Posts Tagged ‘Medtronic’

St. Jude’s CEO is still betting on EnligHTN IV Study Renal Denervation System, despite Medtronic’s setback related to SYMPLICITY Phase IV


UPDATED on 1/14/2014

This is in continuation to our 1/9/2014 article:

Market Impact on Global Suppliers of Renal Denervation Systems by Pivotal US Trial: Metronics’ Symplicity Renal Denervation System FAILURE at Efficacy Endpoint


In the short term, the company, St. Jude suspended enrollment in three other related trials and announced plans to gather an independent panel of experts to plot a future course. 

St. Jude Medical won a CE mark for its next-gen EnligHTN IV renal denervation system over the summer, but halted its own U.S. trial in December. Minnesota-based St. Jude said it had struggled to recruit viable candidates for the 590-patient trial, and was concerned that Medtronic’s Symplicity might siphon off viable patients needed for its own study. At the time, St. Jude said it would work to develop a new protocol to address trial enrollment challenges.

According to Mark Hollmer:

Symplicity’s setbacks may make that job much easier for St. Jude. They also create new opportunities for other rivals focused on developing similar technology, such as Boston Scientific ($BSX) and Covidien ($COV).

Curator of this article has expressed a different view in 


St. Jude’s CEO is still betting on renal denervation, despite Medtronic’s setback

By Mark Hollmer

Medtronic’s Symplicity renal denervation device

If Medtronic’s ($MDT) recent U.S. clinical trial failure for its Symplicity renal denervation device throws the door wide open for its competitors, St. Jude Medical ($STJ) will likely waste no time walking through.

As MassDevice reported, St. Jude CEO Daniel Starks told an audience at the JPMorgan Healthcare conference in San Francisco that the company plans to keep plowing ahead with the development of its own technology.

“The fact that we had and that there have been favorable early clinical results in numerous other experiences is still valid,” MassDevice quoted Starks as saying. “There is open surgical data dating back several decades that was favorable to the impact of surgical renal denervation to treat hypertension.

That said, he also expressed genuine surprise about Medtronic’s trial setback.

“This was unexpected for us, to have a negative result from Medtronic’s trial, and it’s too soon for us to know what to make of that,” Starks said in the story.

Medtronic’s Symplicity device, which has a CE mark and is a market leader, had done well in previous trials in patients with different forms of hypertension and was on track to win FDA approval in 2015–potentially the first renal denervation device to reach that point.

The Minnesota device giant announced a few days ago that Symplicity proved safe in a 535-patient trial but failed to significantly lower blood pressure for drug-resistant hypertension.

This was a trial that mattered, designed to help fuel FDA approval.

Related Articles:

Medtronic’s flunked trial throws its hypertension program into doubt

St. Jude Medical will try again another day for a U.S. renal denervation study

St. Jude bags EU approval for next-gen renal denervation


From: FierceMedicalDevices <editors@fiercemedicaldevices.com>
Date: Tue, 14 Jan 2014 18:14:06 +0000 (GMT)
To: <avivalev-ari@alum.berkeley.edu>

Renal Denervation: EnligHTN IV Study Called Off and Potential Novel Indications – Diastolic Heart Failure

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

This Open Access Scientific Journal has covered all the major developments reported on Renal Denervation since its inception

The Archive for Renal denervation


Search Results for Renal Denervation


Heartwire Reported on December 09, 2013

EnligHTN IV Renal Denervation Study Called Off

ST PAUL, MN – The EnligHTN IV study (St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN), testing the multielectrode renal-denervation system in patients with resistant hypertension, has been stopped almost before it even began. The trial, which was announced in June and began enrolling a small number of patients this fall, was canceled because of concerns about slow enrollment.

To heartwire ,

Denise Perkins-Landry, a spokesperson for St Jude Medical, said the decision to discontinue the study was based on “anticipated recruitment challenges” and is not the result of any safety or efficacy issues with the device. “A US clinical trial for EnligHTN remains a very high priority for St Jude Medical, and we will be working with the FDA to develop a new protocol that will address anticipated enrollment challenges,” she stated in an email.

The full results of the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial, a study similar to the EnligHTN IV study, which is sponsored by Medtronic (Minneapolis, MN), are expected in early 2014. While neither device is approved for clinical use in the US, it is expected that the Medtronic renal-denervation system will be first. As a result, it might be difficult to enroll patients to a sham procedure if there is another commercially available system for treating resistant hypertension, according to St Jude.

EnligHTN IV was to be a randomized, single-blind, controlled study with patients randomized from as many as 80 clinical centers in the US and Canada. It was intended to show the safety and effectiveness of the renal-denervation system in the reduction of systolic blood pressure in 590 patients with an office blood pressure >160 mm Hg despite taking three or more antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic.

Abrupt Decision to Stop the Study

Dr William White (University of Connecticut Medical Center, Farmington), one of the cochairs of the EnligHTN IV steering committee, told heartwire the decision to cancel the study was made just last week. In fact, there were clinical centers already up and running in terms of enrollment, although these were pilot centers where any “bugs could be worked out.” The meeting for training investigators participating in the trial was scheduled for Saturday in Chicago, IL, although that is now off.

“In the grander scheme of things, I can tell you that the decision was not made because of any problem with the catheter or any safety issues,” said White. “Outside the US, the development is continuing as planned, but the biggest concern is that it might be very difficult, if not impossible, to continue doing a sham-controlled study a year from now if there were a commercially available renal-denervation catheter in the US, which there very well could be with Medtronic.”

Still, White said that it’s not even known if the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 study is positive or if the FDA will be satisfied with the trial and its outcomes. He said a lot of assumptions are being made by St Jude Medical in stopping the trial, and it could turn out to be a bad decision. In addition, reimbursement remains an open question.

“Commercially available doesn’t mean there’s going to be a payer,” White told heartwire . “If that happens, it will be doubly unfortunate for the patients that are out there because they might be willing and able to go into a clinical trial but they won’t have that opportunity.”

As a scientist, White said that he would have preferred the trial be pursued, regardless of what happens with Medtronic. He believes the EnligHTN catheter is “outstanding,” as it has multiple electrodes to enable physicians to thoroughly ablate the renal arteries within a couple of minutes. “The clinical scientist in me would have preferred that we go ahead as planned,” he said. “I think we would have gained a great deal of knowledge. And just because one study shows a p value of 0.05 doesn’t mean a second study will.”

The Medtronic SYMPLICITY renal-denervation system was launched in 2010 and is available in parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America. The first-generation EnligHTN device has had CE Mark approval in Europe since 2012 while the updated second-generation system with multiple electrodes received European approval this past summer.

News of the halting of EnligHTN IV was first reported by Wells Fargo analyst Larry Biegelsen.



On December 06, 2013 Marlene Busko reported to Heartwire on

Renal Denervation’s Structural, Functional Heart Benefits May Be Independent of BP

HAMBURG, GERMANY — In a small study of patients undergoing renal denervation for resistant hypertension, left-ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic function improved independently of changes in blood pressure and heart rate [1].

“The novelty of our findings is the independence of morphologic improvements [regression of LV hypertrophy] from hemodynamic changes (reduction of blood pressure and heart rate),” Dr Stephan H Schirmer (University of Saarland, Hamburg, Germany) told heartwire in an email. “If this is confirmed in larger trials, it might open up novel indications for the use of renal denervation, for example, in [diastolic] heart-failure patients, independent of blood pressure.”

Dr Deepak L Bhatt (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA) told heartwire that the study observations are “provocative” and “exciting” but stressed that they need to be confirmed in a blinded, larger, multicenter study before they could be accepted into clinical practice. Bhatt and Dr George Bakris (University of Chicago, IL) are co–principal investigators for the ongoing SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial of bilateral renal denervation in patients with uncontrolled hypertension.

The study was published online December 4, 2013 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Are Renal Denervation Effects Always Tied to BP Change?

Renal denervation reduces heart rate and blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension, and as reported by heartwire , a recent small study suggested that the procedure also reduces left-ventricular mass and improves diastolic function in such patients, Schirmer and colleagues write.

They hypothesized that renal denervation might affect cardiac structure and function, independent of the effect on blood pressure.

They enrolled 66 consecutive patients who underwent renal denervation using the Flex catheter system (Medtronic) at their center during 2010 and 2011 for treatment of resistant hypertension (office systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg). Patients had a mean age of 64 years, and 55% were men. They were on a mean of 4.3 antihypertensive drugs. All were taking a diuretic, 89% were taking a beta-blocker, and 55% were taking an angiotensin-receptor blocker.

Six months after renal denervation,

  • Mean blood pressure decreased from 172.9/92.5 to 151.3/85.5 mm Hg, confirmed by 24-hour ambulatory monitoring, if available (n=50).
  • Mean heart rate decreased from 67.7 to 60.5 bpm.
  • Mean left-ventricular mass index decreased from 61.5 to 53.4 g/m2.
  • Measures of diastolic function also improved.

The changes in cardiac function and ventricular size were not tied to the magnitude of the blood-pressure reduction, which “suggest[s] a direct effect of the sympathetic nervous system on myocardial morphology and function,” Schirmer and colleagues write. They call for further research to investigate functional cardiovascular benefits of renal denervation beyond blood-pressure reduction.

Promising Early Benefit, Needs Confirmation

In an accompanying editorial [2], Bakris and Dr Sandeep Nathan (University of Chicago) commend Schirmer and colleagues “for providing promising early benefit of catheter-based renal denervation and for highlighting a possible blood-pressure–independent facet of this technique.” However, they caution that although the findings are “intriguing,” the study’s limitations include that it was

  • relatively small,
  • conducted at a single center,
  • lacked a sham control, and
  • relied on echocardiography rather than magnetic resonance imaging.

Therefore, “these observations need confirmation before acceptance in clinical practice . . . and can only be applied to those with inclusion criteria used in their study,” the editorialists conclude.

