Posts Tagged ‘British Heart Foundation’

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

International Consortium Finds 15 Novel Risk Loci for Coronary Artery Disease

“lipid metabolism and inflammation as key biological pathways involved in the genetic pathogenesis of CAD”

Themistocles Assimes from Stanford University Medical Center said in a statement that these findings begin to clear up its role. “Our network analysis of the top approximately 240 genetic signals in this study seems to provide evidence that genetic defects in some pathways related to inflammation are a cause,” he said.

On this Open Access Online Scientific Journal, lipid metabolism and inflammation were researched and exposed in the following entries.

However, it is ONLY,  these 15 Novel Risk Loci for Coronary Artery Disease published on 12/3/2012 that provides the genomics loci and the genetic explanation for the following empirical results obtained in the recent research on Cardiovascular diseases, as present in the second half of this post, below.

Special Considerations in Blood Lipoproteins, Viscosity, Assessment and Treatment


What is the role of plasma viscosity in hemostasis and vascular disease risk?


PIK3CA mutation in Colorectal Cancer may serve as a Predictive Molecular Biomarker for adjuvant Aspirin therapy


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-gamma) Receptors Activation: PPARγ transrepression for Angiogenesis in Cardiovascular Disease and PPARγ transactivation for Treatment of Diabetes


Positioning a Therapeutic Concept for Endogenous Augmentation of cEPCs — Therapeutic Indications for Macrovascular Disease: Coronary, Cerebrovascular and Peripheral


Cardiovascular Risk Inflammatory Marker: Risk Assessment for Coronary Heart Disease and Ischemic Stroke – Atherosclerosis.


The Essential Role of Nitric Oxide and Therapeutic NO Donor Targets in Renal Pharmacotherapy


Nitric Oxide Function in Coagulation

http://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/26/nitric-oxide-function-in-coagulation/Nitric Oxide Function in Coagulation

15 Novel Risk Loci for Coronary Artery Disease

December 03, 2012

NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) – A large-scale association analysis of coronary artery disease has detected 15 new loci associated with risk of the disease, bringing the total number of known risk alleles to 46. As the international CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium reported in Nature Genetics yesterday, the study also found that lipid metabolism and inflammation pathways may play a part in coronary artery disease pathogenesis.

“The number of genetic variations that contribute to heart disease continues to grow with the publication of each new study,” Peter Weissberg from the British Heart Foundation, a co-sponsor of the study, said in a statement. “This latest research further confirms that blood lipids and inflammation are at the heart of the development of atherosclerosis, the process that leads to heart attacks and strokes.”

For its study, the consortium, which was comprised of more than 180 researchers, performed a meta-analysis of data from the 22,233 cases and 64,762 controls of the CARDIoGRAM genome-wide association study and of the 41,513 cases and 65,919 controls from 34 additional studies of people of European and South Asian descent. Using the custom Metabochip array from Illumina, the team tested SNPs for disease association in those populations. The SNPs that reached significance in that stage of the study were then replicated using data from a further four studies.

From this, the team identified 15 new loci with genome-wide significance for risk of coronary artery disease, in addition to known risk loci.

The consortium also reported an additional 104 SNPs that appeared to be associated with coronary artery disease but did not meet the cut-off for genome-wide significance.

Then looking to other known risk factors for coronary artery disease, like blood pressure and diabetes, the researchers assessed whether any of those risk factors were associated with the risk loci. Of the 45 known risk loci, 12 were associated with blood lipid content and five with blood pressure. And while people with type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of developing coronary artery disease, none of the known risk loci were linked to diabetic traits.

An analysis of the pathways that SNPs linked to coronary artery disease fall in revealed that many of them are involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation pathways — 10 risk loci were found to be involved in lipid metabolism. “Our network analysis identified lipid metabolism and inflammation as key biological pathways involved in the genetic pathogenesis of CAD,” the researchers wrote in the paper. “Indeed, there was significant crosstalk between the lipid metabolism and inflammation pathways identified.”

The role of inflammation in coronary artery disease has been up for debate — a debate centering on whether it is a cause or a consequence of the disease — and study author Themistocles Assimes from Stanford University Medical Center said in a statement that these findings begin to clear up its role. “Our network analysis of the top approximately 240 genetic signals in this study seems to provide evidence that genetic defects in some pathways related to inflammation are a cause,” he said.

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GWAS, Meta-Analyses Uncover New Coronary Artery Disease Risk Loci

March 07, 2011

By a GenomeWeb staff reporter

NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) – Three new studies — including the largest meta-analysis yet of coronary artery disease — have identified dozens of coronary artery disease risk loci in European, South Asian, and Han Chinese populations. All three papers appeared online yesterday in Nature Genetics.

For the first meta-analysis, members of a large international consortium known as the Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-Analysis study, or CARDIoGRAM, sifted through data on more than 135,000 individuals from the UK, US, Europe, Iceland, and Canada. In so doing, they tracked down nearly two-dozen new and previously reported coronary artery disease risk loci.

