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Posts Tagged ‘Cannabis’


Reporter and Curator: Dr. Sudipta Saha, Ph.D.

 

Research about marijuana and fertility is limited but some previous studies suggested that it might harm semen quality. Smoking of any type is also known to be a risk factor for male infertility. So, men who have smoked cannabis are expected to have worse measures of fertility but the data from a recent study suggested the opposite. The finding contradicts all conventional knowledge on how weed affects sperm. This may be because previous research typically focused on men with drug abuse history but this present study simply asked men if they had smoked more than two joints in their life.

 

Analysis of 1,143 semen samples from 662 men collected between 2000 and 2017 at the Fertility Clinic at Massachusetts General Hospital showed that those who had smoked weed at some point in their life had a mean sperm concentration of 62.7 million sperm per milliliter (mL) of ejaculate, while men who avoided marijuana entirely had mean concentrations of 45.4 million/mL. Added to this only 5% of weed smokers had sperm concentrations below the 15 million/mL threshold the World Health Organization has set for a “normal” sperm count, versus 12% of men who never smoked marijuana.

 

The study has some imperfections such as the participants are not necessarily representative of the general population. They were predominantly college educated men with a mean age of 36, and were all seeking treatment at a fertility center. Further research is needed to support the findings. Two possibilities are put forward by the researchers as the reason behind such data. The first is that low levels of marijuana could have a positive effect on the endocannabinoid system, the neurotransmitters in the nervous system that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and are known to regulate fertility. The second is that may be weed-smokers are just bigger risk takers and men with higher testosterone levels and thus have better sperm count.

 

But, there’s certainly no medical recommendation to smoke weed as a fertility treatment but this study, at least, suggests that a little marijuana doesn’t hurt and might benefit sperm production in some way. But, the researchers specified that their finding does not necessarily mean that smoking cannabis increases the chances of fatherhood.

 

References:

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30726923

 

https://www.bloomberg.com/amp/news/articles/2019-02-06/cannabis-smoking-associated-with-higher-sperm-count-study-finds?__twitter_impression=true

 

https://qz.com/1543564/smoking-weed-linked-to-higher-sperm-count-in-a-harvard-study/

 

https://www.thestar.com.my/news/world/2019/02/06/cannabis-smoking-associated-with-higher-sperm-count-study-finds/

 

http://time.com/5520421/smoking-marijuana-sperm-fertility/

 

https://www.health.com/infertility/marijuana-sperm-count

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The Vibrant Philly Biotech Scene: Focus on KannaLife Sciences and the Discipline and Potential of Pharmacognosy

Curator and Interviewer: Stephen J. Williams, Ph.D.

 

philly2nightThis post is the third in a series of posts highlighting interviews with Philadelphia area biotech startup CEO’s and show how a vibrant biotech startup scene is evolving in the city as well as the Delaware Valley area. Philadelphia has been home to some of the nation’s oldest biotechs including Cephalon, Centocor, hundreds of spinouts from a multitude of universities as well as home of the first cloned animal (a frog), the first transgenic mouse, and Nobel laureates in the field of molecular biology and genetics. Although some recent disheartening news about the fall in rankings of Philadelphia as a biotech hub and recent remarks by CEO’s of former area companies has dominated the news, biotech incubators like the University City Science Center and Bucks County Biotechnology Center as well as a reinvigorated investment community (like PCCI and MABA) are bringing Philadelphia back. And although much work is needed to bring the Philadelphia area back to its former glory days (including political will at the state level) there are many bright spots such as the innovative young companies as outlined in these posts.

In today’s post, I had the opportunity to talk with both Dr. William Kinney, Chief Scientific Officer and Thoma Kikis, Founder/CMO of KannaLife Sciences based in the Pennsylvania Biotech Center of Bucks County.   KannaLifeSciences, although highlighted in national media reports and Headline news (HLN TV)for their work on cannabis-derived compounds, is a phyto-medical company focused on the discipline surrounding pharmacognosy, the branch of pharmacology dealing with natural drugs and their constituents.

Below is the interview with Dr. Kinney and Mr. Kikis of KannaLife Sciences and Leaders in Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence (LPBI)

 

PA Biotech Questions answered by Dr. William Kinney, Chief Scientific Officer of KannaLife Sciences

 

 

LPBI: Your parent company   is based in New York. Why did you choose the Bucks County Pennsylvania Biotechnology Center?

 

Dr. Kinney: The Bucks County Pennsylvania Biotechnology Center has several aspects that were attractive to us.  They have a rich talent pool of pharmaceutically trained medicinal chemists, an NIH trained CNS pharmacologist,  a scientific focus on liver disease, and a premier natural product collection.

