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Posts Tagged ‘distant effects’


Signaling and Signaling Pathways

Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

 

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/8-9-2014/Signaling and Signaling Pathways

This portion of the discussion is a series of articles on signaling and signaling pathways. Many of the protein-protein interactions or protein-membrane interactions and associated regulatory features have been referred to previously, but the focus of the discussion or points made were different.  I considered placing this after the discussion of proteins and how they play out their essential role, but this is quite a suitable place for a progression to what follows.  This is introduced by material taken from Wikipedia, which will be followed by a series of mechanisms and examples from the current literature, which give insight into the developments in cell metabolism, with the later goal of separating views introduced by molecular biology and genomics from functional cellular dynamics that are not dependent on the classic view.  The work is vast, and this discussion does not attempt to cover it in great depth.  It is the first in a series.

  1. Signaling and signaling pathways
  2. Signaling transduction tutorial.
  3. Carbohydrate metabolism
  4. Lipid metabolism
  5. Protein synthesis and degradation
  6. Subcellular structure
  7. Impairments in pathological states: endocrine disorders; stress hypermetabolism; cancer.

Signal transduction

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Signal_transduction_publications_graph.jpeg

 

Signal_transduction_pathways.svg

Signal_transduction_pathways.svg

 

Signal transduction occurs when an extracellular signaling[1] molecule activates a specific receptor located on the cell surface or inside the cell. In turn, this receptor triggers a biochemical chain of events inside the cell, creating a response.[2] Depending on the cell, the response alters the cell’s metabolism, shape, gene expression, or ability to divide.[3] The signal can be amplified at any step. Thus, one signaling molecule can cause many responses.[4]

In 1970, Martin Rodbell examined the effects of glucagon on a rat’s liver cell membrane receptor. He noted that guanosine triphosphate disassociated glucagon from this receptor and stimulated the G-protein, which strongly influenced the cell’s metabolism. Thus, he deduced that the G-protein is a transducer that accepts glucagon molecules and affects the cell.[5] For this, he shared the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Alfred G. Gilman.

Signal_transduction_publications_graph

Signal_transduction_publications_graph

The earliest MEDLINE entry for “signal transduction” dates from 1972.[6] Some early articles used the terms signal transmission and sensory transduction.[7][8] In 2007, a total of 48,377 scientific papers—including 11,211 e review papers—were published on the subject. The term first appeared in a paper’s title in 1979.[9][10] Widespread use of the term has been traced to a 1980 review article by Rodbell:[5][11] Research papers focusing on signal transduction first appeared in large numbers in the late 1980s and early 1990s.[12]

Notch-mediated juxtacrine signal between adjacent cells.

Notch-mediated juxtacrine signal between adjacent cells.

Signal transduction involves the binding of extracellular signaling molecules and ligands to cell-surface receptors that trigger events inside the cell. The combination of messenger with receptor causes a change in the conformation of the receptor, known as receptor activation. This activation is always the initial step (the cause) leading to the cell’s ultimate responses (effect) to the messenger. Despite the myriad of these ultimate responses, they are all directly due to changes in particular cell proteins. Intracellular signaling cascades can be started through cell-substratum interactions; examples are the integrin that binds ligands in the extracellular matrix and steroids.[13] Most steroid hormones have receptors within the cytoplasm and act by stimulating the binding of their receptors to the promoter region of steroid-responsive genes.[14] Examples of signaling molecules include the hormone melatonin,[15] the neurotransmitter acetylcholine[16] and the cytokine interferon γ.[17]

Signal transduction cascades amplify the signal output

Signal transduction cascades amplify the signal output

Various environmental stimuli exist that initiate signal transmission processes in multicellular organisms; examples include photons hitting cells in the retina of the eye,[20] and odorants binding to odorant receptors in the nasal epithelium.[21] Certain microbial molecules, such as viral nucleotides and protein antigens, can elicit an immune system response against invading pathogens mediated by signal transduction processes. This may occur independent of signal transduction stimulation by other molecules, as is the case for the toll-like receptor. It may occur with help from stimulatory molecules located at the cell surface of other cells, as with T-cell receptor signaling. Unicellular organisms may respond to environmental stimuli through the activation of signal transduction pathways. For example, slime molds secrete cyclic adenosine monophosphate upon starvation, stimulating individual cells in the immediate environment to aggregate,[22] and yeast cells use mating factors to determine the mating types of other cells and to participate in sexual reproduction.[23] Receptors can be roughly divided into two major classes: intracellular receptors and extracellular receptors.

Extracellular

Extracellular receptors are integral transmembrane proteins and make up most receptors. They span the plasma membrane of the cell, with one part of the receptor on the outside of the cell and the other on the inside. Signal transduction occurs as a result of a ligand binding to the outside; the molecule does not pass through the membrane. This binding stimulates a series of events inside the cell; different types of receptor stimulate different responses and receptors typically respond to only the binding of a specific ligand. Upon binding, the ligand induces a change in the conformation of the inside part of the receptor.[24] These result in either the activation of an enzyme in the receptor or the exposure of a binding site for other intracellular signaling proteins within the cell, eventually propagating the signal through the cytoplasm.