Because only a few of these loci have been linked to other heart disease-related risk factors such as high blood pressure, those involved say the work points to yet unexplored heart disease pathways.

“[W]e have discovered several new genes not previously known to be involved in the development of coronary heart disease, which is the main cause of heart attacks,” co-corresponding author Nilesh Samani, a cardiology researcher affiliated with the University of Leicester and Glenfield Hospital, said in a statement. “Understanding how these genes work, which is the next step, will vastly improve our knowledge of how the disease develops, and could ultimately help to develop new treatments.”

Samani and his co-workers identified the loci by bringing together data on 22,233 individuals with coronary artery disease and 64,762 unaffected controls. The participants, all of European descent, had been sampled through 14 previous genome-wide association studies and genotyped at an average of about 2.5 million SNPs each. The team then assessed the top candidate SNPs found in this initial analysis in another 56,582 individuals (roughly half of whom had coronary artery disease).

The search not only confirmed associations between coronary artery disease and 10 known loci, but also uncovered associations with 13 other loci. All but three of these were distinct from loci previously implicated in other heart disease risk factors such as hypertension or cholesterol levels, researchers noted.

Consequently, those involved in the study say that exploring the biological functions of the newly detected genes could offer biological clues about how heart disease develops — along with strategies for preventing and treating it.

The genetic complexity of coronary artery disease being revealed by such studies has diagnostic implications as well, according to some.

“Each new gene identified brings us a small step closer to understanding the biological mechanisms of cardiovascular disease development and potential new treatments,” British Heart Foundation Medical Director Peter Weissberg, who was not directly involved in the new studies, said in a statement. “However, as the number of genes grows, it takes us further away from the likelihood that a simple genetic test will identify those most of risk of suffering a heart attack or a stroke.”

Meanwhile, researchers involved with Coronary Artery Disease Genetics Consortium did their own meta-analysis using data collected from four GWAS to find five coronary artery-associated loci in European and South Asian populations.

The group initially looked at 15,420 individuals with coronary artery disease — including 6,996 individuals from South Asia and 8,424 from Europe — and 15,062 unaffected controls. Participants were genotyped at nearly 575,000 SNPs using Illumina BeadChips. Most South Asian individuals tested came from India and Pakistan, researchers noted, while European samples came from the UK, Italy, Sweden, and Germany.

For the validation phase of the study, the team focused in on 59 SNPs at 50 loci from the discovery group that seemed most likely to yield authentic new disease associations. These variants were assessed in 10 replication groups comprised of 21,408 individuals with coronary artery disease and 19,185 individuals without coronary artery disease.

All told, researchers found five loci that seem to influence coronary artery disease risk in the European and South Asian populations: one locus each on chromosomes 7, 11, and 15, along with a pair of loci on chromosome 10.

The team didn’t see significant differences in the frequency or effect sizes of these newly identified variants between the European and South Asian populations, though they emphasized that their approach may have missed some potential risk variants, particularly in those of South Asian descent.

“[C]urrent genome-wide arrays may not capture all important variants in South Asians,” they explained, “Nevertheless, all of the known and new variants were significantly associated with [coronary artery disease] risk in both the European and South Asian populations in the current study, indicating the importance of genes associated with [coronary artery disease] beyond the European ancestry groups in which they were first defined.”

Finally, using a three-stage discovery, validation, and replication GWAS approach, Chinese researchers identified a single coronary artery disease risk variant in the Han Chinese population.

In this first phase of that study, researchers tested samples from 230 cases and 230 controls from populations in Beijing and in China’s Hubei province that were genotyped at Genentech and CapitalBio using Affymetrix Human SNP5.0 arrays.

From the nearly three-dozen SNPs identified in the first stage of the study, they narrowed in on nine suspect variants. After finding linkage disequilibrium between two of the variants, they did validation testing on eight of these in 572 individuals with coronary artery disease and 436 unaffected controls, all from Hubei province.

That analysis implicated a single chromosome 6 SNP called rs6903956 in coronary artery disease — a finding the team ultimately replicated in another group of 2,668 coronary artery disease cases and 3,917 controls from three independent populations in Hubei, Shandong province, and northern China.

The team’s subsequent experiments suggest that the newly detected polymorphism, which falls within a putative gene called C6orf105 on chromosome 6, curbs the expression of this gene. The functional consequences of this shift in expression, if any, are yet to be determined.

Because C6orf105 shares some identity and homology with an androgen hormone inducible gene known as AIG1, those involved in the study argue that it may be worthwhile to investigate possible ties between C6orf105 expression, androgen signaling, and coronary artery disease.

“Androgen has previously been reported to be associated the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis,” they wrote. “Future studies are needed to explore whether C6orf105 expression can be induced by androgen and to further determine the potential mechanism of [coronary artery disease] associated with decreased C6orf105 expression.”


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