“It’s an exciting, provocative result, and there’s a good chance that it will stand the test of time, but I still think in general, it’s best to be cautious about new technologies and relatively small studies, because time typically shows that they provide an overestimate of what the true effects will be,” Bhatt commented when interviewed.

“Whether the reduction in left-ventricular mass is beyond what would be anticipated with blood-pressure and heart-rate reduction—certainly this analysis suggests that is a possibility—needs to be confirmed in larger studies,” he added, echoing the authors and editorialists.

Potentially referring physicians, in the United States where the procedure is investigational, and even in Europe where it’s approved, appear to be waiting for the results of SYMPLICITY HTN-3, Bhatt said. This blinded, randomized, multicenter trial will provide a clearer picture of what sort of blood-pressure reductions are achievable in patients with resistant hypertension who undergo renal denervation. Results are expected by mid-2014.


  1. Schirmer SH, Sayed M, Reil J-C, et al. Improvements of left-ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic function following renal denervation – Effects beyond blood pressure and heart rate reduction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.10.073. Abstract
  2. Bakris G, Nathan S. Renal denervation and left ventricular mass regression: A benefit beyond blood pressure reduction? J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.11.015. Editorial


This Open Access Scientific Journal has covered all the major developments reported on Renal Denervation since its inception

The Archive for Renal denervation


Search Results for Renal Denervation


For the ORIGINAL work on 

Renal Sympathetic Denervation: Updates on the State of Medicine

the Readers is called to go to the ORIGINAL SOURCES listed below:

Intravascular Stimulation of Autonomics: A Letter from Dr. Michael Scherlag


Imbalance of Autonomic Tone: The Promise of Intravascular Stimulation of Autonomics


Interaction of Nitric Oxide and Prostacyclin in Vascular Endothelium


Absorb™ Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold: An International Launch by Abbott Laboratories


The Molecular Biology of Renal Disorders: Nitric Oxide – Part III


Treatment of Refractory Hypertension via Percutaneous Renal Denervation


Renal Denervation Technology of Vessix Vascular, Inc. been acquired by Boston Scientific Corporation (BSX) to pay up to $425 Million


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First-of-Its-Kind FDA Approval for ‘AUI’ Device with Endurant II AAA Stent Graft: Medtronic Expands in Endovascular Aortic Repair in the United States

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN


Medtronic, Inc. (MDT) Expands Endovascular Aortic Portfolio With Two New Devices

5/30/2013 8:39:47 AM

Medtronic Garners First-Of-Its-Kind FDA Approval for ‘AUI’ Device with Endurant II AAA Stent Graft 

MINNEAPOLIS — May 30, 2013 — Medtronic, Inc. (NYSE: MDT) is expanding its market-leading portfolio of products for endovascular aortic repair in the United States with two new medical devices: the company recently received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the Endurant II Aorto-Uni-Iliac (AUI) Stent Graft System and the FDA’s 510(k) clearance for the Sentrant Introducer Sheath; both devices will be on exhibit at the Medtronic booth during the Society for Vascular Surgery‘s “Vascular Annual Meeting,” which runs May 30-June 2 in San Francisco.

Endurant II AUI Stent Graft System

The Endurant II AUI Stent Graft System is the only FDA-approved AUI device in the United States indicated for the primary endovascular treatment of infrarenal abdominal aortic or aorto-iliac aneurysms in patients whose anatomy does not allow for the use of a bifurcated device. Both the bifurcated and AUI configurations of the Endurant Stent Graft System provide a new pathway for blood flow through the iliac arteries in abdominal aortic aneurysms, thereby reducing risk of aneurysm rupture.

Whereas use of the bifurcated device requires access to both iliac arteries, the AUI device requires access to only one iliac artery (Endurant II Aorto-Uni-Iliac (AUI)). In published studies of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair.

Current global usage of AUI stent graft configurations averages

  • 5 percent (range 0-26%) for intact AAA and
  • 39 percent (range 0-91%) for ruptured AAA.[i],[ii]

“The new Endurant II Aorto-Uni-Iliac Stent Graft extends the proven performance of the Endurant System to patients with difficult access,” said Dr. Michel Makaroun, chief of vascular surgery at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and co-director of the UPMC Heart and Vascular Institute. “By maintaining the deliverability, conformability and deployment accuracy of the bifurcated Endurant device, the AUI configuration offers aneurysm patients with challenging outflow anatomies a better option for a successful endovascular aortic repair.”

As with the bifurcated Endurant II Stent Graft, distinguishing features of the Endurant II AUI Stent Graft include a low delivery profile, tip capture for easy and accurate deployment and compatibility with contralateral iliac limbs and aortic extensions for ultimate patient applicability.

Sentrant Introducer Sheath

The Sentrant Introducer Sheath complements Medtronic’s market-leading portfolio of stent grafts for endovascular aortic repair. It is specially designed for use with the Endurant II AAA and Valiant Captivia Stent Graft Systems and is also compatible with competitive systems. The Sentrant Introducer Sheath is inserted at the access site

in the patient’s femoral artery and advanced upwards into the iliac arteries to facilitate the implant procedure and enable smooth passage of the stent graft delivery system en route to the treatment site in the aorta.

The Sentrant Introducer Sheath can accommodate a wide range of anatomies, with diameters of 12-26 French and shaft lengths of 28cm. Other distinguishing features of the accessory device include:

  • optimal seal for superior hemostasis,
  • reinforced coil for kink resistance,
  • hydrophilic coating and
  • flexibility for easy tracking through tortuous and calcified iliacs and a
  • dilator locking mechanism for secure positioning.

The Sentrant Introducer Sheath received the CE (Conformité Européenne) mark in April 2013. Its FDA clearance expands the accessory device’s availability to endovascular specialists in the United States.

In collaboration with leading clinicians, researchers and scientists, Medtronic offers the broadest range of innovative medical technology for the interventional and surgical treatment of cardiovascular disease and cardiac arrhythmias. The company strives to offer products and services that deliver clinical and economic value to healthcare consumers and providers worldwide.


Medtronic, Inc. (www.medtronic.com), headquartered in Minneapolis, is the global leader in medical technology-alleviating pain, restoring health and extending life for millions of people around the world.

Any forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties such as those described in Medtronic’s periodic reports on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Actual results may differ materially from anticipated results.


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Clinical Trials on Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) to be conducted by American College of Cardiology and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

UPDATED on 6/22/2017

  • by Nicole Lou, Reporter, MedPage Today/CRTonline.org June 21, 2017

Action Points

  • Off-label transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) was associated with higher in-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year mortality rates compared with on-label TAVR use, but after adjustment, 1-year mortality was similar in the two groups.
  • Note that approximately one in 10 TAVR patients in the United States have received the procedure for an off-label indication.


1 in 10 TAVR Procedures Done Off-Label Despite early risks vs on-label use, ‘acceptable results’ cited from registry


UPDATED on 11/24/2013

Second Generation Transcatheter Aortic Valve Shown to Successfully Address TAVR Complications

Results of the REPRISE II trial reported at TCT 2013
November 4, 2013
heart valve repair hybrid or cath lab reprise II boston scientific lotus tct
November 4, 2013 — In a clinical trial of the Boston Scientific Lotus valve, a second-generationtranscatheter aortic valve, the device demonstrated low rates of complications that are sometimes seen in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), including challenges with positioning, post-procedure paravalvular aortic regurgitation, vascular complications and stroke.
The findings were presented at the 25th annual Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics scientific symposium (TCT 2013).
The valve studied in REPRISE II is fully retrievable and repositionable with an adaptive seal intended to minimize paravalvular regurgitation, a complication that has been associated with higher mortality among patients undergoing TAVR. In this prospective, single-arm, multicenter study, symptomatic patients at high risk for surgery received the Lotus valve to treat calcific aortic stenosis.
The trial enrolled 120 patients; mean age was 84.4±5.3 years, 56.7 percent were female and 75.8 percent were considered New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV. The mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was 7.1±4.6 percent and all patients were confirmed by their site heart team to be at high risk for surgery due to frailty or associated comorbidities.
The valve was successfully implanted in all 120 patients with valve repositioning and retrieval performed as needed. There was no embolization, ectopic valve deployment or need for implantation of a second prosthetic valve.
The primary device performance endpoint was the mean aortic valve pressure gradient at 30 days compared to a performance goal of 18 mmHg; the primary safety endpoint was 30-day mortality. The primary device performance endpoint was met with a 30 day mean aortic valve pressure gradient of 11.5±5.2 mmHg; mean effective orifice area was 1.7±0.4 cm2.
All cause mortality and disabling stroke were low at 30 days (4.2 percent and 1.7 percent, respectively). Additional clinical event rates were consistent with those reported for other valves. Aortic regurgitation at 30 days was negligible in 99 percent of patients (78.3 percent none, 5.2 percent trace and 15.5 percent mild). The total stroke rate, disabling and non-disabling, was 5.9 percent, which is the same as the rate as the Edward’s Sapien valve’s performance in the PARTNER trial.
“These findings suggest this valve, which is a differentiated, second generation TAVR device, will be a valuable addition for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis,” said Ian Meredith, MBBS, Ph.D., director, Monash HEART, executive director, Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, professor of medicine, Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, and lead investigator of the study.

“This is the first time the societies have ever filed for an investigational device exemption,” former ACC president Ralph Brindis is quoted as saying. “The goal of the effort is to gain reimbursement for an expanded set of procedures with Sapien to make the device accessible to more patients.”

Two medical societies jump into clinical trial effort for TAVR tech – FierceMedicalDevices http://www.fiercemedicaldevices.com/story/two-medical-societies-jump-clinical-trial-effort-tavr-tech/2013-02-12#ixzz2Kjk7MHEi

The new trials will mean that reimbursement will now be possible for some of these uses when patients are enrolled in the clinical trials. According to Mack, the NCD “took off-label use off the table. If you are a cynic this is good, but if you’re a practitioner this is tying your hands.”