 

LBPI: The Blumberg Institute and Natural Products Discovery Institute has acquired a massive phytochemical library. How does this resource benefit the present and future plans for KannaLife?

 

Dr. Kinney: KannaLife is actively mining this collection for new sources of neuroprotective agents and is in the process of characterizing the active components of a specific biologically active plant extract.  Jason Clement of the NPDI has taken a lead on these scientific studies and is on our Advisory Board. 

 

LPBI: Was the state of Pennsylvania and local industry groups support KannaLife’s move into the Doylestown incubator?

 

Dr. Kinney: The move was not State influenced by state or industry groups. 

 

LPBI: Has the partnership with Ben Franklin Partners and the Center provided you with investment opportunities?

 

Dr. Kinney: Ben Franklin Partners has not yet been consulted as a source of capital.

 

LPBI: The discipline of pharmacognosy, although over a century old, has relied on individual investigators and mainly academic laboratories to make initial discoveries on medicinal uses of natural products. Although there have been many great successes (taxol, many antibiotics, glycosides, etc.) many big pharmaceutical companies have abandoned this strategy considering it a slow, innefective process. Given the access you have to the chemical library there at Buck County Technology Center, the potential you had identified with cannabanoids in diseases related to oxidative stress, how can KannaLife enhance the efficiency of finding therapeutic and potential preventive uses for natural products?

 

Dr. Kinney: KannaLife has the opportunity to improve upon natural molecules that have shown medically uses, but have limitations related to safety and bioavailability. By applying industry standard medicinal chemistry optimization and assay methods, progress is being made in improving upon nature.  In addition KannaLife has access to one of the most commercially successful natural products scientists and collections in the industry.

 

LPBI: How does the clinical & regulatory experience in the Philadelphia area help a company like Kannalife?

 

Dr. Kinney: Within the region, KannaLife has access to professionals in all areas of drug development either by hiring displaced professionals or partnering with regional contract research organizations.

 

LPBI  You are focusing on an interesting mechanism of action (oxidative stress) and find your direction appealing (find compounds to reverse this, determine relevant disease states {like HCE} then screen these compounds in those disease models {in hippocampal slices}).  As oxidative stress is related to many diseases are you trying to develop your natural products as preventative strategies, even though those type of clinical trials usually require massive numbers of trial participants or are you looking to partner with a larger company to do this?

 

Dr. Kinney: Our strategy is to initially pursue Hepatic Encephalophy (HE) as the lead orphan disease indication and then partner with other organizations to broaden into other areas that would benefit from a neuroprotective agent.  It is expected the HE will be responsive to an acute treatment regimen.   We are pursuing both natural products and new chemical entities for this development path.

 

 

General Questions answered by Thoma Kikis, Founder/CMO of KannaLife Sciences

 

LPBI: How did KannaLife get the patent from the National Institutes of Health?

 

My name is Thoma Kikis I’m the co-founder of KannaLife Sciences. In 2010, my partner Dean Petkanas and I founded KannaLife and we set course applying for the exclusive license of the ‘507 patent held by the US Government Health and Human Services and National Institutes of Health (NIH). We spent close to 2 years working on acquiring an exclusive license from NIH to commercially develop Patent 6,630,507 “Cannabinoids as Antioxidants and Neuroprotectants.” In 2012, we were granted exclusivity from NIH to develop a treatment for a disease called Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE), a brain liver disease that stems from cirrhosis.

 

Cannabinoids are the chemicals that compose the Cannabis plant. There are over 85 known isolated Cannabinoids in Cannabis. The cannabis plant is a repository for chemicals, there are over 400 chemicals in the entire plant. We are currently working on non-psychoactive cannabinoids, cannabidiol being at the forefront.

 

As we started our work on HE and saw promising results in the area of neuroprotection we sought out another license from the NIH on the same patent to treat CTE (Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy), in August of 2014 we were granted the additional license. CTE is a concussion related traumatic brain disease with long term effects mostly suffered by contact sports players including football, hockey, soccer, lacrosse, boxing and active military soldiers.

 

To date we are the only license holders of the US Government held patent on cannabinoids.

 

 

LPBI: How long has this project been going on?

 

We have been working on the overall project since 2010. We first started work on early research for CTE in early-2013.

 

 

LPBI: Tell me about the project. What are the goals?

 

Our focus has always been on treating diseases that effect the Brain. Currently we are looking for solutions in therapeutic agents designed to reduce oxidative stress, and act as immuno-modulators and neuroprotectants.