In eukaryotic cells, most intracellular proteins activated by a ligand/receptor interaction possess an enzymatic activity; examples include tyrosine kinase and phosphatases. Some of them create second messengers such as cyclic AMP and IP3, the latter controlling the release of intracellular calcium stores into the cytoplasm. Other activated proteins interact with adaptor proteins that facilitate signalling protein interactions and coordination of signalling complexes necessary to respond to a particular stimulus. Enzymes and adaptor proteins are both responsive to various second messenger molecules.

Many adaptor proteins and enzymes activated as part of signal transduction possess specialized protein domains that bind to specific secondary messenger molecules. For example, calcium ions bind to the EF hand domains of calmodulin, allowing it to bind and activate calmodulin-dependent kinase. PIP3 and other phosphoinositides do the same thing to the Pleckstrin homology domains of proteins such as the kinase protein AKT.

G protein-coupled

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a family of integral transmembrane proteins that possess seven transmembrane domains and are linked to a heterotrimeric G protein. Many receptors are in this family, including adrenergic receptors and chemokine receptors.

Arrestin binding to active GPCR kinase (GRK)-phosphorylated GPCRs blocks G protein coupling

Arrestin binding to active GPCR kinase (GRK)-phosphorylated GPCRs blocks G protein coupling

Signal transduction by a GPCR begins with an inactive G protein coupled to the receptor; it exists as a heterotrimer consisting of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ.[25] Once the GPCR recognizes a ligand, the conformation of the receptor changes to activate the G protein, causing Gα to bind a molecule of GTP and dissociate from the other two G-protein subunits. The dissociation exposes sites on the subunits that can interact with other molecules.[26] The activated G protein subunits detach from the receptor and initiate signaling from many downstream effector proteins such as phospholipases and ion channels, the latter permitting the release of second messenger molecules.[27] The total strength of signal amplification by a GPCR is determined by the lifetimes of the ligand-receptor complex and receptor-effector protein complex and the deactivation time of the activated receptor and effectors through intrinsic enzymatic activity.

A study was conducted where a point mutation was inserted into the gene encoding the chemokine receptor CXCR2; mutated cells underwent a malignant transformation due to the expression of CXCR2 in an active conformation despite the absence of chemokine-binding. This meant that chemokine receptors can contribute to cancer development.[28]

Tyrosine and histidine kinase

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are transmembrane proteins with an intracellular kinase domain and an extracellular domain that binds ligands; examples include growth factor receptors such as the insulin receptor.[29] To perform signal transduction, RTKs need to form dimers in the plasma membrane;[30] the dimer is stabilized by ligands binding to the receptor. The interaction between the cytoplasmic domains stimulates the autophosphorylation of tyrosines within the domains of the RTKs, causing conformational changes. Subsequent to this, the receptors’ kinase domains are activated, initiating phosphorylation signaling cascades of downstream cytoplasmic molecules that facilitate various cellular processes such as cell differentiation and metabolism.[29]

As is the case with GPCRs, proteins that bind GTP play a major role in signal transduction from the activated RTK into the cell. In this case, the G proteins are members of the Ras, Rho, and Raf families, referred to collectively as small G proteins. They act as molecular switches usually tethered to membranes by isoprenyl groups linked to their carboxyl ends. Upon activation, they assign proteins to specific membrane subdomains where they participate in signaling. Activated RTKs in turn activate small G proteins that activate guanine nucleotide exchange factors such as SOS1. Once activated, these exchange factors can activate more small G proteins, thus amplifying the receptor’s initial signal. The mutation of certain RTK genes, as with that of GPCRs, can result in the expression of receptors that exist in a constitutively activate state; such mutated genes may act as oncogenes.[31]

Histidine-specific protein kinases are structurally distinct from other protein kinases and are found in prokaryotes, fungi, and plants as part of a two-component signal transduction mechanism: a phosphate group from ATP is first added to a histidine residue within the kinase, then transferred to an aspartate residue on a receiver domain on a different protein or the kinase itself, thus activating the aspartate residue.[32]

Integrin

integrin-mediated signal transduction

integrin-mediated signal transduction

An overview of integrin-mediated signal transduction, adapted from Hehlgens et al. (2007).[33]

Integrins are produced by a wide variety of cells; they play a role in cell attachment to other cells and the extracellular matrix and in the transduction of signals from extracellular matrix components such as fibronectin and collagen. Ligand binding to the extracellular domain of integrins changes the protein’s conformation, clustering it at the cell membrane to initiate signal transduction. Integrins lack kinase activity; hence, integrin-mediated signal transduction is achieved through a variety of intracellular protein kinases and adaptor molecules, the main coordinator being integrin-linked kinase.[33] As shown in the picture to the right, cooperative integrin-RTK signalling determines the timing of cellular survival, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation.

