove a 26-nucleotide intron and generate a translational frameshift. As expected given the precedent of HAC1 regulation in yeast, the resulting processed mRNA encodes a protein with a novel carboxy-terminus that acts as a potent transcriptional activator.

Overexpression of either IRE1α or IRE1β is sufficient to activate transcription from a BiP promoter reporter construct (15). Analysis of a minimal UPRE motif (TGACGTGC/A) (21) uncovered a transcriptional defect in IRE1α-null mouse embryo fibroblasts that could be complemented by expression of spliced XBP1 mRNA (20), and Yoshida et al. (unpublished data) recently identified a UPR-inducible gene that uniquely requires IRE1α-mediated splicing of XBP1 mRNA. However, neither IRE1α nor IRE1β is necessary for transcriptional activation of the BiP gene, as judged by the phenotype of IRE1α/β–deleted murine cells (20, 22, 23). These results indicate that a subset of UPR targets require IRE1 but that at least one IRE1-independent pathway exists for UPR-mediated transcriptional induction. Deletion of IRE1α causes embryonic lethality at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) (20, 22, 23). Therefore, although IRE1α is not required for the UPR, it is clearly required for mammalian embryogenesis. XBP1 deletion also causes embryonic lethality, but the mutant embryos can survive up to day E14.5, consistent with the notion that XBP1 acts downstream of IRE1α. XBP1 deletion causes cardiomyopathy and liver hypoplasia (24, 25). In contrast, IRE1β-null mice develop normally but exhibit increased susceptibility to experimentally induced colitis, a phenotype that is consistent with the specific expression of this kinase in the intestinal epithelium (26).

Activation of ATF6 and PERK by ER stress The activating transcription factor ATF6 (16) has been identified as another regulatory protein that, like XBP1, can bind ERSEI elements in the promoters of UPRresponsive genes. There are two forms of ATF6, both synthesized as ER transmembrane proteins. ATF6α (90 kDa) and ATF6β (110 kDa, also known as CREB-RP) both require the presence of the transcription factor CBF (also called NF-Y) to bind ERSEI (27–30).

On activation of the UPR, both forms of ATF6 are processed to generate 50- to 60-kDa cytosolic, bZIP containing transcription factors that migrate to the nucleus (27). Processing of ATF6 by site-1 protease (S1P) and site-2 protease (S2P) occurs within the transmembrane segment and at an adjacent site exposed to the ER lumen. S1P and S2P are the processing enzymes that cleave the ER-associated transmembrane sterolresponse element–binding protein (SREBP) upon cholesterol deprivation (31). The cytosolic fragment of cleaved SREBP migrates to the nucleus to activate transcription of genes required for sterol biosynthesis. Interestingly, although the mechanism regulating ATF6 processing is similar to that regulating SREBP processing (32), the UPR only elicits ATF6 processing, whereas sterol deprivation alone induces SREBP processing. The SREBP cleavage–activating protein (SCAP) confers specificity for SREBP transport to the Golgi compartment, and consequently cleavage in response to sterol deprivation (33). It is unknown whether another cleavage-activating protein, analogous to SCAP but active only following induction of the UPR, promotes the specific cleavage and activation of ATF6 by S1P and S2P.

Transcription of UPR-responsive genes is induced when the cleaved form of ATF6 activates the XBP1 promoter. Therefore, signaling through ATF6 and IRE1 merges to induce XBP1 transcription and mRNA splicing, respectively (Figure 1, a and b). ATF6 increases XBP1 transcription to produce more substrate for IRE1- mediated splicing that generates more active XBP1, providing a positive feedback for UPR activation. However, cells that lack either IRE1α or ATF6 cleavage can induce XBP1 mRNA (20). These two pathways may thus provide parallel signaling pathways for XBP1 transcriptional induction. Alternatively, another pathway — possibly mediated by the ER-localized protein kinase PERK (see Ron, this Perspective series, ref. 2) — may also contribute to induction of XBP1 mRNA. The binding specificities of XBP1 and ATF6 are similar, although ATF6 binding requires CBF binding to an adjacent site, whereas XBP1 binds independently (17, 20, 21, 34). These binding specificities provide another avenue for complementary interaction between the IRE1-XBP1 and ATF6 pathways at the level of transcriptional activation. In addition, these transcription factors might regulate transcription from a second ERSE (ERSEII), which also contains a CCACG motif (35).

In parallel with the activation of ATF6 processing and the consequent changes in gene transcription, the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER also alters cellular patterns of translation. The protein kinase PERK has been implicated in this aspect of the ER stress response (see Ron, this Perspective series, ref. 2). Activated PERK phosphorylates the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) and attenuates general protein synthesis. Inactivation of the PERK-eIF2α phosphorylation pathway decreases cells’ ability to survive ER stress (36, 37). The PERK pathway promotes cell survival not only by limiting the protein-folding load on the ER, but also by inducing transcription of UPR- activated genes, one-third of which require phosphorylation of eIF2α for their induction (36). Preferential translation of the transcription factor ATF4 allows for continued activation of these genes under conditions of stress, when general protein synthesis is inhibited (36, 37).

A coordinated mechanism for activation One puzzling question about the UPR is how three independent sensors are activated by a common stimulus, the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen. BiP, which negatively regulates the UPR, interacts with all three sensors, IRE1, PERK, and ATF6, under nonstressed conditions and may indeed be the master regulator of UPR activation.

Upon accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER, BiP is released from IRE1, PERK, and ATF6. It is believed that the unfolded proteins bind BiP and sequester it from interacting with IRE1, PERK, and ATF6 to elicit their activation. In this manner, BiP senses both the level of unfolded proteins and the energy (ATP) level in the cell in regulating the UPR. Following release from BiP, IRE1 and PERK are each free to undergo spontaneous homodimerization mediated by their lumenal domains and to become phosphorylated by their endogenous kinase activities (38, 39). BiP interaction with ATF6 prevents trafficking of ATF6 to the Golgi compartment. For this reason, BiP release permits ATF6 transport to the Golgi compartment, where it gains access to S1P and S2P proteases (32). The regulation of signaling through the free level of BiP is an attractive hypothesis providing a direct mechanism by which all three ER stress sensors could be activated by the same stimulus. In addition, the increase in BiP during the UPR would provide a negative feedback to turn off UPR signaling. However, in certain cells, different stress conditions can selectively activate only one or two of the ER stress sensors. For example, in pancreatic β cells, glucose limitation appears to activate PERK prior to activation of IRE1 (D. Scheuner and R.J. Kaufman, unpublished results). It will be important to elucidate how general BiP repression permits the selective activation of individual components of the UPR that mediate various downstream effects.

Signaling the UPR in eukaryotes

Signaling the UPR in eukaryotes

Figure 1 Signaling the UPR in eukaryotes.

http://dm5migu4zj3pb.cloudfront.net/manuscripts/16000/16886/small/JCI0216886.f1.gif

Three proximal sensors, IRE1, PERK, and ATF6, coordinately regulate the UPR through their various signaling pathways. Whereas IRE1 and PERK are dispensable for many aspects of the response, ATF6 cleavage is required for UPR transcriptional induction and appears to be the most significant of these effectors in mammalian cells. BiP negatively regulates these pathways. BiP interacts with ATF6 to prevent its transport to the Golgi compartment (a). BiP binds to the lumenal domains of IRE1 (b) and PERK (c) to prevent their dimerization. As unfolded proteins accumulate, they bind BiP and reduce the amount of BiP available to bind and inhibit activation of IRE1, PERK, and ATF6. (a) BiP release from ATF6 permits transport to the Golgi compartment. In the Golgi, ATF6 is cleaved by S1P and S2P proteases to yield a cytosolic fragment that migrates to the nucleus to activate transcription of responsive genes, including XBP1. (b) BiP release from IRE1 permits dimerization to activate its kinase and RNase activities to initiate XBP1 mRNA splicing. XBP1 splicing removes a 26-base intron, creating a translational frameshift to yield a more potent transcriptional activator. (c) BiP release permits PERK dimerization and activation to phosphorylate Ser51 on eIF2α to reduce the frequency of AUG initiation codon recognition. As eIF2α phosphorylation reduces the functional level of eIF2, the general rate of translation initiation is reduced. However, selective mRNAs, such as ATF4 mRNA, are preferentially translated under these conditions, possibly by the presence of open reading frames within the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA. Upon recovery from the UPR, GADD34 targets PP1 to dephosphorylate eIF2α and increase protein translation.

The UPR as a mediator of programmed cell death In contrast to UPR-signaling adaptation in response to ER stress, prolonged UPR activation leads to apoptotic cell death (Figure 2). The roles of several death-promoting signaling pathways have been shown by analysis of specific gene-deleted cells. Activated IRE1 recruits c-Jun-N-terminal inhibitory kinase (JIK) and the cytosolic adaptor TRAF2 to the ER membrane (22, 40). TRAF2 activates the apoptosis-signaling kinase 1 (ASK1), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) (41). Activated ASK1 leads to activation of the JNK protein kinase and mitochondriadependent caspase activation (40–42).

ER insults lead to caspase activation by mitochondria/APAF-1–dependent and –independent pathways. ER stress promotes cytochrome c release from mitochondria, possibly by c-ABL kinase (43) or calcium (44). However, APAF1–/– cells are susceptible to ER stress–induced apoptosis, indicating that the mitochondrial pathway is not essential (45). Caspase-12 is an ER-associated proximal effector in the caspase activation cascade, and cells lacking this enzyme are partially resistant to inducers of ER stress (46). ER stress induces TRAF2 release from procaspase 12, allowing it to bind activated IRE1. As shown in Figure 2, release of TRAF2 permits clustering of procaspase-12 at the ER membrane, leading to its activation (40). Caspase-12 can activate caspase-9, which in turn activates caspase- 3 (47). Procaspase-12 can also be activated by m-calpain in response to calcium release from the ER, although the physiological significance of this pathway is not known (48). In addition, upon ER stress, procaspase-7 is activated and recruited to the ER membrane (49). These findings support the notion that ER stress leads to several redundant pathways for caspase activation.

A second death-signaling pathway activated by ER stress is mediated by transcriptional activation of genes encoding proapoptotic functions. Activation of UPR sensor IRE1, PERK, or ATF6 leads to transcriptional activation of CHOP/GADD153, a bZIP transcription factor that potentiates apoptosis (see Ron, this Perspective series, ref. 2).

The UPR in health and disease Primary amino acid sequence contains all the information for a protein to attain its final folded conformation. However, many folding intermediates exist along the folding pathway (see Horwich, this Perspective series, ref. 1), and some of these intermediates can become irreversibly trapped in low-energy states and activate the UPR. Clearance of such misfolded species requires a functional ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, which is regulated by the UPR. Proteasomal degradation of ER-associated misfolded proteins is required to protect from UPR activation. Proteasomal inhibition is sufficient to activate the UPR, and, in turn, genes encoding several components of ERAD are transcriptionally induced by the UPR (7). Therefore, it is to be expected that UPR activation and impaired ERAD function might contribute to a variety of diseases and that polymorphisms affecting the UPR and ERAD responses could modify disease progression. The following examples provide the best available evidence linking the UPR pathway to the natural history of human diseases and animal models of these diseases.

The UPR and ERAD in genetic disease Many recessive inherited genetic diseases are due to loss  of-function mutations that disturb productive folding and that produce proteins that are either not secreted or not functional. In other cases, protein-folding mutations can interfere with cellular processes, resulting in a gain of function and a dominant pattern of inheritance. In several instances, UPR activation by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER is known to contribute to disease progression. The distinction between these two classes of genetic disease is important, because gain-of-function protein-misfolding mutations will be less amenable to treatment by gene therapy to deliver a wild-type copy of the mutant gene.

One well-characterized protein-folding defect results from a mutation that leads to type 1 diabetes. The Akita mouse has a gain-of-function Cys96Tyr mutation in the proinsulin 2 (Ins2) gene; this mutation disrupts proinsulin folding. The mutant protein is retained in the ER of the pancreatic β cell and activates the UPR. Crucially, the progressive development of diabetes in this model is not solely due to the lack of insulin but is rather a consequence of the misfolded protein accumulation, UPR activation, and β cell death. When bred into a Chop–/–background, the Akita mutation causes a lesser degree of β cell death and delayed onset of diabetes (50), indicating that the loss of at least one downstream signaling component of the UPR can ameliorate pathogenesis in this setting.

Signaling UPR-mediated cell death

Signaling UPR-mediated cell death

Figure 2 Signaling UPR-mediated cell death.

http://dm5migu4zj3pb.cloudfront.net/manuscripts/16000/16886/medium/JCI0216886.f2.jpg

The activation of procaspase-12 is likely the major pathway that induces apoptosis in response to ER stress. Upon activation of the UPR, c-Jun-N-terminal inhibitory kinase (JIK) release from procaspase-12 permits clustering and activation of procaspase-12. Caspase-12 activates procaspase-9 to activate procaspase-3, the executioner of cell death. In addition, activated IRE1 binds JIK and recruits TRAF2, which signals through apoptosis-signaling kinase 1 (ASK1) and JNK to promote mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. In addition, in vitro studies suggest that localized calcium release from the ER activates m-calpain to cleave and activate procaspase-12. Upon UPR activation, procaspase-7 is activated and recruited to the ER membrane. Finally, IRE1, PERK, and ATF6 induce transcription of several genes encoding apoptotic functions, including CHOP/GADD153. CSP, caspase; pCSP, procaspase.

Deficiency in α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI, also known as α1-antitrypsin) results in emphysema and destructive lung disease in one out of 1,800 births. However, a subgroup of affected individuals develop chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma as a consequence of a secretion defect in the misfolded protein at the site of synthesis, the hepatocyte. This is the most common genetic cause of liver disease in children. The Z allele of the α1 gene PI (Glu342Lys mutation) produces a protein that polymerizes and is retained in the ER for degradation by the proteasome (see Lomas and Mahadeva, this Perspective series, ref. 51; and Perlmutter, this series, ref. 52). While α1-PI Z neither binds BiP nor activates the UPR, analysis of fibroblasts obtained from these patients demonstrates that individuals susceptible to liver disease have inherited a second trait that slows degradation of the misfolded protein in the ER (53), consistent with the idea that polymorphisms that reduce ERAD function can exacerbate pathogenesis of certain diseases.

There are numerous additional genetic misfolding diseases that are also likely influenced by UPR signaling. Because BiP release from IRE1, PERK, or ATF6 can activate the UPR, the expression of any wild-type or mutant protein that binds BiP can have a similar effect. In contrast, misfolded proteins that do not bind BiP are unlikely to activate the UPR. For example, cystic fibrosis is due to mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. Approximately 70% of patients with this disease carry a common mutation, deletion of Phe508, that results in a molecule that is retained in the ER and eventually degraded by the proteosome (see Gelman and Kopito, this Perspective series, ref. 54). Although expression of ∆508 CFTR does not activate the UPR in cultured cells, the protein does interact with calnexin, as well as HSP70, and requires ERAD function for cell survival.

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) results from misfolding mutations in procollagen that produce molecules that bind BiP and activate the UPR (55). Interestingly, Wolcott-Rallison syndrome is due to inactivating mutations in the PERK gene. Affected individuals, as well as mice with deletions in Perk, display osteoporosis and deficient mineralization throughout the skeletal system (56, 57), the same defects that are observed in OI. Procollagen type I accumulates to high levels and mature collagen is not detected in bone and osteoblasts from PERKnull mice. Osteoblasts from PERK-null humans and mice display fragmented and distended ER that is filled with electron-dense material (56, 57). These observations suggest that procollagen type 1 uniquely requires PERK function to maintain its transport out of the ER, processing, and secretion In this case, PERK may be required to limit procollagen synthesis so that it does not saturate the ER protein-folding capacity.

The UPR and ERAD in conformational diseases Diseases caused by expansion of polyglutamine repeats and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease, represent a large class of conformational diseases associated with accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates in and around affected neurons. Recent evidence indicates that the pathogenesis of these diseases is due to a defect in proteasomal function that results in UPR activation, leading to cell death. The protein aggregates in these diseases are localized to the nucleus or the cytoplasm and would not be predicted to disturb ER function directly. Nevertheless, they have been found in some cases to activate the UPR and to promote cell death. Analysis of the polyglutamine repeat associated with the spinocerebrocellular atrophy protein (SCA3) in Machado-Joseph disease suggests that cytoplasmic accumulation of the SCA3 aggregate can inhibit proteasome function, thereby interfering with ERAD to induce the UPR and elicit caspase-12 activation (41, 58). These findings support the idea that the UPR can signal the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the cytosol via proteasomal inhibition and disruption of ERAD function.

Parkinson disease is the most common movement disorder, affecting about 1% of individuals 65 years of age or older. Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP) results from defects in the Parkin gene (59), which encodes a ubiquitin protein ligase (E3) that functions with ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH7 or UbcH8 to tag proteins for degradation. Overexpression of Parkin suppresses cell death associated with ER stress (60). Inherited Parkinson disease is associated with the accumulation in the ER of dopaminergic neurons of PAEL-R, a putative transmembrane receptor protein that is detected in an insoluble form in the brains of AR-JP patients (61). The accumulation of PAEL-R results from defective Parkin that does not maintain the proteasome-degrading activity necessary to maintain ER function (62). Other, still-unidentified substrates of the Parkin E3 ligase may also be relevant to the pathogenesis of AR-JP.

The UPR in diabetes The metabolism of glucose is tightly controlled at the levels of synthesis and utilization through hormonal regulation. The most dramatic phenotype in Wolcott-Rallison syndrome is pancreatic β cell death with infancy onset diabetes (56). A similar defect is observed in PERK-null mice; this defect also correlated with increased apoptosis of β cells (57, 63). In addition, mice with a homozygous Ser51Ala mutation at the PERK phosphorylation site in eIF2α display an even greater β cell loss that appears in utero (36). Therefore, translational control through PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α is required to maintain β cell survival (see Ron, this Perspective series, ref. 2). The more severe β cell loss in mice harboring the Ser51Ala eIF2α mutation suggests that additional eIF2α kinases partially complement the requirement for PERK in β cell function (36)

Glucose not only promotes the secretion of insulin but also stimulates insulin transcription and translation (64–66). Our group has proposed that glucose stimulated proinsulin mRNA translation is regulated by PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α in response to UPR activation 36). As blood glucose declines, energy may become limiting for protein folding in the ER and therefore activate the UPR to promote PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α. Conversely, a rise in blood glucose would turn off the UPR so that translation would accelerate, allowing entry of new preproinsulin into the ER. In this manner, PERK mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α provides a brake on protein synthesis, including proinsulin translation. Continual elevation of blood glucose may also prolong elevated proinsulin translation, eventually activating the UPR as the secretion capacity of the ER is overwhelmed. Therefore, a delicate balance between glucose levels and eIF2α phosphorylation needs to be maintained: Disturbances in either direction may lead to excessive UPR activation, with eventual β cell death.

The insulin resistance and hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes is accommodated by an increase in proinsulin translation. Under these conditions the UPR is activated to compensate for the increased protein-folding requirement in the ER. Prolonged activation of the UPR could contribute to the β cell death associated with insulin resistance. Thus, the signaling mechanisms that β cells use for sensing glucose levels, triggering insulin secretion, and rapidly controlling insulin biosynthesis may have coevolved with ER signaling pathways to support these specialized functions. Pancreatic β cells are exquisitely sensitive to physiological fluctuations in blood glucose, because, in contrast to other cell types, they lack hexokinase, an enzyme with a low affinity but a high capacity for binding glucose. Therefore, in β cells, the production of glucose 6-phosphate and the production of ATP through glycolysis are controlled by glucokinase (67), and the ratio of ATP to ADP correlates directly with the blood glucose level. Periodic decreases in blood glucose level (as occurs between meals) would decrease the ATP/ADP ratio and compromise protein folding in the ER so that the UPR may be frequently activated in these cells. Hence, when glucose levels vary within the normal physiological range, the ER compartment of the β cell may be exposed to greater energy fluctuations than is the ER of other cell types, making the β cell uniquely dependent on the UPR for survival during intermittent decreases in blood glucose levels, as happens between meals. Additionally, the high-level expression of PERK and IRE1α in the pancreas may predispose these kinases to dimerization and activation in response to intermittent stress.

The UPR in organelle expansion The UPR is required for ER expansion that occurs upon differentiation of highly specialized secretory cells, but ER membrane expansion can also proceed independently of UPR activation. Overexpression of membrane proteins, such as HMG CoA reductase or the peroxisomal protein Pex15, promotes the expansion of smooth membranes without UPR activation (68, 69), as does overexpression of the p180 ribosome acceptor in the rough ER membrane (70). Conversely, protein overexpression, even under circumstances in which secretory capacity is unchanged (as occurs following the induction of high levels of cytochrome p450), can activate the UPR to induce ER chaperone levels to match the expanded membrane area (71, 72).

During the terminal differentiation of certain secretory cells, such as those in the pancreas or liver, membrane expansion is accompanied by a dramatic increase in protein secretion. Likewise, upon B cell maturation into high-level antibody-secreting plasma cells, the ER compartment expands approximately fivefold to accommodate the large increase in Ig synthesis. The requirement for the UPR in this latter process has been demonstrated in XBP1–/– cells. Since deletion of XBP1 produces an embryonic-lethal phenotype at day E14.5, the role of XBP1 in B and T cell development had to be studied in immunoincompetent RAG1–/– mice reconstituted with XBP1–/– embryonic stem cells (73). Work in these chimeric mice demonstrated that XBP1 is required for high-level Ig production. Interestingly, the induction of Ig heavy-chain and light-chain gene rearrangement and the assembly and transport of Igµ to the surface of the B cells occurred normally. However, plasma cells were not detected, suggesting a role for XBP1 in plasma cell differentiation or survival.

These findings support the hypothesis that induction of Ig synthesis activates the UPR to induce ER expansion to accommodate the high-level antibody expression. Alternatively, activation of the UPR may be part of the differentiation program that occurs prior to induction of high-level antibody synthesis. Plasma cell differentiation is stimulated in vivo by treatment with LPS or by ligation of CD40 receptors, treatments that activate the innate immune response and have been shown to induce XBP1 mRNA splicing (19). Thus, the UPR may contribute to a programmed response to signals that increase a cell’s protein-secretory demand.

The UPR in hyperhomocysteinemia. The association between high levels of serum homocysteine and the development of ischemic heart disease and stroke is supported by substantial epidemiological data. Unfortunately, it is not known whether homocysteine is the underlying cause of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Severe hyperhomocysteinemia is caused by mutation in the cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) gene, whose product is a vitamin B6–dependent enzyme required for the conversion of homocysteine to cysteine. Elevated homocysteine is also associated with vitamin B deficiency. In cultured vascular endothelial cells, homocysteine induces protein misfolding in the ER by interfering with disulfide bond formation, and it activates the UPR to induce expression of several ER stress response proteins, such as BiP, GRP94, CHOP, and HERP (74–76). Homocysteine also activates apoptosis in a manner that requires an intact IRE1-signaling pathway (76).

These findings suggest that homocysteine acts intracellularly to disrupt ER homoeostasis. Indeed, recent studies confirm that induction of hyperhomocysteinemia elicits UPR activation in the livers of normal or Cbs+/– mice (77). In addition, hyperhomocysteinemia activates SREBP cleavage, leading to intracellular accumulation of cholesterol (77). Increased cholesterol biosynthesis may explain the hepatic steatosis and possibly the atherosclerotic lesions associated with hyperhomocysteinemia. Finally, hyperhomocysteinemia accelerates atherosclerosis in ApoE–/– mice (78, 79), although the molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

Hyperhomocysteinemia is also associated with increased amyloid production and increased amyloid-mediated neuronal death in animal models of Alzheimer disease (80). These observations suggest that the UPR may link the disease etiologies of hyperhomocysteinemia and Alzheimer disease. HERP, a homocysteine-induced ER stress–responsive gene, appears to be involved in amyloid β-protein (Aβ) accumulation, including the formation of senile plaques and vascular Aβ deposits (81), and that it interacts with both presenilin-1 (PS1) and presenilin-2 (PS2), thus regulating presenilin-mediated Aβ generation. Immunohistochemical analysis of brains from patients with Alzheimer disease reveals intense HERP staining in activated microglia in senile plaques.

The UPR in cancer Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors that display increased malignancy, resistance to therapy, and poor prognosis. Hypoxia in the tumor results from increased demand due to dysregulated cell growth and from vascular abnormalities associated with cancerous tissue. The importance of hypoxia has been seen in the clinic, since it predicts for poor outcome of treatments, independent of treatment modality. Hypoxia activates the UPR, whose downstream signaling events can undermine the efficacy of treatment. Tumor cells need to adapt to the increasingly hypoxic environment that surrounds them as they grow, and the induction of the UPR is key to this response. Induction of the ER stress response genes, for example BiP and GRP94, in cancerous tissue correlates with malignancy, consistent with their antiapoptotic function (82). In addition, the UPR confers resistance to topoisomerase inhibitors, such as etoposide, and some UPR-induced genes directly mediate drug resistance via the multi-drug-resistance gene MDR. Therefore, approaches to prevent UPR activation in cancerous cells may significantly improve treatment outcome.

The proteasome inhibitor PS-341 is now in earlyphase clinical evaluation for the treatment of multiple myeloma, a clonal B cell tumor of differentiated plasma cells (83). The mechanism of PS-341 function is thought to be inhibition of IκB degradation, which prevents activation of the antiapoptotic transcription factor NF-κB. However, proteasomal inhibition would also prevent ERAD. As high-level heavy- or light-chain Ig production is likely associated with a certain degree of protein misfolding, it is possible that inhibition of ERAD function may be selectively toxic to B cell myelomas through activation of the UPR and apoptosis.

The UPR and viral pathogenesis The two major mediators of the IFN-induced arm of the innate immune response are evolutionarily related to IRE1 and PERK. The kinase/endoribonuclease domain of IRE1 is homologous to RNaseL, and the protein kinase domain of PERK is related to the double-stranded RNA–activated (dsRNA-activated) eIF2α protein kinase PKR. RNase L and PKR mediate the IFN induced antiviral response of the host, which is required to limit viral protein synthesis and pathogenesis. As part of the innate immune response to viral infection, RNase L and PKR are activated by dsRNAs produced as intermediates in viral replication. In contrast to activation by dsRNA, IRE1 and PERK are activated by ER stress, which can be induced by high-level viral glycoprotein expression. All enveloped viruses produce excess glycoproteins that could elicit PERK and IRE1 activation to meet the need for increased folding and secretory capacity. More studies will be required to elucidate the role of the UPR in various viral diseases.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus encoding a single polyprotein. Polyprotein cleavage generates at least ten polypeptides, including two glycoproteins, E1 and E2. A large amount of E1 forms disulfide–cross-linked aggregates with E2 in the ER (84). Since the accumulation of misfolded α1-PI elicits UPR activation, with subsequent hepatocyte death and hepatocellular carcinoma, it is possible that the aggregated E1/E2 complexes in the HCV-infected hepatocyte also contribute to hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Future studies should identify whether these glycoprotein aggregates activate the UPR to mediate the hepatocyte cell death and transformation associated with the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

The UPR in tissue ischemia Finally, neuronal death due to reperfusion after ischemic injury is associated with activation of the UPR (85, 86). Immediately after reperfusion, protein synthesis is inhibited, due at least in part to phosphorylation of eIF2α; this inhibition may represent a protective mechanism to prevent further neuron damage. Recent studies support the idea that eIF2α phosphorylation in response to reperfusion injury is mediated by PERK and hence that it depends on the UPR (87). If so, UPR activation prior to ischemic injury might protect the brain and other tissues from cell death during periods of reperfusion.