 

KannaLife has an overall commitment to discover and understand new phytochemicals. This diversification of scientific and commercial interests strongly indicates a balanced and thoughtful approach to our goals of providing standardized, safer and more effective medicines in a socially responsible way.

 

Currently our research has focused on the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD). Exploring the appropriate uses and limitations and improving its safety and Metered Dosing. CBD has a limited therapeutic window and poor bioavailability upon oral dosing, making delivery of a consistent therapeutic dose challenging. We are also developing new CBD-like molecules to overcome these limitations and evaluating new phytochemicals from non-regulated plants.

 

KannaLife’s research is led by experienced pharmaceutically trained professionals; Our Scientific team out of the Pennsylvania Biotechnology Center is led by Dr. William Kinney and Dr. Douglas Brenneman both with decades of experience in pharmaceutical R&D.

 

 

LPBI: How do cannabinoids help neurological damage? -What sort of neurological damage do they help?

 

Cannabinoids and specifically cannabidiol work to relieve oxidative stress, and act as immuno-modulators and neuroprotectants.

 

So far our pre-clinical results show that cannabidiol is a good candidate as a neuroprotectant as the patent attests to. Our current studies have been to protect neuronal cells from toxicity. For HE we have been looking specifically at ammonia and ethanol toxicity.

 

 

– How did it go from treating general neurological damage to treating CTE? Is there any proof yet that cannabinoids can help prevent CTE? What proof?

 

We started examining toxicity first with ammonia and ethanol in HE and then posed the question; If CBD is a neuroprotectant against toxicity then we need to examine what it can do for other toxins. We looked at CTE and the toxin that causes it, tau. We just acquired the license in August from the NIH for CTE and are beginning our pre-clinical work in the area of CTE now with Dr. Ron Tuma and Dr. Sara Jane Ward at Temple University in Philadelphia.

 

 

LPBI: How long until a treatment could be ready? What’s the timeline?

 

We will have research findings in the coming year. We plan on filing an IND (Investigational New Drug application) with the FDA for CBD and our molecules in 2015 for HE and file for CTE once our studies are done.

 

 

LPBI: What other groups are you working with regarding CTE?

 

We are getting good support from former NFL players who want solutions to the problem of concussions and CTE. This is a very frightening topic for many players, especially with the controversy and lawsuits surrounding it. I have personally spoken to several former NFL players, some who have CTE and many are frightened at what the future holds.

 

We enrolled a former player, Marvin Washington. Marvin was an 11 year NFL vet with NY Jets, SF 49ers and won a SuperBowl on the 1998 Denver Broncos. He has been leading the charge on KannaLife’s behalf to raise awareness to the potential solution for CTE.

 

We tried approaching the NFL in 2013 but they didn’t want to meet. I can understand that they don’t want to take a position. But ultimately, they’re going to have to make a decision and look into different research to treat concussions. They have already given the NIH $30 Million for research into football related injuries and we hold a license with the NIH, so we wanted to have a discussion. But currently cannabinoids are part of their substance abuse policy connected to marijuana. Our message to the NFL is that they need to lead the science, not follow it.

 

Can you imagine the NFL’s stance on marijuana treating concussions and CTE? These are topics they don’t want to touch but will have to at some point.

 

LPBI: Thank you both Dr. Kinney and Mr. Kikis.

 

Please look for future posts in this series on the Philly Biotech Scene on this site

Also, if you would like your Philadelphia biotech startup to be highlighted in this series please contact me or

http://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com at:

sjwilliamspa@comcast.net or @StephenJWillia2  or @pharma_BI.

Our site is read by ~ thousand international readers DAILY and thousands of Twitter followers including venture capital.

 

Other posts on this site in this VIBRANT PHILLY BIOTECH SCENE SERIES OR referring to PHILADELPHIA BIOTECH include:

The Vibrant Philly Biotech Scene: Focus on Computer-Aided Drug Design and Gfree Bio, LLC

RAbD Biotech Presents at 1st Pitch Life Sciences-Philadelphia

The Vibrant Philly Biotech Scene: Focus on Vaccines and Philimmune, LLC

What VCs Think about Your Pitch? Panel Summary of 1st Pitch Life Science Philly

1st Pitch Life Science- Philadelphia- What VCs Really Think of your Pitch

LytPhage Presents at 1st Pitch Life Sciences-Philadelphia

Hastke Inc. Presents at 1st Pitch Life Sciences-Philadelphia

PCCI’s 7th Annual Roundtable “Crowdfunding for Life Sciences: A Bridge Over Troubled Waters?” May 12 2014 Embassy Suites Hotel, Chesterbrook PA 6:00-9:30 PM