Important differences exist between integrin-signalling in circulating blood cells and non-circulating cells such as epithelial cells; integrins of circulating cells are normally inactive. For example, cell membrane integrins on circulating leukocytes are maintained in an inactive state to avoid epithelial cell attachment; they are activated only in response to stimuli such as those received at the site of an inflammatory response. In a similar manner, integrins at the cell membrane of circulating platelets are normally kept inactive to avoid thrombosis. Epithelial cells (which are non-circulating) normally have active integrins at their cell membrane, helping maintain their stable adhesion to underlying stromal cells that provide signals to maintain normal functioning.[34]

Toll gate

When activated, toll-like receptors (TLRs) take adapter molecules within the cytoplasm of cells in order to propagate a signal. Four adaptor molecules are known to be involved in signaling, which are Myd88, TIRAP, TRIF, and TRAM.[35][36][37] These adapters activate other intracellular molecules such as IRAK1, IRAK4, TBK1[disambiguation needed], and IKKi that amplify the signal, eventually leading to the induction or suppression of genes that cause certain responses. Thousands of genes are activated by TLR signaling, implying that this method constitutes an important gateway for gene modulation.

Ligand-gated ion channel

A ligand-gated ion channel, upon binding with a ligand, changes conformation to open a channel in the cell membrane through which ions relaying signals can pass. An example of this mechanism is found in the receiving cell of a neural synapse. The influx of ions that occurs in response to the opening of these channels induces action potentials, such as those that travel along nerves, by depolarizing the membrane of post-synaptic cells, resulting in the opening of voltage-gated ion channels.

An example of an ion allowed into the cell during a ligand-gated ion channel opening is Ca2+; it acts as a second messenger initiating signal transduction cascades and altering the physiology of the responding cell. This results in amplification of the synapse response between synaptic cells by remodelling the dendritic spines involved in the synapse.

Ion transporters and channels in mammalian choroidal epithelium

Ion transporters and channels in mammalian choroidal epithelium

 

 

Intracellular

Extracellular receptors are integral transmembrane proteins and make up most receptors. They span the plasma membrane of the cell, with one part of the receptor on the outside of the cell and the other on the inside. Signal transduction occurs as a result of a ligand binding to the outside; the molecule does not pass through the membrane. This binding stimulates a series of events inside the cell; different types of receptor stimulate different responses and receptors typically respond to only the binding of a specific ligand. Upon binding, the ligand induces a change in the conformation of the inside part of the receptor.[24] These result in either the activation of an enzyme in the receptor or the exposure of a binding site for other intracellular signaling proteins within the cell, eventually propagating the signal through the cytoplasm.

Understanding these receptors and identifying their ligands and the resulting signal transduction pathways represent a major conceptual advance

Understanding these receptors and identifying their ligands and the resulting signal transduction pathways represent a major conceptual advance

 

intercellular signaling

intercellular signaling

 

conformational-rearrangements

conformational-rearrangements

 

 

membrane protein receptor binds with hormone

membrane protein receptor binds with hormone

 

 

 

The multiple protein-dependent steps in signal transduction

The multiple protein-dependent steps in signal transduction

In eukaryotic cells, most intracellular proteins activated by a ligand/receptor interaction possess an enzymatic activity; examples include tyrosine kinase and phosphatases. Some of them create second messengers such as cyclic AMP and IP3, the latter controlling the release of intracellular calcium stores into the cytoplasm. Other activated proteins interact with adaptor proteins that facilitate signalling protein interactions and coordination of signalling complexes necessary to respond to a particular stimulus. Enzymes and adaptor proteins are both responsive to various second messenger molecules.

Ca++ exchange

Ca++ exchange

Many adaptor proteins and enzymes activated as part of signal transduction possess specialized protein domains that bind to specific secondary messenger molecules. For example, calcium ions bind to the EF hand domains of calmodulin, allowing it to bind and activate calmodulin-dependent kinase. PIP3 and other phosphoinositides do the same thing to the Pleckstrin homology domains of proteins such as the kinase protein AKT.

G protein-coupled

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a family of integral transmembrane proteins that possess seven transmembrane domains and are linked to a heterotrimeric G protein. Many receptors are in this family, including adrenergic receptors and chemokine receptors.

membrane_receptor_g protein

membrane_receptor_g protein

 

intracellular_receptor_steroid

intracellular_receptor_steroid

Signal transduction by a GPCR begins with an inactive G protein coupled to the receptor; it exists as a heterotrimer consisting of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ.[25] Once the GPCR recognizes a ligand, the conformation of the receptor changes to activate the G protein, causing Gα to bind a molecule of GTP and dissociate from the other two G-protein subunits. The dissociation exposes sites on the subunits that can interact with other molecules.[26] The activated G protein subunits detach from the receptor and initiate signaling from many downstream effector proteins such as phospholipases and ion channels, the latter permitting the release of second messenger molecules.[27] The total strength of signal amplification by a GPCR is determined by the lifetimes of the ligand-receptor complex and receptor-effector protein complex and the deactivation time of the activated receptor and effectors through intrinsic enzymatic activity.