Summary A variety of approaches have been employed to identify the UPR signaling components, their function, and their physiological role. Yeast genetics allowed the definition of the basic ER stress–signaling pathway. The identification of homologous and parallel signaling pathways in higher eukaryotes has produced a mechanistic framework the cell uses to sense and compensate for ER over-load and stress. The high-level tissue-specific expression patterns of several ER stress–signaling molecules indicated the pancreas and intestine as organs that require UPR for physiological function. Analysis of UPR-induced gene expression established that protein degradation is required to reduce the stress of unfolded protein accumulation in the ER. Major advances in identifying UPR function and rele vance to disease were derived from mutation of UPR signaling components in model organisms and the identification of mutations in humans.

Despite tremendous progress, our knowledge of the UPR pathway remains incomplete. Further studies promise to expand our understanding of how ER stress impacts the other cellular signaling pathways. It will be very exciting and informative to understand how the UPR varies when critical components are genetically manipulated by deletion or other types of mutations. In addition, although the accumulation of unfolded protein in the ER is now known to contribute to pathogenesis in a variety of diseases, there are still few therapeutic approaches that target these events. With a greater understanding of protein-folding processes, pharmacological intervention with chemical chaperones to promote proper folding becomes feasible, as observed with sodium phenylbutyrate for ∆508 CFTR (see Gelman and Kopito, this Perspective series, ref. 53). Future intervention should consider activation of different subpathways of the UPR or overexpression of appropriate protein chaperones, as in the case of overexpression of the J domain of cytosolic HSP70, which suppresses polyglutamine toxicity in flies (88). Treatments that activate the ERAD response may also ameliorate pathogenesis in a number of the conformational diseases.

Over the past ten years, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms and physiological significance of the UPR. The processes of protein folding and secretion, transcriptional and translational activation, and protein degradation are intimately interconnected to maintain homeostasis in the ER. A variety of environmental insults, genetic disease, and underlying genetic modifiers of UPR function contribute to the pathogenesis of different disease states. As we gain a greater understanding of the mechanisms that control UPR activation, it should be possible to discover methods to activate or inhibit the UPR as desired for therapeutic benefit.

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Citation: Cell Death and Disease (2014) 5, e1578; doi:10.1038/cddis.2014.539
Published online 18 December 2014

An activated unfolded protein response promotes retinal degeneration and triggers an inflammatory response in the mouse retina
http://www.nature.com/cddis/journal/v5/n12/full/cddis2014539a.html

T Rana1, V M Shinde1, C R Starr1, A A Kruglov1, E R Boitet1, P Kotla1, S Zolotukhin2, A K Gross1 and M S Gorbatyuk1

  1. 1Department of Vision Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA
  2. 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, FL, USA

Correspondence: M Gorbatyuk, Department of Vision Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Birmingham, 35233 AL, USA. Tel: +1 205 934 6762; Fax: +1 205 934 3425; E-mail:mgortk@uab.edu

Received 20 July 2014; Revised 23 October 2014; Accepted 27 November 2014

Edited by P Ekert

Recent studies on the endoplasmic reticulum stress have shown that the unfolded protein response (UPR) is involved in the pathogenesis of inherited retinal degeneration caused by mutant rhodopsin. However, the main question of whether UPR activation actually triggers retinal degeneration remains to be addressed. Thus, in this study, we created a mouse model for retinal degeneration caused by a persistently activated UPR to assess the physiological and morphological parameters associated with this disease state and to highlight a potential mechanism by which the UPR can promote retinal degeneration. We performed an intraocular injection in C57BL6 mice with a known unfolded protein response (UPR) inducer, tunicamycin (Tn) and examined animals by electroretinography (ERG), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and histological analyses. We detected a significant loss of photoreceptor function (over 60%) and retinal structure (35%) 30 days post treatment. Analysis of retinal protein extracts demonstrated a significant upregulation of inflammatory markers including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IBA1. Similarly, we detected a strong inflammatory response in mice expressing either Ter349Glu or T17M rhodopsin (RHO). These mutant rhodopsin species induce severe retinal degeneration and T17M rhodopsin elicits UPR activation when expressed in mice. RNA and protein analysis revealed a significant upregulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers such as IL-1β, IL-6, p65 nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and MCP-1, as well as activation of F4/80 and IBA1 microglial markers in both the retinas expressing mutant rhodopsins. We then assessed if the Tn-induced inflammatory marker IL-1β was capable of inducing retinal degeneration by injecting C57BL6 mice with a recombinant IL-1β. We observed ~19%reduction in ERG a-wave amplitudes and a 29% loss of photoreceptor cells compared with control retinas, suggesting a potential link between pro-inflammatory cytokines and retinal pathophysiological effects. Our work demonstrates that in the context of an established animal model for ocular disease, the persistent activation of the UPR could be responsible for promoting retinal degeneration via the UPR-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β.

Abbreviations: 

ERG, electroretinography; SD-OCT, spectral domain optical coherence tomography; UPR, unfolded protein response; IL-1β, Interleukin-1β; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; NF-kB, ; nuclear factor kappa B, ; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; ADRP, autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa; RHO, rhodopsin; ERAI, ER stress activated indicator; Tn, tunicamycin; ONL, outer nuclear layer; H&E, hematoxylin and eosin; ONH, optic nerve head

 

ER stress and neuroinflammation: connecting the unfolded protein response to JAK/STAT signaling (P5196)

Gordon Meares,1 and Etty Benveniste1

1Department of Cell, Developmental and Integrative Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL

J Immunol May 2013 190 (Meeting Abstract Supplement) 198.5

http://www.jimmunol.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/190/1_MeetingAbstracts/198.5

Neuroinflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are associated with many neurological diseases. ER stress is brought on by misfolded proteins. In turn, cells respond with activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is a highly conserved pathway that transmits both adaptive and apoptotic signals to restore homeostasis or eliminate the irreparably damaged cell. Recent evidence indicates that ER stress and inflammation are linked. In this study, we have examined the interaction between ER stress and JAK/STAT-dependent inflammation in astrocytes. The JAK/STAT pathway mediates the biological actions of many cytokines and growth factors. We have found that ER stress leads to the activation of STAT3 in a JAK1-dependent fashion. ER stress-induced activation of the JAK1/STAT3 axis leads to expression of IL-6 and several chemokines. The activation of STAT3 signaling is dependent on the protein kinase PERK, a central component of the UPR. Knockdown of PERK abrogates ER stress-induced activation of STAT3 and overexpression of PERK is sufficient to activate STAT3. Additionally, ER stressed astrocytes, via paracrine signaling, can stimulate activation of microglia leading to production of oncostatin M (OSM). OSM can then synergize with ER stress in astrocytes to drive inflammation. Together, this work describes a new PERK-JAK1-STAT3 signaling pathway that may elicit a feed-forward inflammatory loop involving astrocytes and microglia to drive neuroinflammation.

 

Neural Plasticity
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 610343, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/610343

Review Article

Surveillance, Phagocytosis, and Inflammation: How Never-Resting Microglia Influence Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

Amanda Sierra,1,2,3 Sol Beccari,2,3 Irune Diaz-Aparicio,2,3 Juan M. Encinas,1,2,3 Samuel Comeau,4,5 and Marie-Ève Tremblay4,5

1Ikerbasque Foundation, 48011 Bilbao, Spain
2Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience, Bizkaia Science and Technology Park, 48170 Zamudio, Spain
3Department of Neurosciences, University of the Basque Country, 48940 Leioa, Spain
4Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, Axe Neurosciences, Canada G1P 4C7
5Département de Médecine Moléculaire, Université Laval, Canada G1V 4G2

Received 10 December 2013; Accepted 11 February 2014; Published 19 March 2014

Academic Editor: Carlos Fitzsimons

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2014/610343/

Microglia cells are the major orchestrator of the brain inflammatory response. As such, they are traditionally studied in various contexts of trauma, injury, and disease, where they are well-known for regulating a wide range of physiological processes by their release of proinflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and trophic factors, among other crucial mediators. In the last few years, however, this classical view of microglia was challenged by a series of discoveries showing their active and positive contribution to normal brain functions. In light of these discoveries, surveillant microglia are now emerging as an important effector of cellular plasticity in the healthy brain, alongside astrocytes and other types of inflammatory cells. Here, we will review the roles of microglia in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and their regulation by inflammation during chronic stress, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases, with a particular emphasis on their underlying molecular mechanisms and their functional consequences for learning and memory.

  1. Microglia: The Resident Immune Cells of the Brain

Microglia were first described in 1919 by the Spanish neuroanatomist Pío del Río Hortega, a disciple of the renowned Santiago Ramón y Cajal, almost half a century later than neurons and astrocytes and just before oligodendrocytes [1]. This delayed appearance into the neuroscience arena is still apparent today, as microglia remain one of the least understood cell types of the brain. Traditionally, microglia were simply considered as “brain macrophages” controlling the inflammatory response during acute insults and neurodegenerative conditions, and only recently was their unique origin revealed. Indeed, microglia were shown to derive from primitive myeloid progenitors of the yolk sac that invade the central nervous system (CNS) during early embryonic development (reviewed in [2]). In contrast, circulating monocytes and lymphocytes, as well as most tissue macrophages, derive from hematopoietic stem cells located initially in the foetal liver and later in the bone marrow [3]. In the adult brain, the microglial population is maintained exclusively by self-renewal during normal physiological conditions [2]. As a consequence, microglia are the only immune cells which permanently reside in the CNS parenchyma, alongside neural tube-derived neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes.

These past few years, unprecedented insights were also provided into their extreme dynamism and functional behaviour, in health as much as in disease. Indeed, microglia were revealed to be exceptional sensors of their environment, responding on a time scale of minutes to even subtle variations of their milieu, by undergoing concerted changes in morphology and gene expression [45]. During pathological insults, “activated” microglia were particularly shown to thicken and retract their processes, extend filopodia, proliferate and migrate, release factors and compounds influencing neuronal survival (such as proinflammatory cytokines, trophic factors, reactive oxygen species (ROS), etc.), and phagocytose pathogens, degenerating cells and debris, thus providing better understanding of their roles in orchestrating the inflammatory response [6]. These abilities as immune cells are also recruited during normal physiological conditions, where “surveillant” microglia further participate in the remodeling of neuronal circuits by their phagocytic elimination of synapses and their regulation of glutamatergic receptors maturation and synaptic transmission, among other previously unexpected roles [79], in addition to their crucial involvement in the phagocytic elimination of newborn cells in the context of adult neurogenesis [10].

Our review will discuss the emerging roles of microglia in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and their regulation by inflammation during chronic stress, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases, with a particular emphasis on their underlying molecular mechanisms and their functional consequences for learning and memory (Figure 1).

 

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2014/floats/610343/thumbnails/610343.fig.001_th.jpg

Figure 1: The effects of surveillant and inflammatory microglia on the adult hippocampal neurogenic cascade. During physiological conditions, surveillant microglia effectively phagocytose the excess of apoptotic newborn cells and may release antineurogenic factors such as TGF. This anti-inflammatory state is maintained by neuronal (tethered or released) fractalkine. Enriched environment drives microglia towards a phenotype supportive of neurogenesis, via the production of IGF-1. In contrast, inflammatory challenge triggered by LPS, irradiation, aging, or AD induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, TNF, and IL-6 by microglia as well as resident astrocytes and infiltrating monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes. These cytokines have profound detrimental effects on adult neurogenesis by reducing the proliferation, survival, integration, and differentiation of the newborn neurons and decreasing their recall during learning and memory paradigms.

  1. A Brief Overview of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is continuously maintained by the proliferation of neural stem cells located in the subgranular zone (SGZ) [1113]. These neuroprogenitors have been named “radial glia-like cells” (rNSCs), or type 1 cells, since they morphologically and functionally resemble the embryonic radial glia. They have also been defined as “quiescent neuroprogenitors” because only a small percentage of the population is actively dividing during normal physiological conditions. The lineage of these cells is frequently traced by using analogs of the nucleotide thymidine, such as bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) which gets incorporated into the DNA of dividing cells during the S phase and can be detected by immunofluorescence. Alternatively, their lineage can be traced by labeling with fluorescent reporters which are delivered to dividing cells by retroviral vectors or expressed by specific cell type promoters via inducible transgenic mice (for a review of the methods commonly used to study adult neurogenesis, see [14]). The daughter cells of rNSCs, also called type 2 cells or amplifying neuroprogenitors (ANPs), rapidly expand their pool by proliferating before becoming postmitotic neuroblasts. Within a month, these neuroblasts differentiate and integrate as mature neurons into the hippocampal circuitry [15]. They however display unique electrophysiological characteristics during several months, being more excitable than mature neurons [16], and constitute a special cell population that is particularly inclined to undergo synaptic remodeling and activity-dependent plasticity [17].

These unique properties of the newborn neurons and the neurogenic cascade in general suggested that adult hippocampal neurogenesis could play an important role in hippocampal-dependent functions that require extensive neuroplasticity such as learning and memory. Indeed, activity-dependent plasticity and learning are long known for modulating adult neurogenesis in a complex, yet specific manner, with adult hippocampal neurogenesis being influenced by learning tasks which depend on the hippocampus [4445]. For instance, hippocampal-dependent learning paradigms were found to regulate the survival of newborn neurons, in a positive manner that depends on the timing between their birth and the phases of learning [4647]. Young (1.5–2 months old) newborn neurons were also shown to be preferentially activated during memory recall in a water maze task, compared to mature neurons, as determined by colabeling of BrdU with immediate early genes such as c-Fos and Arc, in which expression correlates with neuronal firing [48]. Nonetheless, it has only been in the last few years that loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches with inducible transgenic mice were able to confirm that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is necessary for synaptic transmission and plasticity, including the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression [49], as well as trace learning in conditioned protocols [50], memory retention in spatial learning tasks [5152], and encoding of overlapping input patterns, that is, pattern separation [53].

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its functional implications for learning and memory are however influenced negatively by a variety of conditions that are commonly associated with microglial activation and inflammation in the brain, such as chronic stress, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases, as we will review herein. Indeed, inflammation caused by irradiation produces a sustained inhibition of neurogenesis, notably by decreasing the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of the progenitors, and therefore, exposure to therapeutic doses of cranial irradiation has been widely used for modulating neurogenesis experimentally before the development of more specific approaches [54].

  1. Regulation of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis by Inflammation

Inflammation is a natural bodily response to damage or infection that is generally mediated by proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 beta (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF), in addition to lipidic mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Oftentimes, it is associated with an increased production of ROS, as well as nitric oxide (NO). Together, these proinflammatory mediators lead to an increase in local blood flow, adhesion, and extravasation of circulating monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes [55]. In the brain, microglia are the main orchestrator of the neuroinflammatory response, but other resident cell types, including astrocytes, endothelial cells, mast cells, perivascular and meningeal macrophages, and even neurons, can produce proinflammatory mediators, though perhaps not to the same extent as microglia [56]. In addition, peripheral immune cells invading the CNS during inflammation can further produce proinflammatory mediators, but the respective contribution of microglia versus other cell types in the inflammatory response of the brain is poorly understood.

The harmful effects of inflammation are also widely determined by the actual levels of proinflammatory mediators released, rather than the occurrence or absence of an inflammatory response in itself. For instance, TNF regulates synaptic plasticity by potentiating the cell surface expression of AMPA glutamatergic receptors, thus resulting in a homeostatic scaling following prolonged blockage of neuronal activity during visual system development [57]. However, TNF also produces differential effects at higher concentrations,ranging from an inhibition of long-term potentiation to an enhancement of glutamate-mediated excitotoxicityin vitro [58]. Inflammation induced by chronic ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS; a main component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria), that is, the most widely used method for inducing an inflammatory challenge, also increases ex vivo the hippocampal levels of TNF and IL-1, thereby impairing novel place recognition, spatial learning, and memory formation, but all these cognitive deficits can be restored by pharmacological treatment with a TNF protein synthesis inhibitor, a novel analog of thalidomide, 3,6′-dithiothalidomide [59].

The impact of inflammation on adult hippocampal neurogenesis was originally discovered by Olle Lindvall and Theo Palmer’s groups in 2003, showing that systemic or intrahippocampal administration of LPS reduces the formation of newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus, an effect that is prevented by indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) which inhibits the synthesis of proinflammatory prostaglandins [6061]. Similarly, inflammation can determine the increase in neurogenesis that is driven by seizures, a context in which neurogenesis can be prevented by LPS and increased by the anti-inflammatory antibiotic minocycline [60]. In these studies, hippocampal proliferation remained unaffected by LPS or minocycline and thus it is likely that inflammation targeted the survival of newborn cells [6061], as LPS is known to increase SGZ apoptosis [62]. Inflammation also has further downstream effects on the neurogenic cascade. For instance, LPS increases the number of thin dendritic spines and the expression of the excitatory synapses marker “postsynaptic density protein of 95kDa” (PSD95) in newborn neurons. LPS in addition increases the expression of GABAA receptors at early stages of synapse formation, leading to suggesting a possible imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in these young neurons [63]. Finally, LPS also prevents the integration of newborn neurons into behaviourally relevant networks, including most notably their activation during spatial exploration, as determined by the percentage of BrdU cells colabeled with the immediate early gene Arc [64].

Importantly, none of these manipulations is specific to microglia and may directly or indirectly affect other brain cells involved in the inflammatory response of the brain. For instance, both LPS and minocycline affect astrocytic function in vitro and in vivo [6569]. Furthermore, LPS is known to drive infiltration of monocytes and neutrophils into the brain parenchyma [70]. Monocytes and neutrophils produce major proinflammatory mediators and could therefore act on the neurogenic cascade as well. The implication of microglia in LPS-induced decrease in neurogenesis is nonetheless supported in vivo by the negative correlation between the number of newborn neurons (BrdU+, NeuN+ cells) and the number of “activated” microglia (i.e., expressing ED1) [60]. ED1, also called CD68 or macrosialin, is a lysosomal protein which is overexpressed during inflammatory challenge. While the location of ED1 previously suggested its involvement in phagocytosis, its loss of function did not result in phagocytosis deficits and thus, its function still remains unknown (reviewed in [10]). The number of ED1-positive microglia also negatively correlates with neurogenesis during inflammation provoked by cranial irradiation [61]. While correlation does not involve causation, nor can pinpoint to the underlying mechanism, these experiments were the first to reveal a potential role for “activated” microglia in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. More direct evidence of microglial mediation in LPS deleterious effects was obtained from in vitro experiments, as it was shown that conditioned media from LPS-challenged microglia contained IL-6, which in turn caused apoptosis of neuroblasts [61]. Nonetheless, astrocytes can also release IL-6 when stimulated with TNF or IL-1 [71] and chronic astrocytic release of IL-6 in transgenic mice reduced proliferation, survival, and differentiation of newborn cells, thus resulting in a net decrease in neurogenesis [72]. In summary, while the detrimental impact of inflammation on neurogenesis is well established, more work is needed to define the specific roles played by the various inflammatory cells populating the brain.

  1. Inflammation Associated with Chronic Stress

Across health and disease, the most prevalent condition that is associated with neuroinflammation is “chronic stress,” which commonly refers to the repeated or sustained inability to cope with stressful environmental, social, and psychological constraints. Chronic stress is characterized by an imbalanced secretion of glucocorticoids by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (most notably cortisol in humans and corticosterone in rodents), which leads to an altered brain remodeling, massive loss of synapses, and compromised cognitive function [73]. In particular, an impairment of spatial learning, working memory, novelty seeking, and decision making has been associated with chronic stress [74]. Glucocorticoids are well known for their anti-inflammatory properties, as they interfere with NF-B-mediated cytokine transcription, ultimately delaying wound healing [75]. They are also potent anti-inflammatory mediators in vivo [76] and in purified microglia cultures [77]. Recently, repeated administration of high doses of glucocorticoids by intraperitoneal injection, to mimic their release by chronic stress, was also shown to induce a loss of dendritic spines in the motor cortex, while impairing learning of a motor task. A transcription-dependent pathway acting downstream of the glucocorticoid receptor GR was proposed [7879] but the particular cell types involved were not identified.

Microglia are considered to be a direct target of the glucocorticoids, as they were shown to express GR during normal physiological conditions in vivo [77]. In fact, transgenic mice lacking GR in microglia and macrophages show an increased production of proinflammatory mediators (including TNF and IL-1) and greater neuronal damage in response to an intraparenchymal injection of LPS, compared to wild-type mice [80]. In contrast, glucocorticoids are considered to be proinflammatory in the chronically stressed brain [81], where among other changes they can promote inflammation, oxidative stress, neurodegeneration, and microglial activation [82]. For example, repeated restraint stress induces microglial proliferation and morphological changes, including a hyperramification of their processes in the adult hippocampus following restraint stress [83], but a nearly complete loss of processes in the context of social defeat [84]. Prenatal restraint stress also causes an increase in the basal levels of TNF and IL-1, while increasing the proportion of microglia showing a reactive morphology in the adult hippocampus [85]. Similarly, social defeat leads to an enhanced response to the inflammatory challenge induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS, including an increased production of TNF and IL-1, and expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) by microglia, accompanied by an increased infiltration of circulating monocytes [8486]. Therefore, microglia are a strong candidate for mediating some of the effects of stress on adult neurogenesis, as will be discussed below, in synergy with other types of inflammatory cells.

Chronic stress is well known for its negative effects on hippocampal neurogenesis (reviewed in [8788]), although not all stress paradigms are equally effective [89]. Several stress paradigms can decrease neuroprogenitors proliferation in the tree shrew [90] and in mice [9192], although this effect seems to be compensated by an increased survival of newborn neurons [92] and whether stress results in a net increase or decrease in neurogenesis remains controversial (reviewed in [8788]). The effects of stress on adult neurogenesis seem to be mediated at least partially by glucocorticoids, because mice lacking a single copy of the GR gene show behavioural symptoms of depression including learned helplessness, neuroendocrine alterations of the HPA axis, and impaired neurogenesis [93]. In parallel, chronic stress is associated with an increased inflammatory response, which may inhibit neurogenesis as well. For instance, serum levels of IL-1and IL-6 are significantly increased in depressed patients [94]. In mice, restraint stress leads to a widespread activation of NF-B in the hippocampus, including at the level of neuroprogenitors [95] and increased protein levels of IL-1 [96]. In addition to the direct role of glucocorticoids, IL-1 also seems to mediate some of the effects of mild chronic stress, because in vivo manipulations that block IL-1 (either pharmacologically or in null transgenic mice) prevent the anhedonic stress response and the antineurogenic effect of stress [9196]. Moreover, the corticoids and IL-1 pathways may regulate each other in a bidirectional manner because the administration of a GR antagonist can blunt the LPS-induced production of hippocampal IL-1 in stressed mice [97], whereas mice knockout for the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1) fail to display the characteristic elevation of corticosterone induced by mild chronic stress [96]. Another stress-related cytokine, IL-6, induces depressive phenotypes and prevents the antidepressant actions of fluoxetine when administered to mice in vivo [98]. So far the effects of stress on neurogenesis via corticosteroids and inflammation have been assumed to be cell autonomous, as neuroprogenitors express both GR [99] and IL-1R1 [95]. The potential participation of microglia is yet to be determined, but there are some reports of a direct effect of stress on microglial activation. For instance, microglia acutely isolated from mice subjected to acute stress (by inescapable tail shock) showed a primed response to LPS challenge by producing higher levels of IL-1 mRNA ex vivo [100], and the specific loss of expression of GR in microglia leads to a blunted inflammatory response in vitro and to a decreased neuronal damage in vivo in response to LPS [80]. In stress paradigms, these enhanced responses of microglia to inflammatory challenges are similar to their age-related “priming” which has been associated with and is possibly due to an increased basal production of proinflammatory mediators. However, whether microglia express increased levels of IL-1 and other proinflammatory cytokines in response to stressful events is presently unclear [101]. It is thus possible that some of the antineurogenic effects of stress are exerted by means of microglial-dependent inflammation, but this hypothesis remains to be experimentally tested.

  1. Inflammation Associated with Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases

Inflammation is also commonly associated with normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases and, therefore, could represent a putative underlying mechanism that explains their decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis. Nonetheless, inflammation is also associated with neurological diseases, such as epilepsy or stroke, where neurogenesis is thought to be increased, although the data from rodents and humans is somewhat conflictive [102]. Neurogenesis is well known to decline throughout adulthood and normal aging in rodents and humans [103104], but the decay is more pronounced and occurs later in life in mice than in humans [105]. The aging-associated decrease in neurogenesis has been shown to occur mainly as a consequence of exhaustion of the rNSC population which, after being recruited and activated, undergo three rounds of mitosis in average and then terminally differentiate into astrocytes [12106]. In addition, a reduced mitotic capacity of the neuroprogenitors could further contribute to decreasing neurogenesis [106], and moreover, an age-related increase in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines could also hinder neurogenesis in the aging brain. Serum levels of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF are elevated in elderly patients [107108]. Aged microglia express higher levels of these proinflammatory cytokines and show a greater response to LPS inflammatory challenge, that is, a “primed” response, than their younger counterparts [109]. The origin of this low-grade age-related inflammation (“inflamm-aging” [110]) remains unknown and may be related to both aging and damage to the surrounding neurons, as well as aging of the immune system per se.

At the cellular level, stress to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) caused by various perturbations, such as nutrient depletion, disturbances in calcium or redox status, or increased levels of misfolded proteins, can induce a cell-autonomous inflammatory response to neurons. Stress to the ER, a multifunctional organelle which is involved in protein folding, lipid biosynthesis, and calcium storage triggers a homeostatic response mechanism named the unfolding protein response (UPR), aiming to clear the unfolded proteins in order to restore normal ER homeostasis [111]. However, if the ER stress cannot be resolved, the UPR also initiates inflammatory and apoptotic pathways via activation of the transcription factor NF-B which controls the expression of most proinflammatory cytokines [112]. In the brain, ER stress is often initiated by the formation of abnormal protein aggregates in several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s disease (HD), and prion-related disorders [113]. This neurodegeneration-associated ER stress is assumed to occur mostly in neurons, but there are some examples of microglial protein misfolding as well. For instance, both microglia and neurons overexpress CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), a transcription factor which is activated during ER stress in human patients and mouse models of ALS [114]. Inflammation has been speculated to be a main negative contributor to the pathology of ALS [115], but a direct microglial involvement in mediating the inflammatory response to abnormal protein aggregation in ALS and other neurodegenerative conditions remains to be tested. Finally, ER stress has been linked to a variety of inflammatory conditions [116117], including chronic stress, diet-induced obesity, and drug abuse, as well as atherosclerosis and arthritis [118120]. During normal aging, a progressive decline in expression and activity of key ER molecular chaperones and folding enzymes could also compromise the adaptive response of the UPR, thereby contributing to the age-associated decline in cellular functions [118]. Therefore, aging is strongly associated with a chronic ER stress which leads to increased activation of NF-B [112]; however, the contribution of the different brain cell types to “inflamm-aging” is still poorly understood. The detrimental effects on neurogenesis of increased proinflammatory cytokines in the aging brain are not necessarily related to microglia, but also to stressed neurons. Furthermore, ER stress may also cause a cell-autonomous response in neural stem cells [121], although its impact on neurogenesis remains to be experimentally determined.