According to Forbes, STS president Michael Mack told The Gray Sheet (a subscription-only publication) that the first trial will look at alternatives to transfemoral approaches in 1,000 patients who couldn’t otherwise have aortic valve surgery. There was a coordinated effort to develop a trial protocol, worked out between the CACC, STS, CMS, Edwards and the FDA. Expanded uses require an FDA label, he noted, and the only way to do that is to conduct a clinical trial with an IDE in hand.

So why would expanded TAVR uses be necessary? Well, the procedure has become very much in demand, and physicians already began pursuing off-label uses once they learned the initial TAVR procedure, Brindis told Forbes. The magazine notes that the entrance of both the STS and ACC into TAVR clinical trials greatly expands the TVT registry that they run, which tracks TAVR use in the United States to help physicians comply with Medicare’s National Coverage Decision for TAVR.

TAVR is indeed a hot space. St. Jude Medical ($STJ) won a CE mark for its Portico transcatheter heart valve late last fall, and Edwards’ Sapien competes with Medtronic‘s ($MDT) CoreValve in Europe. And smaller companies such as Micro Interventional Devices are working hard to develop surgical tools designed to enable TAVR procedures.

Brindis and Mack said that the ACC and STS worked closely with CMS,the FDA, and Edwards to develop the trial protocol. In the trial, patients not eligible for aortic valve surgery will receive TAVR through transapical and transaortic approaches and will be compared with the results of patients in the original PARTNER A trial who received TAVR through the transapical approach. Mack concedes that the trial design is not idea. “There is no perfect comparator,” he acknowledged.


Other experts in the field contacted by CardioBrief agreed that the challenges of trial design in this situation are quite formidable. Randomized trials are not always feasible and, in some situations, may be unethical. The IDE is an attempt to balance the need for rational clinical trials, on the one hand, and the growing pressure to perform off-label procedures. It should be noted that an important safeguard for patients remains in place: all potential TAVR patients will still need to be evaluated by both a cardiologist and a cardiac surgeon as part of the “heart team” approach mandated by the FDA and the NCD.


The ACC and STS are now working to gain FDA approval to perform two more studies. One would examine the role of alternative approaches in the high-risk population eligible for surgery. The second would study valve-in-valve TAVR procedures. Both studies also present challenging problems of trial design. Mack said he anticipates FDA approval of these protocols in the next few months.

Edwards agreed in principle to fund the clinical trials. An Edwards representative confirmed that the company planned to support these new trials, but the details have not yet been hammered out.

 Mack states that the power and scope of the TVT registry actually makes it easier for ACC and STS to move forward than Edwards. Further, Mack believes that some indications are like “orphan” indications that are medically but not commercially compelling.


Two medical societies jump into clinical trial effort for TAVR tech – FierceMedicalDevices http://www.fiercemedicaldevices.com/story/two-medical-societies-jump-clinical-trial-effort-tavr-tech/2013-02-12#ixzz2KjheTKHN

Larry Husten, wrote on  5/04/2012 in Forbes,  The final decision earlier this week by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) to provide reimbursement for TAVR was the latest step in a long, ongoing process that, for once, didn’t appear broken, and, in fact, represented an unusual consensus among physicians, regulators, insurers, and other involved parties In his article

Politics and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

From the first early stages of its development, the prospect of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) provoked two broad and competing fears:

  1. Regulatory safeguards would kill a promising new technology, denying its life-saving benefits to many thousands of desperately sick people.
  2. The stampede to stake a claim in a promising, highly lucrative new territory would lead to the exploitation and mistreatment of many thousands of desperately sick people.


Scott Gottlieb, a conservative activist who is a former FDA deputy commissioner and CMS adviser, concludes that the CMS ruling means “that for costly procedures, Washington will be making more of these choices for us.” In a posting on the American Enterprise Institute’s The Enterprise BlogGottlieb writes that the decision “is a vivid example of how our healthcare is going to get reimbursed now that Washington calls more of the shots.”


CMS  has insisted that doctors who perform the procedure have adequate training and that the hospitals where the procedures are performed have sufficient experience and adequate facilities. Perhaps Scott Gottlieb, MD would be happy to send an elderly relative for TAVR  to a local community hospital with little experience in the procedure. It was precisely to avoid this scenario that the American College of Cardiology and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons supported CMS in this coverage decision. I fail to see how anyone would benefit by widespread proliferation of TAVR by novice operators at inexperienced centers.

  • Physicians,
  • Regulators,
  • Insurers,
  • CMS,
  • Medical Device Manufactures
  • ACC, and
  • STS

will be cooperating in the College of Cardiology and Society of Thoracic Surgeons newly announced involvement in Clinical Trials on broader use of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedure to include new patients that this procedure will be indicated for and CMS reimbursed.

Other aspects of the Procedure, and the role EdwardsSciences played in the development and the Industry Leadership it holds in the US, are covered in several articles on this Open Access Online Scientific Journal, including the following:

August 7, 2012 – Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI): risk for stroke and suitability for surgery


August 2, 2012 – Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI): Risky and Costly


June 4, 2012 – Investigational Devices: Edwards Sapien Transcatheter Aortic Valve Transapical Deployment http://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/06/04/investigational-devices-edwards-sapien-transcatheter-heart-valve/

June 10, 2012 — Investigational Devices: Edwards Sapien Transcatheter Aortic Heart Valve Replacement Transfemoral Deployment http://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/06/10/investigational-devices-edwards-sapien-transcatheter-aortic-heart-valve-replacement-transfemoral-deployment/

1/29/2013 — Direct Flow Medical Wins European Clearance for Catheter Delivered Aortic Valve


6/19/2012 Executive Compensation and Comparator Group Definition in the Cardiac and Vascular Medical Devices Sector: A Bright Future for Edwards Lifesciences Corporation in the Transcatheter Heart Valve Replacement Market


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Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

UPDATED on 5/29, 2013

Renal Denervation Safe in Real-World Setting

By Todd Neale, Senior Staff Writer, MedPage Today

Published: May 25, 2013

Reviewed by F. Perry Wilson, MD, MSCE; Instructor of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and Dorothy Caputo, MA, BSN, RN, Nurse Planner

Action Points:

PARIS — May 21-24, 2013

Out in everyday practice, renal denervation with the Symplicity device safely lowers blood pressure in patients with hypertension, preliminary results from the Global SYMPLICITY registry showed.

The Global SYMPLICITY registry is part of the clinical program evaluating the Symplicity device. It has been approved for use in Europe and elsewhere but remains restricted to investigational use in the U.S. Medtronic, which makes the Symplicity device, announced on Thursday that it has completed enrollment in Symplicity HTN-3, the pivotal U.S. trial.

The registry has a targeted enrollment of about 5,000 patients from about 200 centers worldwide; 149 sites spread throughout Canada, Mexico, South America, Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and Australia have already started collecting data.

Any patient who receives renal denervation can be included in the registry, and thus the study will include patients with hypertension and other conditions associated with increased sympathetic activity, including heart failure, insulin resistance, atrial fibrillation, sleep apnea, and chronic kidney disease.

European Society of Cardiology‘s recently published consensus paper on renal denervation, which recommended treatment in patients with a systolic blood pressure of 160 mm Hg or higher (or at least 150 mm Hg for type 2 diabetics) who were taking at least three antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic.


Expert consensus document from the European Society of Cardiology on catheter-based renal denervation


Most of the first 617 patients included the registry (60%) were treated in accordance with the European Society of Cardiology’s recently published consensus paper on renal denervation, above.

About one-fifth of the patients (22%) started with a systolic blood pressure of at least 180 mm Hg, which was the average baseline blood pressure in the Symplicity HTN-1 and HTN-2 trials.

The average starting blood pressure overall was 164/89 mm Hg, and patients were taking an average of 4.35 medications. Common comorbidities included diabetes (38.2%), renal disease (30.1%), sleep apnea (16.3%), a history of cardiac disease (49%), heart failure (9.3%), and atrial fibrillation (11.9%).

The registry data showed significant drops in blood pressure measured both in the office and with 24-hour ambulatory monitoring, although the reductions were smaller than those seen in the clinical trials.

That’s not surprising, according to Mahfoud, because out in everyday practice blood pressure is not recorded as appropriately as in a clinical trial setting and poor compliance to medication becomes more of an issue. In fact, he said, a recent study showed that 47% of patients with resistant hypertension were not adherent to their medication regimens.

Also contributing to the smaller reductions in the real-world population is the fact that the average starting blood pressure was lower than in the clinical trials, Mahfoud said, adding that it is known that renal denervation induces greater reductions in blood pressure among those with the highest readings initially.

Mahfoud reported receiving institutional grant/research support from Medtronic, St. Jude, Recor, and serving as a consultant for St. Jude, Medtronic, Boston Scientific, and Cordis. Medtronic makes the Symplicity renal denervation device.

 Primary source: European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions


Mahfoud F, et al “Early results following renal denervation for treatment of hypertension in a real-world population: the Global SYMPLICITY registry” EuroPCR 2013.

Adverse Events:
Of the first 617 patients included in the registry, only two had vascular complications related to access during the procedure, and none had serious events stemming from delivery of the radiofrequency energy to the renal artery; the rate of vasospasm was 9%, according to Felix Mahfoud, MD, of Saarland University Medical Center in Homburg/Saar, Germany.Through 6 months of follow-up, there were two hospitalizations for hypertensive crisis, two myocardial infarctions, one new case of end-stage renal disease from nephrotoxic overdose, and one death that was not considered to be related to the procedure, he reported at the EuroPCR meeting here.The procedure was not only safe, but also effective at lowering blood pressure, with reductions in office-based readings ranging from 13/6 mm Hg among patients with a baseline systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher to 28/18 mm Hg among those with a baseline systolic pressure of 180 mm Hg or higher at 3 months. The findings were similar at 6 months.

“The take-home message will be hopefully … that renal denervation is a safe procedure providing blood pressure lowering in patients with high blood pressure at baseline and that that procedure might have an impact on clinical outcomes,” Mahfoud said in an interview.