A study was conducted where a point mutation was inserted into the gene encoding the chemokine receptor CXCR2; mutated cells underwent a malignant transformation due to the expression of CXCR2 in an active conformation despite the absence of chemokine-binding. This meant that chemokine receptors can contribute to cancer development.[28]

Tyrosine and histidine kinase

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are transmembrane proteins with an intracellular kinase domain and an extracellular domain that binds ligands; examples include growth factor receptors such as the insulin receptor.[29] To perform signal transduction, RTKs need to form dimers in the plasma membrane;[30] the dimer is stabilized by ligands binding to the receptor. The interaction between the cytoplasmic domains stimulates the autophosphorylation of tyrosines within the domains of the RTKs, causing conformational changes. Subsequent to this, the receptors’ kinase domains are activated, initiating phosphorylation signaling cascades of downstream cytoplasmic molecules that facilitate various cellular processes such as cell differentiation and metabolism.[29]

insulin-receptor-and-and-insulin-receptor-signaling-pathway-irs

insulin-receptor-and-and-insulin-receptor-signaling-pathway-irs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

receptors-regulators

receptors-regulators

phosphorylation-cascade

phosphorylation-cascade

 

 

 

As is the case with GPCRs, proteins that bind GTP play a major role in signal transduction from the activated RTK into the cell. In this case, the G proteins are members of the Ras, Rho, and Raf families, referred to collectively as small G proteins. They act as molecular switches usually tethered to membranes by isoprenyl groups linked to their carboxyl ends. Upon activation, they assign proteins to specific membrane subdomains where they participate in signaling. Activated RTKs in turn activate small G proteins that activate guanine nucleotide exchange factors such as SOS1. Once activated, these exchange factors can activate more small G proteins, thus amplifying the receptor’s initial signal. The mutation of certain RTK genes, as with that of GPCRs, can result in the expression of receptors that exist in a constitutively activate state; such mutated genes may act as oncogenes.[31]

Histidine-specific protein kinases are structurally distinct from other protein kinases and are found in prokaryotes, fungi, and plants as part of a two-component signal transduction mechanism: a phosphate group from ATP is first added to a histidine residue within the kinase, then transferred to an aspartate residue on a receiver domain on a different protein or the kinase itself, thus activating the aspartate residue.[32]

 

Integrin

integrin-mediated signal transduction

integrin-mediated signal transduction

An overview of integrin-mediated signal transduction, adapted from Hehlgens et al. (2007).[33]

Integrins are produced by a wide variety of cells; they play a role in cell attachment to other cells and the extracellular matrix and in the transduction of signals from extracellular matrix components such as fibronectin and collagen. Ligand binding to the extracellular domain of integrins changes the protein’s conformation, clustering it at the cell membrane to initiate signal transduction. Integrins lack kinase activity; hence, integrin-mediated signal transduction is achieved through a variety of intracellular protein kinases and adaptor molecules, the main coordinator being integrin-linked kinase.[33] As shown in the picture to the right, cooperative integrin-RTK signalling determines the timing of cellular survival, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation.

Platelet signaling pathways

Platelet signaling pathways

 

 

 

 

 

 

Protein ubiquitylation

Protein ubiquitylation

ubiquitylation-is-a-multistep-reaction.

ubiquitylation-is-a-multistep-reaction.

 

 

Important differences exist between integrin-signaling in circulating blood cells and non-circulating cells such as epithelial cells; integrins of circulating cells are normally inactive. For example, cell membrane integrins on circulating leukocytes are maintained in an inactive state to avoid epithelial cell attachment; they are activated only in response to stimuli such as those received at the site of an inflammatory response. In a similar manner, integrins at the cell membrane of circulating platelets are normally kept inactive to avoid thrombosis. Epithelial cells (which are non-circulating) normally have active integrins at their cell membrane, helping maintain their stable adhesion to underlying stromal cells that provide signals to maintain normal functioning.[34]

Toll gate

When activated, toll-like receptors (TLRs) take adapter molecules within the cytoplasm of cells in order to propagate a signal. Four adaptor molecules are known to be involved in signaling, which are Myd88, TIRAP, TRIF, and TRAM.[35][36][37] These adapters activate other intracellular molecules such as IRAK1, IRAK4, TBK1[disambiguation needed], and IKKi that amplify the signal, eventually leading to the induction or suppression of genes that cause certain responses. Thousands of genes are activated by TLR signaling, implying that this method constitutes an important gateway for gene modulation.

 

SignalTrans

SignalTrans

 

 

Signal-Transduction-Pathway

 

 

 

 

Ligand-gated ion channel

A ligand-gated ion channel, upon binding with a ligand, changes conformation to open a channel in the cell membrane through which ions relaying signals can pass. An example of this mechanism is found in the receiving cell of a neural synapse. The influx of ions that occurs in response to the opening of these channels induces action potentials, such as those that travel along nerves, by depolarizing the membrane of post-synaptic cells, resulting in the opening of voltage-gated ion channels.

An example of an ion allowed into the cell during a ligand-gated ion channel opening is Ca2+; it acts as a second messenger initiating signal transduction cascades and altering the physiology of the responding cell. This results in amplification of the synapse response between synaptic cells by remodelling the dendritic spines involved in the synapse.