In addition, aging is accompanied by an increased level of mitochondrial oxidative stress, which in turn activates the “Inflammasome” [122], a group of multimeric proteins comprising the interleukin 1 converting enzyme (ICE, caspase 1) which serves to release the active form of the cytokine [123]. IL-1 may act directly on rNSCs (visualised by labeling with the Sox2 marker), as they express IL-1R1 in the adult hippocampus [91]. Treatment with IL-1 decreases hippocampal proliferation in young mice [91] and pharmacological inhibition of ICE partially restores the number of newborn neurons in aged mice without significantly affecting their differentiation rate [124]. Transgenic IL-1 overexpression results in chronic inflammation and depletion of doublecortin-labeled neuroblasts, thus mimicking the aging-associated depletion of neurogenesis [125]. The actual mechanism of action of IL-1 on neurogenesis in aged mice, including decreased proliferation of rNSCs/ANPs and survival of newborn neurons, remains undetermined. Microglia are a main source of IL-1in the aging brain, but the hypothesis that microglia-derived IL-1 is responsible for depleting neurogenesis in the aging brain remains to be directly tested.

The regulation of neurogenesis by IL-1 in the aging brain has been further linked to the activity of another cytokine, the chemokine fractalkine, or CX3CL1. Fractalkine has soluble and membrane-tethered forms and is exclusively expressed by neurons, while the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) is expressed in the brain by microglia alone [126]. This module forms a unique neuron-microglia signalling unit that controls the extent of microglial inflammation in several neurodegenerative conditions including PD, ALS [127], or AD [128]. In fact, CX3CR1 blocking antibodies increase the production of hippocampal IL-1 when administered to young adult rats [129]. Importantly, chronic treatment with fractalkine increases hippocampal proliferation and the number of neuroblasts in aged (22 months old) but not young (3 months old) or middle-aged rats (12 months old), whereas an antagonists of CX3CR1 has the opposite effects in young, but not in middle-aged nor old rats [129]. Since fractalkine expression is decreased during aging [129], a reduced neuron-microglia signalling might be releasing the brake on microglial contribution to inflammatory responses, although increased levels of fractalkine were instead reported in aged rat hippocampus by other studies [68]. Additional insights into the role of fractalkine signalling come from knock-in mice in which the endogenous CX3CR1 locus is replaced by the fluorescent reporter GFP [126]. The initial studies suggested that  (i.e., ) mice have no significant differences in brain development and functions [130], but more systematic investigations recently revealed a long list of hippocampal-dependent changes in young (3 months old)  and  mice compared to wild-type mice. These changes notably included decreased neuroprogenitors proliferation and neuroblasts number, impaired LTP, performance in contextual fear conditioning and water maze spatial learning and memory, and, importantly, increased IL-1 protein levels [131]. The signalling pathway of fractalkine-IL-1 is functionally relevant, because IL-1R1 antagonists rescued LTP and cognitive function in  mice [131]. In sum, even though neuronal fractalkine seems to be sufficient for restraining the inflammatory activity of microglia in young rats, its downregulation during aging could activate the microglial inflammatory response and thereby subsequently reduce the proliferation of remaining neuroprogenitors.

In AD, inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 are overexpressed in the microglia associated with the amyloid beta (A) plaques of postmortem samples [132] and in transgenic mice modeling the disease [133]. The loss of synapses (from hippocampus to frontal cortex) is one of the main pathological substrates in this disease, but adult neurogenesis is also severely reduced in most mouse models of AD, possibly due to a decreased proliferation of neuroprogenitors and a decreased survival of newborn cells, even though the putative changes in the neurogenic cascade in postmortem samples remain controversial (reviewed in [102]). This lack of agreement is possibly explained by the fact that the vast majority of AD cases have a late onset over 65 years of age, when little neurogenesis remains. In contrast, in most transgenic AD mouse models, the Aaccumulation, cognitive deficits, and changes in neurogenesis are already detectable in young animals (2-3 months old). The study of AD is further hindered by the difficulty in comparing the time course and pathology across different mouse models. For instance, early treatment with minocycline can improve cognition and reduce A burden in mice expressing the human amyloid precursor protein (APP) [134]. In contrast, in mice expressing APP and a mutated form of presenilin 1 (PS1), which is part of the  secretase pathway that cleaves A, inflammation is reduced without any detectable changes in A plaques deposition [135]. Concomitantly with a decrease in tissue inflammatory cytokines and number of microglial cells, minocycline restores neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent memory deficits in these APP/PS1 mice [135], indirectly suggesting that cognitive decay in AD may be at least in part related to a detrimental effect of inflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis. Direct evidence that neurogenesis is associated with the cognitive performance in AD is still lacking. Further research is also necessary to determine the neurogenic targets of AD-related inflammation. One central open question for future therapies aiming at increasing neurogenesis and cognition in AD is whether neuroprogenitors are spared or whether their age-induced loss becomes accelerated. Rather than increasing the proliferation and neurogenic output of the few rNSCs remaining in an old AD brain, it may be more relevant to develop strategies that prevent the age-related loss of neuroprogenitors in presymptomatic patients.

In summary, inflammation associated with a wide variety of experimental models of disease produces strong detrimental effects on hippocampal neurogenesis. These effects on human neurogenesis are however not so well described and, in vitro, IL-1 increases the proliferation of hippocampal embryonic neuroprogenitors but decreases their differentiation into neurons [136]. Novel methods to assess hippocampal neurogenesis in the living human brain, from metabolomics of neuroprogenitors to hippocampal blood brain volume (reviewed in [102]), will help to determine the contribution of inflammation to adult neurogenesis in the healthy and diseased human brain during aging.

  1. Normal Physiological Conditions

In the healthy mature brain, microglia are an essential component of the neurogenic SGZ niche, where they physically intermingle with neuroprogenitors, neuroblasts, and newborn neurons [62]. Here, surveillant microglia effectively and rapidly phagocytose the excess of newborn cells undergoing apoptosis [62]. Importantly, microglial phagocytosis in the adult SGZ is not disturbed by inflammation associated with aging or by LPS challenge, as the phagocytic index (i.e., the proportion of apoptotic cells completely engulfed by microglia) is maintained over 90% in these conditions [62]. Nonetheless, the consequences of microglial phagocytosis on adult hippocampal neurogenesis remain elusive. Treatment of mice with annexin V, which binds to the phosphatidylserine (PS) receptor and prevents the recognition of PS on the surface of apoptotic cells, presumably blocking phagocytosis, increases the number of apoptotic cells in the SGZ [40]. Concomitantly, annexin V reduces neurogenesis by decreasing the survival of neuroblasts without affecting neuroprogenitors proliferation [40]. Similar results were obtained in transgenic mice knock-out for ELMO1, a cytoplasm protein which promotes the internalization of apoptotic cells, although the effects on neurogenesis were ascribed to a decreased phagocytic activity of neuroblasts [40]. The actual phagocytic target of the neuroblasts remains undetermined, but the newborn apoptotic cells in the adult SGZ are exclusively phagocytosed by microglia, at least in physiological conditions [62]. Nevertheless, none of the above manipulations has specifically tested the role of microglial phagocytosis in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory and thus, the functional impact of microglial phagocytosis in adult neurogenic niches during normal physiological conditions remains to be elucidated.

Microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is actively anti-inflammatory, at least in vitro, and thus it has been hypothesized that anti-inflammatory cytokines produced by phagocytic microglia may further regulate neurogenesis [10]. For instance, transforming growth factor beta (TGF), which is produced by phagocytic microglia in vitro [137], inhibits the proliferation of SGZ neuroprogenitors [138]. Microglia are further able to produce proneurogenic factors in vitro [139]. When primed with cytokines associated with T helper cells such as interleukin 4 (IL-4) or low doses of interferon gamma (IFN), cultured microglia support neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis through decreased production of TNF and increased production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) [139], an inducer of neuroprogenitor proliferation [26]. A list of potential factors produced by microglia and known to act on neuroprogenitor proliferation can be found in Table 1. In addition, recent observations suggest that neuroprogenitor cells may not only regulate their own environment, but also influence microglial functions. For instance, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) produced by cultured neuroprecursor cells directly affects microglial proliferation, migration, and phagocytosis [20]. More potential factors produced by neuroprogenitors shown to be influencing microglial activity and function can be found in Table 2. However, it has to be taken into account that most of these observations were obtained in culture and that further research is needed in order to elucidate whether those factors are also secreted and have the same regulatory responses in vivo.

Table 1: Summary of factors secreted by microglia and the potential effect they have on neuroprogenitors in vitro.
Microglia secreted
factors
Reference Modulation of neural progenitor cells Reference
BDNF [18] Differentiation [19]
EGF [20] Survival, expansion, proliferation, differentiation [21]
FGF [22] Survival and expansion [23]
GDNF [24] Survival, migration, and differentiation [25]
IGF-1 [21] Proliferation [26]
IL-1 [27] Reduction in migration [27]
IL-6 [28] Inhibition of neurogenesis [29]
IL-7 [20] Differentiation [30]
IL-11 [20] Differentiation [30]
NT-4 [24] Differentiation [31]
PDGF [32] Expansion and differentiation [33]
TGF [34] Inhibition of proliferation [19]

 

Table 1: Summary of factors secreted by microglia and the potential effect they have on neuroprogenitors in vitro.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2014/610343/tab1/

 

 

Table 2: Summary of factors secreted by neuroprogenitors and the potential effect they have on microglia in vitro.

NPC secreted factors Reference Modulation of microglia Reference
BDNF [18] Proliferation and induction of phagocytic activity [35]
Haptoglobin [24] Neuroprotection [36]
IL-1 [37] Intracellular Ca+2 elevation and proliferation [22]
IL-6 [37] Increase in proliferation [38]
M-CSF [20] Mitogen [39]
NGF [40] Decrease in LPS-induced NO [41]
TGF [37] Inhibition of TNF secretion [42]
TNF [37] Upregulation of IL-10 secretion [43]
VEGF [20] Induction of chemotaxis and proliferation [20]

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2014/floats/610343/thumbnails/610343.tab2_th.jpg

Table 2: Summary of factors secreted by neuroprogenitors and the potential effect they have on microglia in vitro.

In addition, microglial capacity to remodel and eliminate synaptic structures during normal physiological conditions has suggested that microglia could also control the synaptic integration of the newborn neurons generated during adult hippocampal neurogenesis [140]. Three main mechanisms were proposed: (1) the phagocytic elimination of nonapoptotic axon terminals and dendritic spines, (2) the proteolytic remodeling of the perisynaptic environment, and (3) the concomitant structural remodeling of dendritic spines [7140]. Indeed, microglial contacts with synaptic elements are frequently observed in the cortex during normal physiological conditions, sometimes accompanied by their engulfment and phagocytic elimination [141143], as in the developing retinogeniculate system [144]. Microglial cells are distinctively surrounded by pockets of extracellular space, contrarily to all the other cellular elements [142], suggesting that microglia could remodel the volume and geometry of the extracellular space, and thus the concentration of various ions, neurotransmitters, and signalling molecules in the synaptic environment. Whether microglia create the pockets of extracellular space themselves or not remains unknown, but these pockets could result from microglial release of extracellular proteases such as metalloproteinases and cathepsins [145], which are well known for influencing the formation, structural remodeling, and elimination of dendritic spines in situ and also experience-dependent plasticity in vivo [7146]. More recently, microglial phagocytosis of synaptic components was also observed in the developing hippocampus, in the unique time window of synaptogenesis, a process which is notably regulated by fractalkine-CX3CR1 signalling [147]. Therefore, the attractive hypothesis that microglial sculpts the circuitry of newborn cells in the adult hippocampus deserves further attention.

Lastly, microglia were also involved in increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the enriched environment (EE) experimental paradigm. EE is a paradigm mimicking some features of the normal living circumstances of wild animals, as it gives them access to social interactions, toys, running wheels, and edible treats. EE has long been known to enhance neurogenesis by acting on newborn cells survival, resulting ultimately in an enlargement of the dentate gyrus [148]. Functionally, these changes are accompanied by enhanced spatial learning and memory formation with the water maze paradigm [149]. Similar increases in neurogenesis are obtained by subjecting mice to voluntary running paradigms, although in this case the effect is mediated by increased neuroprogenitor proliferation [150]. During inflammatory conditions, EE is antiapoptotic and neuroprotective [151] and it limits the hippocampal response to LPS challenge by decreasing the expression of several cytokines and chemokines, including IL1- and TNF [152]. In fact, EE is believed to counteract the inflammatory environment and rescue the decreased number of neuroblasts in mice compared to wild-type mice [153]. The effects of EE are independent of the IL-1 signalling pathway, as it increases neurogenesis in mice that are null for IL-1R1 [154]. EE also induces microglial proliferation and expression of the proneurogenic IGF-1 [155], but the full phenotype of microglia in EE compared to standard housing and its impact on the neurogenic cascade remains to be determined.

The mechanisms behind the anti-inflammatory actions of EE are unknown, but they were suggested to involve microglial interactions with T lymphocytes through an increased expression of the major histocompatibility complex of class II (MHC-II) during EE [155]. MHC-II is responsible for presenting the phagocytosed and degraded antigens to the antibodies expressed on the surface of a subtype of T lymphocytes (T helper or CD4+ cells), thus initiating their activation and production of antigen-specific antibodies. Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice lacking either T and B lymphocytes or nude mice lacking only T cells have impaired proliferation and neurogenesis in normal and EE housing compared to wild-type mice [155], as well as impaired performance in the water maze [156]. Similarly, antibody-based depletion of T helper lymphocytes impairs basal and exercise-induced proliferation and neurogenesis [157]. Furthermore, a genetic study in heterogeneous stock mice, which descend from eight inbred progenitor strains, has found a significant positive correlation between genetic loci associated to hippocampal proliferation and to the proportion of CD4+ cells among blood CD3+ lymphocytes [158]. Additional experiments are needed to fully determine the possible interactions between microglia and T cells in neurogenesis, because, at least in normal physiological conditions, (1) T cell surveillance of the brain parenchyma is minimal, (2) microglia are poor antigen presenting cells, and (3) antigen presentation by means of MHC-II family of molecules is thought to occur outside the brain, that is, in the meninges and choroid plexus [159]. In fact, during voluntary exercise, there are no significant changes in T cell surveillance of the hippocampus, nor a direct interaction between T cells and microglia, nor any changes in the gene expression profile of microglia, including that of IGF-1, IL-1, and TNF [160]. The number of microglia is also inversely correlated with the number of hippocampal proliferating cells, rNSCs, and neuroblasts in aged (8 months) mice subjected to voluntary running, as well asin vitro cocultures of microglia and neuroprogenitors, which has been interpreted as resulting from an overall inhibitory effect of microglia on adult neurogenesis [161]. Even though EE is clearly a more complex environmental factor than voluntary running, further research is necessary to disregard nonspecific or indirect effects of genetic or antibody-based T cells depletion on microglia and other brain cell populations, including rNSCs. For instance, adoptive transfer of T helper cells treated with glatiramer acetate, a synthetic analog of myelin basic protein (MBP) approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, produces a bystander effect on resident astrocytes and microglia by increasing their expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as TGF[162]. Alternatively, it has been suggested that T cells may mediate an indirect effect on adult hippocampal neurogenesis by increasing the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) [157], which is involved in the proneurogenic actions of EE [163]. Whether BDNF can counteract the detrimental effects of T cell depletion on neurogenesis remains unknown. Overall, the roles of microglia in EE and running-induced neurogenesis are unclear and have to be addressed with more precise experimental designs. In summary, surveillant microglia are part of the physical niche surrounding the neural stem cells and newborn neurons of the mature hippocampus, where they continuously phagocytose the excess of newborn cells. Microglia were also linked to the proneurogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of voluntary running and EE, but direct evidence is missing. The overall contribution of microglia to neurogenesis and learning and memory in normal physiological conditions remains largely unexplored at this early stage in the field.

  1. Conclusion

In light of these observations, microglia are now emerging as important effector cells during normal brain development and functions, including adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Microglia can exert a positive or negative influence on the proliferation, survival, or differentiation of newborn cells, depending on the inflammatory context. For instance, microglia can compromise the neurogenic cascade during chronic stress, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases, by their release of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF. A reduced fractalkine signalling between neurons and microglia could also be involved during normal aging. However, microglia are not necessarily the only cell type implicated because astrocytes, endothelial cells, mast cells, perivascular and meningeal macrophages, and to a lesser extent neurons and invading peripheral immune cells could further contribute by releasing proinflammatory mediators.

Additionally, microglia were shown to phagocytose the excess of newborn neurons undergoing apoptosis in the hippocampal neurogenic niche during normal physiological conditions, while a similar role in the synaptic integration of newborn cells was also proposed in light of their capacity to phagocytose synaptic elements. Lastly, microglial interactions with T cells, leading to the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, neurotrophic factors, and other proneurogenic mediators (notably during EE and voluntary running), could counteract the detrimental effects of inflammation on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and their functional implications for learning and memory.

However, further research is necessary to assess the relative contribution of microglia versus other types of resident and infiltrating inflammatory cells and to determine the nature of the effector cytokines and other inflammatory mediators involved, as well as their cellular and molecular targets in the neurogenic cascade. Such research will undoubtedly help to develop novel strategies aiming at protecting the neurogenic potential and ultimately its essential contribution to learning and memory.

Abbreviations

AD: Alzheimer’s disease
ANPs: Amplifying neuroprogenitors
APP: Amyloid precursor protein
A: Amyloid beta
BDNF: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
BrdU: 5-Bromo-2′-Deoxyuridine
CX3CL1: Fractalkine
CX3CR1: Fractalkine receptor
EAE: Experimental acute encephalomyelitis
EE: Enriched environment
EGF: Epidermal growth factor
FGFb: Basic fibroblast growth factor
GDNF: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor
GFAP: Glial fibrillary acidic protein
GR: Glucocorticoid receptor
HPA: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
ICE: Interleukin 1 converting enzyme
IL-1: Interleukin 1 beta
IL-1R1: Interleukin 1 beta receptor
IL-4: Interleukin 4
IL-6: Interleukin 6
IL-7: Interleukin 7
IL-11: Interleukin 11
IFN: Interferon gamma
IGF-1: Insulin-like growth factor 1
iNOS: Inducible nitric oxide synthase
LPS: Bacterial lipopolysaccharides
LTP: Long term potentiation
M-CSF: Macrophage colony-stimulating factor
MBP: Myelin basic protein
MHC-II: Major histocompatibility complex class II
MOG: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein
NF-B: Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells
NGF: Nerve growth factor
NO: Nitric oxide
NSAID: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
NT-4: Neurotrophin-4
PDGF: Platelet-derived growth factor
PS: Phosphatidylserine
PS1: Presenilin 1
ROS: Radical oxygen species
SCID: Severe combined immunodeficiency
SGZ: Subgranular zone
TGF: Transforming growth factor beta
TNF: Tumor necrosis factor alpha
VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor.

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by grants from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness to Amanda Sierra (BFU2012-32089) and Juan M. Encinas (SAF2012-40085), from Basque Government (Saiotek S-PC 12UN014) and Ikerbasque start-up funds to Juan M. Encinas and Amanda Sierra, and from The Banting Research Foundation, the Scottish Rite Charitable Foundation of Canada, and start-up funds from Université Laval and Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec to Marie-Ève Tremblay.

References

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……………….

 

Review

Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 8, 519-529 (July 2007) | doi:10.1038/nrm2199

Signal integration in the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response

David Ron & Peter Walter

http://www.nature.com/nrm/journal/v8/n7/full/nrm2199.html

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) responds to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in its lumen (ER stress) by activating intracellular signal transduction pathways — cumulatively called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Together, at least three mechanistically distinct arms of the UPR regulate the expression of numerous genes that function within the secretory pathway but also affect broad aspects of cell fate and the metabolism of proteins, amino acids and lipids. The arms of the UPR are integrated to provide a response that remodels the secretory apparatus and aligns cellular physiology to the demands imposed by ER stress.

 

Figure 1: The unfolded protein response (UPR) signalling pathways.

FromThe impact of the endoplasmic reticulum protein-folding environment on cancer development

Nature Reviews Cancer 14, 581–597 (2014)  http://dx.doi.org:/10.1038/nrc3800

(UPR) signalling pathways

(UPR) signalling pathways

http://www.nature.com/nrc/journal/v14/n9/images/nrc3800-f1.jpg

Upon endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, unfolded and misfolded proteins bind and sequester immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (BIP), thereby activating the UPR. The UPR comprises three parallel signalling branches: PRKR-like ER kinase (PERK)–eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α)–X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and activating transcription factor 6α (ATF6α). The outcome of UPR activation increases protein folding, transport and ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD), while attenuating protein synthesis. If protein misfolding is not resolved, cells enter apoptosis. CHOP, C/EBP homologous protein; GADD34, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34; JNK, JUN N-terminal kinase; P, phosphorylation; RIDD, regulated IRE1-dependent decay; ROS, reactive oxygen species; XBP1s, transcriptionally active XBP1; XBP1u, unspliced XBP1.

Figure 3: The unfolded protein response (UPR) and inflammation.

(UPR) and inflammation

(UPR) and inflammation

http://www.nature.com/nrc/journal/v14/n9/images/nrc3800-f3.jpg

The three UPR pathways augment the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP1) pathways, thereby leading to inflammation. NF-κB, which is a master transcriptional regulator of pro-inflammatory pathways, can be activated through binding to the inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α)–TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) complex in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to recruitment of the IκB kinase (IKK), IκB phosphorylation (P) and degradation, and nuclear translocation of NF-κB196. Moreover, the IRE1α–TRAF2 complex can recruit apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and activate JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK), increasing the expression of pro-inflammatory genes through enhanced AP1 activity197. The PRKR-like ER kinase (PERK)–eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and activating transcription factor 6α (ATF6α) branches of the UPR activate NF-κB through different mechanisms. Engaging PERK–eIF2α signalling halts overall protein synthesis and increases the ratio of NF-κB to IκB, owing to the short half-life of IκB, thereby freeing NF-κB for nuclear translocation198199. ATF6α activation following exposure to the bacterial subtilase cytotoxin that cleaves immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (BIP) leads to AKT phosphorylation and consequent NF-κB activation109200.

 

 

Figure 4

The cancer-supporting role of the unfolded protein response (UPR).

http://www.nature.com/nrc/journal/v14/n9/images/nrc3800-f4.jpg

cancer-supporting role of the unfolded protein response

cancer-supporting role of the unfolded protein response

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Manipulate Signaling Pathways

Writer and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP 

 

7.6  Manipulate Signaling Pathways

7.6.1 The Dynamics of Signaling as a Pharmacological Target

7.6.2 A Protein-Tagging System for Signal Amplification in Gene Expression and Fluorescence Imaging

7.6.3 IQGAPs choreograph cellular signaling from the membrane to the nucleus

7.6.4 Signaling cell death from the endoplasmic reticulum stress response

7.6.5 An Enzyme that Regulates Ether Lipid Signaling Pathways in Cancer Annotated by Multidimensional Profiling

7.6.6 Peroxisomes – A Nexus for Lipid Metabolism and Cellular Signaling

7.6.7 A nexus for cellular homeostasis- the interplay between metabolic and signal transduction pathways

7.6.8 Mechanisms-of-intercellular-signaling

7.6.9 Cathepsin B promotes colorectal tumorigenesis, cell invasion, and metastasis

 

 

7.6.1 The Dynamics of Signaling as a Pharmacological Target

Marcelo Behar, Derren Barken, Shannon L. Werner, Alexander Hoffmann
Cell  10 Oct 2013; 155(2):448–461
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.09.018

Highlights

  • Drugs targeting signaling hubs may block specific dynamic features of the signal
  • Specific inhibition of dynamic features may introduce pathway selectivity
  • Phase space analysis reveals principles for drug targeting signaling dynamics
  • Based on these principles, NFκB dynamics can be manipulated with specificity

Summary

Highly networked signaling hubs are often associated with disease, but targeting them pharmacologically has largely been unsuccessful in the clinic because of their functional pleiotropy. Motivated by the hypothesis that a dynamic signaling code confers functional specificity, we investigated whether dynamic features may be targeted pharmacologically to achieve therapeutic specificity. With a virtual screen, we identified combinations of signaling hub topologies and dynamic signal profiles that are amenable to selective inhibition. Mathematical analysis revealed principles that may guide stimulus-specific inhibition of signaling hubs, even in the absence of detailed mathematical models. Using the NFκB signaling module as a test bed, we identified perturbations that selectively affect the response to cytokines or pathogen components. Together, our results demonstrate that the dynamics of signaling may serve as a pharmacological target, and we reveal principles that delineate the opportunities and constraints of developing stimulus-specific therapeutic agents aimed at pleiotropic signaling hubs.

http://www.cell.com/cms/attachment/2021777732/2041663648/fx1.jpg

Intracellular signals link the cell’s genome to the environment. Misregulation of such signals often cause or exacerbate disease (Lin and Karin, 2007 and Weinberg, 2007) (so-called “signaling diseases”), and their rectification has been a major focus of biomedical and pharmaceutical research (Cohen, 2002Frelin et al., 2005 and Ghoreschi et al., 2009). For the identification of therapeutic targets, the concept of discrete signaling pathways that transmit intracellular signals to connect cellular sensor/receptors with cellular core machineries has been influential. In this framework, molecular specificity of therapeutic agents correlates well with their functional or phenotypic specificity. However, in practice, clinical outcomes for many drugs with high molecular specificity has been disappointing (e.g., inhibitors of IKK, MAPK, and JNK; Berger and Iyengar, 2011DiDonato et al., 2012Röring and Brummer, 2012 and Seki et al., 2012).

Many prominent signaling mediators are functionally pleiotropic, playing roles in multiple physiological functions (Chavali et al., 2010 and Gandhi et al., 2006). Indeed, signals triggered by different stimuli often travel through shared network segments that operate as hubs before reaching the effectors of the cellular response (Bitterman and Polunovsky, 2012 and Gao and Chen, 2010). Hubs’ inherent pleiotropy means that their inhibition may have broad and likely undesired effects (Karin, 2008Berger and Iyengar, 2011,Force et al., 2007Oda and Kitano, 2006 and Zhang et al., 2008); this is a major obstacle for the efficacy of drugs targeting prominent signaling hubs such as p53, MAPK, or IKK.

Recent studies have begun to address how signaling networks generate stimulus-specific responses (Bardwell, 2006Haney et al., 2010Hao et al., 2008 and Zalatan et al., 2012). For example, the activity of some pleiotropic kinases may be steered to particular targets by scaffold proteins (Park et al., 2003,Schröfelbauer et al., 2012 and Zalatan et al., 2012). Alternatively, or in addition, some signaling hubs may rely on stimulus-specific signal dynamics to activate selective downstream branches in a stimulus-specific manner in a process known as temporal or dynamic coding or multiplexing (Behar and Hoffmann, 2010,Chalmers et al., 2007Hoffmann et al., 2002Kubota et al., 2012Marshall, 1995 and Purvis et al., 2012;Purvis and Lahav, 2013Schneider et al., 2012 and Werner et al., 2005).

Although the importance of signaling scaffolds and their pharmacological promise is widely appreciated (Klussmann et al., 2008 and Zalatan et al., 2012) and isolated studies have altered the stimulus-responsive signal dynamics (Purvis et al., 2012Park et al., 2003Sung et al., 2008 and Sung and Simon, 2004), the capacity for modulating signal dynamics for pharmacological gain has not been addressed in a systematic manner. In this work, we demonstrate by theoretical means that, when signal dynamics are targeted, pharmacological perturbations can produce stimulus-selective results. Specifically, we identify combinations of signaling hub topology and input-signal dynamics that allow for pharmacological perturbations with dynamic feature-specific or input-specific effects. Then, we investigate stimulus-specific drug targeting in the IKK-NFκB signaling hub both in silico and in vivo. Together, our work begins to define the opportunities for pharmacological targeting of signaling dynamics to achieve therapeutic specificity.