Positive Effects of Renal Denervation Ablation for Hypertension in Controlled Randomized SYMPLICITY HTN-2 Trial

Renal Nerve Ablation Effects on BP Lasting

Download Complimentary Source PDF 

By Chris Kaiser, Cardiology Editor, MedPage Today

Published: January 08, 2013
Reviewed by Zalman S. Agus, MD; Emeritus Professor, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and Dorothy Caputo, MA, BSN, RN, Nurse Planner

Late-term results from a study of the safety and effectiveness of renal denervation to reduce hypertension mirrored positive results seen earlier in the randomized SYMPLICITY HTN-2 trial, researchers found.

The mean reduction in systolic blood pressure at 1 year post procedure was a significant 28.1 mmHg (P<0.001), similar to the mean 31.7 mmHg drop at 6 months (P=0.16 for the comparison), according to Murray Esler, MD, of the Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute in Melbourne, Australia, and colleagues.

Those in the control group who crossed over to the intervention at 6 months also had a significant fall in systolic blood pressure from a mean 190 to 166 mmHg (P<0.001), researchers reported in the January issue of Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

The increasing prevalence of hypertension is a worldwide phenomenon, with an estimated 1.56 billion predicted to be affected in 2025, the authors noted. Yet, many of these patients cannot control their blood pressure (with control being defined as a pressure <140/90 mmHg) even when taking three or more antihypertensive medications.

Esler and colleagues cited a 2005 study that found a range of 47% to 87% of people in North America and Europe whose blood pressure is not under control (Lancet 2005; 365: 217-223).

Renal denervation has shown promise in these patients who are refractory to medication. The percutaneous procedure uses energy such as radiofrequency waves to scar the renal artery in an attempt to disrupt the sympathetic nerves, thereby affecting blood pressure.

Three-year data from the nonrandomized SYMPLICITY HTN-1 study were in line with 2- and 1-year results, showing a mean drop of 33/19 mmHg associated with the intervention.

In the current study, researchers from the multi-center randomized controlled SYMPLICITY HTN-2 trial enrolled 106 patients with essential hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥160 mmHg, or ≥150 mmHg for diabetics). Patients were taking at least three antihypertensive medications.

The initial 1-year data from the SYMPLICITY HTN-2 trial were reported at the 2012 American College of Cardiology meeting. The primary endpoint was a change in systolic blood pressure at 6 months. Also at the 6-month mark, patients in the control group were allowed to cross over and receive the treatment; they were then followed for 6 more months.

The 6-month data were based on 101 patients (49 in the treatment group versus 51 controls). The 1-year data were based on 47 patients in the primary treatment group and 35 per-protocol controls who crossed over. The crossover patients also had to have a systolic blood pressure of ≥160 mmHg.

The significant decrease of 28.1 mmHg in systolic blood pressure in the treatment arm at 1 year was matched by significant drops in diastolic blood pressure at 6 and 12 months, as well as in the crossover group at 6 months (P<0.001 for all).

The authors reported that 84% of initial denervation patients had a decrease of at least 10 mmHg at 6 months; at 1 year, the number was 79%. In the crossover group, that rate was 63% at 6 months.

Interestingly, there was no significant difference in the changes in medication — reduced dosage or fewer drugs — between the treatment arm and controls, despite the reduction in blood pressure for the treatment arm.

“These data further substantiate the safety of renal sympathetic denervation via delivery of controlled radiofrequency energy bursts,” Esler and colleagues concluded.

They also noted that renal function remained unchanged at both 6 and 12 months. A pilot study by the Melbourne group looking specifically at patients with chronic kidney disease found renal denervation to be safe in this population.

The limitations to the current study include the lack of 24-hour blood pressure monitoring and the lack of blinding among the staff measuring blood pressure. The investigators noted that the ongoing SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial addresses these limitations.

This study was funded by Medtronic Ardian.

Esler and three co-authors reported receiving research support from Medtronic Ardian. During the conduct of the trial, senior author Sobotka was chief medical officer of Ardian, and was a medical adviser to Medtronic.

From the American Heart Association:


Other articles on this topic on this Open Access Online Scientific Journal:

Lev-Ari, A. (2012aa). Renal Sympathetic Denervation: Updates on the State of Medicine



Lev-Ari, A. (2012U). Imbalance of Autonomic Tone: The Promise of Intravascular Stimulation of Autonomics


Lev-Ari, A. (2012C). Treatment of Refractory Hypertension via Percutaneous Renal Denervation


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Ablation Devices Market to 2023 – Global Market Forecast and Trends Analysis by Technology, Devices &amp; Applications

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

UPDATED on 7/31/2018

Ablation devices are at present utilized as a part of shifted medicinal services ranges, for example, gynecology, dermatology, cardiology, orthopedic, neurology and a few others. Worldwide development in inclination for negligibly intrusive methodology is driving the interest for Ablation devices. Rising awareness in patient populace about accessibility and advantages from ablation treatments and defeating the cost limitations of regular medications are additionally expected to bolster the development of this market. Where regular radiation treatments have been successful and been received because of high awareness levels, developing advances, for example, hydro-mechanical removal, microwave and aqueous are expanding trusts among patients and healthcare specialist organizations.


How Big is the Global Ablation Devices Market?


The Global Ablation Devices Market is expected to exceed more than US$ 20.99 Billion by 2023 at a CAGR of 9% in the given forecast period.


The major driving factors of Global Ablation Devices Market are as follows:


  • Increasing aging population
  • Increasing incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases
  • Rising adoption of minimally invasive procedures
  • Development repayment scenario in established markets
  • Expansion of next-generation ablation products and technologies
  • Growing number of ablation procedures
  • Expanding funding for the development of novel ablation device


The restraining factors of Global Ablation Devices Market are as follows:


  • Healthcare cost control measures
  • Strict regulatory approvals
  • Challenges in therapeutic procedure




Ablation Devices Market to 2016 – Global Market Forecast and Trends Analysis by Technology, Devices & Applications


  • Radiofrequency
  • Cryoablation
  • Microwave
  • Ultrasound
  • Hydrothermal
  • Radiation
  • Cardiac
  • Cancer
  • Gynecology

Ablation procedure refers to a minimally invasive surgical procedure which involves either destruction or removal of diseased or unnecessary tissue to cure the disease. It provides successful form of surgical option that has gradually become a popular alternative over invasive procedure amongst physicians and patients. The principal advantage of these procedures over surgery is short recovery time, short length scars, low risk of infection, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stays.

The global ablation devices market was valued at $7.5 billion in 2011 and is poised to grow at a CAGR of 10.5% to reach $12.4 billion by 2016. The ablation market is broadly segmented into two classes, namely, thermal and non-thermal technologies. Thermal segment consists of technologies such as electrical, radiation, light, radiofrequency, ultrasound, microwave, and hydrothermal and non-thermal segment includes cryoablation and hydromechanical. Ablation devices have applications in myriad clinical areas such as cancer / tumor, cardiac, ophthalmology, urology, gynecology and orthopedics.

Ablation procedures have witnessed significant growth in the recent years, which are attributable to factors such as growing healthcare expenditure, favorable demographics and cost effectiveness over tradition surgical procedures. Moreover, increasing applications in cancer and cardiac segment are fueling the market growth.

Factors such as advancements in technology, increasing demand for minimally invasive surgical procedures, growing baby boomers population (especially in U.S., Japan and Western European countries) are driving the market. The incidence cases of chronic diseases is expected to rise continuously in the coming years, because with increasing age, the risk of developing chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, gynaecological, and orthopaedic problems increases. The ablation devices market for treating these diseases would show significant growth in the forecast period. The principal advantage of ablation procedures over surgery is short recovery time, short surgical timelines, low risk of infection, minimal damage to the healthy tissue, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stays.

Radiation therapy accounted for the largest share of 41% of the total ablation technologies market in 2011. The major driver of radiation therapy is the fact that it is applicable to any form of cancer ranging from soft tissue such as liver, lungs to bone metastases. Compared to most other techniques, radiation therapy is considered to be effective in all cancer scenarios, thus it is a single treatment for control of cancer used by most radiologists. It is expected that, radiation therapy devices will continue to enjoy the majority share in the ablation devices market for at least another decade owing to its broad scope of use, different methods of application, stable acceptance in population, and high level of awareness as compared to newly introduced ablation techniques such as hydrothermal, microwave and hydromechanical ablation.

Americas is the biggest market for ablation devices, followed by Europe. However, Asian countries represent the fastest growing markets and factors such as high patient pool, growing preferences to MIS, geographical expansion of market players, increased government investment in healthcare facilities especially in rural areas, westernization in life style and dietary habits, increasing healthcare expenditure & improving medical insurance plans are driving the ablation devices market.

Report includes company profiles of major players such as Accuray (U.S.), Alcon Laboratories Inc. (U.S.), AngioDynamics Inc. (U.S.), Arthrocare Corporation (U.S.), Atricure Inc. (U.S.), Biosense Webster (U.S.), Boston Scientific (U.S.), BSD Medical Corporation (U.S.), C.R. Bard Inc. (U.S.), ConMed Corporation (U.S.), Covidien (Ireland), Elekta AB ( Sweden),  Galil Medical Ltd. (Israel), Medtronic Inc. (U.S.), Misonix Inc. (U.S.), nContact Surgical Inc. (U.S.), Olympus Corporation (Japan), Smith & Nephew (U.K.), St. Jude Medical (U.S.), Urologix Inc. (U.S.) and Varian Medical Systems Inc. (U.S.).