Ion transporters and channels in mammalian choroidal epithelium

Ion transporters and channels in mammalian choroidal epithelium

Intracellular

Intracellular receptors, such as nuclear receptors and cytoplasmic receptors, are soluble proteins localized within their respective areas. The typical ligands for nuclear receptors are lipophilic hormones like the steroid hormones testosterone and progesterone and derivatives of vitamins A and D. To initiate signal transduction, the ligand must pass through the plasma membrane by passive diffusion. On binding with the receptor, the ligands pass through the nuclear membrane into the nucleus, enabling gene transcription and protein production.

 

 

Signal Transduction

Signal Transduction

 

Activated nuclear receptors attach to the DNA at receptor-specific hormone-responsive element (HRE) sequences, located in the promoter region of the genes activated by the hormone-receptor complex. Due to their enabling gene transcription, they are alternatively called inductors of gene expression. All hormones that act by regulation of gene expression have two consequences in their mechanism of action; their effects are produced after a characteristically long period of time and their effects persist for another long period of time, even after their concentration has been reduced to zero, due to a relatively slow turnover of most enzymes and proteins that would either deactivate or terminate ligand binding onto the receptor.

Signal transduction via these receptors involves little proteins, but the details of gene regulation by this method are not well-understood. Nucleic receptors have DNA-binding domains containing zinc fingers and a ligand-binding domain; the zinc fingers stabilize DNA binding by holding its phosphate backbone. DNA sequences that match the receptor are usually hexameric repeats of any kind; the sequences are similar but their orientation and distance differentiate them. The ligand-binding domain is additionally responsible for dimerization of nucleic receptors prior to binding and providing structures for transactivation used for communication with the translational apparatus.

 

signal-transduction-in-protease-signaling-

signal-transduction-in-protease-signaling-

 

protein changes in biological mechanisms

protein changes in biological mechanisms

 

Steroid receptors are a subclass of nuclear receptors located primarily within the cytosol; in the absence of steroids, they cling together in an aporeceptor complex containing chaperone or heatshock proteins (HSPs). The HSPs are necessary to activate the receptor by assisting the protein to fold in a way such that the signal sequence enabling its passage into the nucleus is accessible. Steroid receptors, on the other hand, may be repressive on gene expression when their transactivation domain is hidden; activity can be enhanced by phosphorylation of serine residues at their N-terminal as a result of another signal transduction pathway, a process called crosstalk.

Structure of the N-terminal domain of the yeast Hsp90 chaperone

Structure of the N-terminal domain of the yeast Hsp90 chaperone

Pincer movement of Hsp90 coupled to the ATPase cycle. NTD = N-terminal domain, MD = middle domain, CTD = C-terminal domain.

Pincer movement of Hsp90 coupled to the ATPase cycle. NTD = N-terminal domain, MD = middle domain, CTD = C-terminal domain.

Retinoic acid receptors are another subset of nuclear receptors. They can be activated by an endocrine-synthesized ligand that entered the cell by diffusion, a ligand synthesised from a precursor like retinol brought to the cell through the bloodstream or a completely intracellularly synthesised ligand like prostaglandin. These receptors are located in the nucleus and are not accompanied by HSPs; they repress their gene by binding to their specific DNA sequence when no ligand binds to them, and vice versa.

Certain intracellular receptors of the immune system are cytoplasmic receptors; recently identified NOD-like receptors (NLRs) reside in the cytoplasm of some eukaryotic cells and interact with ligands using a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motif similar to TLRs. Some of these molecules like NOD2 interact with RIP2 kinase that activates NF-κB signaling, whereas others like NALP3 interact with inflammatory caspases and initiate processing of particular cytokines like interleukin-1β.[38][39]

 

Cell signaling

signaling pathjways map

signaling pathjways map

Cell signalling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions. The ability of cells to perceive and correctly respond to their microenvironment is the basis of development, tissue repair, and immunity as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Errors in cellular information processing are responsible for diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and diabetes. By understanding cell signalling, diseases may be treated effectively and, theoretically, artificial tissues may be created.

Traditional work in biology has focused on studying individual parts of cell signaling pathways. Systems biology research helps us to understand the underlying structure of cell signaling networks and how changes in these networks may affect the transmission and flow of information. Such networks are complex systems in their organization and may exhibit a number of emergent properties. Long-range allostery is often a significant component of cell signaling events.[1]

Enzyme_Model allosterism

Enzyme_Model allosterism

Classification

Signaling within, between, and among cells is subdivided into the following classifications:

  • Intracrine signals are produced by the target cell that stay within the target cell.
  • Autocrine signals are produced by the target cell, are secreted, and effect the target cell itself via receptors. Sometimes autocrine cells can target cells close by if they are the same type of cell as the emitting cell. An example of this are immune cells.
  • Juxtacrine signals target adjacent (touching) cells. These signals are transmitted along cell membranes via protein or lipid components integral to the membrane and are capable of affecting either the emitting cell or cells immediately adjacent.
transepithelial-electrogenic-ion-transport

transepithelial-electrogenic-ion-transport

calcium release calmodulin + ER

calcium release calmodulin + ER

 

Ca++ exchange

Ca++ exchange

Paracrine bidirectional cardiac fibroblast-myocyte crosstalk

Paracrine bidirectional cardiac fibroblast-myocyte crosstalk

  • Paracrine signals target cells in the vicinity of the emitting cell. Neurotransmitters represent an example.
  • Endocrine signals target distant cells. Endocrine cells produce hormones that travel through the blood to reach all parts of the body.
Notch-mediated juxtacrine signal between adjacent cells.