Dynamic Signaling Hubs May Be Manipulated to Mute Specific Signals

Previous work has shown how stimulus-specific signal dynamics may allow a signaling hub to selectively route effector functions to different downstream branches (Behar et al., 2007). Here, we investigated the capacity of simple perturbations to kinetic parameters (caused for example by drug treatments) to produce stimulus-specific effects. For this, we examined a simple model of an idealized signaling hub (Figure 1A), reminiscent of the NFκB p53 or of MAPK signaling modules. The hub X reacts with strong but transient activity to stimulus S1 and sustained, slowly rising activity to stimulus S2. These stimulus-specific signaling dynamics are decoded by two effector modules, regulating transcription factors TF1 and TF2. TF1, regulated by a strongly adaptive negative feedback, is sensitive only to fast-changing signals, whereas TF2, regulated by a slowly activating two-state switch, requires sustained signals for activation (Figure 1B). We found it useful to characterize the X, TF1, and TF2 responses in terms of two dynamic features, namely the maximum early amplitude (“E,” time < 15′) and the average late amplitude (“L,” 15′ < t < 6 hr). These features, calculated using a mathematical model of the network (see Experimental Procedures) show good fidelity and specificity (Komarova et al., 2005) (Figure 1C), as S1 causes strong activation of TF1 with minimal crosstalk to TF2, and vice versa for S2.

http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0092867413011550-gr1.jpg

Figure 1. Pharmacologic Perturbations with Stimulus-Specific Effects

(A) A negative-feedback module transduces input signals S1 and S2, producing outputs that are decoded by downstream effectors circuits that may distinguish between different dynamics.

(B) Unperturbed dynamics of X, TF1, and TF2 in response to S1 (red) and S2 (blue). Definition of early (E) and late (L) parts of the signal is indicated.

(C) Specificity and fidelity of E and L for TF1 and TF2, as defined in Komarova et al., 2005).

(D) Partial inhibition of X activation (A) abolishes the response to S1, but not S2, whereas a perturbation targeting the feedback regulator (FBR) suppresses the response to S2, but not S1.

(E) Perturbation phenotypes defined as difference between unperturbed and perturbed values of the indicated quantities (arbitrary scales for X, TF1, and TF2). Perturbation A inhibits E and TF1, but not TF2; perturbation FBR inhibits L and TF2, but not TF1.

(F) Virtual screening pipeline showing the experimental design and the two analysis branches for characterizing feature- and input-specific effects.

See also in Experimental Procedures and Table S1.

Seeking simple (affecting a single reaction) perturbations that selectively inhibit signaling by S1 or S2, we found that perturbation A, partially inhibiting the activation of X, was capable of suppressing hub activity in response to a range of S1 amplitudes while still allowing for activity in response to S2 (Figure 1D). Consequently, this perturbation significantly reduced TF1 activity in response to S1 but had little effect on TF2 activity elicited by S2. We also found that the most effective way to inhibit S2 signaling was by targeting the deactivation of negative feedback regulator Y (FBR). This perturbation caused almost complete abrogation of late X activity yet allows for significant levels of early activity. As a result, TF2 was nearly completely abrogated in response to S2, but stimulus S1 still produced a solid TF1 response. The early (E) and late (L) amplitudes could be used to quantify the input-signal-specific effects of these perturbations (Figure 1E).

This numerical experiment showed that it is possible to selectively suppress transient or sustained dynamic signals transduced through a common negative-feedback-containing signaling hub. Moreover, the dynamic features E and L could be independently inhibited. To study how prevalent such opportunities for selective inhibition are, we established a computational pipeline for screening reaction perturbations within multiple network topologies and in response to multiple dynamic input signals; the simulation results were analyzed to identify cases of either “input-signal-specific” inhibition or “dynamic feature-specific” inhibition (Figure 1F).

A Computational Screen to Identify Opportunities for Input-Signal-Specific Inhibition

The computational screen involved small libraries of one- and two-component regulatory modules and temporal profiles of input signals (Figure 2A), both commonly found in intracellular signaling networks. All modules (M1–M7, column on left) contained a species X that, upon stimulation by an input signal, is converted into an active form X (the output) that propagates the signal to downstream effectors. One-component modules included a reversible two-state switch (M1) and a three-state cycle with a refractory state (M2). Two-component modules contained a species Y that, upon activation via a feedback (M3 and M5) or feedforward (M4 and M6) loop, either deactivates X (M3 and M4) or inhibits (M5 and M6) its activation. We also included the afore-described topology that mimics the IκB-NFκB or the Mdm2-p53 modules (M7). Mathematical descriptions may be found in the Experimental Procedures. Although many biological signaling networks may conform to one of these simple topologies, others may be abstracted to one that recapitulates the physiologically relevant emergent properties

Figure 2. A Virtual Screen for Stimulus Specificity in Pharmacologic Perturbations

(A) Signaling modules (left) and input library (top) used in the screen. Dotted lines indicate enzymatic reactions (perturbation names indicated in letter code). Time courses of hub activity for each module/input combination for the unperturbed (black) and perturbed cases (blue indicates a decrease, red an increase in parameter value).

(B) Relative sensitivity of the stimulus response to the indicated perturbation (defined as the perturbation’s effect on the area under the curve), normalized per row.

See also Experimental ProceduresFigure S1, and Tables S2 and S3.

The library of stimuli (S1–S10; Figure 2A, top row) comprises ten input functions with different combinations of “fast” and “slow” initiation and decay phases (see Experimental Procedures). The virtual screen was performed by varying the kinetic parameter for each reaction over a range of values, thereby modeling simple perturbations of different strengths and recording the temporal profile of X abundance. To quantify stimulus-specific inhibition, we measured the area under the normalized dose-response curves (time average of X versus perturbation dose) for each module-input combination (Experimental ProceduresFigure 2B, and Figure S1 available online).

Phase Space Analysis Reveals Underlying Regulatory Principles

To understand the origin of dynamic feature-specific inhibition, we investigated the perturbation effects analytically on each module’s phase space, i.e., the space defined by X∗ and Y∗ quasi-equilibrium surfaces (Figures 4 and S4). These surfaces (“q.e. surfaces”) represent the dose response of X∗ as a function of Y∗ and a stationary input signal S (“X surface”) and the dose response of Y∗ as a function of X∗ and S (“Y surface”) (Figure 4A). The points at which the surfaces intersect correspond to the concentrations of X∗ and Y∗ in equilibrium for a given value of S. In the basal state, when S is low, the system is resting at an equilibrium point close to the origin of coordinates. When S increases, the concentrations of X∗ and Y∗ adjust until the signal settles at some stationary value (Figure 4A). Gradually, changing input signals cause the concentrations to follow trajectories close to the q.e. surfaces (quasi-equilibrium dynamics), following the line defined by the intersection of the surfaces (“q.e. line”) in the extreme of infinitely slow inputs. Fast-changing stimuli drive the system out of equilibrium, causing the trajectories to deviate markedly from the q.e. surfaces.

Two main principles emerged: (1) perturbations that primarily affect the shape of a q.e. surface tend to affect steady-state levels or responses that evolve close to quasi-equilibrium, and (2) perturbations that primarily affect the balance of timescales (X, Y activation, and S) tend to affect transient out-of-equilibrium parts of the response. These principles reflect the fact that out-of-equilibrium parts of a signal are largely insensitive to the precise shape of the underlying dose-response surfaces (they may still be bounded by them) but depend on the balance between the timescales of the biochemical processes involved. Perturbation of these balances affects how a system approaches steady state (thus affecting out-of-equilibrium and quasi-equilibrium dynamics), but not steady-state levels. To illustrate these principles, we present selected results for modules M3 and M4 and discuss additional cases in the supplement (Figure S3).

Detailed Analysis of Modules M3 and M4, Related to Figure 4

Time courses and projections of the phase space for modules M3 and M4. Color coding similar to Figure 4.

In the feedback-based modules (M3 and M5), the early peak of activity in response to rapidly changing signals is an out-of-equilibrium feature that occurs when the timescale of Y activation is significantly slower than that of X. Under these conditions, the concentration of X increases rapidly (out of equilibrium) before decaying along the X surface (in quasi-equilibrium) as more Y gets activated (Figure 4A, parameters modified to better illustrate the effects being discussed; see Table S2). For input signals that settle at some stationary level of S, Y activation eventually catches up and the concentration of X settles at the equilibrium point where the X and Y curves intersect. Gradually changing signals allow X and Yactivation to continuously adapt, and the system evolves closer to the q.e. line.

In such modules, perturbation A (X activation) changes both the shape of the q.e. surface for X and the kinetics of activation. When in the unperturbed system Y saturates, perturbation A primarily reduces Xsteady-state level (Figures 4B and 4C, left and center). When Y does not saturate in the unperturbed system, the primary effect is the reduced activation kinetics. Thus the perturbation affects the out-of-equilibrium peak (Figures 4B and 4C, center and right), with only minor reduction of steady-state levels (especially when Y’s dose response respect to X is steep). The transition from saturated to not-saturated feedback (as well as the perturbation strength) underlies the dose-dependent switch from L to E observed in the screen. In both saturated and unsaturated regimes, the shift in the shape of the surfaces does change the q.e. line and thus affects responses occurring in quasi-equilibrium. In contrast, perturbation of the feedback recovery (FBR) shifts the Y surface vertically (Figure 4D), specifically affecting the steady-state levels and late signaling; the effect on Y kinetics is limited because the reaction is relatively slow. Perturbation FBA also shifts the Y surface, but the net effect is less specific because the associated increase in the rate of Y activation tends to equalize X and Y kinetics affecting also the out-of-equilibrium peak.

In resting cells, NFκB is held inactive through its association with inhibitors IκBα, β, and ε. Upon stimulation, these proteins are phosphorylated by the kinase IKK triggering their degradation. Free nuclear NFκB activates the expression of target genes, including IκB-encoding genes, which thereby provide negative feedback (Figure 5A). The IκB-NFκB-signaling module is a complex dynamic system; however, by abstracting the control mechanism to its essentials, we show below that the above-described principles can be applied profitably.

IκB-NFκB signaling module

IκB-NFκB signaling module

http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0092867413011550-gr5.jpg

Figure 5. Modulating NFκB Signaling Dynamics

(A) The IκB-NFκB signaling module.

(B) Equilibrium dose-response relationship for NFκB versus IKK.

(C) Three IKK curves representative of three stimulation regimes; TNFc (red), TNFp (green), and LPS (blue) function as inputs into the model, which computes the corresponding NFκB activity dynamics (bottom). The quasi-equilibrium line (black) was obtained by transforming the IKK temporal profiles by the dose response in (B). Deviation from the quasi-equilibrium line for the TNF response indicates out-of-equilibrium dynamics.

(D) Coarse-grained model of the IκB-NFκB module and predicted effects of perturbations.

(E) Selected perturbations with specific effects on out-of-equilibrium (top three) or steady state (bottom two). (Left to right) Feature maps in the E-L space (E: t < 60 ′, L: 120′ < t < 300′), tangent angle at the unperturbed point (θ > 0 indicates L is more suppressed than E and vice versa), and time courses (green, TNF chronic; red, TNF pulse; blue, LPS). Only inhibitory perturbations are shown. Additional perturbations are shown in Figure S4.

See also Experimental Procedures and Table S7.

Here, we delineate the potential of achieving stimulus-specific inhibition when targeting molecular reactions within pleiotropic signaling hubs. We found that it is theoretically possible to design perturbations that (1) selectively attenuate signaling in response to one stimulus but not another, (2) selectively attenuate undesirable features of dynamic signals or enhance desirable ones, or (3) remodulate output signals to fit a dynamic profile normally associated with a different stimulus.

These opportunities—not all of them possible for every signaling module topology or biological scenario—are governed by two general principles based on timescale and dose-response relationships between upstream signal dynamics and intramodule reaction kinetics (Figure 4 and Table S4). In short, a steady-state or quasi-equilibrium part of a response may be selectively affected by perturbations that introduce changes in the relevant dose-response surfaces. Out-of-equilibrium responses that are not sensitive to the precise shape of a dose-response curve may be selectively attenuated by perturbations that modify the relative timescales. Dose responses and timescales cannot, in general, be modified independently by simple perturbations (combination treatments are required), but as we show, in some cases, one effect dominates resulting in feature or stimulus specificity.

The degree to which specific dynamic features of a signaling profile or the dynamic responses to specific stimuli can be selectively inhibited depends on how distinctly they rely on quasi-equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium control. Signals that contain both features may be partially inhibited by both types of perturbation, limiting the specific inhibition achievable by simple perturbations. In practice, this limited the degree to which NFκB signaling could be inhibited in a stimulus-specific manner (Figure 5) and the associated therapeutic dose window (Figure 6). The most selective stimulus-specific effects can be introduced when a signal is heavily dependent on a particular dynamic feature; for example, suppression of out-of-equilibrium transients will abrogate the response to stimuli that produce such transients. For a selected group of target genes, this specificity at the signal level translated directly to expression patterns (Figure 6B, middle). More generally, selective inhibition of early or late phases of a signal may allow for specific control of early and late response genes (Figure 6C), a concept that remains to be studied at genomic scales. Though the principles are general, how they apply to specific signaling pathways depends not only on the regulatory topology, but also on the dynamic regime determined by the parameters. As demonstrated with the IκB-NFκB module, analysis of a coarse-grained topology in terms of the principles may allow the prediction of perturbations with a desired specificity.

 

7.6.2 A Protein-Tagging System for Signal Amplification in Gene Expression and Fluorescence Imaging

Marvin E. Tanenbaum, Luke A. Gilbert, Lei S. Qi, Jonathan S. Weissman, Ronald D. Vale
Cell 23 Oct 2014; 159(3): 635–646
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2014.09.039

Highlights

  • SunTag allows controlled protein multimerization on a protein scaffold
  • SunTag enables long-term single-molecule imaging in living cells
  • SunTag greatly improves CRISPR-based activation of gene expression

Summary

Signals in many biological processes can be amplified by recruiting multiple copies of regulatory proteins to a site of action. Harnessing this principle, we have developed a protein scaffold, a repeating peptide array termed SunTag, which can recruit multiple copies of an antibody-fusion protein. We show that the SunTag can recruit up to 24 copies of GFP, thereby enabling long-term imaging of single protein molecules in living cells. We also use the SunTag to create a potent synthetic transcription factor by recruiting multiple copies of a transcriptional activation domain to a nuclease-deficient CRISPR/Cas9 protein and demonstrate strong activation of endogenous gene expression and re-engineered cell behavior with this system. Thus, the SunTag provides a versatile platform for multimerizing proteins on a target protein scaffold and is likely to have many applications in imaging and controlling biological outputs.

http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0092867414012276-fx1.jpg

SunTag, which can recruit multiple copies of an antibody-fusion protein
Development of the SunTag, a System for Recruiting Multiple Protein Copies to a Polypeptide Scaffold Protein multimerization on a single RNA or DNA template is made possible by identifying protein domains that bind with high affinity to a relatively short nucleic acid motif. We therefore sought a protein-based system with similar properties, specifically a protein that can bind tightly to a short peptide sequence (Figures 1A and1B).Antibodies arecapable ofbindingto short,unstructured peptide sequences with high affinity and specificity, and, importantly, peptide epitopes can be designed that differ from naturally occurring sequences in the genome. Furthermore, whereas antibodies generally do not fold properly in the cytoplasm, single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies, in which the epitope-binding regions of the light and heavy chains of the antibody are fused to forma single polypeptide, have been successfully expressed in soluble form in cells (Colby et al., 2004; Lecerf et al., 2001; Wo ¨rn et al., 2000).
We expressed three previously developed single-chain antibodies (Colby et al., 2004; Lecerf et al., 2001; Wo ¨rn et al., 2000) fused to EGFP in U2OS cells and coexpressed their cognate peptides (multimerized in four tandem copies) fused to the cytoplasmic side of the mitochondrial protein mitoNEET (Colca et al., 2004) (referred to here as Mito, Figure S1A). We then assayed whether the antibody-GFP fusion proteins would be recruited to the mitochondria by fluorescence microscopy, which would indicate binding between antibody and peptide (Figure 1B). Of the three antibody-peptide pairs tested, only the GCN4 antibody-peptide pair showed robust and specific binding while not disrupting normal mitochondrial morphology (Figures 1C and S1B). Thus, we focused our further efforts on the GCN4 antibody-peptide pair. The GCN4 antibody was optimized to allow intracellular expression in yeast (Wo ¨rn et al., 2000). In human cells, however, we still observed some protein aggregates of scFv-GCN4-GFP at high expression levels (Figure S2A). To improve scFv-GCN4 stability, we added a variety of N- and C-terminal fusion proteins known to enhance protein solubility and found that fusion of superfolder-GFP (sfGFP) alone
(Pe’delacq et al., 2006) or along with the small solubility tag GB1 (Gronenborn et al., 1991) to the C terminus of the GCN4 antibody almost completely eliminated protein aggregation, even at high expression levels (Figure S2A). Thus, we performed all further experiments with scFv-GCN4-sfGFP-GB1 (hereafter referred to as scFvGCN4-GFP). Very tight binding of the antibody-peptide pair in vivo is critical fortheformation ofmultimersonaproteinscaffoldbackbone.To determine the dissociation rate of the GCN4 antibody-peptide interaction, we performed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments on scFv-GCN4-GFP bound to the mitochondrial-localized mito-mCherry-4xGCN4pep. After photobleaching, very slow GFP recovery was observed (halflife of 5–10 min [Figures 2A and 2B]), indicating that the antibody bound very tightly to the peptide. It is also important to optimize the spacing of the scFv-GCN4 binding sites within the protein scaffold so that they could be saturated by scFvGCN4 because steric hindrance of neighboring peptide binding sites is a concern. We varied the spacing between neighboring GCN4 peptides and quantified the antibody occupancy on the peptide array.

Figure 1. Identification of an Antibody-Peptide Pair that Binds Tightly In Vivo (A) Schematic of the antibody-peptide labeling strategy. (B) Schematic of the experiment described in (C) in which the mitochondrial targeting domain of mitoNEET (yellow box, mito) fused to mCherry and four tandem copies of a peptide recruits a GFP-tagged intracellular antibody to mitochondria. (C) ScFv-GCN4-GFP was coexpressed with either mito-mCherry-4xGCN4peptide (bottom) or mito-mCherry-FKBP as a control (top) in U2OS cells, and cells were imaged using spinning-disk confocal microscopy. Scale bars, 10 mm. See also Figure S1.

Figure 2. Characterization of the Off Rate and Stoichiometry of the Binding Interaction between the scFv-GCN4 Antibody and the GCN4 Peptide Array In Vivo (A) Mito-mCherry-24xGCN4pep was cotransfected with scFv-GCN4-GFP in HEK293 cells, and their colocalization on mitochondria in a single cell is shown (10 s). At 0 s, the mitochondria-localized GFP signal was photobleached in a single z plane using a 472 nm laser, and fluorescence recovery was followed by time-lapse microscopy. Scale bar, 5 mm. (B) The FRAP was quantified for 20 cells. (C–E) Indicated constructs were transfected in HEK293 cells, and images were acquired 24 hr after transfection with identical image acquisition settings. Representative images are shown in (C). Note that the GFP signal intensity in the mito-mCherry-24xGCN4pep + scFv-GCN4-GFP is highly saturated when the same scaling is used as in the other panels. Bottom row shows a zoom of a region of interest: dynamic scaling was different for the GFP and mCherry signals, so that both could be observed. Scale bars, 10 mm. (D and E) Quantifications of the GFP:mCherry fluorescence intensity ratio on mitochondria after normalization. Eachdot represents a single cell, and dashed lines indicates the average value. See also Figure S2.

Figure 3. The SunTag Allows Long-Term Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging in the Cytoplasm (A–H) U2OS cells were transfected with indicated SunTag24x constructs together with the scFv-GCN4-GFP-NLS and were imaged by spinning-disk confocal microscopy 24 hr after transfection. (A) A representative image of SunTag24x-CAAX-GFP is shown (left), as well as the fluorescence intensities quantification of the foci (right, blue bars). As a control, U2OS were transfected with sfGFP-CAAX and fluorescence intensities of single sfGFP-CAAX molecules were also quantified (red bars). The average fluorescence intensity of the single sfGFP-CAAX was set to 1. Dotted line marks the outline of the cell (left). Scale bar, 10 mm. (B) Cells expressing K560-SunTag24x-GFP were imaged by spinning disk confocal microscopy (image acquisition every 200 ms). Movement is revealed by a maximum intensity projection of 50 time points (left) and a kymograph (right). Scale bar, 10 mm. (C and D) Cells expressing both EB3-tdTomato and K560-SunTag24x-GFP were imaged, and moving particles were tracked manually. Red and blue tracks (bottom) indicate movement toward the cell interior and periphery, respectively (C). The duration of the movie was 20 s. Scale bar, 5 mm. Dots in (D) represent individual cells with between 5 and 20 moving particles scored per cell. The mean and SD are indicated. (E and F) Cells expressing Kif18b-SunTag24x-GFP were imaged with a 250 ms time interval. Images in (E) show a maximum intensity projection (50 time- points, left) and a kymograph (right). Speeds of moving molecules were quantified from ten different cells (F). Scale bar, 10 mm. (G and H) Cells expressing both mCherry-a-tubulin and K560rig-SunTag24x-GFP were imaged with a 600 ms time interval.The entire cell is shown in (G), whereas H shows zoomed-instills of atime series from the same cell. Open circlestrack two foci on the same microtubule,which is indicated bythe dashed line. Asterisks indicate stationary foci. Scale bars, 10 and 2 mm (G and H), respectively. See also Figure S3 and Movies S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6.
The GCN4 peptide contains many hydrophobic residues (Figure 4B) and is largely unstructured in solution (Berger et al., 1999); thus, the poor expression of the peptide array could be due to its unstructured and hydrophobic nature. To test this idea, we designed several modified peptide sequence that were predicted to increase a-helical propensity and reduce hydrophobicity. One of these optimized peptides (v4, Figure 4B) was expressed moderately well as a 243 peptide array, and even higher expression was achieved with a 103 peptide array (Figure 4C). Importantly, fluorescence imaging revealed that thescFv-GCN4antibody robustlyboundto theGCN4v4peptide array in vivo and FRAP analysis suggests that the scFv-GCN4 antibody dissociates with a similar slow off rate from the GCN4
v4 peptide array as the original peptide (Figures 4D and 4E). Furthermore, K560 motility could be observed when it was tagged with the optimized v4 243 peptide array, indicating that the optimized v4 peptide array did not interfere with protein function (Movie S7). Together, these results identify a second version of the peptide array that can be used for applications requiring higher expression.
Activation of Gene Transcription Using Cas9-SunTag Because the SunTag system could be used for amplification of a fluorescence signal, we tested whether it also could be used to amplify regulatory signals involved in gene expression. Transcription of a gene is strongly enhanced by recruiting multiple copies of transcriptional activators to endogenous or artificial gene promoters (Anderson and Freytag, 1991; Chen et al., 1992; Pettersson and Schaffner, 1990). Thus, we thought that robust, artificial activation of gene transcription might also be achieved by recruiting multiple copies of a synthetic transcriptional activator to a gene using the SunTag.

Figure 4. An Optimized Peptide Array for High Expression (A) Indicated constructs were transfected in HEK293 cells and imaged 24 hr after transfection using wide-field microscopy. All images were acquired using identical acquisition parameters. Representative images are shown (left), and fluorescence intensities were quantified (n = 3) (right). (B) Sequence of the first and second generation GCN4 peptide (modified or added residues are colored blue, hydrophobic residues are red, and linker residues are yellow). (C–E) Indicated constructs were transfected in HEK293 cells and imaged 24 hr after transfection using wide-field (C) or spinning-disk confocal (D and E) microscopy. (C) Representative images are shown (left), and fluorescence intensities were quantified (n = 3) (right). (D and E) GFP signal on mitochondria was photobleached, and fluorescence recovery was determined over time. The graph (E) represents an average of six cells per condition. (E) shows an image of a representative cell before photobleaching. Scale bars in (A) and (C), 50 mm; scale bars in (D) and (E), 10 mm. Error bars in (A) and (C) represent SDs. See also Movie S7.

Figure 5. dCas9-SunTag Allows Genetic Rewiring of Cells through Activation of Endogenous Genes (A) Schematic of gene activation by dCas9-VP64 and dCas9-SunTag-VP64. dCas9 binds to a gene promoter through its sequence-specific sgRNA (red line). Direct fusion of VP64 to dCas9 (top) results in a single VP64 domain at the promoter, which poorly activates transcription of the downstream gene. In contrast, recruitment of many VP64 domains using the SunTag potently activates transcription of the gene (bottom). (B–D) K562 cells stably expressing dCas9-VP64 or dCas9-SunTag-VP64 were infected with lentiviral particles encoding indicated sgRNAs, as well as BFP and a puromycin resistance gene and selected with 0.7 mg/ml puromycin for 3 days to kill uninfected cells. (B and C) Cells were stained for CXCR4 using adirectlylabeleda-CXCR4 antibody, and fluorescence was analyzed by FACS. (D) Trans-well migration assays (see Experimental Procedures) were performed with indicated sgRNAs. Results are displayed as the fold change in directional migrating cells over control cell migration. (E) dCas9-VP64 or dCas9-SunTag-VP64 induced transcription of CDKN1B with several sgRNAs. mRNA levels were quantified by qPCR. (F) Doubling timeofcontrolcells orcells expressing indicated sgRNAs was determined (see Experimental Procedures section). Graphs in (C), (D), and (F) are averages of three independent experiments. Graph in (E) is average of two biological replicates, each with two or three technical replicates. All error bars indicate SEM. See also Figure S4

 

7.6.3 IQGAPs choreograph cellular signaling from the membrane to the nucleus

Jessica M. Smith, Andrew C. Hedman, David B. Sacks
Trends Cell Biol Mar 2015; 25(3): 171–184
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcb.2014.12.005

Highlights

  • IQGAP proteins scaffold diverse signaling molecules.
  • IQGAPs mediate crosstalk between signaling pathways.
  • IQGAP1 regulates nuclear processes, including transcription.

Since its discovery in 1994, recognized cellular functions for the scaffold protein IQGAP1 have expanded immensely. Over 100 unique IQGAP1-interacting proteins have been identified, implicating IQGAP1 as a critical integrator of cellular signaling pathways. Initial research established functions for IQGAP1 in cell–cell adhesion, cell migration, and cell signaling. Recent studies have revealed additional IQGAP1 binding partners, expanding the biological roles of IQGAP1. These include crosstalk between signaling cascades, regulation of nuclear function, and Wnt pathway potentiation. Investigation of the IQGAP2 and IQGAP3 homologs demonstrates unique functions, some of which differ from those of IQGAP1. Summarized here are recent observations that enhance our understanding of IQGAP proteins in the integration of diverse signaling pathways.

http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0962892414002153-gr2.sml

 

7.6.4 Signaling cell death from the endoplasmic reticulum stress response

Shore GC1, Papa FR, Oakes SA
Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2011 Apr; 23(2):143-9
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.ceb.2010.11.003

Inability to meet protein folding demands within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), a signaling pathway with both adaptive and apoptotic outputs. While some secretory cell types have a remarkable ability to increase protein folding capacity, their upper limits can be reached when pathological conditions overwhelm the fidelity and/or output of the secretory pathway.

The lumen of the ER is a unique cellular environment optimized to carry out the three primary tasks of this organelle:

  1. calcium storage and release,
  2. protein folding and secretion, and
  3. lipid biogenesis [1].

A range of cellular disturbances lead to accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER, including

  • point mutations in secreted proteins that disrupt their proper folding,
  • sustained secretory demands on endocrine cells,
  • viral infection with ER overload of virus-encoding protein, and
  • loss of calcium homeostasis with detrimental effects on ER-resident calcium-dependent chaperones [24].