Scope of the Report

This research report categorizes the market for ablation devices into the following segments:

Global ablation devices market, by technology

  • Thermal
    • Electrical
    • Radiation
    • Light
    • Radiofrequency
    • Ultrasound
    • Microwave
    • Hydrothermal
  • Non-thermal
    • Cryoablation
    • Hydromechanical

Global ablation devices market, by products

  • Electrical – Electrical ablators and electronic brachytherapy
  • Radiation – Brachytherapy, Intensity modulated radiation therapy, Image guided radiotherapy, Stereotactic Radiotherapy (SRT), Stereotactic body radiation therapy, Nano-radiation therapy and Proton beam therapy
  • Light – Cold lasers, Excimer lasers and ultraviolet B lasers
  • Radiofrequency – Temperature controlled devices, fluid cooled device and robotic navigation–catheter manipulation systems
  • Ultrasound – High intensity focused ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Focused Ultrasound (MRI-FUS), Ultrasound surgical systems and shock wave therapy
  • Microwave – Microwave thermotherapy
  • Hydrothermal – Endometrial hydrothermal balloon ablation devices
  • Cryoablation – Tissue contact probe, cryogen spray probe and epidermal and subcutaneous cryoablation devices

Global ablation devices market, by applications

    • Cancer
    • Cardiac
    • Ophthalmology
    • Gynecology
    • Urology
    • Orthopedics




3.4.1 DRIVERS Technological advancements Increasing procedures through minimal invasive surgery Increasing aging population with higher risk of chronic diseases
3.4.2 RESTRAINTS Pricing and reimbursement issues Increasing regulatory agencies pressures
3.4.3 OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES Emerging markets Technical and educational challenges

4.2.4 LIGHT

5.1.1 ELECTRICAL ABLATORS Argon Plasma/Beam coagulators Irreversible electroporation
5.2.1 BRACHYTHERAPY High-Dose-Rate (HDR) brachytherapy Pulsed-Dose-Rate brachytherapy Permanent seed brachytherapy or Low-Dose-Rate (LDR) brachytherapy


7.5 ROW


9.9 C.R. BARD INC.


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Treatment of Refractory Hypertension via Percutaneous Renal Denervation 

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

UPDATED  8/5/2013

VIEW VIDEO – Editorial the Heart.org

Renal denervation: Clinical lessons from around the world

Renal Denervation treatment represents a medical subfield, it has its roots in surgical sympathectomy techniques dating back to the 1930s. This radical approach to blood pressure control, which did not specifically target renal nerves, was ultimately abandoned due to associated perioperative complications. However, experience in renal transplantation, a procedure in which the renal nerves are selectively severed, suggests that the denervated kidney can maintain volume and electrolyte homeostasis.



Potential effects of renal denervation are on improved glucose control, sleep apnea, and treatment of heart failure syndromes and renal dysfunction – all consequences of sustained hypersympathetic activity.

Based on these observations, the specific targeting of renal nerves as a major operative in the pathophysiology of hypertension and other conditions associated with increased sympathetic activity (renal dysfunction and heart failure) appears to be an attractive therapeutic approach.


A new therapeutic paradigm of percutaneous renal artery denervation using the application of radiofrequency (RF) energy (Symplicity renal denervation system [Ardian, acquired by Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN]) has recently been demonstrated to be safe, effective, and durable in significantly reducing systolic blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension.

This new technology represents the first time that physicians have been able to target renal nerves specifically via a catheter-based intervention. This endovascular approach opens the door to better understanding the relationship between sympathetic hyperactivity and hypertension.

Current therapeutic strategies center on lifestyle changes and pharmacologic interventions; however, the rates of blood pressure control and therapeutic efforts to reduce the rate of progression of hypertensive end-organ damage (resulting in myocardial infarction, stroke, and renal dysfunction) remain a neglected priority.


Renal denervation is used to treat uncontrolled hypertension, or high blood pressure, by the ablation of the nerves that line the renal arteries using a catheter. The Cleveland Clinic called renal denervation the No. 1 healthcare innovation of 2012. More than 12 million patients worldwide whose blood pressure remains uncontrolled despite taking three or more anti-hypertensive medications representing a global market opportunity for renal denervation that could ultimately grow to $30 billion. The Millennium Research Group estimates that the hypertension-treating devices could generate $4.4 billion per year, Bloomberg reported. That number could swell if the FDA indicates the systems for simple hypertension and not just the drug-resistant sort. As Bloomberg notes, a boom in hypertension devices would be a welcome development for the device industry, which has struggled over the past four years with recalls, litigation and regulatory woes, leading to a 7% decline in Standard & Poor’s Healthcare Equipment Index.

“At least 23 companies, mainly smaller, private companies are developing products,” Wang said, based on information she gathered at the American College of Cardiology Conference in Chicago in March.



According to the American Heart Association, a 5 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury) reduction in systolic blood pressure results in a 14 percent decrease in stroke, a 9 percent decrease in heart disease, and a 7 percent decrease in overall mortality. Renal denervation has shown in clinical studies to be safe, durable and effective in reducing systolic blood pressure by as much as 20 percent.

Numerous analysts suggest that there are more than 12 million patients worldwide whose blood pressure remains uncontrolled, despite taking three or more anti-hypertensive medications. This represents a global market opportunity for renal denervation approaching $30 billion.

Procedure Benefits

Hypertension, though often asymptomatic, is the number one risk factor for premature death worldwide.1 Renal Denervation (RDN) treatment aims to address this condition at its source to provide a substantial and durable reduction in blood pressure. After the procedure, people can often return to their normal activities quickly. The benefit is often achieved after several weeks to months.

Benefits and New Indications for Usage of Intravascular Stimulation/Ablation of Autonomics

1. Reduction in Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability

Dr. Scherlag experiments noted changes in heart rate which have also been reported in SYMPLICITY HTN-1 and SYMPLICITY HTN-2 (8-9).  The SYMPLICITY HTN-2 study demonstrated profound bradycardia in 13% of patients that was treated with atropine.

The intra-procedure effect on heart rate during renal artery denervation documented in the  SYMPLICITY trials is also manifest long term by measuring heart rate variability (10). Indeed, cardiac effects would be expected with autonomic modulation.  Besides the two example above showing that cardiac sympathetic denervation effects heart rate, there are many more that are just beginning to be reported in the literature.

These articles shows the effects of renal denervation on heart rate.


A Cleveland Clinic review article states: “Additionally, the resting heart rate was lower and heart rate recovery after exercise improved after the procedure, particularly in patients without diabetes.”

2. Renal Sympathetic Denervation lowers Atrial Fibrillation

This article discusses the effect of renal sympathetic denervation on atrial fibrillation.


3. Regression of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, Increase in Ejection Fraction (EF) and improved Diastolic Dysfunction

“Brandt reported regression of left ventricular hypertrophy and significantly improved cardiac functional parameters, including increase in ejection fraction and improved diastolic dysfunction, in a study of 46 patients who underwent renal denervation. This findings suggests a potential beneficial effect on cardiac remodeling.” (Brandt MC, Mahfoud F, Reda S, et al. Renal sympathetic denervation reduces left ventricular hypertrophy and improves cardiac function in patients with resistant hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012; 59:901–909)

4. Reduction in Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias (VT)

“Ukena reported reduction in ventricular tachyarrhythmias in two patients with congestive heart failure who had therapy-resistant electrical storm.” (Ukena C, Bauer A, Mahfoud F, et al. Renal sympathetic denervation for treatment of electrical storm: first-inman experience. Clin Res Cardiol 2012; 101:63–67)

5. Intravascular Stimulation of Autonomics Effects on Heart Failure

The most recent data from Europe shows the following effects on heart failure:


Dr. Scherlag, writes, [N]early ten examples of the effects of “CARDIAC SYMPATHETIC DENERVATION” and what are the effects on the kidney?

No change in GFR.  No change in creatinine.


Procedure Risks

Although major complications are uncommon, RDN treatment carries many of the same risks as an angioplasty procedure for the treatment of artery disease. The catheter insertion site could become infected, become bruised or bleed heavily. Other possible complications include heart attack, stroke, kidney damage or malfunction, heart rhythm disturbances, arterial damage, hypotension, sudden cardiac death, burns and pain. Imaging agents, pain medications and anti-spasm agents are commonly used during the procedure and carry known risks.

1. Mathers, C., et al. World Health Organization; 2009


Medical Debate on the Procedure – The candidates are hypertensive patients receiving blood-pressure-lowering medication that are truly “resistant.”

The Symplicity system (Medtronic) is the far-and-away front runner, having demonstrated average office-based BP drops of 32/12 mm Hg at six months in the SYMPLICITY HTN 2 trial, as reported by heartwire, with 84% of patients having had a >10-mm-Hg drop in systolic blood pressure from baseline.

Upwards of 20 other companies, according to Dr Ron Waksman (Washington Hospital, DC), are busy developing competing systems, some of which were featured in a EuroPCR session devoted to emerging technologies in May 2012 in Paris.

Leading this pack is St Jude’s EnligHTN system, which received CE Mark on the opening day of the meeting. Dr Stephen Worthley (Royal Adelaide Hospital, Australia) presented 30-day results in 47 resistant-hypertension patients treated with the multielectrode, RF-ablation-based system. Mean office BP changes at one month in EnligHTN 1 were -28 systolic and -10 diastolic (p<0.0001 from baseline), with 78% of patients having systolic BP drops of >10 mm Hg.


In terms of safety, no serious complications were seen in the renal artery or at the access site in the EnligHTN study; minor procedure-related events included four hematomas, three vasovagal responses to sheath removal, and two postprocedure transient bradycardias.

Other devices featured in the session included a second RF-energy system and two ultrasound systems, see below technology description by supplier.

The risk of cardiovascular death doubles with every 20 point increase in systolic blood pressure, so an average blood pressure reduction of 28 points is quite significant and demonstrates just how effective the technology is. Principal investigator Prof. Stephen Worthley said in prepared remarks. “From other clinical trials studying the impact of renal denervation we have learned that blood pressure continues to be reduced over time, so I would not be surprised to see this trend continue and see an even greater benefit for patients.” St. Jude’s study included 47 patients with high blood pressure that wasn’t managed with drug therapy. Participants had an average of 176/96 mmHg baseline blood pressure, despite taking multiple medications, before the denervation procedure and an average of 148/87 mmHg after. More than 40% had systolic rates below 140 mmHg.


Interventionalists who spoke with heartwire were unvaryingly excited about the potential of renal denervation, with some caveats.