Notch-mediated juxtacrine signal between adjacent cells.

 

Notch-mediated juxtacrine signal between adjacent cells.

Some cell–cell communication requires direct cell–cell contact. Some cells can form gap junctions that connect their cytoplasm to the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. In cardiac muscle, gap junctions between adjacent cells allows for action potential propagation from the cardiac pacemaker region of the heart to spread and coordinately cause contraction of the heart.

The notch signaling mechanism is an example of juxtacrine signaling (also known as contact-dependent signaling) in which two adjacent cells must make physical contact in order to communicate. This requirement for direct contact allows for very precise control of cell differentiation during embryonic development. In the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, two cells of the developing gonad each have an equal chance of terminally differentiating or becoming a uterine precursor cell that continues to divide. The choice of which cell continues to divide is controlled by competition of cell surface signals. One cell will happen to produce more of a cell surface protein that activates the Notch receptor on the adjacent cell. This activates a feedback loop or system that reduces Notch expression in the cell that will differentiate and that increases Notch on the surface of the cell that continues as a stem cell.[5]

Many cell signals are carried by molecules that are released by one cell and move to make contact with another cell. Endocrine signals are called hormones. Hormones are produced by endocrine cells and they travel through the blood to reach all parts of the body. Specificity of signaling can be controlled if only some cells can respond to a particular hormone. Paracrine signals such as retinoic acid target only cells in the vicinity of the emitting cell.[6] Neurotransmitters represent another example of a paracrine signal. Some signaling molecules can function as both a hormone and a neurotransmitter. For example, epinephrine and norepinephrine can function as hormones when released from the adrenal gland and are transported to the heart by way of the blood stream. Norepinephrine can also be produced by neurons to function as a neurotransmitter within the brain.[7] Estrogen can be released by the ovary and function as a hormone or act locally via paracrine or autocrine signaling.[8] Active species of oxygen and nitric oxide can also act as cellular messengers. This process is dubbed redox signaling.

Signaling Pathways

Cell Signaling Biology

Michael J. Berridge

Module 2

Cell Signaling Pathways
The nine membrane-bound adenylyl cyclases (AC1–AC9) have a similar domain structure. The single polypeptide has a tandem repeat of six transmembrane domains (TM) with TM1- -TM6 in one repeat and TM7- -TM12 in the other. Each TM cassette is followed by large cytoplasmic domains (C1 and C2), which contain the catalytic regions that convert ATP into cyclic AMP. As shown in the lower panel, the C1 and C2 domains come together to form a heterodimer. The ATP-binding site is located at the interface between these two domains. The soluble AC10 isoform lacks the transmembrane regions, but it retains the C1 and C2 domains that are responsible for catalysis
www.cellsignallingbiology.org  http://www.biochemj.org/csb/002/csb002.pdf

 

Resources:

Elucidate Target-Specific Pathways With a Suite of Cellular Assays

DiscoveRx® offers a comprehensive collection of cell-based pathway indicator assays designed to detect activation or inhibition of complex signal transduction pathways in response to compound treatment. Based on the proven PathHunter® technology, These biosensor cell lines allow you to measure distinct events within a variety of pathways involved in compound toxicity, cholesterol metabolism, antioxidant function, DNA damage and ER stress. In combination with our biosensor cell lines with fast and simple chemiluminescent detection, DiscoveRx Pathway Signaling assays will help you generate cellular pathway selectivity profiles of your compounds without relying on reporter gene assays or complex phenotypic screens. – See more at: http://www.discoverx.com/targets/signaling-pathways?gclid=CPPrxrrli8ACFSdp7AodO2IADQ#sthash.OhK3iKl4.dpuf

  GPCR Targets ,   Kinase Targets ,   Nuclear Receptors ,   Protease Targets ,   Epigenetic Targets ,   Signaling Pathways –  See more at: http://www.discoverx.com/targets#sthash.KjwWEjjx.dpuf

DiscoveRx® offers a comprehensive collection of cell-based pathway indicator assays designed to detect activation or inhibition of complex signal transduction pathways in response to compound treatment. Based on the proven PathHunter® technology, These biosensor cell lines allow you to measure distinct events within a variety of pathways involved in compound toxicity, cholesterol metabolism, antioxidant function, DNA damage and ER stress. – See more at: http://www.discoverx.com/targets/signaling-pathways#sthash.ZTb5UXVO.dpuf

 

 

inhibitors of signal transduction pathway

inhibitors of signal transduction pathway

Inhibitors of MAPK Signaling Pathway

Inhibitors of MAPK Signaling Pathway

 

jak-stat

jak-stat

 

Nrf2 signaling in ARE-mediated coordinated activation of defensive genes

Nrf2 signaling in ARE-mediated coordinated activation of defensive genes

 