 

The tripartite UPR consists of three ER transmembrane proteins (IRE1α, PERK, ATF6) that

  • alert the cell to the presence of misfolded proteins in the ER and
  • attempt to restore homeostasis in this organelle through increasing ER biogenesis,
  1. decreasing the influx of new proteins into the ER,
  2. promoting the transport of damaged proteins from the ER to the cytosol for degradation, and
  3. upregulating protein folding chaperones [5].

The adaptive responses of the UPR can markedly expand the protein folding capacity of the cell and restore ER homeostasis [6]. However, if these adaptive outputs fail to compensate because ER stress is excessive or prolonged, the UPR induces cell death.

The cell death pathways collectively triggered by the UPR include both caspase-dependent apoptosis and caspase-independent necrosis. While many details remain unknown, we are beginning to understand how cells determine when ER stress is beyond repair and communicate this information to the cell death machinery. For the purposes of this review, we focus on the apoptotic outputs triggered by the UPR under irremediable ER stress.

Connections from the UPR to the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway

Connections from the UPR to the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3078187/bin/nihms256554f1.jpg

Figure 1 Connections from the UPR to the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway

Under excessive ER stress, the ER transmembrane sensors IRE1α and PERK send signals through the BCL-2 family of proteins to activate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In response to unfolded proteins, IRE1α oligomerizes and induces endonucleolytic decay of hundreds of ER-localized mRNAs, depleting ER protein folding components and leading to worsening ER stress. Phosphorylated IRE1α also recruits TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) and activates apoptosis signaling kinase 1 (ASK1) and its downstream target c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). JNK then activates pro-apoptotic BIM and inhibits anti-apoptotic BCL-2. These conditions result in dimerization of PERK and activation of its kinase domain to phosphorylate eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), which causes selective translation of activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4). ATF4 upregulates expression of the CHOP/GADD153 transcription factor, which inhibits the gene encoding anti-apoptotic BCL-2 while inducing expression of pro-apoptotic BIM. ER stress also promotes p53-dependent transcriptional upregulation of Noxa and Puma, two additional pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins. Furthermore, high levels of UPR signaling induce initiator caspase-2 to proteolytically cleave and activate pro-apoptotic BID upstream of the mitochondrion. In addition to antagonizing pro-survival BCL-2 members, cleaved BID, BIM and PUMA activate Bax and/or Bak. Hence, in response to excessive UPR signaling, the balance of BCL-2 family proteins shifts in the direction of apoptosis and leads to the oligomerization of BAX and BAK, two multi-domain pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins that then drive the permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane, apoptosome formation and activation of executioner caspases such as Caspase-3. Figure adapted with permission from the Journal of Cell Science [58].

The proximal unfolded protein response sensors

UPR signaling is initiated by three ER transmembrane proteins:

  1. IRE1α,
  2. PERK, and

The most ancient ER stress sensor, IRE1α, contains

  1. an ER lumenal domain,
  2. a cytosolic kinase domain and
  3. a cytosolic RNase domain [9,10].

In the presence of unfolded proteins, IRE1α’s ER lumenal domains homo-oligomerize, leading

  • first to kinase trans-autophosphorylation and
  • subsequent RNase activation.

Dissociation of the ER chaperone BiP from IRE1α’s lumenal domain in order to engage unfolded proteins may facilitate IRE1α oligomerization [11]; alternatively, the lumenal domain may bind unfolded proteins directly [12]. PERK’s ER lumenal domain is thought to be activated similarly [13,14]. The ATF6 activation mechanism is less clear. Under ER stress, ATF6 translocates to the Golgi and is cleaved by Site-1 and Site-2 proteases to generate the ATF6(N) transcription factor [15].

All three UPR sensors have outputs that attempt to tilt protein folding demand and capacity back into homeostasis. PERK contains a cytosolic kinase that phosphorylates eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), which impedes translation initiation to reduce the protein load on the ER [16]. IRE1α splices XBP1mRNA, to produce the homeostatic transcription factor XBP1s [17,18]. Together with ATF6(N), XBP1s increases transcription of genes that augment ER size and function[19]. When eIF2α is phosphorylated, the translation of the activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) is actively promoted and leads to the transcription of many pro-survival genes [20]. Together, these transcriptional events act as homeostatic feedback loops to reduce ER stress. If successful in reducing the amount of unfolded proteins, the UPR attenuates.

However, when these adaptive responses prove insufficient, the UPR switches into an alternate mode that promotes apoptosis. Under irremediable ER stress, PERK signaling can induce ATF-4-dependent upregulation of the CHOP/GADD153 transcription factor, which inhibits expression of the gene encoding anti-apoptotic BCL-2 while upregulating the expression of oxidase ERO1α to induce damaging ER oxidation [21,22]. Sustained IRE1α oligomerization leads to activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and its downstream target c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) [23,24]. Phosphorylation by JNK has been reported to both activate pro-apoptotic BIM and inhibit anti-apoptotic BCL-2 (see below). Small molecule modulators of ASK1 have been shown to protect cultured cells against ER stress-induced apoptosis, emphasizing the importance of the IRE1α-ASK1-JNK output as a death signal in this pathway [25]. In response to sustained oligomerization, the IRE1α RNase also causes endonucleolytic decay of hundreds of ER-localized mRNAs [26]. By depleting ER cargo and protein folding components, IRE1α-mediated mRNA decay may worsen ER stress, and could be a key aspect of IRE1α’s pro-apoptotic program [27]. Recently, inhibitors of IRE1α’s kinase pocket have been shown to conformationally activate its adjacent RNase domain in a manner that enforces homeostatic XBP1s without causing destructive mRNA decay [27], a potentially exciting strategy for preventing ER stress-induced cell loss.

The BCL-2 family and the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway

A wealth of genetic and biochemical data argues that the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway is the major cell death pathway induced by the UPR, at least in most cell types. This apoptotic pathway is set in motion when several toxic proteins (e.g., cytochrome c, Smac/Diablo) are released from mitochondria into the cytosol where they lead to activation of downstream effector caspases (e.g., Caspase-3) [30]. The BCL-2 family, a large class of both pro- and anti- survival proteins, tightly regulates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by controlling the integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane [31]. This pathway is set in motion when cell injury leads to the transcriptional and/or post-translational activation of one or more BH3-only proteins that share sequence similarity in a short alpha helix (~9–12 a.a.) known as the Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain [32]. Once activated, BH3-only proteins lead to loss of mitochondrial integrity by disabling mitochondrial protecting proteins that drive the permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane.

ER stress has been reported to activate at least four distinct BH3-only proteins (BID, BIM, NOXA, PUMA) that then signal the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery (i.e., BAX/BAK) [3335]. Each of these BH3-only proteins is activated by ER stress in a unique way. Cells individually deficient in any of these BH3-only proteins are modestly protected against ER stress-inducing agents, but not nearly as resistant as cells null for their common downstream targets BAX and BAK [36]—the essential gatekeepers to the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Moreover, cells genetically deficient in both Bim andPuma are more protected against ER stress-induced apoptosis than Bim or Puma single knockout cells [37].

The ER stress sensor that signals these BH3-only proteins is known in a few cases (i.e., BIM is downstream of PERK); however, we do not yet understand how the UPR communicates with most of the BH3-only proteins. Moreover, it is not known if all of the above BH3-only proteins are simultaneously set in motion by all forms of ER stress or if a subset is activated under specific pathological stimuli that injure this organelle. Understanding the molecular details of how ER damage is communicated to the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery is critical if we want to target disease specific apoptotic signals sent from the ER.

Initiator and Executor Caspases

Caspases, or cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases, play essential roles in both initiating apoptotic signaling (initiator caspases- 2, 4, 8, 12) and executing the final stages of cell demise (executioner caspases- 3, 7, 9) [38]. It is not surprising that the executioner caspases (casp-3,7,9) are critical for cell death resulting from damage to this organelle. Caspase 12 was the first caspase reported to localize to the ER downstream of BAX/BAK-dependent mitochondrial permeabilization becomes activated by UPR signaling in murine cells [39],but humans fail to express a functional Caspase 12 [41. Genetic knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-2 confers resistance to ER stress-induced apoptosis [42]. How the UPR activates caspase-2 and whether other initiator caspasesare also involved remains to be determined.

Calcium and Cell Death

Although an extreme depletion of ER luminal Ca2+ concentrations is a well-documented initiator of the UPR and ER stress-induced apoptosis or necrosis, it represents a relatively non-physiological stimulus. Ca2+ signaling from the ER is likely coupled to most pathways leading to apoptosis. UPR-induced activation of ERO1-α via CHOP in macrophages results in stimulation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) [43]. All three sub-groups of the Bcl-2 family at the ER regulate IP3R activity. A significant fraction of IP3R is a constituent of highly specialized tethers that physically attach ER cisternae to mitochondria (mitochondrial-associated membrane) and regulate local Ca2+ dynamics at the ER-mitochondrion interface [4546]. This results in propagation of privileged IP3R-mediated Ca2+ oscillations into mitochondria. In an extreme scenario, massive transmission of Ca2+ into mitochondria results in Ca2+ overload and cell death by caspase-dependent and –independent means [46,47]. More refined transmission regulated by the Bcl-2 axis at the ER can influence cristae junctions and the availability of cytochrome c for its release across the outer mitochondrial membrane [48]. Finally, such regulated Ca2+transmission to mitochondria is a key determinant of mitochondrial bioenergetics [49].

ER Stress-Induced Cell Loss and Disease

Mounting evidence suggests that ER stress-induced apoptosis contributes to a range of human diseases of cell loss, including diabetes, neurodegeneration, stroke, and heart disease, to name a few (reviewed in REF [50]). The cause of ER stress in these distinct diseases varies depending on the cell type affected and the intracellular and/or extracellular conditions that disrupt proteostasis. Both mutant SOD1 and mutant huntingtin proteins aggregate, exhaust proteasome activity, and result in secondary accumulations of misfolded proteins in the ER [5152].

In the case of IRE1α, it may be possible to use kinase inhibitors to activate its cytoprotective signaling and shut down its apoptotic outputs [27]. Whether similar strategies will work for PERK and/or ATF6 remains to be seen. Alternatively, blocking the specific apoptotic signals that emerge from the UPR is perhaps a more straightforward strategy to prevent ER stress-induced cell loss. To this end, small molecular inhibitors of ASK and JNK are currently being tested in a variety preclinical models of ER stress [5253,5657]. This is just the beginning, and much work needs to be done to validate the best drugs targets in the ER stress pathway.

Conclusions

The UPR is a highly complex signaling pathway activated by ER stress that sends out both adaptive and apoptotic signals. All three transmembrane ER stress sensors (IRE1α, PERK, AFT6) have outputs that initially decrease the load and increase capacity of the ER secretory pathway in an effort to restore ER homeostasis. However, under extreme ER stress, continuous engagement of IRE1α and PERK results in events that simultaneously exacerbate protein misfolding and signal death, the latter involving caspase-dependent apoptosis and caspase-independent necrosis. Advances in our molecular understanding of how these stress sensors switch from life to death signaling will hopefully lead to new strategies to prevent diseases caused by ER stress-induced cell loss.

7.6.5 An Enzyme that Regulates Ether Lipid Signaling Pathways in Cancer Annotated by Multidimensional Profiling

Chiang KP, Niessen S, Saghatelian A, Cravatt BF.
Chem Biol. 2006 Oct; 13(10):1041-50.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2006.08.008

Hundreds, if not thousands, of uncharacterized enzymes currently populate the human proteome. Assembly of these proteins into the metabolic and signaling pathways that govern cell physiology and pathology constitutes a grand experimental challenge. Here, we address this problem by using a multidimensional profiling strategy that combines activity-based proteomics and metabolomics. This approach determined that KIAA1363, an uncharacterized enzyme highly elevated in aggressive cancer cells, serves as a central node in an ether lipid signaling network that bridges platelet-activating factor and lysophosphatidic acid. Biochemical studies confirmed that KIAA1363 regulates this pathway by hydrolyzing the metabolic intermediate 2-acetyl monoalkylglycerol. Inactivation of KIAA1363 disrupted ether lipid metabolism in cancer cells and impaired cell migration and tumor growth in vivo. The integrated molecular profiling method described herein should facilitate the functional annotation of metabolic enzymes in any living system.

Elucidation of the metabolic and signaling networks that regulate health and disease stands as a principal goal of postgenomic research. The remarkable complexity of these molecular pathways has inspired the advancement of “systems biology” methods for their characterization [1]. Toward this end, global profiling technologies, such as DNA microarrays 2 and 3 and mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics 4 and 5, have succeeded in generating gene and protein signatures that depict key features of many human diseases. However, extricating from these associative relationships the roles that specific biomolecules play in cell physiology and pathology remains problematic, especially for proteins of unknown biochemical or cellular function.

The functions of certain proteins, such as adaptor or scaffolding proteins, can be gleaned from large-scale protein-interaction maps generated by technologies like yeast two-hybrid 6 and 7, protein microarrays [8], and MS analysis of immunoprecipitated protein complexes 9 and 10. In contrast, enzymes contribute to biological processes principally through catalysis. Thus, elucidation of the activities of the many thousands of enzymes encoded by eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes requires knowledge of their endogenous substrates and products. The functional annotation of enzymes in prokaryotic systems has been facilitated by the clever analysis of gene clusters or operons 11 and 12, which correspond to sets of genes adjacently located in the genome that encode for enzymes participating in the same metabolic cascade. The assembly of eukaryotic enzymes into metabolic pathways is more problematic, however, as their corresponding genes are not, in general, physically organized into operons, but rather are scattered randomly throughout the genome.

We hypothesized that the determination of endogenous catalytic activities for uncharacterized enzymes could be accomplished directly in living systems by the integrated application of global profiling technologies that survey both the enzymatic proteome and its primary biochemical output (i.e., the metabolome). Here, we have tested this premise by utilizing multidimensional profiling to characterize an integral membrane enzyme of unknown function that is highly elevated in human cancer.

Development of a Selective Inhibitor for the Uncharacterized Enzyme KIAA1363

Previous studies using the chemical proteomic technology activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) 15, 16 and 17 have identified enzyme activity signatures that distinguish human cancer cells based on their biological properties, including tumor of origin and state of invasiveness [18]. A primary component of these signatures was the protein KIAA1363, an uncharacterized integral membrane hydrolase found to be upregulated in aggressive cancer cells from multiple tissues of origin. To investigate the role that KIAA1363 plays in cancer cell metabolism and signaling, a selective inhibitor of this enzyme was generated by competitive ABPP 20 and 21.

Previous competitive ABPP screens that target the serine hydrolase superfamily identified a set of trifluoromethyl ketone (TFMK) inhibitors that showed activity in mouse brain extracts [20]. These TFMK inhibitors showed only limited activity in living human cells (data not shown). We postulated that the activity of KIAA1363 inhibitors could be enhanced by replacing the TFMK group with a carbamate, which inactivates serine hydrolases via a covalent mechanism (Figure S1; see the Supplemental Data available with this article online). Carbamate AS115 (Figure 1A) was synthesized and tested for its effects on the invasive ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3 by competitive ABPP (Figure 1B). AS115 was found to potently and selectively inactivate KIAA1363, displaying an IC50 value of 150 nM, while other serine hydrolase activities were not affected by this agent (IC50 values > 10 μM) (Figures 1B and 1C). AS115 also selectively inhibited KIAA1363 in other aggressive cancer cell lines that possess high levels of this enzyme, including the melanoma lines C8161 and MUM-2B (Figure S2B).

Figure 1. Characterization of AS115, a Selective Inhibitor of the Cancer-Related Enzyme KIAA1363

Profiling the Metabolic Effects of KIAA1363 Inactivation in Cancer Cells

We next compared the global metabolite profiles of SKOV-3 cells treated with AS115 to identify endogenous small molecules regulated by KIAA1363, using a recently described, untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) platform for comparative metabolomics [22]. AS115 (10 μM, 4 hr) was found to cause a dramatic reduction in the levels of a specific set of lipophilic metabolites (m/z 317, 343, and 345) in SKOV-3 cells ( Figure 2A). These metabolites did not correspond to any of the typical lipid species found in cells, none of which were significantly altered by AS115 treatment ( Table S1). High-resolution MS of the m/z 317 metabolite provided a molecular formula of C19H40O3 ( Figure 2B), which suggests that this compound might represent a monoalkylglycerol ether bearing a C16:0 alkyl chain (C16:0 MAGE).  This structure assignment was corroborated by tandem MS and LC analysis, in which the endogenous m/z 317 product and synthetic C16:0 MAGE displayed equivalent fragmentation and migration patterns, respectively ( Figure S3). By extension, the m/z 343 and 345 metabolites were interpreted to represent the C18:1 and C18:0 MAGEs, respectively. A control carbamate inhibitor, URB597, which targets other hydrolytic enzymes [23], but not KIAA1363, did not affect MAGE levels in cancer cells ( Figure S4).

Pharmacological Inhibition of KIAA1363 Reduces Monoalkylglycerol Ether, MAGE, Levels in Human Cancer Cells

Pharmacological Inhibition of KIAA1363 Reduces Monoalkylglycerol Ether, MAGE, Levels in Human Cancer Cells

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Figure 2. Pharmacological Inhibition of KIAA1363 Reduces Monoalkylglycerol Ether, MAGE, Levels in Human Cancer Cells

(A) Global metabolite profiling of AS115-treated SKOV-3 cells (10 μM AS115, 4 hr) with untargeted LC-MS methods [22]revealed a specific reduction in a set of structurally related metabolites with m/z values of 317, 343, and 345 (p < 0.001 for AS115- versus DMSO-treated SKOV-3 cells). Results represent the average fold change for three independent experiments. See Table S1for a more complete list of metabolite levels.

(B) High-resolution MS analysis of the sodium adduct of the purified m/z 317 metabolite provided a molecular formula of C19H40O3, which, in combination with tandem MS and LC analysis ( Figure S3), led to the determination of the structure of this small molecule as C16:0 monoalkylglycerol ether (C16:0 MAGE).

Biochemical Characterization of KIAA1363 as a 2-Acetyl MAGE Hydrolase

The correlation between KIAA1363 inactivation and reduced MAGE levels suggests that these lipids are products of a KIAA1363-catalyzed reaction. A primary route for the biosynthesis of MAGEs has been proposed to occur via the enzymatic hydrolysis of their 2-acetyl precursors 24 and 25. This 2-acetyl MAGE hydrolysis activity was first detected in cancer cell extracts over a decade ago [25], but, to date, it has eluded molecular characterization. To test whether KIAA1363 functions as a 2-acetyl MAGE hydrolase, this enzyme was transiently transfected into COS7 cells. KIAA1363-transfected cells possessed significantly higher 2-acetyl MAGE hydrolase activity compared to mock-transfected cells, and this elevated activity was blocked by treatment with AS115 (Figure 3A). In contrast, KIAA1363- and mock-transfected cells showed no differences in their respective hydrolytic activity for 2-oleoyl MAGE, monoacylglycerols, or phospholipids (e.g., platelet-activating factor [PAF], phosphatidylcholine) (Figure S5A). These data indicate that KIAA1363 selectively catalyzes the hydrolysis of 2-acetyl MAGEs to MAGEs.

KIAA1363 Regulates an Ether Lipid Signaling Network that Bridges Platelet-Activating Factor and the Lysophospholipids

Examination of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database [26] suggests that the KIAA1363-MAGE pathway might serve as a unique metabolic node linking the PAF [27] and lysophospholipid [28] signaling systems in cancer cells (Figure 4A). Consistent with a direct pathway leading from MAGEs to these lysophospholipids, addition of 13C-MAGE to SKOV-3 cells resulted in the formation of 13C-labeled alkyl-LPC and alkyl-LPA (Figure 4C).
Conversely, the levels of 2-acetyl MAGE in SKOV-3 cells, as judged by metabolic labeling experiments, were significantly stabilized by treatment with AS115, which, in turn, led to an accumulation of PAF (Figure 4D).  A comparison of the metabolite profiles of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells revealed significantly higher levels of MAGE, alkyl-LPC, and alkyl-LPA in the former line (Figure 4E). These data indicate that the lysophospholipid branch of the MAGE network is elevated in aggressive cancer cells, and that this metabolic shift is regulated by KIAA1363.

Figure 4. KIAA1363 Serves as a Key Enzymatic Node in a Metabolic Network that Connects the PAF and Lysophospholipid Families of Signaling Lipids

Stable Knockdown of KIAA1363 Impairs Tumor Growth In Vivo

Figure 6. KIAA1363 Contributes to Ovarian Tumor Growth and Cancer Cell Migration

The decrease in tumorigenic potential of shKIAA1363 cells was not associated with a change in proliferation potential in vitro (Figure S8). shKIAA1363 cells were, however, impaired in their in vitro migration capacity compared to control cells (Figure 6B). Neither MAGE nor alkyl-LPC impacted cancer cell migration at concentrations up to 1 μM (Figure 6B). In contrast, alkyl-LPA (10 nM) completely rescued the reduced migratory activity of shKIAA1363 cells. Collectively, these results indicate that KIAA1363 contributes to the pathogenic properties of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, possibly through regulating the levels of the bioactive lipid LPA.

We have determined by integrated enzyme and small-molecule profiling that KIAA1363, a protein of previously unknown function, is a 2-acetyl MAGE hydrolase that serves as a key regulator of a lipid signaling network that contributes to cancer pathogenesis. Although we cannot yet conclude which of the specific metabolites regulated by KIAA1363 supports tumor growth in vivo, the rescue of the reduced migratory phenotype of shKIAA1363 cancer cells by LPA is consistent with previous reports showing that this lipid signals through a family of G protein-coupled receptors to promote cancer cell migration and invasion 2829 and 30. LPA is also an established biomarker in ovarian cancer, and the levels of this metabolite are elevated nearly 10-fold in ascites fluid and plasma of patients with ovarian cancer [31]. Our results suggest that additional components in the KIAA1363-ether lipid network, including MAGE, alkyl LPC, and KIAA1363 itself, might also merit consideration as potential diagnostic markers for ovarian cancer. Consistent with this premise, our preliminary analyses have revealed highly elevated levels of KIAA1363 in primary human ovarian tumors compared to normal ovarian tissues (data not shown). The heightened expression of KIAA1363 in several other cancers, including breast 18 and 32, melanoma [18], and pancreatic cancer [33], indicates that alterations in the KIAA1363-ether lipid network may be a conserved feature of tumorigenesis. Considering further that reductions in KIAA1363 activity were found to impair tumor growth of both ovarian and breast cancer cells, it is possible that inhibitors of this enzyme may prove to be of value for the treatment of multiple types of cancer.

 

7.6.6 Peroxisomes – A Nexus for Lipid Metabolism and Cellular Signaling

Lodhi IJ, Semenkovich CF
Cell Metab. 2014 Mar 4; 19(3):380-92
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.cmet.2014.01.002

Peroxisomes are often dismissed as the cellular hoi polloi, relegated to cleaning up reactive oxygen chemical debris discarded by other organelles. However, their functions extend far beyond hydrogen peroxide metabolism. Peroxisomes are intimately associated with lipid droplets and mitochondria, and their ability to carry out fatty acid oxidation and lipid synthesis, especially the production of ether lipids, may be critical for generating cellular signals required for normal physiology. Here we review the biology of peroxisomes and their potential relevance to human disorders including cancer, obesity-related diabetes, and degenerative neurologic disease.

Peroxisomes are multifunctional organelles present in virtually all eukaryotic cells. In addition to being ubiquitous, they are also highly plastic, responding rapidly to cellular or environmental cues by modifying their size, number, morphology, and function (Schrader et al., 2013). Early ultrastructural studies of kidney and liver cells revealed cytoplasmic particles enclosed by a single membrane containing granular matrix and a crystalline core (Rhodin, 1958). These particles were linked with the term “peroxisome” by Christian de Duve, who first identified the organelle in mammalian cells when enzymes such as oxidases and catalases involved in hydrogen peroxide metabolism co-sedimented in equilibrium density gradients (De Duve and Baudhuin, 1966). Based on these studies, it was originally thought that the primary function of these organelles was the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. Novikoff and colleagues observed a large number of peroxisomes in tissues active in lipid metabolism such as liver, brain, intestinal mucosa, and adipose tissue (Novikoff and Novikoff, 1982;Novikoff et al., 1980). Peroxisomes in different tissues vary greatly in shape and size, ranging from 0.1-0.5 μM in diameter. In adipocytes, peroxisomes tend to be small in size and localized in the vicinity of lipid droplets. Notably, a striking increase in the number of peroxisomes was observed during differentiation of adipogenic cells in culture (Novikoff and Novikoff, 1982). These findings suggest that peroxisomes may be involved in lipid metabolism.

Lazarow and de Duve hypothesized that peroxisomes in animal cells were capable of carrying out fatty acid oxidation. This was confirmed when they showed that purified rat liver peroxisomes contained fatty acid oxidation activity that was robustly increased by treatment of animals with clofibrate (Lazarow and De Duve, 1976). In a series of experiments, Hajra and colleagues discovered that peroxisomes were also capable of lipid synthesis (Hajra and Das, 1996). Over the past three decades, multiple lines of evidence have solidified the concept that peroxisomes play fundamentally important roles in lipid metabolism. In addition to removal of reactive oxygen species, metabolic functions of peroxisomes in mammalian cells include β-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids, α-oxidation of branched chain fatty acids, and synthesis of ether-linked phospholipids as well as bile acids (Figure 1). β-oxidation also occurs in mitochondria, but peroxisomal β-oxidation involves distinctive substrates and complements mitochondrial function; the processes of α-oxidation and ether lipid synthesis are unique to peroxisomes and important for metabolic homeostasis.

Structure and functions of peroxisomes

Structure and functions of peroxisomes

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Figure 1 Structure and functions of peroxisomes

The peroxisome is a single membrane-enclosed organelle that plays an important role in metabolism. The main metabolic functions of peroxisomes in mammalian cells include β-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids, α-oxidation of branched chain fatty acids, synthesis of bile acids and ether-linked phospholipids and removal of reactive oxygen species. Peroxisomes in many, but not all, cell types contain a dense crystalline core of oxidative enzymes.

Here we highlight the established role of peroxisomes in lipid metabolism and their emerging role in cellular signaling relevant to metabolism. We describe the origin of peroxisomes and factors involved in their assembly, division, and function. We address the interaction of peroxisomes with lipid droplets and implications of this interaction for lipid metabolism. We consider fatty acid oxidation and lipid synthesis in peroxisomes and their importance in brown and white adipose tissue (sites relevant to lipid oxidation and synthesis) and disease pathogenesis.

peroxisomal biogenesis and protein import

peroxisomal biogenesis and protein import

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3951609/bin/nihms-555068-f0002.jpg

Potential pathways to peroxisomal biogenesis. Peroxisomes are generated autonomously through division of pre-existing organelles (top) or through a de novo process involving budding from the ER followed by import of matrix proteins (bottom). B. Peroxisomal membrane protein import. Peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) are imported post-translationally to the peroxisomal membrane. Pex19 is a soluble chaperone that binds to PMPs and transports them to the peroxisomal membrane, where it docks with a complex containing Pex16 and Pex3. Following insertion of the PMP, Pex19 is recycled back to the cytosol.

Regardless of their origin, peroxisomes require a group of proteins called peroxins for their assembly, division, and inheritance. Over 30 peroxins, encoded by Pex genes, have been identified in yeast (Dimitrov et al., 2013). At least a dozen of these proteins are conserved in mammals, where they regulate various aspects of peroxisomal biogenesis, including factors that control assembly of the peroxisomal membrane, factors that interact with peroxisomal targeting sequences allowing proteins to be shuttled to peroxisomes, and factors that act as docking receptors for peroxisomal proteins.