“You need enthusiasm to develop new things, and in hypertension we haven’t seen an innovation in decades,” Dr Thomas Lüscher (University Hospital Zürich, Switzerland) told heartwire. “So just the possibility that you would be able to have a persistent treatment effect by a procedure that helps severe hypertension patients and maybe in the future even the option to cure hypertension is very exciting indeed. But I agree it’s a dream at this point. I think we need the SYMPLICITY HTN 3 trial, which hopefully will confirm what the other studies have shown.”

Now enrolling at as many as 90 US centers, SYMPLICITY HTN 3, Lüscher pointed out, has design characteristics addressing two concerns with the earlier trials, namely a sham procedure for the control group and ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring in all patients.

During the same emerging-technologies session, Lüscher explored the albeit-scant data supporting a role for renal denervation in other conditions: everything from metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea to heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and polycystic-ovary syndrome.

But his counterpoint, Dr Jean Renkin (UCL St Luc University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium), was skeptical, pointing to the myriad unanswered questions with the technology.

“Currently, reasonably solid data are available only for patients with hypertension resistant to pharmacotherapy, which cannot necessarily be extrapolated to other forms of hypertension or conditions referred to [by Dr Lüscher]. However, at this point in time, no clouds have appeared in the sky, so let us dream on.”

Dr Renkin had one staggering number for the audience to consider: of 5000 patients who have undergone renal denervation, only 250 were actually treated as part of clinical studies. While no device has US approval, five denervation systems already hold CE Mark in Europe and are being used with increasing frequency.

Treating the Truly Medication Treatment “Resistant”

For a comprehensive presentation of Triple Antihypertensive Combination Therapy Significantly Lowers Blood Pressure in Hard-to-Treat Patients with Hypertension and Diabetes, refer to


Another talking point is the proportion of patients who are truly “resistant.” The number agreed on by Lüscher, Waksman, and session comoderator Dr Robert Whitbourn (St Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, Australia) was that just 3% of all hypertensive patients receiving blood-pressure-lowering medication are truly “resistant.” Numbers as high as 30% have been suggested in other reports, he noted.

“Interestingly, when we’ve been involved in various trials, every cardiologist says they have hundreds of these patients, but when we actually go to get them, no one actually has any,” Whitbourn quipped. “I think it should be a sobering thought—the numbers are actually quite small.”

Dr William Wijns (Cardiovascular Center Aalst, Belgium), also speaking with heartwire, agreed that the subset was “small” but argued it was “still big numbers, millions of people,” and “a massive unmet need.”

Waksman, insisting he was “excited” by what he called “robust reductions in blood pressure,” nevertheless urged eager interventionalists to work with hypertension experts and resist the urge “to jump on patients before we truly verify that they are resistant to medical treatment.”

In the vast majority of people even for whom renal denervation is appropriate, it “won’t be a cure,” Waksman said. “Most of these patients will have to continue on medical treatment—this is not replacing medical treatment, it is just getting [patients] more in control.”


The Global Supplier Ecosystem for Renal Denervation Systems

US Campbell, CA Kona Medical is attempting to address these limitations. The system delivers energy from outside the patient to the renal nerves. Ultimately, the procedure will be a “no puncture,” noninvasive technique, compatible with technologies that will allow for temperature and lesion mapping. A noninvasive procedure will allow titration of the therapy— that is, the application of patient-specific dose fractions while monitoring therapeutic effect in between fractions. The basis of the technology is focused ultrasound, not high intensity (HIFU) as one might see and expect in the treatment of tumors, but low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU). The biologic underpinnings of this treatment are described in past literature for treating nerves using ultrasound. Kona noninvasive system. The system is depicted in a custom chair; another version of the system is compatible with a standard fluoroscopy or MRI table. Both ultrasound (through elastography and the evolution of temperature mapping and MRI) allow further imaging and analysis of the treatment area. The dose distribution surrounding the artery is that of an annular ring around the wall of the artery. Kona has shown in animal studies that a heat/vibratory cloud at one plane along the artery is highly effective at long-term inhibition of renal nerves with no visible effect on any portion of the artery at any time point.

US, Ronkonkoma, NY & Germany – Paradise  by ReCor Medical 6-F compatible catheter with a cylindrical transducer that emits ultrasound energy circumferentially, allowing for a more efficient renal denervation procedure First-in-human (15 patients at 3 months) BP drop, mm Hg -32/-16 at 3 mo. The ultrasound transducer lies within a low-pressure balloon that allows for self-centering of the transducer and gentle contact with the artery wall for uniform circumferential denervation. This means that nerves below the surface of the artery wall are damaged in 360° with a single emission. The balloon also enables cooled fluid to circulate during the energy delivery process, thereby cooling the endothelial wall and protecting it from any excessive heating that could be caused by other energy sources or designs. Preliminary F-I-M clinical data for PARADISE were reported previously at the “TRenD 2012” transcatheter renal denervation scientific meeting by cardiologist Thomas A. Mabin, M.D., Vergelegen Medi-Clinic, South Africa. The updated PARADISE data show that systolic blood pressure was reduced by a statistically significant average of 36 mm Hg in 8 patients at 90-days follow-up. The scientific literature demonstrates that only a 5 mm Hg reduction in BP results in a 14% decrease in stroke, a 9% decrease in heart disease, and a 7% decrease in mortality.

US, San Leandro, CA The Mercator Bullfrog by Mercator MedSystems, Inc. is a catheter-guided system designed to inject therapeutic agents directly, nonsystemically, and safely through blood vessel walls into adventitial tissues and has received US Food and Drug Administration 510(k) clearance. The Bullfrog catheter is tipped with a balloon-sheathed microneedle and is guided and inflated in a manner similar to an angioplasty catheter but with far lower expansion pressures (2 atm vs 6–20 atm) in vessels of 3 to 6 mm in diameter. It is compatible with 0.014-inch guidewires and 6-F introducer sheaths. When the desired injection site is reached, the balloon is inflated with saline and radiopaque contrast, securing the system for injection and sliding the microneedle through the vessel wall. Nonclinical studies have shown that the Bullfrog catheter is able to deliver up to 5 mL per injection into the renal artery adventitia with no apparent safety concerns. Guanethidine Ismelin) is delivered to the renal artery adventitia to accomplish sympathetic denervation. Given locally, guanethidine is known to induce an autonomic denervation directly and through an immune-mediated pathway. Mercator’s preclinical experiments have shown that guanethidine, injected at appropriate concentrations into the adventitial space around renal arteries, selectively ablates the nerves in the adventitia around the renal artery after a single, 20-minute procedure

J Neurosci. 1983;3:714-724

US – Laguna Hills, CA – V2 Radiofrequency Baloon by Vessix Vascular, Inc. Bipolar RF balloon catheter REDUCE-HTN pilot (10 patients)

BP drop, mm Hg -30/-11 at 1 mo V 2 catheter, a patented noncompliant balloon catheter with RF electrodes and thermistors mounted on the exterior of the balloon, and the proprietary V 2 bipolar RF generator. Once inserted into the renal artery, a 30-second inflation/treatment per renal artery delivers simultaneous RF therapy with independent temperature control to all electrode pairs. V 2 catheter is available in balloon diameters ranging from 4 to 7 mm, with a balloon length of 25 mm. Larger-diameter balloons have eight electrode pairs, and smaller-diameter balloons have four to six electrode pairs made of solid gold, which are biocompatible and facilitate good electrode contact with the renal arterial wall. In addition, the electrodes are radiopaque, allowing the V 2 catheter to be easily visualized under fluoroscopy. Beginning in the first quarter of 2012, the V 2 renal denervation system will be utilized in the company’s first international, multicenter clinical study: REDUCEHTN.

Israel, Tel Aviv – Tivus by Cardiosonic  A6-F transducer-tipped catheter, ultrasound energy (Animal data only) The solution for renal denervation is a high-intensity, nonfocused ultrasonic (US) catheter system named TIVUS (Therapeutic IntraVascular UltraSound) (Figure 3). By applying ultrasonic energy, the TIVUS technology enables remote, localized, controlled, and repeatable thermal modulation of the renal vessel wall tissue, resulting in safe renal nerve ablation. The remote thermal effect is located in the adventitia and perivascular region, with no thermal damage to the endothelium and media, therefore, preventing the development of vessel injury processes. Swine kidney tissue NE concentrations at 30- and 90-day follow-up have demonstrated successful renal denervation as witnessed by a 50% or more decline in tissue NE. Localized tissue thermal modulation/ablation, without damage to the blood vessel wall.

US, MN – SYMPLICITY HTN 2 by Medtronic   average office-based BP drops of BP drop, mm Hg 32/12 mm Hg at six months in the SYMPLICITY HTN 2 trial, as reported by heartwire, with 84% of patients having had a >10-mm-Hg drop in systolic blood pressure from baseline. 14 points in 30 days and 27 points after 1 year. Available in Europe. Medtronic is the furthest ahead in its development process, predicting it will get Symplicity on the American market by 2015. catheter in the renal artery near each kidney to deliver radiofrequency energy to ablate the nerves. A single electrode in contrast to St. Jude’s mutli-electrode approach, is already on the road to FDA review with clinical trials approved last summer in the U.S. Symplicity system has been safely used in nearly 5,000 patients since commercialization

US, MN – EnligHTN 1 by  St Jude radiofrequency (RF) energy to create lesions (tiny scars) along the renal sympathetic nerves Mean office BP changes at one month in BP drop, mm Hg 28 systolic and -10 diastolic after 1 month (p<0.0001 from baseline), with 78% of patients having systolic BP drops of >10 mm Hg. St. Jude Medical’s (St. Paul, MN) announcement in late 2011 of the first patient to be enrolled in their first-in-man ARSENAL trial 15 at the University of Adelaide

Ireland, Dublin – OneShot™ by Covidien acquisition of Maya Medical, Saratoga, CA New Irrigated RF Balloon Catheter secure first human use for the device in the third quarter of this year, followed by a CE mark for the drug-resistant hypertension treatment in 2013. Presumably, a filing with the FDA would follow that. the OneShot renal denervation system, was born out of the company’s extensive expertise in radiofrequency (RF) ablation and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), drawing upon the benefits and best practice standards of each distinct yet complementary clinical discipline. The result is a unique product platform that could further accelerate the paradigm shift in the management of resistant hypertension. consistent with Maya’s balloon-based approach is the ability to deliver predictable apposition of the RF electrode to the vessel wall for more controlled targeted delivery of the RF energy. By offering a more reliable single-treatment approach coupled with enhanced ease of use and reduced procedure times, Maya Medical believes its OneShot renal denervation system has the potential to significantly expand clinical adoption


US, Natick, MA Boston Scientific lags behind in the race to cash in on hypertension-treating devices, incoming CEO Michael Mahoney said at a Monday conference that it has a plan for its RDN renal denervation system. As MassDevice reports, Mahoney said Boston Sci expects to secure first human use for the device in the third quarter of this year, followed by a CE mark for the drug-resistant hypertension treatment in 2013.