Regulation of AMPK

Regulation of AMPK

 

 

metabolic pathways

metabolic pathways

 

On these resource pages you can find signaling pathway diagrams, research overviews, relevant antibody products, publications, and other research resources organized by topic. The pathway diagrams associated with these topics have been assembled by CST scientists and outside experts to provide succinct and current overviews of selected signaling pathways. Please send suggestions for developing new pathways to info@cellsignal.com. Protein nodes in each pathway diagram are linked to specific antibody product information or, optionally, to protein-specific listings in the PhosphoSitePlus® database of post-translational modifications.

http://www.cellsignal.com/common/content/content.jsp?id=science-pathways
http://www.cellsignal.com/common/content/content.jsp?id=pathways-akt-signaling
http://www.cellsignal.com/common/content/content.jsp?id=pathways-mtor-signaling

PI3K / Akt Signaling Overview

 The serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB exists as three isoforms in mammals. Akt1 has a wide tissue distribution, whereas Akt2 is found predominantly in muscle and fat cells and Akt3 is expressed in testes and brain. Akt regulates multiple biological processes including cell survival, proliferation, growth, and glycogen metabolism. Various growth factors, hormones, and cytokines activate Akt by binding their cognate receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), cytokine receptor, or GPCR and triggering activation of the lipid kinase PI3K, which generates PIP3 at the plasma membrane. Akt binds PIP3 through its pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, resulting in translocation of Akt to the membrane. Akt is activated through a dual phosphorylation mechanism. PDK1, which is also brought to the membrane through its PH domain, phosphorylates Akt within its activation loop at Thr308. A second phosphorylation at Ser473 within the carboxy terminus is also required for activity and is carried out by the mTOR-rictor complex, mTORC2.

PTEN, a lipid phosphatase that catalyzes the dephosphorylation of PIP3, is a major negative regulator of Akt signaling. Loss of PTEN function has been implicated in many human cancers. Akt activity is also negatively regulated by the phosphatases PP2A and PHLPP, as well as by the chemical modulators wortmannin and LY294002, both of which are inhibitors of PI3K.

Activated Akt phosphorylates a large number of downstream substrates containing the consensus sequence RXRXXS/T. One of its primary functions is to promote cell growth and protein synthesis through regulation of the mTOR signaling pathway. Akt directly phosphorylates and activates mTOR, as well as inhibits the mTOR inhibitor proteins PRAS40 and tuberin (TSC2). Combined, these actions promote cell growth and G1 cell cycle progression through signaling via p70 S6 Kinase and inhibition of 4E-BP1.

Phosphofructokinase mechanism

Phosphofructokinase mechanism

GSK-3 is a primary target of Akt and inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3α (Ser21) or GSK-3β (Ser9) has numerous cellular effects such as promoting glycogen metabolism, cell cycle progression, regulation of wnt signaling, and formation of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimers disease. Akt promotes cell survival directly by its ability to phosphorylate and inactivate several pro-apoptotic targets, including Bad, Bim, Bax, and the forkhead (FoxO1/3a) transcription factors. Akt also plays an important role in metabolism and insulin signaling. Insulin receptor signaling through Akt promotes Glut4 translocation through activation of AS160 and TBC1D1, resulting in increased glucose uptake. Akt regulates glycolysis through phosphorylation of PFK and hexokinase, and plays a significant role in aerobic glycolysis of cancer cells, also known as the Warburg Effect.

Aberrant Akt signaling is the underlying defect found in several pathologies. Akt is one of the most frequently activated kinases in human cancer as constitutively active Akt can promote unregulated cell proliferation. Abnormalities in Akt2 signaling can result in diabetes due to defects in glucose homeostasis. Akt is also a key player in cardiovascular disease through its role in cardiac growth, angiogenesis, and hypertrophy.

References

  1. Robey RB, Hay N (2009) Is Akt the “Warburg kinase”?-Akt-energy metabolism interactions and oncogenesis. Cancer Biol. 19(1), 25–31.
  2. Zhang S, Yu D (2010) PI(3)king apart PTEN’s role in cancer. Cancer Res. 16(17), 4325–30.
  3. Zoncu R, Efeyan A, Sabatini DM (2011) mTOR: from growth signal integration to cancer, diabetes and ageing. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 12(1), 21–35.
  4. Zhang X, Tang N, Hadden TJ, Rishi AK (2011) Akt, FoxO and regulation of apoptosis. Biophys. Acta 1813(11), 1978–86.
  5. Kloet DE, Burgering BM (2011) The PKB/FOXO switch in aging and cancer. Biophys. Acta 1813(11), 1926–37.
  6. Hers I, Vincent EE, Tavars JM (2011) Akt signalling in health and disease. Signal. 23(10), 1515–27.
  7. Wang H, Zhang Q, Wen Q, Zheng Y, Lazarovici P, Philip L, Jiang H, Lin J, Zheng W (2012) Proline-rich Akt substrate of 40kDa (PRAS40): a novel downstream target of PI3k/Akt signaling pathway. Signal. 24(1), 17–24.
  8. Dazert E, Hall MN (2011) mTOR signaling in disease. Opin. Cell Biol. 23(6), 744–55.
  9. Bayley JP, Devilee P (2012) The Warburg effect in 2012. Curr Opin Oncol 24(1), 62–7.

