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Posts Tagged ‘AUA’


EARLY DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER: AUA GUIDELINE

Author-Writer: Dror Nir, PhD

 

 When reviewing the DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER section on the AUA website , The first thing that catches one’s attention is the image below; clearly showing two “guys” exploring with interest what could be a CT or MRI image…..

 fig 1

But, if you bother to read the review underneath this image regarding EARLY DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER: AUA GUIDELINE produced by an independent group that was commissioned by the AUA to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature on prostate cancer detection and screening; Panel Members: H. Ballentine Carter, Peter C. Albertsen, Michael J. Barry, Ruth Etzioni, Stephen J. Freedland, Kirsten Lynn Greene, Lars Holmberg, Philip Kantoff, Badrinath R. Konety, Mohammad Hassan Murad, David F. Penson and Anthony L. Zietman – You are bound to be left with a strong feeling that something is wrong!

The above mentioned literature review was done using rigorous approach.

“The AUA commissioned an independent group to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature on prostate cancer detection and screening. The protocol of the systematic review was developed a priori by the expert panel. The search strategy was developed and executed

by reference librarians and methodologists and spanned across multiple databases including Ovid Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Scopus. Controlled vocabulary supplemented with keywords was used to search for the relevant concepts of prostate cancer, screening and detection. The search focused on DRE, serum biomarkers (PSA, PSA Isoforms, PSA kinetics, free PSA, complexed PSA, proPSA, prostate health index, PSA velocity, PSA

doubling time), urine biomarkers (PCA3, TMPRSS2:ERG fusion), imaging (TRUS, MRI, MRS, MR-TRUS fusion), genetics (SNPs), shared-decision making and prostate biopsy. The expert panel manually identified additional references that met the same search criteria”

While reading through the document, I was looking for the findings related to the roll of imaging in prostate cancer screening; see highlighted above. The only thing I found: “With the exception of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based prostate cancer screening, there was minimal evidence to assess the outcomes of interest for other tests.

This must mean that: Notwithstanding hundreds of men-years and tens of millions of dollars which were invested in studies aiming to assess the contribution of imaging to prostate cancer management, no convincing evidence to include imaging in the screening progress was found by a group of top-experts in a thorough and rigorously managed literature survey! And it actually  lead the AUA to declare that “Nothing new in the last 20 years”…..

My interpretation of this: It says-it-all on the quality of the clinical studies that were conducted during these years, aiming to develop an improved prostate cancer workflow based on imaging. I hope that whoever reads this post will agree that this is a point worth considering!

For those who do not want to bother reading the whole AUA guidelines document here is a peer reviewed summary:

Early Detection of Prostate Cancer: AUA Guideline; Carter HB, Albertsen PC, Barry MJ, Etzioni R, Freedland SJ, Greene KL, Holmberg L, Kantoff P, Konety BR, Murad MH, Penson DF, Zietman AL; Journal of Urology (May 2013)”

It says:

“A systematic review was conducted and summarized evidence derived from over 300 studies that addressed the predefined outcomes of interest (prostate cancer incidence/mortality, quality of life, diagnostic accuracy and harms of testing). In addition to the quality of evidence, the panel considered values and preferences expressed in a clinical setting (patient-physician dyad) rather than having a public health perspective. Guideline statements were organized by age group in years (age<40; 40 to 54; 55 to 69; ≥70).

RESULTS: With the exception of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based prostate cancer screening, there was minimal evidence to assess the outcomes of interest for other tests. The quality of evidence for the benefits of screening was moderate, and evidence for harm was high for men age 55 to 69 years. For men outside this age range, evidence was lacking for benefit, but the harms of screening, including over diagnosis and over treatment, remained. Modeled data suggested that a screening interval of two years or more may be preferred to reduce the harms of screening.

CONCLUSIONS: The Panel recommended shared decision-making for men age 55 to 69 years considering PSA-based screening, a target age group for whom benefits may outweigh harms. Outside this age range, PSA-based screening as a routine could not be recommended based on the available evidence. The entire guideline is available at www.AUAnet.org/education/guidelines/prostate-cancer-detection.cfm.”

