Posts Tagged ‘Duke University School of Medicine’

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

While a staff nurse at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, MA in 2008, I provided direct care for Morbid Obese patients, above 400 pounds that were transferred to Farr 9 – the Acute Surgery Unit from the PACU following Bariatric Surgery. The first day after a significant surgical intervention was very tough to the patient and very tough for the nurses, three types of analgesic drugs were used including epidural pumps and PCA. Pain medication diffused in the adipose tissue with just moderate amelioration of pain. Few patients had the operation done 10 years ago and needed a repair. Technology had advanced. More studies are needed to ascertain that in presence of morbid obesity and absence of DM, a Bariatric Surgery is THE Treatment for DM Disease Prevention.

Bariatric Surgery — From Treatment of Disease to Prevention?

Danny O. Jacobs, M.D., M.P.H.

N Engl J Med 2012; 367:764-765  August 23, 2012

Bariatric surgery to treat morbid obesity has improved dramatically over the past 60 years — especially over the past several decades. Today’s methods are far safer than the hazardous intestinal bypass procedures that were introduced in the 1950s. Bariatric-surgery techniques have progressed through various iterations of horizontal and vertical stapling of the stomach with or without banding (e.g., vertical banded gastroplasty) to vertical gastric partitioning or creation of a gastric pouch with proximal bypass into a jejunal loop (i.e., the gastric bypass), which is considered to be a reference standard.

Bariatric Surgery for Morbid Obesity.

Bariatric Surgery for Morbid Obesity.


From the Department of Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC.

Bariatric Surgery and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in Swedish Obese Subjects

Lena M.S. Carlsson, M.D., Ph.D., Markku Peltonen, Ph.D., Sofie Ahlin, M.D., Åsa Anveden, M.D., Claude Bouchard, Ph.D., Björn Carlsson, M.D., Ph.D., Peter Jacobson, M.D., Ph.D., Hans Lönroth, M.D., Ph.D., Cristina Maglio, M.D., Ingmar Näslund, M.D., Ph.D., Carlo Pirazzi, M.D., Stefano Romeo, M.D., Ph.D., Kajsa Sjöholm, Ph.D., Elisabeth Sjöström, M.D., Hans Wedel, Ph.D., Per-Arne Svensson, Ph.D., and Lars Sjöström, M.D., Ph.D.

N Engl J Med 2012; 367:695-704  August 23, 2012


Weight loss protects against type 2 diabetes but is hard to maintain with behavioral modification alone. In an analysis of data from a nonrandomized, prospective, controlled study, we examined the effects of bariatric surgery on the prevention of type 2 diabetes.


In this analysis, we included 1658 patients who underwent bariatric surgery and 1771 obese matched controls (with matching performed on a group, rather than individual, level). None of the participants had diabetes at baseline. Patients in the bariatric-surgery cohort underwent banding (19%), vertical banded gastroplasty (69%), or gastric bypass (12%); nonrandomized, matched, prospective controls received usual care. Participants were 37 to 60 years of age, and the body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 34 or more in men and 38 or more in women. This analysis focused on the rate of incident type 2 diabetes, which was a prespecified secondary end point in the main study. At the time of this analysis (January 1, 2012), participants had been followed for up to 15 years. Despite matching, some baseline characteristics differed significantly between the groups; the baseline body weight was higher and risk factors were more pronounced in the bariatric-surgery group than in the control group. At 15 years, 36.2% of the original participants had dropped out of the study, and 30.9% had not yet reached the time for their 15-year follow-up examination.


During the follow-up period, type 2 diabetes developed in 392 participants in the control group and in 110 in the bariatric-surgery group, corresponding to incidence rates of 28.4 cases per 1000 person-years and 6.8 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio with bariatric surgery, 0.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.13 to 0.21; P<0.001). The effect of bariatric surgery was influenced by the presence or absence of impaired fasting glucose (P=0.002 for the interaction) but not by BMI (P=0.54). Sensitivity analyses, including end-point imputations, did not change the overall conclusions. The postoperative mortality was 0.2%, and 2.8% of patients who underwent bariatric surgery required reoperation within 90 days owing to complications.


Bariatric surgery appears to be markedly more efficient than usual care in the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese persons. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01479452.)

Supported by grants from the Swedish Research Council (K2012-55X-22082-01-3, K2010-55X-11285-13, K2008-65x-20753-01-4), the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research to Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, the Swedish federal government under the LUA/ALF agreement concerning research and education of doctors, the VINNOVA-VINNMER program, and the Wenner-Gren Foundations. The SOS study has previously been supported by grants to one of the authors from Hoffmann–La Roche, AstraZeneca, Cederroth, Sanofi-Aventis, and Johnson & Johnson.

Dr. Lena Carlsson reports receiving consulting fees from AstraZeneca and owning stock in Sahltech; Dr. Bouchard, receiving consulting fees from New York Obesity Nutrition Research Center, Pathway Genomics, Weight Watchers, and Nike, payment for manuscript preparation from Elsevier and Wiley-Blackwell, royalties from Human Kinetics and Informa Healthcare, honoraria from NaturALPHA, and reimbursement for travel expenses from European College of Sports Sciences, Nordic Physiotherapy, Wingate Congress, and Euro Sci Open Forum; Dr. Björn Carlsson, being employed by and owning stock in AstraZeneca; Dr. Sjöholm, owning stock in Pfizer; Dr. Wedel, receiving consulting fees from AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Roche, and Novartis; and Dr. Lars Sjöström, serving as a member of the board of Lenimen, receiving lecture fees from AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson, and providing an expert statement on drug effects and weight-loss effects on obesity for AstraZeneca. No other potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.

Drs. Carlsson and Peltonen contributed equally to this article.

We thank the staff members at 480 primary health care centers and 25 surgical departments in Sweden that participated in the study; and Gerd Bergmark, Christina Torefalk and Lisbeth Eriksson for administrative support.


From the Institutes of Medicine (L.M.S.C., M.P., S.A., Å.A., B.C., P.J., C.M., C.P., S.R., K.S., E.S., P.-A.S., L.S.) and Surgery (H.L.), Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, and the Nordic School of Public Health (H.W.), Gothenburg, and the Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Örebro (I.N.) — all in Sweden; the Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki (M.P.); and Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge (C.B.).

Address reprint requests to Dr. Lars Sjöström at the SOS Secretariat, Vita Stråket 15, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, S-413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden, or at lars.v.sjostrom@medfak.gu.se.

N Engl J Med 2012; 367:695-704

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