 

mTOR Signaling Pathway

Akt mTOR pathway

Akt mTOR pathway

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an atypical serine/threonine kinase that is present in two distinct complexes. mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is composed of mTOR, Raptor, GβL (mLST8), and Deptor and is partially inhibited by rapamycin. mTORC1 integrates multiple signals reflecting the availability of growth factors, nutrients, or energy to promote either cellular growth when conditions are favorable or catabolic processes during stress or when conditions are unfavorable. Growth factors and hormones (e.g. insulin) signal to mTORC1 via Akt, which inactivates TSC2 to prevent inhibition of mTORC1. Alternatively, low ATP levels lead to the AMPK-dependent activation of TSC2 and phosphorylation of raptor to reduce mTORC1 signaling. Amino acid availability is signaled to mTORC1 via a pathway involving the Rag and Ragulator (LAMTOR1-3) proteins. Active mTORC1 has a number of downstream biological effects including translation of mRNA via the phosphorylation of downstream targets (4E-BP1 and p70 S6 Kinase), suppression of autophagy (Atg13, ULK1), ribosome biogenesis, and activation of transcription leading to mitochondrial metabolism or adipogenesis. The mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) is composed of mTOR, Rictor, GβL, Sin1, PRR5/Protor-1, and Deptor and promotes cellular survival by activating Akt. mTORC2 also regulates cytoskeletal dynamics by activating PKCα and regulates ion transport and growth via SGK1 phosphorylation. Aberrant mTOR signaling is involved in many disease states including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders.

Selected Reviews:

We would like to thank Carson Thoreen and Prof. David Sabatini, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA, for reviewing this diagram. revised November 2012

Protein Folding

 

conformational-rearrangements

conformational-rearrangements

Pincer movement of Hsp90 coupled to the ATPase cycle. NTD = N-terminal domain, MD = middle domain, CTD = C-terminal domain.

Pincer movement of Hsp90 coupled to the ATPase cycle. NTD = N-terminal domain, MD = middle domain, CTD = C-terminal domain.

 

Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) form seven families (small HSPs (sHSPs), HSP10, 40, 60, 70, 90, and 100) of molecular chaperone proteins that play a central role in the cellular resistance to stress and actin organization. They are involved in the proper folding of proteins and the recognition and refolding of misfolded proteins. HSP expression is induced by a variety of environmental stresses, including heat, hypoxia, nutrient deficiency, free radicals, toxins, ischemia, and UV radiation. HSP27 is a member of the sHSP family. It is phosphorylated at Ser15, Ser78, and Ser82 by MAPKAPK-2 as a result of the activation of the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Phosphorylation and increased concentration of HSP27 has been implicated in actin polymerization and reorganization. HSP70 and HSP90 interact with unfolded proteins to prevent irreversible aggregation and catalyze the refolding of their substrates in an ATP- and co-chaperone-dependent manner. HSP70 has a broad range of substrates including newly synthesized and denatured proteins, while HSP90 tends to have a more limited subset of substrates, most of which are signaling molecules. HSP70 and HSP90 are also essential for the maturation and inactivation of nuclear hormones and other signaling molecules.

References

  1. Stenmark H (2009) Rab GTPases as coordinators of vesicle traffic. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 10(8), 513–25.
  2. Horgan CP, McCaffrey MW (2009) The dynamic Rab11-FIPs. Soc. Trans. 37(Pt 5), 1032–6.
  3. Evans CG, Chang L, Gestwicki JE (2010) Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as an emerging drug target. Med. Chem. 53(12), 4585–602.
  4. Lanneau D, Wettstein G, Bonniaud P, Garrido C (2010) Heat shock proteins: cell protection through protein triage. ScientificWorldJournal 10, 1543–52.
  5. Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Saber H, Ferns GA (2012) The potential role of heat shock protein 27 in cardiovascular disease. Chim. Acta 413(1-2), 15–24.
  6. Horgan CP, McCaffrey MW (2011) Rab GTPases and microtubule motors. Soc. Trans. 39(5), 1202–6.
  7. Stenmark H (2009) Rab GTPases as coordinators of vesicle traffic. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 10(8), 513–25.
  8. Horgan CP, McCaffrey MW (2009) The dynamic Rab11-FIPs. Soc. Trans. 37(Pt 5), 1032–6.
  9. Evans CG, Chang L, Gestwicki JE (2010) Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as an emerging drug target. Med. Chem. 53(12), 4585–602.
  10. Lanneau D, Wettstein G, Bonniaud P, Garrido C (2010) Heat shock proteins: cell protection through protein triage. ScientificWorldJournal 10, 1543–52.
  11. Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Saber H, Ferns GA (2012) The potential role of heat shock protein 27 in cardiovascular disease. Chim. Acta 413(1-2), 15–24.
  12. Horgan CP, McCaffrey MW (2011) Rab GTPases and microtubule motors. Soc. Trans. 39(5), 1202–6

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