St Jude’s EnligHTN system

Said Frank Callaghan, president of the St. Jude Medical Cardiovascular Division “This launch is important because it represents a significant growth opportunity and exemplifies our commitment to advancing the practice of medicine. We’ve applied the decades of insight we’ve gained from developing successful ablation technologies that treat cardiac arrhythmias to establish an innovative solution for hypertension.” With the unique basket design, each placement of the ablation catheter allows a consistent and predictable pattern of four ablations in 90-second intervals. Compared to single electrode ablations, the multi-electrode EnligHTN system has the potential to improve consistency and procedural reliability, save time as well as result in workflow and cost efficiencies. Additionally, the minimal catheter repositioning may result in a reduction of contrast and fluoroscopic (x-ray) exposure. The technology includes a guiding catheter, ablation catheter and ablation generator. The generator uses a proprietary, temperature-controlled algorithm to deliver effective therapy.



St Jude’s EnligHTN system – view video



Unveiled a Novel Renal Denervation System OneShot™ at EuroPCR congress in Paris on 5/16/2012. “Live” Cases with New Irrigated RF Balloon Catheter for Treatment of Medication-resistant Hypertension and poor outcomes of pharmacological agents. The OneShot system is an irrigated, radiofrequency (RF) based balloon catheter used to ablate the renal sympathetic nerves located in the outer wall of the renal arteries. The OneShot technology received CE mark clearance in February 2012.

The OneShot system was featured in “live” cases at the Covidien-sponsored “Tools & Techniques (TNT) Interventions” presentation and panel session for hypertension and renal denervation at the EuroPCR congress. Professor Dirk Scheinert performed two cases at Park Hospital in Leipzig, Germany, that were transmitted live at the Palais des Congrès de Paris. In addition, John Ormiston, MD, Medical Director for Mercy Angiography and President of the Asia-Pacific Society of Interventional Cardiology in New Zealand, presented first-in-human results of cases performed with the OneShot system in New Zealand. The OneShot system and Covidien’s other endovascular solutions was on display at the EuroPCR meeting.

Additional faculty in the TNT session is a distinguished group of speakers including:

Professor Karl-Heinz Kuck, MD, F.A.C.C. – Director, Cardiology Department
Allgemeines Krankenhaus St. Georg – Hamburg, Germany

Dr. Stephen R. Ramee, FACC, FSCAI
Ochsner Medical Center – New Orleans, Louisiana

Dr. John Ormiston, MBChB, FRACP – Medical Director
Mercy Hospital Angiography Unit – Auckland, New Zealand

Professor Marc Sapoval, MD, PhD – Department Head
Cardiovascular/Interventional Radiology – Hospital Pompidou University – Paris, France

Dr. Renu Virmani – Medical Director
CVPath Institute – Gaithersburg, Maryland

Covidien discloses that it purchased Maya Medical for $60 million in cash on April 20. If Maya Medical meets certain regulatory and sales milestones, it will receive up to an additional $170 million. Covidien notes that Maya Medical’s OneShot system received the CE Mark in February.

MedCity News was the first to report Covidien’s interest in Maya Medical on 5/8/2012.

In a note to investors Monday, analyst Bob Hopkins of Bank of America said that renal denervation “has the potential to be one of the largest new markets in medtech over the next 2-4 years and for [Covidien] this looks like another small deal with big potential.”


Clinical Trial for RAPID is ongoing

 Rapid Renal Sympathetic Denervation for Resistant Hypertension (RAPID)

This study is currently recruiting participants.

Verified June 2012 by Maya Medical

First Received on January 25, 2012.   Last Updated on June 4, 2012   History of Changes

Sponsor: Covidien (Maya Medical)
Collaborator: Meditrial Europe LTD
Information provided by (Responsible Party): Maya Medical
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01520506


Maya Medical OneShot™ Ablation System use is to deliver low-level radio frequency (RF) energy through the wall of the renal artery to denervate the human kidney.

Condition Intervention Phase
Hypertension, Resistant to Conventional Therapy Device: Maya Medical OneShot Phase 2
Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy StudyIntervention Model: Single Group AssignmentMasking: Open LabelPrimary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Rapid Renal Sympathetic Denervation for Resistant Hypertension Using the Maya Medical OneShot™ Ablation System


Covidien into direct competition with Medtronic, whose Symplicity renal denervation system is approved in Europe. Currently, the system is being tested in the U.S. St. Jude Medical, Medtronic’s in-state rival, is also developing a therapy and that is expected to have a limited European market launch before the end of the year. But it is not only the larger players that Covidien will have to play against in Europe. A whole host of companies is developing products there, including ReCor Medical.



Medical device giant Medtronic (NYSE: MDT), November 23, 2010 said it has agreed to pay $800 million upfront, plus commercial milestone payments through 2015, to acquire Mountain View, CA-based Ardian. Medtronic had previously built up an 11 percent ownership stake in Ardian, when it invested with its venture backers, which include Morgenthaler Ventures, Advanced Technology Ventures, Split Rock Partners, and Emergent Medical Partners. Ardian’s windfall comes about one week after it presented some eye-opening clinical trial results in The Lancet, and at the American Heart Association’s scientific meeting.


Clinical Trial for SYMPLICITY is ongoing.

Renal Denervation in Patients With Uncontrolled Hypertension (SYMPLICITY HTN-3)

This study is currently recruiting participants.

Verified June 2012 by Medtronic Vascular

First Received on August 15, 2011.   Last Updated on June 11, 2012   History of Changes

Sponsor: Medtronic Vascular
Information provided by (Responsible Party): Medtronic Vascular
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01418261


The Symplicity HTN-3 study is a, multi-center, prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled study of the safety and effectiveness of renal denervation in subjects with uncontrolled hypertension. Bilateral renal denervation will be performed using the Symplicity Catheter – a percutaneous system that delivers radiofrequency (RF)energy through the luminal surface of the renal artery.

Condition Intervention Phase
Uncontrolled Hypertension Device: Renal denervation (Symplicity Catheter System) Phase 3
Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: RandomizedEndpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy StudyIntervention Model: Parallel AssignmentMasking: Single Blind (Subject)Primary Purpose: Treatment


 The Symplicity™ Renal Denervation System has two main components:

The elements are designed to work together as an integrated system to ensure consistent performance:

Symplicity™ Catheter – Low profile, endovascular energy delivery catheter

Symplicity™ Generator – Automated, portable RF generator

The Symplicity Renal Denervation System uses controlled, low-power radiofrequency (RF) energy to deactivate the renal nerves, thereby selectively reducing both the pathologic central sympathetic drive to the kidney and the renal contribution to central sympathetic hyperactivity. The outcome, we hope, will be a significant and sustained reduction in both blood pressure and the level of systemically damaging neurohormones. Since the endovascular procedure does not involve an implant, patients recover quickly and can soon return to their daily living. The device may usher in a new era in the treatment of hypertension, hopefully allowing a one-time procedure to offer patients a long-lasting benefit.

Medtronic Procedure – view video



The entire industry subsegment is awaiting the results of SYMPLICITY HTN-3. Forecasts of market share by supplier will be predicated on this Clinical Trial completion.

Shutting down overactive nerves around the kidneys as a strategy for fighting resistant hypertension is “one of the most exciting growth markets in medical devices,” Sean Salmon, vice president and general manager of Medtronic’s coronary and peripheral business, said in a statement.

I had a piece in these pages last week about what kind of difference the Ardian treatment was making. The most recent Ardian study showed the new treatment, in combination with standard drugs, was able to bring average blood pressure scores down from 178 over 97 to 146 over 85 after six months of follow-up, while those who just got standard treatments were essentially unchanged. The results were “a big achievement,” according to Murray Esler, the study’s principal investigator.



REFERENCES for Dr. Scherlag’s 1999 Patent and pioneering work on Intravascular Stimulation/Ablation of Autonomics

1. Schauerte P, Scherlag BJ, Scherlag MA, Goli S, Jackman WM, Lazzara R. Transvenous parasympathetic cardiac nerve stimulation: an approach for stable sinus rate control. J Electrophysiol. 1999 Nov;10(11):1517-24.

2. Schauerte P, Scherlag BJ, Scherlag MA, Goli S, Jackman WM, Lazzara R. Ventricular rate control during atrial fibrillation by cardiac parasympathetic nerve stimulation: a transvenous approach. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999 Dec;34(7):2043-50.

3. Schauerte P, Scherlag BJ, Pitha J, Scherlag MA, Reynolds D, Lazzara R, Jackman WM. Catheter ablation of cardiac autonomic nerves for prevention of vagal atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2000 Nov 28;102(22):2774-80.

4. Scherlag MA, Scherlag BJ, Yamanashi W, Schauerte P, Goli S, Jackman WM, Reynolds D, Lazzara R. Endovascular neural stimulation via a novel basket electrode catheter: comparison of electrode configurations. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2000 Apr;4(1):219-24.

5. Scherlag BJ, Yamanashi WS, Schauerte P, Scherlag M, Sun YX, Hou Y, Jackman WM, Lazzara R. Endovascular stimulation within the left pulmonary artery to induce slowing of heart rate and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Cardiovasc Res. 2002 May; 54(2):470-5.