At least three peroxins (Pex3, Pex16 and Pex19) appear to be critical for assembly of the peroxisomal membrane and import of peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) (Figure 2B). Pex19 is a soluble chaperone and import receptor for newly synthesized PMPs (Jones et al., 2004). Pex3 buds from the ER in a pre-peroxisomal vesicle and functions as a docking receptor for Pex19 (Fang et al., 2004). Pex16 acts as a docking site on the peroxisomal membrane for recruitment of Pex3 (Matsuzaki and Fujiki, 2008). Peroxisomal matrix proteins are translated on free ribosomes in the cytoplasm prior to their import. These proteins have specific peroxisomal targeting sequences (PTS) located either at the carboxyl (PTS1) or amino (PTS2) terminus (Gould et al., 1987Swinkels et al., 1991).

 

7.6.7 A nexus for cellular homeostasis- the interplay between metabolic and signal transduction pathways

Ana P Gomes, John Blenis
Current Opinion in Biotechnology Aug 2015; 34:110–117
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2014.12.007

Highlights

  • Signaling networks sense intracellular and extracellular cues to maintain homeostasis.
  • PI3K/AKT and Ras/ERK signaling induces anabolic reprogramming.
  • mTORC1 is a master node of signaling integration that promotes anabolism.
  • AMPK and SIRT1 fine tune signaling networks in response to energetic status.

In multicellular organisms, individual cells have evolved to sense external and internal cues in order to maintain cellular homeostasis and survive under different environmental conditions. Cells efficiently adjust their metabolism to reflect the abundance of nutrients, energy and growth factors. The ability to rewire cellular metabolism between anabolic and catabolic processes is crucial for cells to thrive. Thus, cells have developed, through evolution, metabolic networks that are highly plastic and tightly regulated to meet the requirements necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis. The plasticity of these cellular systems is tightly regulated by complex signaling networks that integrate the intracellular and extracellular information. The coordination of signal transduction and metabolic pathways is essential in maintaining a healthy and rapidly responsive cellular state.

AMPK and SIRT1 fine tune signaling networks in response to energetic status

AMPK and SIRT1 fine tune signaling networks in response to energetic status

 

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AMPK and SIRT1 fine tune signaling networks in response to energetic status

 

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mTORC1 is a master node of signaling integration that promotes anabolism.

 

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Fine-tuning signaling networks

 PI3K/Akt signaling-induced anabolic reprogramming

Growth factors and other ligands activate PI3K signaling upon binding and consequent activation of their cell surface receptors, such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and G protein-coupled
receptors (GPCRs). This leads to the phosphorylation of membrane phosphatidylinositiol lipids and the recruitment and activation of several protein kinases, which perpetuate the extracellular
signals to modulate intracellular processes [3,4]. One of the most crucial signal propagators regulated by PI3K signaling is protein kinase B/Akt [3,4]. Indeed, Akt rewires metabolism in response
to environmental cues by three distinct means;
(i) by the direct phosphorylation and regulation of metabolic enzymes,
(ii) by activating/inactivating metabolism altering transcriptional factors, and
(iii) by modulating other kinases that themselves regulate metabolism [5].
Akt regulates glucose metabolism, inducing both glucose uptake and glycolytic flux by increasing the expression of the glucose transporter genes and regulating the activity of glycolytic enzymes,
respectively [6–8]. Moreover, the ability of Akt to induce glycolysis is also mediated by the regulation of Hexokinase (HK). HK performs the first step of glycolysis.

Figure 1 Anabolic rewiring induced by PI3K/Akt, Ras/ERK and mTORC1 signaling.
Extracellular signals activate two major signaling cascades controlled by the activation of PI3K and Ras. PI3K and Ras regulate Akt and ERK, which in turn induce changes in intermediate metabolism
to promote anabolic processes. In addition, they also induce the activation of  mTORC1, thus further supporting the rewiring of cellular metabolism towards anabolic processes. Through various mechanisms
Akt, ERK and mTORC1 stimulate mRNA translation, aerobic glycolysis, glutamine anaplerosis, lipid synthesis, the pentose phosphate and pyrimidine synthesis, thus producing the major components
necessary for cell growth and proliferation.

Figure 2. Regulation of intermediate metabolism by nutrient and energy sensors.
Nutrient and energy-responsive pathways fine-tune the output of signaling cascades, allowing for the correct balance between the availability of nutrients and the cellular capacity to use them effectively.
AMPK and SIRT1 respond to the energy status of the cells through sensing of AMP and NAD+ levels respectively. When energy is scarce, these sensors are activated inducing a rewiring of intermediate
metabolism to catabolic processes in order to produce energy and restore homeostasis. When nutrients (such as glucose and amino acids) and energy are available, AMPK, SIRT1, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are
repressed and mTORC1 is active, thus promoting a shift towards anabolic processes and energy production. These networks of signaling cascades, their interconnection and regulation allow the cells
to maintain energetic balance and allow for the physiological adaptation to the ever-changing environment.

 

7.6.8 Mechanisms-of-intercellular-signaling

7.6.8.1 Activation and signaling of the p38 MAP kinase pathway

Tyler Zarubin1 and Jiahuai Han
Cell Research (2005) 15, 11–18
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1038/sj.cr.7290257

The family members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases mediate a wide variety of cellular behaviors in response to extracellular stimuli. One of the four main sub-groups, the p38 group of MAP kinases, serve as a nexus for signal transduction and play a vital role in numerous biological processes. In this review, we highlight the known characteristics and components of the p38 pathway along with the mechanism and consequences of p38 activation. We focus on the role of p38 as a signal transduction mediator and examine the evidence linking p38 to inflammation, cell cycle, cell death, development, cell differentiation, senescence and tumorigenesis in specific cell types. Upstream and downstream components of p38 are described and questions remaining to be answered are posed. Finally, we propose several directions for future research on p38.

Cellular behavior in response to extracellular stimuli is mediated through intracellular signaling pathways such as the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways 1. MAP kinases are members of discrete signaling cascades and serve as focal points in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. Four distinct subgroups within the MAP kinase family have been described:

  • extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs),
  • c-jun N-terminal or stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPK),
  • ERK/big MAP kinase 1 (BMK1), and
  • the p38 group of protein kinases.

The focus of this review will be to highlight the characteristics of

  • the p38 kinases,
  • components of this kinase cascade,
  • activation of this pathway, and
  • the biological consequences of its activation.

p38 (p38) was first isolated as a 38-kDa protein rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in response to LPS stimulation 23. p38 cDNA was also cloned as a molecule that binds puridinyl imidazole derivatives which are known to inhibit biosynthesis of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) in LPS stimulated monocytes 4. To date, four splice variants of the p38 family have been identified: p38, p38 5, p38 (ERK6, SAPK3) 67, and p38(SAPK4) 89. Of these, p38 and p38 are ubiquitously expressed while p38 and p38 are differentially expressed depending on tissue type. All p38 kinases can be categorized by a Thr-Gly-Tyr (TGY) dual phosphorylation motif 10. Sequence comparisons have revealed that each p38 isoform shares 60% identity within the p38 group but only 40–45% to the other three MAP kinase family members.

Mammalian p38s activation has been shown to occur in response to extracellular stimuli such as UV light, heat, osmotic shock, inflammatory cytokines (TNF- & IL-1), and growth factors (CSF-1) 13151617,18192021. This plethora of activators conveys the complexity of the p38 pathway and this matter is further complicated by the observation that activation of p38 is not only dependent on stimulus, but on cell type as well. For example, insulin can stimulate p38 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes 22, but downregulates p38 activity in chick forebrain neuron cells 23. The activation of p38 isoforms can be specifically controlled through different regulators and coactivated by various combinations of upstream regulators 2426.

Like all MAP kinases, p38 kinases are activated by dual kinases termed the MAP kinase kinases (MKKs). However, despite conserved dual phosphorylation sites among p38 isoforms, selective activation by distinct MKKs has been observed. There are two main MAPKKs that are known to activate p38, MKK3 and MKK6. It is proposed that upstream kinases can differentially regulate p38 isoforms as evidenced by the inability of MKK3 to effectively activate p38 while MKK6 is a potent activator despite 80% homology between these two MKKs 27. Also, it has been shown that MKK4, an upstream kinase of JNK, can aid in the activation of p38 and p38 in specific cell types 8. This data suggests then, that activation of p38 isoforms can be specifically controlled through different regulators and coactivated by various combinations of upstream regulators. Furthermore, substrate selectivity may be a reason why each MKK has a distinct function. In addition to the activation by upstream kinases, there is a MAPKK-independent mechanism of p38 MAPK activation involving TAB1 (transforming growth factor–activated protein kinase 1 (TAK1)-binding protein) 28. The activation of p38 in this pathway is achieved by the autophosphorylation of p38 after interaction with TAB1.

The activation of p38 in response to the wide range of extracellular stimuli can be seen in part by the diverse range of MKK kinases (MAP3K) that participate in p38 activation. These include TAK1 33, ASK1/MAPKKK5 34, DLK/MUK/ZPK 3536, and MEKK4 353738. Overexpression of these MAP3Ks leads to activation of both p38 and JNK pathways which is possibly one reason why these two pathways are often co-activated. Also contributing to p38 activation upstream of MAPK kinases are low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins in the Rho family such as Rac1 and Cdc42 4041. Rac1 can bind to MEKK1 or MLK1 while Cdc42 can only bind to MLK1 and both result in activation of p38 via MAP3Ks 3542.

Dephosphorylation, would seem to play a major role in the downregulation of MAP kinase activity. Many dual-specificity phosphatases have been identified that act upon various members of the MAP kinase pathway and are grouped as the MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) family 45. Several members can efficiently dephosphorylate p38 and p38 4647; however, p38 and p38 are resistant to all known MKP family members.

The first p38 substrate identified was the MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2 or MK2) 11552. This substrate, along with its closely related family member MK3 (3pk), were both shown to activate various substrates including small heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) 53, lymphocyte-specific protein 1 (LSP1) 54, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) 55, transcription factor ATF1 55, SRF 56, and tyrosine hydroxylase 57. p38 regulated/activated kinase (PRAK) is a p38 and/or p38activated kinase that shares 20-30% sequence identity to MK2 and is thought to regulate heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) 61. Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1) can be directly activated by p38 and ERK, and may mediate activation of CREB 626364.

Another group of substrates that are activated by p38 comprise transcription factors. Many transcription factors encompassing a broad range of action have been shown to be phosphorylated and subsequently activated by p38. Examples include activating transcription factor 1, 2 & 6 (ATF-1/2/6), SRF accessory protein (Sap1), CHOP (growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gene 153, or GADD153), p53, C/EBP, myocyte enhance factor 2C (MEF2C), MEF2A, MITF1, DDIT3, ELK1, NFAT, and high mobility group-box protein 1 (HBP1) 175566676869707172,73747576. An important cis-element, AP-1 appears to be influenced by p38 through several different mechanisms.  Taken together, all the data suggest that the p38 pathway has a wide variety of functions.

Abundant evidence for p38 involvement in apoptosis exists to date and is based on concomitant activation of p38 and apoptosis induced by a variety of agents such as NGF withdrawal and Fas ligation 959697. Cysteine proteases (caspases) are central to the apoptotic pathway and are expressed as inactive zymogens 98,99. Caspase inhibitors then can block p38 activation through Fas cross-linking, suggesting p38 functions downstream of caspase activation 97100. However, overexpression of dominant active MKK6b can also induce caspase activity and cell death thus implying that p38 may function both upstream and downstream of caspases in apoptosis 101102. It must be mentioned that the role of p38 in apoptosis is cell type and stimulus dependent. While p38 signaling has been shown to promote cell death in some cell lines, in different cell lines p38 has been shown to enhance survival, cell growth, and differentiation.

p38 now seems to have a role in tumorigenesis and sensescence. There have been reports that activation of MKK6 and MKK3 led to a senescent phenotype dependent upon p38 MAPK activity. Also, p38 MAPK activity was shown responsible for senescence in response to telomere shortening, H2O2 exposure, and chronic RAS oncogene signaling 117118119. A common feature of tumor cells is a loss of senescence and p38 may be linked to tumorigenesis in certain cells. It has been reported that p38 activation may be reduced in tumors and that loss of components of the p38 pathway such as MKK3 and MKK6 resulted in increased proliferation and likelihood of tumorigenic conversion regardless of the cell line or the tumor induction agent used in these studies 29.

Although all research done on the p38 pathway cannot be reviewed here, certain conclusions can still be made regarding the operation of p38 as a signal transduction mediator. The p38 family (,,,) is activated by both stress and mitogenic stimuli in a cell dependent manner and certain isoforms can either directly or indirectly target proteins to control pre/post transcription. p38 MAPKs also have the ability to activate other kinases and consequently regulate numerous cellular responses. Because p38 signaling has been implicated in cellular responses including inflammation, cell cycle, cell death, development, cell differentiation, senescence, and tumorigenesis, emphasis must be placed on p38 function with respect to specific cell types.

Regulation of the p38 pathway is not an isolated cascade and many different upstream signals can lead to p38 activation. These signals may be p38 specific (MKK3/6), general MAPKKs (MKK4), or MAPKK independent signals (TAB1). Downstream signaling pathways of p38 are quite divergent and each component may interact with other cellular components, both upstream and downstream, to coordinate cellular processes such as feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, in vivo p38 is not an isolated event and exists in the presence of other MAP kinases and a plethora of other signaling pathways. The subcellular location of p38 activation may also play a critical role determining the resulting effect and may add yet another order of complexity to the investigation of p38 function.

 

7.6.8.2 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways Mediated by ERK, JNK, and p38 Protein Kinases

Gary L. Johnson and Razvan Lapadat
Science 6 Dec 2002; 298: 1911-1912.

Multicellular organisms have three well-characterized subfamilies of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that control a vast array of physiological processes. These enzymes are regulated by a characteristic phosphorelay system in which a series of three protein kinases phosphorylate and activate one another. The extracellular signal–regulated kinases (ERKs) function in the control of cell division, and inhibitors of these enzymes are being explored as anticancer agents. The c-Jun amino-terminal kinases ( JNKs) are critical regulators of transcription, and JNK inhibitors may be effective in control of rheumatoid arthritis. The p38 MAPKs are activated by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses.

Protein kinases are enzymes that covalently attach phosphate to the side chain of either serine, threonine, or tyrosine of specific proteins inside cells. Such phosphorylation of proteins can control their enzymatic activity, their interaction with other proteins and molecules, their location in the cell, and their propensity for degradation by proteases. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) compose a family of protein kinases whose function and regulation have been conserved during evolution from unicellular organisms such as brewers’ yeast to complex organisms including humans (1). MAPKs phosphorylate specific serines and threonines of target protein substrates and regulate cellular activities ranging from gene expression, mitosis, movement, metabolism, and programmed death. Because of the many important cellular functions controlled by MAPKs, they have been studied extensively to define their roles in physiology and human disease. MAPK-catalyzed phosphorylation of substrate proteins functions as a switch to turn on or off the activity of the substrate protein.

MAPKs are part of a phosphorelay system composed of three sequentially activated kinases, and, like their substrates, MAPKs are regulated by phosphorylation (Fig. 1) (2). MKK-catalyzed phosphorylation activates the MAPK and increases its activity in catalyzing the phosphorylation of its own substrates. MAPK phosphatases reverse the phosphorylation and return the MAPK to an inactive state. MKKs are highly selective in phosphorylating specific MAPKs. MAPK kinase kinases (MKKKs) are the third component of the phosphorelay system. MKKKs phosphorylate and activate specific MKKs. MKKKs have distinct motifs in their sequences that selectively confer their activation in response to different stimuli.

Fig. 1. MAPK phosphorelay systems.

The modules shown are representative of pathway connections for the respective MAPK phosphorelay systems.There are multiple component MKKKs, MKKs, and MAPKs for each system.For example, there are three Raf proteins (c-Raf1, B-Raf, A-Raf), two MKKs (MKK1 and MKK2), and two ERKs (ERK1 and ERK2) that can compose MAPK phosphorelay systems responsive to growth factors.The ERK, JNK, and p39 pathways in the STKE Connections Map demonstrate the potential complexity of these systems.

ERKs 1 and 2 are both components of a three-kinase phosphorelay module that includes the MKKK c-Raf1, B-Raf, or A-Raf, which can be activated by the proto-oncogene Ras. Mutations that convert Ras to an activated oncogene are common oncogenic mutations in many human tumors. Oncogenic Ras persistently activates the ERK1 and ERK2 pathways, which contributes to the increased proliferative rate of tumor cells. For this reason, inhibitors of the ERK pathways are entering clinical trials as potential anticancer agents.

Regulation of the JNK pathway is extremely complex and is influenced by many MKKKs. As depicted in the STKE JNK Pathway Connections Map, there are 13 MKKKs that regulate the JNKs. This diversity of MKKKs allows a wide range of stimuli to activate this MAPK pathway. JNKs are important in controlling programmed cell death or apoptosis (9). The inhibition of JNKs enhances chemotherapy-induced inhibition of tumor cell growth, suggesting that JNKs may provide a molecular target for the treatment of cancer. The pharmaceutical industry is bringing JNK inhibitors into clinical trials.

Recently, a major paradigm shift for MAPK regulation was developed for p38. The p38 enzyme is activated by the protein TAB1 (12), but TAB1 is not a MKK. Rather, TAB1 appears to be an adaptor or scaffolding protein and has no known catalytic activity. This is the first demonstration that another mechanism exists for the regulation of MAPKs in addition to the MKKK-MKKMAPK regulatory module.

The importance of MAPKs in controlling cellular responses to the environment and in regulating gene expression, cell growth, and apoptosis has made them a priority for research related to many human diseases. The ERK, JNK, and p38 pathways are all molecular targets for drug development, and inhibitors of MAPKs will undoubtedly be one of the next group of drugs developed for the treatment of human disease (13).

7.6.9 Cathepsin B promotes colorectal tumorigenesis, cell invasion, and metastasis

B Bian, S Mongrain, S Cagnol, Marie-Josée Langlois, J Boulanger, et al.
Molec Carcinogen 25 Mar 2015; 54(5). http://dx.doi.org:/10.1002/mc.22312

Cathepsin B is a cysteine proteinase that primarily functions as an endopeptidase within endolysosomal compartments in normal cells. However, during tumoral expansion, the regulation of cathepsin B can be altered at multiple levels, thereby resulting in its overexpression and export outside of the cell. This may suggest a possible role of cathepsin B in alterations leading to cancer progression. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of intracellular and extracellular cathepsin B in growth, tumorigenesis, and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Results show that mRNA and activated levels of cathepsin B were both increased in human adenomas and in CRCs of all stages. Treatment of CRC cells with the highly selective and non-permeant cathepsin B inhibitor Ca074 revealed that extracellular cathepsin B actively contributed to the invasiveness of human CRC cells while not essential for their growth in soft agar. Cathepsin B silencing by RNAi in human CRC cells inhibited their growth in soft agar, as well as their invasion capacity, tumoral expansion, and metastatic spread in immunodeficient mice. Higher levels of the cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1 were observed in cathepsin B-deficient tumors as well as an increase in cyclin B1. Finally, cathepsin B colocalized with p27Kip1 within the lysosomes and efficiently degraded the inhibitor. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that cathepsin B is a significant factor in colorectal tumor development, invasion, and metastatic spreading and may, therefore, represent a potential pharmacological target for colorectal tumor therapy

Colorectal cancer (CRC),a major malignancy worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer death in North America, develops through multiple steps. The ability of cancers to invade and metastasize depends on the action of proteases actively taking center stage in extracellular proteolysis [2]. Of all the proteases, the cysteine protease cathepsin B is of significant importance [3]. Cathepsin B primarily functions as an endopeptidase within endolysosomal compartments in normal cells. However, during malignant transformation cathepsin B can be upregulated [3, 4]. Cathepsin B in tumors can either be secreted, bound to the cell membrane or released by shedding vesicles [4]. Expression and redistribution of active cathepsin B to the basal plasma membrane occurs in late colon adenomas [5, 6] coincident with the activation of KRAS [1]. In line with these results, Cavallo-Medved et al. [7] have demonstrated that trafficking of cathepsin B to caveolae and its secretion are regulated by active KRAS in CRC cells in culture. Accordingly, secretion of cathepsin B, increased in the extracellular environment of CRC [8, 9], is suspected to play an essential role in disrupting extracellular matrix barriers, facilitating invasion and metastasis [10-12]. These data are consistent with the link between cathepsin B protein expression in colorectal carcinomas and shortened patient survival [6].

In a recent prospective cohort study of 558 men and women with colonic tumors [13] 82% of patients had tumors that expressed cathepsin B, irrespective of stage, while the remaining 18% had tumors that did not express cathepsin B. Other studies have suggested that cathepsin B expression or activity may actually peak during early stage cancer and subsequently decline with advanced disease [14, 15]. This points to a possible role of cathepsin B in both early and late alterations leading to colonic cancer.

This study used two strategies to specifically counteract the action of cathepsin B. The first involved the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to inhibit the expression of cathepsin B protein into CRC cells while the second approach employed the highly selective cathepsin inhibitor Ca074 to block extracellular cathepsin B activity. Results suggest that extracellular cathepsin B is involved in cell invasion whereas intracellular cathepsin B controls malignant properties of CRC cells. Further, biochemical analysis suggests that intracellular cathepsin B regulates tumorigenesis by degrading the p27Kip1 cell cycle inhibitor.

mRNA and Activated Levels of Cathepsin B Are Increased in Adenomas and in Colorectal Tumors of All Stages

Cathepsin B expression was analyzed at both the mRNA and protein levels in a series of human paired specimens at various tumor stages. As shown in Figure 1A, increased transcript levels of cathepsin B were observed in colorectal tumors, regardless of tumor stage, including in adenomas. Of note, increased cathepsin B expression was more prominent in tumors exhibiting APC mutations. By contrast, there did not appear to be a significant difference relative to KRAS mutations (Figure 1B). To establish whether these increased mRNA levels could be correlated with increased cathepsin B protein levels and more importantly with increased activity, expression of the active processed forms of the protease (25 and 30 kDa) was analyzed by Western blot. Both pro-cathepsin B and active cathepsin B were also increased in colorectal tumors compared to normal tissues (Figure 1C and D). These data hence suggest that increased transcription contributes to a greater expression of active cathepsin B in CRC.

Extracellular Cathepsin B Contributes to Invasiveness of Human CRC Cells but is Dispensable for Their Growth in Soft Agar

Cathepsin B protein levels were next examined in lysates obtained from various human CRC cell lines. As shown in Figure 2A, the proactive and catalytically active processed forms of cathepsin B were detected at various levels in CRC cell lines. Selected cathepsin B presence was also confirmed in conditioned culture medium of CRC cells, again at various levels (Figure 2A, lower panel). However, while the pro-form of cathepsin B was readily observed in conditioned culture medium of all CRC cells, the catalytically-active processed forms of cathepsin B were not detected in Western blot analyses. Additionally, using a fluorescence-based enzymatic assay, no cathepsin B enzyme activity was detected in conditioned medium. Since the pro-protease form might be activated under acidic pH conditions (peri- or extracellular) and by extracellular components of the extracellular matrix, the impact of extracellular inhibition of cathepsin B activation on CRC cell invasion was verified using Biocoat Matrigel chambers. HT-29, DLD1, and SW480 CRC cell lines secreting different levels of pro-cathepsin B (Figure 2A) were tested. Experiments were performed using the highly selective and non-permeant inhibitor Ca074 to reduce extracellular cathepsin B activity. At 10 μM, Ca074 produced a >99% inhibition of recombinant cathepsin B levels while barely reducing intracellular cathepsin B, that is, 5–8%, even upon 12 h exposure to the inhibitor (data not shown). Of note, treatment with 10 μM Ca074 significantly inhibited Matrigel invasion by approximately 45–60% in HT29, DLD1, and SW480 CRC cell lines (Figure 2B). By contrast, treatment with Ca074 had no significant effect on their capacity to form colonies in soft agarose (Figure 2C).

Cathepsin B Silencing in Human CRC Cells Inhibits Tumorigenicity and Metastasis in Immunodeficient Mice

Suppression of cathepsin B expression was found to significantly attenuate the metastatic potential of CRC cells in vivo in experimental metastasis assays. Indeed, immunodeficient mice injected with control CRC cells into the tail vein showed extensive lung metastasis within 28 d, whereas cells expressing shRNA against cathepsin B exhibited reduced lung colonization (Figure 4A). Cathepsin B silencing also altered the capacity of CRC cells to form tumors in mice as assessed by subcutaneous xenograft assays. HT29 cells induced palpable tumors with a short latency period of 9 d after their injection while downregulation of cathepsin B expression in these cells severely impaired their capacity to grow as tumors (Figure 4B).

Cathepsin B Silencing in Human CRC Cells Inhibits Growth in Soft Agar and Invasion Capacity

Recombinant lentiviruses encoding anti-cathepsin B short hairpin RNA (shRNA) were developed in order to stably suppress cathepsin B expression in CRC cells. As shown in Figure 3A, intracellular cathepsin B mRNA and protein levels were decreased in HT29 and DLD1 cells in comparison to a control shRNA which had no effect. Reduction of cathepsin B expression modestly slowed the proliferation rate of HT29 and DLD1 populations in 2D cell culture (Figure 3B). Conversely, cathepsin B silencing significantly reduced the ability of HT29 and DLD1 cells to form colonies in soft agarose (Figure 3C). This indicates that intracellular cathepsin B controls anchorage-independent growth of CRC cells given the absence of Ca074 effect (Figure 2C). Moreover, cathepsin B silencing also reduced the number of invading HT29 and DLD1 cells to a similar extent as Ca074 treatment (Figure 3D vs. Figure 2B).

Cathepsin B Silencing in Human CRC Cells Inhibits Tumorigenicity and Metastasis in Immunodeficient Mice

Suppression of cathepsin B expression was found to significantly attenuate the metastatic potential of CRC cells in vivo in experimental metastasis assays. Indeed, immunodeficient mice injected with control CRC cells into the tail vein showed extensive lung metastasis within 28 d, whereas cells expressing shRNA against cathepsin B exhibited reduced lung colonization (Figure 4A). Cathepsin B silencing also altered the capacity of CRC cells to form tumors in mice as assessed by subcutaneous xenograft assays. HT29 cells induced palpable tumors with a short latency period of 9 d after their injection while downregulation of cathepsin B expression in these cells severely impaired their capacity to grow as tumors (Figure 4B).

Cathepsin B Cleaves the Cell Cycle Inhibitor p27Kip1

In order to verify whether p27Kip1 is in fact a substrate for cathepsin B, both proteins were first overexpressed in 293 T cells and cells subsequently lysed 2 d later for Western blot analysis of their respective expression. As shown in Figure 5A, forced expression of cathepsin B in 293 T cells dose-dependently reduced p27Kip1 protein levels. Next, to determine whether p27Kip1 could be degraded by cathepsin B in vitro, lysates from 293 T cells overexpressing HA-tagged p27Kip1 were incubated with purified cathepsin B and analyzed by Western blot. Figure 5B and C shows that cathepsin B degraded p27Kip1 in a time-dependent manner as visualized by the accumulation of three lower molecular mass species (26, 20, and 12 kDa) in addition to the full-length p27Kip1 protein (see arrows versus arrowhead).