Pfizer Cambridge Collaborative Innovation Events: ‘The Role of Innovation Districts in Metropolitan Areas to Drive the Global an | Basecamp Business

Mapping the Universe of Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence: The Model developed by LPBI and the Model of Best Practices LLC

 

 

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Author: Dr Anayo Unachukwu, MBBS, LLM

Man is a net product of biology and society. His biology is pretty primordial and sluggish to changes hence he struggles with optimal adaptation to his dynamic environment. It is unsurprising that he is constantly behind the curve, given the epochal changes that are attendant to post modernism. Post modernism has largely informed a parallel discourse to that which exists within public and private institutions and bodies. This discourse has gained increased traction in the 20th and 21st century, given the haemorrhage of trust from professional relationships. As O’ Neil aptly puts it, ‘loss of trust’ is in short, a cliché of our times.[1]  The public outcry that attended this breach of trust has led to several layers of professional regulations, inspections of private and public institutions; and latterly the low level of tolerance of risk in more affluent societies. However Maynard opines that the attraction of trust as the determinant of human exchange is that it is potentially more cost-effective than the alternative.[2]

With the advent of information age, the already fragile relationship between the public on one hand and professional bodies and institutions on the other has seen further entropy and perturbation. This level of instability in the relationship was largely informed by marked reduction in information asymmetry that hitherto existed in professional relationships. The nature of these relationships is now undermined by concerns about their efficiency and the consequent need for external performance management.[3] Doctor/patient relationship is unique because of the element of information asymmetry.[4] Not anymore, the public believes that, given the reduced information asymmetry, doctors no longer know the best.  The net effect is a further distrust and uncertainty about the intentions of public and private bodies on matters affecting the greater good of the society.

It is within this backdrop that most scientific debates are conducted in the media. The sceptre of scepticism is brought to the fore by the public in navigating very complex debate. This is unsurprising, given that prehistoric man has always been adept in heuristic pursuits as rough and ready guides in making sense of it all when challenged with novel situation.

The debate on Cannabis (Marijuana)-is controversial, but unsurprising, given the heat rather than light it generates-has remained greatly polarising. Like wars, the first casualty is truth. Given Cannabis chequered history, an honest scientific discourse would hardly make the rounds due to the frontloaded emotions integral to the debate. Man being a product of sluggish biology and environment will recourse to heuristic generalisations where nuanced debate is called for.

Most clinicians in mental health-who have seen lives blighted by early childhood exposure to cannabis-are most appalled, given the way the debate on Cannabis is conducted.

Cannabis has over 70 different cannabinoid chemicals[5]. The most active being Δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol.This very particular chemical is largely responsible for most of the cognitive[6], emotional and psychomotor impairments associated with the use of the drug.

To further compound the discourse on Cannabis, is the difficulty in predicting with any reasonable degree of accuracy as regards to who will develop mental illness with early exposure to Cannabis in childhood. Given the paucity of scientific knowledge on this, scientific community could only resort to heuristic speculation based on epidemiological data-demographics. However, this issue is more complex, given that genetics and heredity are not in the habit of playing according to linear rules.

It is pertinent to note that a counterpoint to Δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol is another active chemical Cannabidiol (CBD) has anxiolytic[7] and possibly antipsychotic[8] properties. However, it is difficult to know the precise ratio of these two active ingredients in Cannabis couriered and consumed on the street.

I am not for a moment advocating that the drug war as we know it-started by Richard Nixon-is the way forward. There should be an honest debate across both opposing aisles on a practical and pragmatic solution to protect the vulnerable in our society. Was it not Ghandhi that said that you can’t shake hands with clenched fists?


[1] O’ Neil O. A question of Trust BBC Reith Lectures 2002. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, 2002.

[2] Maynard A., Bloor K. Trust and performance management in the medical marketplace; Journal of The Royal Society of Medicine vol. 96 November 2003.

[3]  Ibid.

[4] Not anymore, cf Scitovsky T. The benefits of asymmetry markets. J Econ Perspect 1990; 4 135-48. He notes that this is beneficial and it is a by-product of specialisation.

[5] Celia JA Morgan et al (2010). Cannabidiol Attenuates the Appetitive Effects of Δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Human Smoking Their Chosen Cannabis, Neuropsychopharmacology, 1879-1885.

[6] D’ Souza et al (2004). The psychomimetic effects of intravenous Δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy individuals: implication for psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology 29: 1558-1572.

[7] Crippa JA et al (2004). Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on regional cerebral blood flow, Neuropsychopharmacology 29: 417-429.

[8] Zaurdi AW et al (2006). Cannabidiol monotherapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. J Psychopharmacol 20: 683-686.

 

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