6. Hasdemir C, Scherlag BJ, Yamanashi WS, Lazzara R, Jackman WM. Endovascular stimulation of autonomic neural elements in the superior vena cava using a flexible loop catheter. Jpn Heart J. 2003 May;44(3):417-27.

7. Webster W Jr, Scherlag BJ, Scherlag MA, Schauerte P. Method and apparatus for   transvascular treatment of tachycardia and fibrillation. US Patent 6,292,695. Filed June 17, 1999.

8. Krum H, Schlaich M, Whitbourn R, Sobotka PA, Sadowski J, Bartus K, Kapelak B, Walton A, Sievert H, Thambar S, Abraham WT, Esler M. Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation for resistant hypertension: a multicentre safety and proof-of-principle cohort study. Lancet. 2009;373(9671):1275-1281.

9. Symplicity HTN-2 Investigators. Renal sympathetic denervation in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension (The Symplicity HTN-2 Trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;376:1903-1909.

10. Frank Himmel MD, Joachim Weil MD, Michael Reppel MD, Kai Mortensen MD, Klaas Franzen, Leidinger Ansgar MD, Heribert Schunkert MD, Frank Bode MD.  Improved Heart Rate Dynamics in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Renal Denervation. Letter to the Editor. JCH. 31 MAY 2012.1751-7176.

Sympathetic Hyperactivity & Hypertension

For more information on hypertension, please visit the medical professional hypertension portal at TheHeart.org .

Siddiqi L, Joles JA, Grassi G, Blankestijn PJ. Is kidney ischemia the central mechanism in parallel activation of the renin and sympathetic system? J Hypertens. 2009 Jul;27(7):1341-9.

Augustyniak RA, Tuncel M, Zhang W, Toto RD, Victor RG. Sympathetic overactivity as a cause of hypertension in chronic renal failure. J Hypertens. 2002;20(1):3-9.

DiBona GF. Sympathetic nervous system and the kidney in hypertension. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2002;11(2):197-200.

Mancia G, Grassi G, Giannattasio C, Seravalle G. Sympathetic activation in the pathogenesis of hypertension and progression of organ damage. Hypertension. 1999;34(4 Pt 2):724-728.

References in Scientific Journals about Renal Denervation Treatment

Symplicity HTN-2 Investigators. Renal sympathetic denervation in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension (The Symplicity HTN-2 Trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;376:1903-1909.

Symplicity HTN-1 Investigators. Catheter-Based Renal Sympathetic Denervation for Resistant Hypertension – Durability of Blood Pressure Reduction Out to 24 Months. Hypertension. Volume 57, Number 5, May 2011.

Rippy, M. et al. Catheter-Based Renal Sympathetic Denervation: Chronic Preclinical Evidence for Renal Artery Safety. Clin Res Cardiol. 2011 Dec; 100(12): Pages 1095-1101.

Mahfoud, F. et al. Effect of Renal Sympathetic Denervation on Glucose Metabolism in Patients With Resistant Hypertension. Circulation. Volume 123, No. 18, May 10, 2011. Pages 1940-1946.

Witkowski A., et al. Effects of Renal Sympathetic Denervation on Blood Pressure, Sleep Apnea Course, and Glycemic Control in Patients with Resistant Hypertension and Sleep Apnea. Hypertension. Volume 58, Number 4, October 2011. Pages 559-565.

Krum H, Schlaich M, Whitbourn R, Sobotka PA, Sadowski J, Bartus K, Kapelak B, Walton A, Sievert H, Thambar S, Abraham WT, Esler M. Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation for resistant hypertension: a multicentre safety and proof-of-principle cohort study. Lancet. 2009;373(9671):1275-1281.

Schlaich MP, Sobotka PA, Krum H, Lambert E, Esler MD. Renal Sympathetic-Nerve Ablation for Uncontrolled Hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(9):932-934.

Schlaich MP, Sobotka PA, Krum H, Whitbourn R, Walton A, Esler MD. Renal Denervation as a Therapeutic Approach for Hypertension. Novel Implications for an Old Concept. Hypertension. 2009;54(6):1195-1201.

Esler M. The 2009 Carl Ludwig Lecture: pathophysiology of the human sympathetic nervous system in cardiovascular diseases: the transition from mechanisms to medical management. J Appl Physiol. 2010;108(2):227-237.

Dibona GF, Esler MD. Translational Medicine: the antihypertensive effect of renal denervation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298(2):R245-253.

Katholi RE, Rocha-Singh KJ. The role of renal sympathetic nerves in hypertension: has percutaneous renal denervation refocused attention on their clinical significance? Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;52(3):243-248.

Doumas M, Faselis C, Papademetriou V. Renal Sympathetic Denervation and Systemic Hypertension. Am J Cardiol. 2010;105(4):570-576.

Schlaich MP, Krum H, Sobotka PA. Renal sympathetic nerve ablation: the new frontier in the treatment of hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2010;12(1):39-46.

Katholi RE, Rocha-Singh KJ, Goswami NJ, Sobotka PA. Renal nerves in the maintenance of hypertension: A potential therapeutic target. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2010;12:196-204.

Esler MD, Lambert EA, Schlaich M, Navar LG. The Dominant Contributor to Systemic Hypertension: Chronic Activation of the Sympathetic Nervous System vs Activation of the Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin System. J Appl Physiol. 2010.

Fisher JP, Fadel PJ. Therapeutic strategies for targeting excessive central sympathetic activation in human hypertension. Exp Physiol. 2010;95(5):572-580.

Malpas SC. Sympathetic nervous system overactivity and its role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Physiol Rev. 2010;90:513-557.

Lambert GW, Straznicky NE, Lambert EA, Dixon JB, Schlaich MP. Sympathetic nervous activation in obesity and the metabolic syndrome–causes, consequences and therapeutic implications. Pharmacol Ther. 2010;126:159-172.

Masuo K, Lambert GW, Esler MD, Rakugi H, Ogihara T, Schlaich MP. The role of sympathetic nervous activity in renal injury and end-stage renal disease. Hypertens Res. 2010;33:521-528.

Schlaich MP, Socratous F, Hennebry S, Eikelis N, Lambert EA, Straznicky N, Esler MD, Lambert GW. Sympathetic activation in chronic renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(5):933-939.

Bock JS, Gottlieb SS. Cardiorenal syndrome: New perspectives. Circulation. 2010;121:2592-2600.

Goldsmith SR, Sobotka PA, Bart BA. The sympathorenal axis in hypertension and heart failure. Journal of Cardiac Failure. 2010;16(5):369-373.

Grassi G. Assessment of sympathetic cardiovascular drive in human hypertension: achievements and perspectives. Hypertension. 2009;54(4):690-697.

Ritz E. New approaches to pathogenesis and management of hypertension. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4(12):1886-1891.

Ritz E, Rump LC. Control of sympathetic activity–new insights; new therapeutic targets? Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25(4):1048-1050.

Joyner MJ, Charkoudian N, Wallin BG. Sympathetic nervous system and blood pressure in humans: Individualized patterns of regulation and their implications. Hypertension. 2010;56:10-16.

Mann JF. Whats new in hypertension 2009? Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25(1):37-41.

Bravo EL, Rafey MA, Nally JV, Jr. Renal denervation for resistant hypertension. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;54(5):795-797.

King A. Hypertension: RF ablation of renal nerves. Nature Reviews Nephrology. 2009;5:364.

Doumas M, Douma S. Interventional management of resistant hypertension. Lancet. 2009;373(9671):1228-1230.

Paulis L. Novel therapeutic targets for hypertension. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2010.

OBrien E. Renal sympathetic denervation for resistant hypertension. Lancet. 2009;373(9681):2109; author reply 2109-2110.

Titze S, Uder M, Schmieder R. Renal nerve ablation: innovative therapy for treatment of resistant hypertension. MMW Fortschr Med. 2009;151(42):52-53.

Katona PG. Biomedical engineering in heart-brain medicine: A review. Cleve Clin J Med. 2010;77 Suppl 3:S46-50.

Abstracts about Renal Denervation Treatment

Schlaich M, Krum H, Walton T, Whitbourn R, Sobotka P, Esler M. Two-year durability of blood pressure reduction with catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation. Journal of Hypertension. 2010;28:e446.

Esler M, Schlaich M, Sobotka P, Whitbourn R, Sadowski J, Bartus K, et al. Catheter-Based Renal Denervation Reduces Total Body and Renal Noradrenaline Spillover and Blood Pressure in Resistant Hypertension. Journal of Hypertension. 2009;27(suppl 4):s167.

Schlaich MP, Krum H, Whitbourn R, Walton T, Lambert GW, Sobotka PA, et al. Effects of Renal Sympathetic Denervation on Noradrenaline Spillover and Systemic Blood Pressure in Patients with Resistant Hypertension. Journal of Hypertension. 2009;27(suppl 4):s154.

Schlaich M, Krum H, Walton T, Lambert E, Lambert G, Sobotka P, et al. A Novel Catheter Based Approach to Denervate the Human Kidney Reduces Blood Pressure and Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity in a Patient with End Stage Renal Disease and Hypertension. Journal of Hypertension. 2009;27(suppl 4):s437.


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Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN
The Edwards SAPIEN transcatheter heart valve is an investigational device which is placed either through a transfemoral (RetroFlex 3 Transfemoral Delivery System) or transapical (Ascendra Transapical Delivery System) approach. The Edwards SAPIEN valve is being evaluated in the treatment of patients with severe calcific aortic stenosis who are considered to be high-risk for conventional open-heart valve replacement surgery.Cohort A of the PARTNER (Placement of AoRTic traNscatheterER valves) Trial is designed for patients with severe calcific aortic stenosis who are considered to be high-risk for conventional open-chest valve replacement due to the risk surgery might pose to them. These patients may be eligible to participate in a new, investigational transcatheter valve replacement procedure that is performed without

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