Cathepsin B is capable of endopeptidase, peptidyl-dipeptidase, and carboxydipeptidase activities [18-20]. Cathepsin B also possesses a basic amino acid in the catalytic subsite in position S2 enabling the protease to preferentially split its substrates after Arg–Arg or Lys–Arg or Arg–Lys sequences. At least five of these sequences can be found within the human p27Kip1 sequence (Figure 5D). Therefore, the first amino acid of these doublets was mutated into alanine to test whether it would affect the degradation by cathepsin B. Mutation of arginine 58 (Figure 5E) and lysine 189 (Figure 5F) did not alter the cleavage profile of p27Kip1 by cathepsin B. Mutation of lysine 165 and arginine 194 also had no altering effect (not shown). On the other hand, mutation of arginine 152 into alanine markedly reduced the detection of the 20-kDa fragment (Figure 5E).

The protein stability of wild-type p27Kip1 was then compared to that of the p27Kip1 R152A/Δ189–198 mutant, which is more resistant to cathepsin B cleavage. 293T cells were transiently transfected with either wild-type p27Kip1 or p27Kip1 mutant and subsequently treated with cycloheximide to inhibit protein neosynthesis. Thereafter, cells were lysed at different time intervals in order to analyze protein expression levels of p27Kip1 forms. As shown in Figure 6A, following cycloheximide treatment, protein levels of the p27Kip1 mutant decreased much more slowly than that of wild-type protein. Specifically, 10 h after cycloheximide addition, expression of p27Kip1 protein was clearly decreased while expression of the p27Kip1 mutant remained at control (time 0) levels. Of note, forced expression of cathepsin B in 293 T cells dose-dependently reduced the wild-type form of p27Kip1 protein levels while expression of p27Kip1 R152A/Δ189–198 mutant was only very slightly affected (Figure 6B).

Colocalization of Endogenous p27Kip1 With Cathepsin B Into Lysosomes

As shown in Figure 7A, the anti-cathepsin B antibody confirmed the colocalization of cathepsin B (in green) with the lysosomal acidotropic probe LysoTracker (in red). As expected, most of p27Kip1 staining (in green) was observed in the cell nucleus (Figure 7B). However, certain areas of colocalization were observed between endogenous p27Kip1 (in green) and cathepsin B (in red) (Figure 7B, asterisks). Moreover, Western blot analyses revealed the presence of p27Kip1 protein in lysosome-enriched fractions obtained from differential centrifugation of Caco-2/15 and SW480 cell lysates (Figure 7C and D). These lysosomal fractions were enriched in lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) and exhibited very low or undetectable levels of the nuclear lamin B protein.

The most extensive literature to date regarding cathepsin B highlights a key role of this protease in the invasiveness and metastasis of various carcinoma cells [3, 8, 10-12]. The present findings demonstrate that cathepsin B has not only a role in facilitating CRC invasion and metastasis, but also in mediating early premalignant processes. Results herein show that cathepsin B promotes anchorage-independent CRC cell growth, which translates in vivo to enhanced tumor growth. In addition, cathepsin B was identified as a new protease capable of proteolytic cleavage of the cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1. This is especially relevant since the loss of p27Kip1 expression has been strongly associated with aggressive tumor behavior and poor clinical outcome in CRC [22, 23].

These data are reminiscent of the immunohistochemistry data reported by Chan et al. [13] showing that cathepsin B protein was expressed in the vast majority of colon cancers analyzed (558 tumors), which was also independent of tumor stage. The present data also revealed that increased transcription of cathepsin B was associated with the presence of mutations in APC but not in KRAS, thus emphasizing the fact that cathepsin B gene expression is already deregulated in early stages of colorectal carcinoma. Indeed, most CRCs acquire loss-of-function mutations in both copies of the APC gene, resulting in inefficient breakdown of intracellular β-catenin and enhanced nuclear signaling [27]. Given the importance of the Wnt/APC/β-catenin pathway in human tumorigenesis initiation, the present data showing an association between cathepsin B expression and APC mutations are particularly noteworthy.

 

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Growth Factors, Suppressors and Receptors in Tumorigenesis

Writer and Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP

7.1 Growth Factors, Suppressors and Receptors in Tumorigenesis

7.1.1 Friend or Foe: Endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 (ERp29) in epithelial cancer

7.1.2 Putting together structures of epidermal growth factor receptors

7.1.3 Complex Relationship between Ligand Binding and Dimerization in the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

7.1.4 IGFBP-2.PTEN- A critical interaction for tumors and for general physiology

7.1.5 Emerging-roles-for-the-Ph-sensing-G-protein-coupled-receptor

7.1.6 Protein amino-terminal modifications and proteomic approaches for N-terminal profiling

7.1.7 Protein homeostasis networks in physiology and disease

7.1.8 Proteome sequencing goes deep

7.1.1 Friend or Foe: Endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 (ERp29) in epithelial cancer

Chen S1Zhang D2
FEBS Open Bio. 2015 Jan 30; 5:91-8
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.fob.2015.01.004

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein 29 (ERp29) is a molecular chaperone that plays a critical role in protein secretion from the ER in eukaryotic cells. Recent studies have also shown that ERp29 plays a role in cancer. It has been demonstrated that ERp29 is inversely associated with primary tumor development and functions as a tumor suppressor by inducing cell growth arrest in breast cancer. However, ERp29 has also been reported to promote epithelial cell morphogenesis, cell survival against genotoxic stress and distant metastasis. In this review, we summarize the current understanding on the biological and pathological functions of ERp29 in cancer and discuss the pivotal aspects of ERp29 as “friend or foe” in epithelial cancer.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is found in all eukaryotic cells and is complex membrane system constituting of an extensively interlinked network of membranous tubules, sacs and cisternae. It is the main subcellular organelle that transports different molecules to their subcellular destinations or to the cell surface [10,85].

The ER contains a number of molecular chaperones involved in protein synthesis and maturation. Of the ER chaperones, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-like proteins are characterized by the presence of a thioredoxin domain and function as oxido-reductases, isomerases and chaperones [33]. ERp29 lacks the active-site double-cysteine (CxxC) motif and does not belong to the redox-active PDIs [5,47]. ERp29 is recognized as a characterized resident of the cellular ER, and it is expressed ubiquitously and abundantly in mammalian tissues [50]. Protein structural analysis showed that ERp29 consists of N-terminal and C-terminal domains [5]: N-terminal domain involves dimerization whereas the C-terminal domain is essential for substrate binding and secretion [78]. The biological function of ERp29 in protein secretion has been well established in cells [8,63,67].

ERp9 is proposed to be involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) as a factor facilitating transport of synthesized secretory proteins from the ER to Golgi [83]. The expression of ERp29 was demonstrated to be increased in cells exposed to radiation [108], sperm cells undergoing maturation [42,107], and in certain cell types both under the pharmacologically induced UPR and under the physiological conditions (e.g., lactation, differentiation of thyroid cells) [66,82]. Under ER stress, ERp29 translocates the precursor protein p90ATF6 from the ER to Golgi where it is cleaved to be a mature and active form p50ATF by protease (S1P and S2P) [48]. In most cases, ERp29 interacts with BiP/GRP78 to exert its function under ER stress [65].

ERp29 is considered to be a key player in both viral unfolding and secretion [63,67,77,78] Recent studies have also demonstrated that ERp29 is involved in intercellular communication by stabilizing the monomeric gap junction protein connexin43 [27] and trafficking of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator to the plasma membrane in cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis epithelial cells [90]. It was recently reported that ERp29 directs epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) toward the Golgi, where it undergoes cleavage during its biogenesis and trafficking to the apical membrane [40]. ERp29 expression protects axotomized neurons from apoptosis and promotes neuronal regeneration [111]. These studies indicate a broad biological function of ERp29 in cells.

Recent studies demonstrated a tumor suppressive function of ERp29 in cancer. It was found that ERp29 expression inhibited tumor formation in mice [4,87] and the level of ERp29 in primary tumors is inversely associated with tumor development in breast, lung and gallbladder cancer [4,29].

However, its expression is also responsible for cancer cell survival against genotoxic stress induced by doxorubicin and radiation [34,76,109]. The most recent studies demonstrate other important roles of ERp29 in cancer cells such as the induction of mesenchymal–epithelial transition (MET) and epithelial morphogenesis [3,4]. MET is considered as an important process of transdifferentiation and restoration of epithelial phenotype during distant metastasis [23,52]. These findings implicate ERp29 in promoting the survival of cancer cells and also metastasis. Hence, the current review focuses on the novel functions of ERp29 and discusses its pathological importance as a “friend or foe” in epithelial cancer.

ERp29 regulates mesenchymal–epithelial transition

Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and MET

The EMT is an essential process during embryogenesis [6] and tumor development [43,96]. The pathological conditions such as inflammation, organ fibrosis and cancer progression facilitate EMT [16]. The epithelial cells after undergoing EMT show typical features characterized as: (1) loss of adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs) and apical–basal polarity; (2) cytoskeletal reorganization and distribution; and (3) gain of aggressive phenotype of migration and invasion [98]. Therefore, EMT has been considered to be an important process in cancer progression and its pathological activation during tumor development induces primary tumor cells to metastasize [95]. However, recent studies showed that the EMT status was not unanimously correlated with poorer survival in cancer patients examined [92].

In addition to EMT in epithelial cells, mesenchymal-like cells have capability to regain a fully differentiated epithelial phenotype via the MET [6,35]. The key feature of MET is defined as a process of transdifferentiation of mesenchymal-like cells to polarized epithelial-like cells [23,52] and mediates the establishment of distant metastatic tumors at secondary sites [22]. Recent studies demonstrated that distant metastases in breast cancer expressed an equal or stronger E-cadherin signal than the respective primary tumors and the re-expression of E-cadherin was independent of the E-cadherin status of the primary tumors [58]. Similarly, it was found that E-cadherin is re-expressed in bone metastasis or distant metastatic tumors arising from E-cadherin-negative poorly differentiated primary breast carcinoma [81], or from E-cadherin-low primary tumors [25]. In prostate and bladder cancer cells, the nonmetastatic mesenchymal-like cells were interacted with metastatic epithelial-like cells to accelerate their metastatic colonization [20]. It is, therefore, suggested that the EMT/MET work co-operatively in driving metastasis.

Molecular regulation of EMT/MET

E-cadherin is considered to be a key molecule that provides the physical structure for both cell–cell attachment and recruitment of signaling complexes [75]. Loss of E-cadherin is a hallmark of EMT [53]. Therefore, characterizing transcriptional regulators of E-cadherin expression during EMT/MET has provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the loss of cell–cell adhesion and the acquisition of migratory properties during carcinoma progression [73].

Several known signaling pathways, such as those involving transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), Notch, fibroblast growth factor and Wnt signaling pathways, have been shown to trigger epithelial dedifferentiation and EMT [28,97,110]. These signals repress transcription of epithelial genes, such as those encoding E-cadherin and cytokeratins, or activate transcription programs that facilitate fibroblast-like motility and invasion [73,97].

The involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in controlling EMT has been emphasized [11,12,18]. MiRNAs are small non-coding RNAs (∼23 nt) that silence gene expression by pairing to the 3′UTR of target mRNAs to cause their posttranscriptional repression [7]. MiRNAs can be characterized as “mesenchymal miRNA” and “epithelial miRNA” [68]. The “mesenchymal miRNA” plays an oncogenic role by promoting EMT in cancer cells. For instance, the well-known miR-21, miR-103/107 are EMT inducer by repressing Dicer and PTEN [44].

The miR-200 family has been shown to be major “epithelial miRNA” that regulate MET through silencing the EMT-transcriptional inducers ZEB1 and ZEB2 [13,17]. MiRNAs from this family are considered to be predisposing factors for cancer cell metastasis. For instance, the elevated levels of the epithelial miR-200 family in primary breast tumors associate with poorer outcomes and metastasis [57]. These findings support a potential role of “epithelial miRNAs” in MET to promote metastatic colonization [15].

ERp29 promotes MET in breast cancer

The role of ERp29 in regulating MET has been established in basal-like MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. It is known that myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation initiates to myosin-driven contraction, leading to reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and formation of stress fibers [55,56]. ERp29 expression in this type of cells markedly reduced the level of phosphorylated MLC [3]. These results indicate that ERp29 regulates cortical actin formation through a mechanism involved in MLC phosphorylation (Fig. 1). In addition to the phenotypic change, ERp29 expression leads to: expression and membranous localization of epithelial cell marker E-cadherin; expression of epithelial differentiation marker cytokeratin 19; and loss of the mesenchymal cell marker vimentin and fibronectin [3] (Fig. 1). In contrast, knockdown of ERp29 in epithelial MCF-7 cells promotes acquisition of EMT traits including fibroblast-like phenotype, enhanced cell spreading, decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of vimentin [3,4]. These findings further substantiate a role of ERp29 in modulating MET in breast cancer cells.

Fig. 1  ERp29 triggers mesenchymal–epithelial transition. Exogenous expression of ERp29 in mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells inhibits stress fiber formation by suppressing MLC phosphorylation. In addition, the overexpressed ERp29 decreases the 

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ERp29 targets E-cadherin transcription repressors

The transcription repressors such as Snai1, Slug, ZEB1/2 and Twist have been considered to be the main regulators for E-cadherin expression [19,26,32]. Mechanistic studies revealed that ERp29 expression significantly down-regulated transcription of these repressors, leading to their reduced nuclear expression in MDA-MB-231 cells [3,4] (Fig. 2). Consistent with this, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway which is an important up-stream regulator of Slug and Ets1 was highly inhibited [4]. Apparently, ERp29 up-regulates the expressions of E-cadherin transcription repressors through repressing ERK pathway. Interestingly, ERp29 over-expression in basal-like BT549 cells resulted in incomplete MET and did not significantly affect the mRNA or protein expression of Snai1, ZEB2 and Twist, but increased the protein expression of Slug [3]. The differential regulation of these transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin by ERp29 in these two cell-types may occur in a cell-context-dependent manner.

Fig. 2  ERp29 decreases the expression of EMT inducers to promote MET. Exogenous expression of ERp29 in mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells suppresses transcription and protein expression of E-cadherin transcription repressors (e.g., ZEB2, SNAI1 and Twist), ..

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ERp29 antagonizes Wnt/ β-catenin signaling

Wnt proteins are a family of highly conserved secreted cysteine-rich glycoproteins. The Wnt pathway is activated via a binding of a family member to a frizzled receptor (Fzd) and the LDL-Receptor-related protein co-receptor (LRP5/6). There are three different cascades that are activated by Wnt proteins: namely canonical/β-catenin-dependent pathway and two non-canonical/β-catenin-independent pathways that include Wnt/Ca2+ and planar cell polarity [84]. Of note, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been extensively studied, due to its important role in cancer initiation and progression [79]. The presence of Wnt promotes formation of a Wnt–Fzd–LRP complex, recruitment of the cytoplasmic protein Disheveled (Dvl) to Fzd and the LRP phosphorylation-dependent recruitment of Axin to the membrane, thereby leading to release of β-catenin from membrane and accumulation in cytoplasm and nuclei. Nuclear β-catenin replaces TLE/Groucho co-repressors and recruits co-activators to activate expression of Wnt target genes. The most important genes regulated are those related to proliferation, such as Cyclin D1 and c-Myc [46,94], which are over-expressed in most β-catenin-dependent tumors. When β-catenin is absent in nucleus, the transcription factors T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factors (TCF/LEF) recruits co-repressors of the TLE/Groucho family and function as transcriptional repressors.

β-catenin is highly expressed in the nucleus of mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 cells. ERp29 over-expression in this type of cells led to translocation of nuclear β-catenin to membrane where it forms complex with E-cadherin [3] (Fig. 3). This causes a disruption of β-catenin/TCF/LEF complex and abolishes its transcription activity. Indeed, ERp29 significantly decreased the expression of cyclin D1/D2 [36], one of the downstream targets of activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling [94], indicating an inhibitory effect of ERp29 on this pathway. Meanwhile, expression of ERp29 in this cell type increased the nuclear expression of TCF3, a transcription factor regulating cancer cell differentiation while inhibiting self-renewal of cancer stem cells [102,106]. Hence, ERp29 may play dual functions in mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by: (1) suppressing activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling via β-catenin translocation; and (2) promoting cell differentiation via activating TCF3 (Fig. 3). Because β-catenin serves as a signaling hub for the Wnt pathway, it is particularly important to focus on β-catenin as the target of choice in Wnt-driven cancers. Though the mechanism by which ERp29 expression promotes the disassociation of β-catenin/TCF/LEF complex in MDA-MB-231 cells remains elusive, activating ERp29 expression may exert an inhibitory effect on the poorly differentiated, Wnt-driven tumors.

Fig. 3  ERp29 over-expression “turns-off” activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 cells, high expression of nuclear β-catenin activates its downstream signaling involved in cell cycles and cancer stem cell 

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ERp29 regulates epithelial cell integrity

Cell adherens and tight junctions

Adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs) are composed of transmembrane proteins that adhere to similar proteins in the adjacent cell [69]. The transmembrane region of the TJs is composed mainly of claudins, tetraspan proteins with two extracellular loops [1]. AJs are mediated by Ca2+-dependent homophilic interactions of cadherins [71] which interact with cytoplasmic catenins that link the cadherin/catenin complex to the actin cytoskeleton [74].

The cytoplasmic domain of claudins in TJs interacts with occludin and several zona occludens proteins (ZO1-3) to form the plaque that associates with the cytoskeleton [99]. The AJs form and maintain intercellular adhesion, whereas the TJs serve as a diffusion barrier for solutes and define the boundary between apical and basolateral membrane domains [21]. The AJs and TJs are required for integrity of the epithelial phenotype, as well as for epithelial cells to function as a tissue [75].

The TJs are closely linked to the proper polarization of cells for the establishment of epithelial architecture[86]. During cancer development, epithelial cells lose the capability to form TJs and correct apico–basal polarity [59]. This subsequently causes the loss of contact inhibition of cell growth [91]. In addition, reduction of ZO-1 and occludin were found to be correlated with poorly defined differentiation, higher metastatic frequency and lower survival rates [49,64]. Hence, TJs proteins have a tumor suppressive function in cancer formation and progression.

Apical–basal cell polarity

The apical–basal polarity of epithelial cells in an epithelium is characterized by the presence of two specialized plasma membrane domains: namely, the apical surface and basolateral surface [30]. In general, the epithelial cell polarity is determined by three core complexes. These protein complexes include: (1) the partitioning-defective (PAR) complex; (2) the Crumbs (CRB) complex; and (3) the Scribble complex[2,30,45,51]. PAR complex is composed of two scaffold proteins (PAR6 and PAR3) and an atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and is localized to the apical junction domain for the assembly of TJs [31,39]. The Crumbs complex is formed by the transmembrane protein Crumbs and the cytoplasmic scaffolding proteins such as the homologue of Drosophila Stardust (Pals1) and Pals-associated tight junction protein (Patj) and localizes to the apical [38]. The Scribble complex is comprised of three proteins, Scribble, Disc large (Dlg) and Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) and is localized in the basolateral domain of epithelial cells [100].

Fig. 4  ERp29 regulates epithelial cell morphogenesis. Over-expression of ERp29 in breast cancer cells induces the transition from a mesenchymal-like to epithelial-like phenotype and the restoration of tight junctions and cell polarity. Up-regulation and membrane 

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The current data from breast cancer cells supports the idea that ERp29 can function as a tumor suppressive protein, in terms of suppression of cell growth and primary tumor formation and inhibition of signaling pathways that facilitate EMT. Nevertheless, the significant role of ERp29 in cell survival against drugs, induction of cell differentiation and potential promotion of MET-related metastasis may lead us to re-assess its function in cancer progression, particularly in distant metastasis. Hence, it is important to explore in detail the ERp29’s role in cancer as a “friend or foe” and to elucidate its clinical significance in breast cancer and other epithelial cancers. Targeting ERp29 and/or its downstream molecules might be an alternative molecular therapeutic approach for chemo/radio-resistant metastatic cancer treatment

7.1.2 Putting together structures of epidermal growth factor receptors

Bessman NJ1Freed DM2Lemmon MA3
Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2014 Dec; 29:95-101
http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.sbi.2014.10.002

Highlights

  • Several studies suggest flexible linkage between extracellular and intracellular regions.
  • Others imply more rigid connections, required for allosteric regulation of dimers.
  • Interactions with membrane lipids play important roles in EGFR regulation.
  • Cellular studies suggest half-of-the-sites negative cooperativity for human EGFR.

Numerous crystal structures have been reported for the isolated extracellular region and tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its relatives, in different states of activation and bound to a variety of inhibitors used in cancer therapy. The next challenge is to put these structures together accurately in functional models of the intact receptor in its membrane environment. The intact EGFR has been studied using electron microscopy, chemical biology methods, biochemically, and computationally. The distinct approaches yield different impressions about the structural modes of communication between extracellular and intracellular regions. They highlight possible differences between ligands, and also underline the need to understand how the receptor interacts with the membrane itself.

http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0959440X14001304-gr1.sml

http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0959440X14001304-gr2.sml

7.1.3 Complex Relationship between Ligand Binding and Dimerization in the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

Bessman NJ1Bagchi A2Ferguson KM2Lemmon MA3.
Cell Rep. 2014 Nov 20; 9(4):1306-17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2014.10.010

Highlights

  • Preformed extracellular dimers of human EGFR are structurally heterogeneous
  • EGFR dimerization does not stabilize ligand binding
  • Extracellular mutations found in glioblastoma do not stabilize EGFR dimerization
  • Glioblastoma mutations in EGFR increase ligand-binding affinity

Summary

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays pivotal roles in development and is mutated or overexpressed in several cancers. Despite recent advances, the complex allosteric regulation of EGFR remains incompletely understood. Through efforts to understand why the negative cooperativity observed for intact EGFR is lost in studies of its isolated extracellular region (ECR), we uncovered unexpected relationships between ligand binding and receptor dimerization. The two processes appear to compete. Surprisingly, dimerization does not enhance ligand binding (although ligand binding promotes dimerization). We further show that simply forcing EGFR ECRs into preformed dimers without ligand yields ill-defined, heterogeneous structures. Finally, we demonstrate that extracellular EGFR-activating mutations in glioblastoma enhance ligand-binding affinity without directly promoting EGFR dimerization, suggesting that these oncogenic mutations alter the allosteric linkage between dimerization and ligand binding. Our findings have important implications for understanding how EGFR and its relatives are activated by specific ligands and pathological mutations.

http://www.cell.com/cms/attachment/2020816777/2040986303/fx1.jpg

X-ray crystal structures from 2002 and 2003 (Burgess et al., 2003) yielded the scheme for ligand-induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) dimerization shown in Figure 1. Binding of a single ligand to domains I and III within the same extracellular region (ECR) stabilizes an “extended” conformation and exposes a dimerization interface in domain II, promoting self-association with a KD in the micromolar range (Burgess et al., 2003, Dawson et al., 2005, Dawson et al., 2007). Although this model satisfyingly explains ligand-induced EGFR dimerization, it fails to capture the complex ligand-binding characteristics seen for cell-surface EGFR, with concave-up Scatchard plots indicating either negative cooperativity (De Meyts, 2008, Macdonald and Pike, 2008) or distinct affinity classes of EGF-binding site with high-affinity sites responsible for EGFR signaling (Defize et al., 1989). This cooperativity or heterogeneity is lost when the ECR from EGFR is studied in isolation, as also described for the insulin receptor (De Meyts, 2008).

ligand-induced-dimerization-of-the-hegfr-ecr

ligand-induced-dimerization-of-the-hegfr-ecr

Figure 1

Structural View of Ligand-Induced Dimerization of the hEGFR ECR

(A) Surface representation of tethered, unliganded, sEGFR from Protein Data Bank entry 1NQL (Ferguson et al., 2003). Ligand-binding domains I and III are green and cysteine-rich domains II and IV are cyan. The intramolecular domain II/IV tether is circled in red.

(B) Hypothetical model for an extended EGF-bound sEGFR monomer based on SAXS studies of an EGF-bound dimerization-defective sEGFR variant (Dawson et al., 2007) from PDB entry 3NJP (Lu et al., 2012). EGF is blue, and the red boundary represents the primary dimerization interface.

(C) 2:2 (EGF/sEGFR) dimer, from PDB entry 3NJP (Lu et al., 2012), colored as in (B). Dimerization arm contacts are circled in red.

http://www.cell.com/cms/attachment/2020816777/2040986313/gr1.sml

Here, we describe studies of an artificially dimerized ECR from hEGFR that yield useful insight into the heterogeneous nature of preformed ECR dimers and into the origins of negative cooperativity. Our data also argue that extracellular structures induced by ligand binding are not “optimized” for dimerization and conversely that dimerization does not optimize the ligand-binding sites. We also analyzed the effects of oncogenic mutations found in glioblastoma patients (Lee et al., 2006), revealing that they affect allosteric linkage between ligand binding and dimerization rather than simply promoting EGFR dimerization. These studies have important implications for understanding extracellular activating mutations found in EGFR/ErbB family receptors in glioblastoma and other cancers and also for understanding specificity of ligand-induced ErbB receptor heterodimerization

Predimerizing the EGFR ECR Has Modest Effects on EGF Binding

To access preformed dimers of the hEGFR ECR (sEGFR) experimentally, we C-terminally fused (to residue 621 of the mature protein) either a dimerizing Fc domain (creating sEGFR-Fc) or the dimeric leucine zipper from S. cerevisiae GCN4 (creating sEGFR-Zip). Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and/or sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) confirmed that the resulting purified sEGFR fusion proteins are dimeric (Figure S1). To measure KD values for ligand binding to sEGFR-Fc and sEGFR-Zip, we labeled EGF with Alexa-488 and monitored binding in fluorescence anisotropy (FA) assays. As shown in Figure 2A, EGF binds approximately 10-fold more tightly to the dimeric sEGFR-Fc or sEGFR-Zip proteins than to monomeric sEGFR (Table 1). The curves obtained for EGF binding to sEGFR-Fc and sEGFR-Zip showed no signs of negative cooperativity, with sEGFR-Zip actually requiring a Hill coefficient (nH) greater than 1 for a good fit (nH = 1 for both sEGFRWT and sEGFR-Fc). Thus, our initial studies argued that simply dimerizing human sEGFR fails to restore the negatively cooperative ligand binding seen for the intact receptor in cells.

One surprise from these data was that forced sEGFR dimerization has only a modest (≤10-fold) effect on EGF-binding affinity. Under the conditions of the FA experiments, isolated sEGFR (without zipper or Fc fusion) remains monomeric; the FA assay contains just 60 nM EGF, so the maximum concentration of EGF-bound sEGFR is also limited to 60 nM, which is over 20-fold lower than the KD for dimerization of the EGF/sEGFR complex (Dawson et al., 2005, Lemmon et al., 1997). This ≤10-fold difference in affinity for dimeric and monomeric sEGFR seems small in light of the strict dependence of sEGFR dimerization on ligand binding (Dawson et al., 2005,Lax et al., 1991, Lemmon et al., 1997). Unliganded sEGFR does not dimerize detectably even at millimolar concentrations, whereas liganded sEGFR dimerizes with KD ∼1 μM, suggesting that ligand enhances dimerization by at least 104– to 106-fold. Straightforward linkage of dimerization and binding equilibria should stabilize EGF binding to dimeric sEGFR similarly (by 5.5–8.0 kcal/mol). The modest difference in EGF-binding affinity for dimeric and monomeric sEGFR is also significantly smaller than the 40- to 100-fold difference typically reported between high-affinity and low-affinity EGF binding on the cell surface when data are fit to two affinity classes of binding site (Burgess et al., 2003, Magun et al., 1980).