Other research papers related to the management of Prostate cancer were published on this Scientific Web site:

From AUA2013: “Histoscanning”- aided template biopsies for patients with previous negative TRUS biopsies

Imaging-biomarkers is Imaging-based tissue characterization

On the road to improve prostate biopsy

State of the art in oncologic imaging of Prostate

Imaging agent to detect Prostate cancer-now a reality

Scientists use natural agents for prostate cancer bone metastasis treatment

Today’s fundamental challenge in Prostate cancer screening

ROLE OF VIRAL INFECTION IN PROSTATE CANCER

Men With Prostate Cancer More Likely to Die from Other Causes

New Prostate Cancer Screening Guidelines Face a Tough Sell, Study Suggests

New clinical results supports Imaging-guidance for targeted prostate biopsy

Prostate Cancer: Androgen-driven “Pathomechanism” in Early-onset Forms of the Disease

Prostate Cancer and Nanotecnology

Prostate Cancer Cells: Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Induce Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

Imaging agent to detect Prostate cancer-now a reality

Scientists use natural agents for prostate cancer bone metastasis treatment

ROLE OF VIRAL INFECTION IN PROSTATE CANCER

Prostate Cancers Plunged After USPSTF Guidance, Will It Happen Again?

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From AUA2013: “Histoscanning”- aided template biopsies for patients with previous negative TRUS biopsies

Reporter: Dror Nir, PhD

 

This year’s AUA takes place in San Diego, USA.

Wednesday, May 08, 2013 10:30 AM-12:30 PM
SDCC: Room 8
Prostate Cancer: Detection & Screening (V)
Moderated Poster
Funding: none
2209: “Histoscanning”- aided template biopsies for patients with previous negative TRUS biopsies.
Oleg Apolikhin; Andrey Sivkov; Gennady Efremov; Nikolay Keshishev; Oleg Zhukov; Andrey Koryakin

Abstract: 2209
Introduction and Objectives
One of the biggest problems in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), which distinguishes it from many other solid tumors, is the difficulty of tumor imaging by means of standard visualization techniques. A transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsy is mostly performed on the basis of risen PSA and is often blind – tissue specimens are taken from standard zones. Biopsy under MRI control is technically and logistically complicated and expensive, while TRUS can`t always differentiate the suspicious areas. A TRUS-based innovative technique, “Histoscanningâ€� is used in our centre for PCa identification and targeted biopsy.

Methods
Prior to template biopsy we have performed Histoscanning to 31 patients, with previous one to six negative TRUS biopsies and persistent clinical suspicion of PCa (elevated PSA, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HPIN) in 4 cores or suspicious TRUS findings). Age range was 51 – 75, with PSA values 3,8 – 14,3 ng/ml. Prostate size range 22-67cc. Most of the patients (n-26) from this group received therapy with 5α-reductase inhibitors for 6 months or more. Depending on the gland size, 10-14 standardized cores were taken + 4 additional cores from the suspicious zones marked on Histoscanning report.

Results
Histopathology identified PCa in 13 out of 31 patients , adenocarcinomas with Gleason score ranging 6-8. In 11 patients with no signs of PCa we found HPIN or low-grade PIN. Comparing histology reports with Histoscanning mapping, in 8 PCa cases we found high correlation of this method with histopathological study on the amount and location of tumor lesions and in 5 cases Histoscanning showed greater spread of lesions, with good correlation of the tumor location.

Conclusions
Due to the effectiveness, ease of use and the short time required for data processing, Histoscanning is a promising method for more effective targeted biopsy of the prostate.

As a result of ongoing research, we aim to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of the method, fuse it with MRI, to create a 3D model for biopsy or surgery. In the future, this data could be used for decision making on the nerve-sparing prostatectomy and minimally invasive focal treatments such as cryoablation, high-intensity focused ultrasound, radiofrequency or laser ablation.

Date & Time: May 8, 2013 10:30 AM
Session Title: Prostate Cancer: Detection & Screening (V)
Sources of Funding: none

 

Personal note:

On the authors’ intention to fuse HistoScanning with MRI: The authors report a very compelling clinical benefit just from using HistoScanning for guiding their biopsies. HistoScanning itself results in a 3D mapping of the prostate and the suspicious locations inside.

3D mapping of the prostate by HistoScanning analysis following motorised TRUS. the colored locations represents tissue suspicious for being cancer.

3D mapping of the prostate by HistoScanning analysis following motorised TRUS. the colored locations represents tissue suspicious for being cancer.

 

Fusing ultrasound & MRI images is prone to image-registration errors (e.g. due to differences in the prostate’s shape-distortion by the probe) which are larger than the accuracy sought for when performing biopsy or nerve-sparing surgery. I recommend anyone who wishes to guide biopsies and treatment based on MRI and therefore is in need for good level of localized-MRI interpretation, to rely on dedicated MRI interpretation applications and not intra-modalities image fusion.

In addition, major benefits of using HistoScanning for managing prostate cancer patients are the accessibility; A urologist can perform himself, at any time he chooses and at any place, simplicity; it only requires routine TRUS, patient-friendly; it lasts less than a minute and does not require anesthesia and low-cost; it’s ultrasound! Mixing HistoScanning with MRI will certainly eliminate these.

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