Mutations that Prevent sEGFR Dimerization Do Not Significantly Reduce Ligand-Binding Affinity

The fact that predimerizing sEGFR only modestly increased ligand-binding affinity led us to question the extent to which domain II-mediated sEGFR dimerization is linked to ligand binding. It is typically assumed that the domain II conformation stabilized upon forming the sEGFR dimer in Figure 1C optimizes the domain I and III positions for EGF binding. To test this hypothesis, we introduced a well-characterized pair of domain II mutations into sEGFRs that block dimerization: one at the tip of the dimerization arm (Y251A) and one at its “docking site” on the adjacent molecule in a dimer (R285S). The resulting (Y251A/R285S) mutation abolishes sEGFR dimerization and EGFR signaling (Dawson et al., 2005, Ogiso et al., 2002). Importantly, we chose isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) for these studies, where all interacting components are free in solution. Previous surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies have indicated that dimerization-defective sEGFR variants bind immobilized EGF with reduced affinity (Dawson et al., 2005), and we were concerned that this reflects avidity artifacts, where dimeric sEGFR binds more avidly than monomeric sEGFR to sensor chip-immobilized EGF.

Surprisingly, our ITC studies showed that the Y251A/R285S mutation has no significant effect on ligand-binding affinity for sEGFR in solution (Table 1). These experiments employed sEGFR (with no Fc fusion) at 10 μM—ten times higher than KD for dimerization of ligand-saturated WT sEGFR (sEGFRWT) (KD ∼1 μM). Dimerization of sEGFRWT should therefore be complete under these conditions, whereas the Y251A/R285S-mutated variant (sEGFRY251A/R285S) does not dimerize at all (Dawson et al., 2005). The KD value for EGF binding to dimeric sEGFRWT was essentially the same (within 2-fold) as that for sEGFRY251A/R285S (Figures 2B and 2C; Table 1), arguing that the favorable Gibbs free energy (ΔG) of liganded sEGFR dimerization (−5.5 to −8 kcal/mol) does not contribute significantly (<0.4 kcal/mol) to enhanced ligand binding. …

Thermodynamics of EGF Binding to sEGFR-Fc

If there is no discernible positive linkage between sEGFR dimerization and EGF binding, why do sEGFR-Fc and sEGFR-Zip bind EGF ∼10-fold more strongly than wild-type sEGFR? To investigate this, we used ITC to compare EGF binding to sEGFR-Fc and sEGFR-Zip (Figures 3A and 3B ) with binding to isolated (nonfusion) sEGFRWT. As shown in Table 1, the positive (unfavorable) ΔH for EGF binding is further elevated in predimerized sEGFR compared with sEGFRWT, suggesting that enforced dimerization may actually impair ligand/receptor interactions such as hydrogen bonds and salt bridges. The increased ΔH is more than compensated for, however, by a favorable increase in TΔS. This favorable entropic effect may reflect an “ordering” imposed on unliganded sEGFR when it is predimerized, such that it exhibits fewer degrees of freedom compared with monomeric sEGFR. In particular, since EGF binding does induce sEGFR dimerization, it is clear that predimerization will reduce the entropic cost of bringing two sEGFR molecules into a dimer upon ligand binding, possibly underlying this effect.

Possible Heterogeneity of Binding Sites in sEGFR-Fc

Close inspection of EGF/sEGFR-Fc titrations such as that in Figure 3A suggested some heterogeneity of sites, as evidenced by the slope in the early part of the experiment. To investigate this possibility further, we repeated titrations over a range of temperatures. We reasoned that if there are two different types of EGF-binding sites in an sEGFR-Fc dimer, they might have different values for heat capacity change (ΔCp), with differences that might become more evident at higher (or lower) temperatures. Indeed, ΔCp values correlate with the nonpolar surface area buried upon binding (Livingstone et al., 1991), and we know that this differs for the two Spitz-binding sites in the asymmetric Drosophila EGFR dimer (Alvarado et al., 2010). As shown in Figure 3C, the heterogeneity was indeed clearer at higher temperatures for sEGFR-Fc—especially at 25°C and 30°C—suggesting the possible presence of distinct classes of binding sites in the sEGFR-Fc dimer. We were not able to fit the two KD values (or ΔH values) uniquely with any precision because the experiment has insufficient information for unique fitting to a model with four variables. Whereas binding to sEGFRWT could be fit confidently with a single-site binding model throughout the temperature range, enforced sEGFR dimerization (by Fc fusion) creates apparent heterogeneity in binding sites, which may reflect negative cooperativity of the sort seen with dEGFR. …

Ligand Binding Is Required for Well-Defined Dimerization of the EGFR ECR

To investigate the structural nature of the preformed sEGFR-Fc dimer, we used negative stain electron microscopy (EM). We hypothesized that enforced dimerization might cause the unliganded ECR to form the same type of loose domain II-mediated dimer seen in crystals of unliganded Drosophila sEGFR (Alvarado et al., 2009). When bound to ligand (Figure 4A), the Fc-fused ECR clearly formed the characteristic heart-shape dimer seen by crystallography and EM (Lu et al., 2010, Mi et al., 2011). Figure 4B presents a structural model of an Fc-fused liganded sEGFR dimer, and Figure 4C shows a calculated 12 Å resolution projection of this model. The class averages for sEGFR-Fc plus EGF (Figure 4A) closely resemble this model, yielding clear densities for all four receptor domains, arranged as expected for the EGF-induced domain II-mediated back-to-back extracellular dimer shown in Figure 1 (Garrett et al., 2002, Lu et al., 2010). In a subset of classes, the Fc domain also appeared well resolved, indicating that these particular arrangements of the Fc domain relative to the ECR represent highly populated states, with the Fc domains occupying similar positions to those of the kinase domain in detergent-solubilized intact receptors (Mi et al., 2011). …

Our results and those of Lu et al. (2012)) argue that preformed extracellular dimers of hEGFR do not contain a well-defined domain II-mediated interface. Rather, the ECRs in these dimers likely sample a broad range of positions (and possibly conformations). This conclusion argues against recent suggestions that stable unliganded extracellular dimers “disfavor activation in preformed dimers by assuming conformations inconsistent with” productive dimerization of the rest of the receptor (Arkhipov et al., 2013). The ligand-free inactive dimeric ECR species modeled by Arkhipov et al. (2013) in their computational studies of the intact receptor do not appear to be stable. The isolated ECR from EGFR has a very low propensity for self-association without ligand, with KD in the millimolar range (or higher). Moreover, sEGFR does not form a defined structure even when forced to dimerize by Fc fusion. It is therefore difficult to envision how it might assume any particular autoinhibitory dimeric conformation in preformed dimers. …

Extracellular Oncogenic Mutations Observed in Glioblastoma May Alter Linkage between Ligand Binding and sEGFR Dimerization

Missense mutations in the hEGFR ECR were discovered in several human glioblastoma multiforme samples or cell lines and occur in 10%–15% of glioblastoma cases (Brennan et al., 2013, Lee et al., 2006). Several elevate basal receptor phosphorylation and cause EGFR to transform NIH 3T3 cells in the absence of EGF (Lee et al., 2006). Thus, these are constitutively activating oncogenic mutations, although the mutated receptors can be activated further by ligand (Lee et al., 2006, Vivanco et al., 2012). Two of the most commonly mutated sites in glioblastoma, R84 and A265 (R108 and A289 in pro-EGFR), are in domains I and II of the ECR, respectively, and contribute directly in inactive sEGFR to intramolecular interactions between these domains that are thought to be autoinhibitory (Figure 5). Domains I and II become separated from one another in this region upon ligand binding to EGFR (Alvarado et al., 2009), as illustrated in the lower part of Figure 5. Interestingly, analogous mutations in the EGFR relative ErbB3 were also found in colon and gastric cancers (Jaiswal et al., 2013).

We hypothesized that domain I/II interface mutations might activate EGFR by disrupting autoinhibitory interactions between these two domains, possibly promoting a domain II conformation that drives dimerization even in the absence of ligand. In contrast, however, sedimentation equilibrium AUC showed that sEGFR variants harboring R84K, A265D, or A265V mutations all remained completely monomeric in the absence of ligand (Figure 6A) at a concentration of 10 μM, which is similar to that experienced at the cell surface (Lemmon et al., 1997). As with WT sEGFR, however, addition of ligand promoted dimerization of each mutated sEGFR variant, with KD values that were indistinguishable from those of WT. Thus, extracellular EGFR mutations seen in glioblastoma do not simply promote ligand-independent ECR dimerization, consistent with our finding that even dimerized sEGFR-Fc requires ligand binding in order to form the characteristic heart-shaped dimer. …

We suggest that domain I is normally restrained by domain I/II interactions so that its orientation with respect to the ligand is compromised. When the domain I/II interface is weakened with mutations, this effect is mitigated. If this results simply in increased ligand-binding affinity of the monomeric receptor, the biological consequence might be to sensitize cells to lower concentrations of EGF or TGF-α (or other agonists). However, cellular studies of EGFR with glioblastoma-derived mutations (Lee et al., 2006, Vivanco et al., 2012) clearly show ligand-independent activation, arguing that this is not the key mechanism. The domain I/II interface mutations may also reduce restraints on domain II so as to permit dimerization of a small proportion of intact receptor, driven by the documented interactions that promote self-association of the transmembrane, juxtamembrane, and intracellular regions of EGFR (Endres et al., 2013, Lemmon et al., 2014, Red Brewer et al., 2009).

Setting out to test the hypothesis that simply dimerizing the EGFR ECR is sufficient to recover the negative cooperativity lost when it is removed from the intact receptor, we were led to revisit several central assumptions about this receptor. Our findings suggest three main conclusions. First, we find that enforcing dimerization of the hEGFR ECR does not drive formation of a well-defined domain II-mediated dimer that resembles ligand-bound ECRs or the unliganded ECR from Drosophila EGFR. Our EM and SAXS data show that ligand binding is necessary for formation of well-defined heart-shaped domain II-mediated dimers. This result argues that the unliganded extracellular dimers modeled by Arkhipov et al. (2013)) are not stable and that it is improbable that stable conformations of preformed extracellular dimers disfavor receptor activation by assuming conformations that counter activating dimerization of the rest of the receptor. Recent work from the Springer laboratory employing kinase inhibitors to drive dimerization of hEGFR (Lu et al., 2012) also showed that EGF binding is required to form heart-shaped ECR dimers. These findings leave open the question of the nature of the ECR in preformed EGFR dimers but certainly argue that it is unlikely to resemble the crystallographic dimer seen for unligandedDrosophila EGFR (Alvarado et al., 2009) or that suggested by computational studies (Arkhipov et al., 2013).

This result argues that ligand binding is required to permit dimerization but that domain II-mediated dimerization may compromise, rather than enhance, ligand binding. Assuming flexibility in domain II, we suggest that this domain serves to link dimerization and ligand binding allosterically. Optimal ligand binding may stabilize one conformation of domain II in the scheme shown in Figure 1 that is then distorted upon dimerization of the ECR, in turn reducing the strength of interactions with the ligand. Such a mechanism would give the appearance of a lack of positive linkage between ligand binding and ECR dimerization, and a good test of this model would be to determine the high-resolution structure of a liganded sEGFR monomer (which we expect to differ from a half dimer). This model also suggests a mechanism for selective heterodimerization over homodimerization of certain ErbB receptors. If a ligand-bound EGFR monomer has a domain II conformation that heterodimerizes with ErbB2 in preference to forming EGFR homodimers, this could explain several important observations. It could explain reports that ErbB2 is a preferred heterodimerization partner of EGFR (Graus-Porta et al., 1997) and might also explain why EGF binds more tightly to EGFR in cells where it can form heterodimers with ErbB2 than in cells lacking ErbB2, where only EGFR homodimers can form (Li et al., 2012).

7.1.4 IGFBP-2.PTEN- A critical interaction for tumors and for general physiology

Li ZengClaire M. PerksJeff M.P. Holly
Growth Hormone & IGF Research online 7 February 2015
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ghir.2015.01.003

Highlights

  • IGFBP-2 is the second most abundant of the IGFBPs in the circulation.
  • IGFBP2 levels are increased in a variety of tumors and associated with progression and poor prognosis.
  • PTEN is a phosphatase that returns the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway to its inactivated state.
  • PTEN is the second most commonly mutated gene in a variety of common cancers.
  • Recent evidence indicates that IGFBP-2 regulates PTEN in a variety of normal and malignant cell types.
  • This review summarizes the evidence that these extracellular and intracellular modulators of the IGF-system are linked.

Abstract

IGFBP-2 is an important modulator of IGF availability and activity. It is the second most abundant of the IGFBPs in the circulation and its levels are increased in a variety of tumors and associated with progression and poor prognosis. PTEN is a phosphatase that returns the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway to its inactivated state and is therefore a critical modulator of one of the main intracellular signaling pathways activated by the IGFs. Recent evidence has indicated that IGFBP-2 regulates PTEN in a variety of normal and malignant cell types. This review summarizes the recent evidence that these extracellular and intracellular modulators are linked to provide a synchronous system for cell regulation with coordinated control of both the ‘accelerator’ and the ‘brake’.

IGFBP-2.PTEN

IGFBP-2.PTEN

http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S1096637415000167-gr1.sml

7.1.5 Emerging-roles-for-the-Ph-sensing-G-protein-coupled-receptor

Sanderlin EJ, Justus CR, Krewson EA, Yang LV
CHC March 2015 Volume 2015:7 Pages 99—109

http://www.dovepress.com/emerging-roles-for-the-ph-sensing-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-respo-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-CHC#

Protons (hydrogen ions) are the simplest form of ions universally produced by cellular metabolism including aerobic respiration and glycolysis. Export of protons out of cells by a number of acid transporters is essential to maintain a stable intracellular pH that is critical for normal cell function. Acid products in the tissue interstitium are removed by blood perfusion and excreted from the body through the respiratory and renal systems. However, the pH homeostasis in tissues is frequently disrupted in many pathophysiologic conditions such as in ischemic tissues and tumors where protons are overproduced and blood perfusion is compromised. Consequently, accumulation of protons causes acidosis in the affected tissue. Although acidosis has profound effects on cell function and disease progression, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to acidotic stress. Recently a family of pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including GPR4, GPR65 (TDAG8), and GPR68 (OGR1), has been identified and characterized. These GPCRs can be activated by extracellular acidic pH through the protonation of histidine residues of the receptors. Upon activation by acidosis the pH-sensing GPCRs can transduce several downstream G protein pathways such as the Gs, Gq/11, and G12/13 pathways to regulate cell behavior. Studies have revealed the biological roles of the pH-sensing GPCRs in the immune, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, skeletal, endocrine, and nervous systems, as well as the involvement of these receptors in a variety of pathological conditions such as cancer, inflammation, pain, and cardiovascular disease. As GPCRs are important drug targets, small molecule modulators of the pH-sensing GPCRs are being developed and evaluated for potential therapeutic applications in disease treatment.

Cellular metabolism produces acid as a byproduct. Metabolism of each glucose molecule by glycolysis generates two pyruvate molecules. Under anaerobic conditions the metabolism of pyruvate results in the production of the glycolytic end product lactic acid, which has a pKa of 3.9. Lactic acid is deprotonated at the carboxyl group and results in one lactate ion and one proton at the physiological pH. Under aerobic conditions pyruvate is converted into acetyl-CoA and CO2 in the mitochondria. CO2in water forms a chemical equilibrium of carbonic acid and bicarbonate, an important physiological pH buffering system. The body must maintain suitable pH for proper physiological functions. Some regulatory mechanisms to control systemic pH are respiration, renal excretion, bone buffering, and metabolism.14 The respiratory system can buffer the blood by excreting carbonic acid as CO2 while the kidney responds to decreased circulatory pH by excreting protons and electrolytes to stabilize the physiological pH. Bone buffering helps maintain systemic pH by Ca2+ reabsorption and mineral dissolution. Collectively, it is clear that several biological systems require tight regulation to maintain pH for normal physiological functions. Cells utilize vast varieties of acid-base transporters for proper pH homeostasis within each biological context.58 Some such transporters are H+-ATPase, Na+/H+exchanger, Na+-dependent HCO3/C1 exchanger, Na+-independent anion exchanger, and monocarboxylate transporters. Cells can also maintain short-term pH homeostasis of the intracellular pH by rapid H+ consuming mechanisms. Some such mechanisms utilize metabolic conversions that move acids from the cytosol into organelles. Despite these cellular mechanisms that tightly maintain proper pH homeostasis, there are many diseases whereby pH homeostasis is disrupted. These pathological conditions are characterized by either local or systemic acidosis. Systemic acidosis can occur from respiratory, renal, and metabolic diseases and septic shock.14,9 Additionally, local acidosis is characterized in ischemic tissues, tumors, and chronically inflamed conditions such as in asthma and arthritis caused by deregulated metabolism and hypoxia.1015

Acidosis is a stress for the cell. The ability of the cell to sense and modulate activity for adaptation to the stressful environment is critical. There are several mechanisms whereby cells sense acidosis and modulate cellular functions to facilitate adaptation. Cells can detect extracellular pH changes by acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels.16 Apart from ASIC and TRP channels, extracellular acidic pH was shown to stimulate inositol polyphosphate formation and calcium efflux.17,18 This suggested the presence of an unknown cell surface receptor that may be activated by a certain functional group, namely the imidazole of a histidine residue. The identity of the acid-activated receptor was later unmasked by Ludwig et al as a family of proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This group identified human ovarian cancer GPCR 1 (OGR1) which upon activation will produce inositol phosphate and calcium efflux through the Gq pathway.19 These pH-sensing GPCR family members, including GPR4, GPR65 (TDAG8), and GPR68 (OGR1), will be discussed in this review (Figure 1). The proton-sensing GPCRs sense extracellular pH by protonation of several histidine residues on their extracellular domain. The activation of these proton-sensing GPCRs facilitates the downstream signaling through the Gq/11, Gs, and G12/13 pathways. Their expression varies in different cell types and play critical roles in sensing extracellular acidity and modulating cellular functions in several biological systems.

Figure 1 Biological roles and G protein coupling of the pH-sensing GPCRs

Biological roles and G protein coupling of the pH-sensing GPCRs

Biological roles and G protein coupling of the pH-sensing GPCRs

http://www.dovepress.com/cr_data/article_fulltext/s60000/60508/img/fig1small.jpg

Cells encounter acidotic stress in many pathophysiologic conditions such as inflammation, cancer, and ischemia. Intricate molecular mechanisms, including a large array of acid/base transporters and acid sensors, have evolved for cells to sense and respond to acidotic stress. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that a family of the pH-sensing GPCRs can be activated by extracellular acidotic stress and regulate the function of multiple physiological systems (Table 1). The pH-sensing GPCRs also play important roles in various pathological disorders. Agonists, antagonists and other modulators of the pH-sensing GPCRs are being actively developed and evaluated as potential novel treatment for acidosis-related diseases.

Table 1 The main biological functions of the pH-sensing GPCRs
Table1 The main biological functions of the pH-sensing GPCRs

Table1 The main biological functions of the pH-sensing GPCRs

http://www.dovepress.com/cr_data/article_fulltext/s60000/60508/img/Table1small.jpg

7.1.6 Protein amino-terminal modifications and proteomic approaches for N-terminal profiling

Lai ZW1Petrera A2Schilling O3.
Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2015 Feb; 24:71-9
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2014.10.026

Highlights

  • N-terminal acetylation, pyroglutamate formation, N-degrons and proteolysis are reviewed.
  • N-terminomics provide comprehensive profiling of modification at protein N-termini in a proteome-wide manner.
  • We outline a number of established methodologies for the enrichment of protein N-termini through positive and negative selection strategies.
  • Peptidomics-based approach is beneficial for the study of post-translational processing of protein N-termini.

Amino-/N-terminal processing is a crucial post-translational modification affecting almost all proteins. In addition to altering the chemical properties of the N-terminus, these modifications affect protein activation, conversion, and degradation, which subsequently lead to diversified biological functions. The study of N-terminal modifications is of increasing interest; especially since modifications such as proteolytic truncation or pyroglutamate formation have been linked to disease processes. During the past decade, mass spectrometry has played an important role in facilitating the investigation of N-terminal modifications. Continuous progress is being made in the development and application of robust methods for the dedicated analysis of native and modified protein N-termini in a proteome-wide manner. Here we highlight recent progress in our understanding of protein N-terminal biology as well as outlining present enrichment strategies for mass spectrometry-based studies of protein N-termini

7.1.7 Protein homeostasis networks in physiology and disease

Claudio Hetz1,2,3,* and Laurie H. Glimcher3,4,*
Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2011 Apr; 23(2): 123–125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.ceb.2011.01.004

Although most text books of biochemistry describe the process of protein folding to a three dimensional native state as an intrinsic property of the primary sequence, it is becoming increasingly clear that this process can go wrong in an almost infinite number of ways. In fact, many different diseases are caused by the misfolding and aggregation of certain proteins without genetic mutations in the primary sequence. An integrative view of the mechanisms that maintain protein folding homeostasis is emerging, which could be thought as a balanced and dynamic network of interconnected processes tightly regulated by a series of quality control mechanisms. This protein homeostasis network involves families of folding catalysts, co-factors under specific environmental and metabolic conditions. Maintaining protein homeostasis is particularly challenging in specialized secretory cells where the high demand for protein synthesis generates a constant source of stress that could lead to proteotoxicity.

Protein folding is assisted and monitored by diverse interconnected processes that follow a sequential pattern over time. The calnexin/calreticulin cycle ensures the proper folding of glycosylated proteins through the secretory pathway, which establishes the final pattern of disulfide bond formation through interactions with the disulfide isomerase ERp57. Coupled to this cycle is the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, which translocates terminally misfolded proteins to the cytosol for degradation by proteasomes. In addition, macroautophagy is becoming a relevant mechanism for the clearance of damaged proteins and abnormal protein aggregates through lysosomal hydrolysis, a process also referred to as ERAD-II. The folding status at the ER is constantly monitored by the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), a specialized signaling pathway initiated by the activation of three types of stress sensors. The process underlying the surveillance of protein folding stress by the UPR is not fully understood, but it may require coupling to key folding mediators such as BiP or the direct recognition of the misfolded peptides by stress sensors. The UPR regulates genes and processs related to almost every folding step in the secretory pathway to reduce the load of misfolded proteins, including protein translation into the ER, translocation, folding, quality control, ERAD, the redox status, and many other related functions. Protein folding stress is observed in many disease conditions such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. For example, abnormal protein aggregation and the accumulation of protein inclusions is associated with Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s Disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In those diseases and many others, neuronal dysfunction and disease progression correlates with the presence of a strong ER stress response; however, the direct in vivo role of the UPR in the disease process has been experimentally defined in only a few cases. Therapeutic strategies are currently being developed to increase protein folding and clearance of misfolded proteins, with the goal of alleviating ER stress.

In this issue of Current Opinion in Cell Biology we present a series of focused reviews from recognized experts in the field, that provide an overview of mechanisms underlying protein folding and quality control, and how balance of protein homeostasis is maintained in physiology and deregulated in diseases. Daniela Roth and William Balch integrate the concept of protein homeostasis networks into an interesting model termed FoldFx, showing how the interconnection between different pathways in the context of the cellular proteome determines the energetic barrier required to generate a functional folded peptide. The authors have previously proposed the term Proteostasis to refer to the set of interacting activities that maintain the health of the proteome and the organism (protein homeostasis). The ER is a central subcellular compartment for protein synthesis and quality control in the secretory pathway. Yukio Kimata and Kenji Kohno give an overview of the signaling pathways that control adaptation to ER stress and maintenance of protein folding homeostasis. The authors summarize the models proposed so far for the activation of UPR stress sensors, and discuss how this directly or indirectly relates to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen. Chronic or irreversible ER stress triggers cell death by apoptosis. Gordon Shore, Feroz Papa, and Scott Oakes summarize the complex signaling pathways initiating apoptosis by ER stress, where cross talk between the ER and the mitochondria play a central role. The authors focus on addressing the role of the BCL-2 protein family on the activation of intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathways, highlighting different cytosolic and transcriptional events that determine the transition between adaptive responses to apoptosis programmed by the UPR to eliminate irreversibly injured cells.

Although diverse families of chaperones, foldases and co-factors are expressed at the ER, only a few protein folding networks have been well defined. However, molecular explanations for specific substrate recognition and quality control mechanisms are poorly defined. Here we present a series of reviews covering different aspects of protein maturation. Amy Lee summarizes what is known about the biology of the key ER folding chaperone BiP/Grp78, and its emerging role in diverse pathological conditions including cancer. In two reviews, David B. Williams and Linda M. Hendershot describe the best characterized mechanism of protein quality control at the ER, the calnexin cycle. In addition, they give an overview of the function of a family of ER foldases, the protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs), in folding, quality control and degradation of abnormally folded proteins. PDIs are also becoming key factors in establishing the redox tone of the ER. Riccardo Bernasconi and Maurizio Molinari overview the ERAD process and how this pathway affects the efficiency of the protein folding process at the ER and its relation to pathological conditions.

Lysosomal-mediated degradation is becoming a fundamental process for the control of the haft-life of proteins and the degradation of misfolded, aggregate prone proteins. Ana Maria Cuervo reviews the relevance of Chaperone-mediated autophagy in the selective degradation of soluble cytosolic proteins in lysosomes, and also points out a key role for Chaperone-mediated autophagy in the cellular defense against proteotoxicity. David Rubinsztein and Guido Kroemer present two reviews highlighting the emerging relevance of macroautophagy in maintaining the homeostasis of the nervous system. They also discuss the actual impact of macroautophagy in the clearance of protein aggregates related to neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease among others. In addition, recent evidence suggesting an actual impairment of macroautophagy as a causative factor in aging-related disorders is also discussed.

Strategies to increase the efficiency of quality control mechanisms, to reduce protein aggregation and to enhance folding are suggested to be beneficial in the setting of diseases associated with the disruption of protein homeostasis.  Jeffery Kelly reviews recent chemical and biological therapeutic strategies to restore protein homeostasis, which could be achieved by enhancing the biological capacity of the proteostasis network or through small molecule to stabilize misfolding-prone proteins. In summary, this volume of Current Opinion in Cell Biology compiles the most recent advances in understanding the impact of protein folding stress in physiology and disease, and integrates a variety of complex mechanisms that evolved to maintain protein homeostasis in a dynamic way in the context of a changing environment. The biomedical applications of developing strategies to cope with protein folding stress have profound implications for the treatment of the most prevalent diseases in the human population.

7.1.8 Proteome sequencing goes deep

Richards AL1Merrill AE2Coon JJ3.
Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2015 Feb; 24:11-7
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2014.10.017

Highlights

  • Recent MS advances have transformed the depth of coverage of the human proteome.
  • Expression of half the estimated human protein coding genes can be verified by MS.
  • MS sample preparation, instrumentation, and data analysis techniques are highlighted.

Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have transformed the scope and impact of protein characterization efforts. Identifying hundreds of proteins from rather simple biological matrices, such as yeast, was a daunting task just a few decades ago. Now, expression of more than half of the estimated ∼20 000 human protein coding genes can be confirmed in record time and from minute sample quantities. Access to proteomic information at such unprecedented depths has been fueled by strides in every stage of the shotgun proteomics workflow — from sample processing to data analysis — and promises to revolutionize our understanding of the causes and consequences of proteome variation.

  1. Advances in proteomic sample preparation
  2. Advances in peptide separation and MS instrumentation
  3. Advances in computational proteomics
  4. Conclusions and outlook

Mg²+ is critical for maintaining the positional integrity of closely clustered phosphate groups. These clusters appear in numerous and distinct parts of the cell nucleus and cytoplasm. The Mg²+ ion maintains the integrity of nucleic acids, ribosomes and proteins. In addition, this ion acts as an oligo-element with role in energy catalysis. [6] Biological cell membranes and cell walls exhibit poly-anionic charges on the surface. This finding has important implications for the transport of ions, particularly because different membranes preferentially bind different ions. Both Mg²+ and Ca²+ regularly stabilize membranes by cross-linking the carboxylated and phosphorylated head groups of lipids.

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