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Posts Tagged ‘University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center’


Genomics of Incident Ischemic Stroke Events, Stroke and Cardiovascular Disease

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

Associations Between Incident Ischemic Stroke Events and Stroke and Cardiovascular Disease-Related Genome-Wide Association Studies Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Population Architecture Using Genomics and Epidemiology Study

Cara L. Carty, PhD, Petra Bůžková, PhD, Myriam Fornage, PhD, Nora Franceschini, MD, Shelley Cole, PhD, Gerardo Heiss, MD, PhD, Lucia A. Hindorff, PhD, MPH, Barbara V. Howard, PhD, Sue Mann, MPH, Lisa W. Martin, MD, Ying Zhang, PhD, Tara C. Matise, PhD, Ross Prentice, PhD, Alexander P. Reiner, MD, MS and Charles Kooperberg, PhD

Author Affiliations

From the Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (C.L.C., S.M., R.P., C.K.); Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (P.B.); Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Houston, Houston, TX (M.F.); Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Houston, TX (M.F.); Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (N.F., G.H.); Department of Genetics, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (S.C.); Office of Population Genomics, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (L.A.H.); Medstar Health Research Institute, Washington, DC (B.V.H.); George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC (B.V.H., L.W.M.); University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (Y.Z.); Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (T.C.M.); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (A.P.R.).

Correspondence to Dr Cara L. Carty, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N./M3-A410, Seattle, WA 98109. E-mail ccarty@fhcrc.org

Abstract

Background—Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified loci associated with ischemic stroke (IS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in European-descent individuals, but their replication in different populations has been largely unexplored.

Methods and Results—Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from GWAS and meta-analyses of stroke, and 86 SNPs previously associated with myocardial infarction and CVD risk factors, including blood lipids (high density lipoprotein [HDL], low density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides), type 2 diabetes, and body mass index (BMI), were investigated for associations with incident IS in European Americans (EA) N=26 276, African-Americans (AA) N=8970, and American Indians (AI) N=3570 from the Population Architecture using Genomicsand Epidemiology Study. Ancestry-specific fixed effects meta-analysis with inverse variance weighting was used to combine study-specific log hazard ratios from Cox proportional hazards models. Two of 9 stroke SNPs (rs783396 and rs1804689) were associated with increased IS hazard in AA; none were significant in this large EA cohort. Of 73 CVD risk factor SNPs tested in EA, 2 (HDL and triglycerides SNPs) were associated with IS. In AA, SNPs associated with LDL, HDL, and BMI were significantly associated with IS (3 of 86 SNPs tested). Out of 58 SNPs tested in AI, 1 LDL SNP was significantly associated with IS.

Conclusions—Our analyses showing lack of replication in spite of reasonable power for many stroke SNPs and differing results by ancestry highlight the need to follow up on GWAS findings and conduct genetic association studies in diverse populations. We found modest IS associations with BMI and lipids SNPs, though these findings require confirmation.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2012; 5: 210-216

 

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Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Genes with Subclinical Atherosclerosis in American Indians: Genetic Variants Study and Gene-Family Analysis

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Joint Associations of 61 Genetic Variants in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Genes with Subclinical Atherosclerosis in American Indians – A Gene-Family Analysis

Jingyun Yang, PhD*Yun Zhu, MS*Elisa T. Lee, PhD, Ying Zhang, PhD, Shelley A. Cole, PhD, Karin Haack, PhD, Lyle G. Best, BS MD, Richard B. Devereux, MD, Mary J. Roman, MD, Barbara V. Howard, PhD and Jinying Zhao, MD, PhD

Author Affiliations

From the Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA (J.Y., Y. Zhu, J.Z.); Center for American Indian Health Research, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (E.T.L., Y. Zhang); Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (S.A.C., K.H.); Missouri Breaks Industries Research Inc, Timber Lake, SD (L.G.B.); The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY (R.B.D., M.J.R.); MedStar Health Research Institute, Hyattsville, MD (B.V.H.); and Georgetown and Howard Universities Centers for Translational Sciences, Washington, DC (B.V.H.).

Correspondence to Jinying Zhao, MD, PhD, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, 1440 Canal St, SL18, New Orleans, LA 70112. E-mail jzhao5@tulane.edu

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Background—Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in all American populations, including American Indians. Genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may explain only a small portion of variability in disease, the joint effect of multiple variants in a pathway on disease susceptibility could be large.

Methods and Results—Using a gene-family analysis, we investigated the joint associations of 61 tag SNPs in 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes with subclinical atherosclerosis, as measured by carotid intima-media thickness and plaque score, in 3665 American Indians from 94 families recruited by the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). Although multiple SNPs showed marginal association with intima-media thickness and plaque score individually, only a few survived adjustments for multiple testing. However, simultaneously modeling of the joint effect of all 61 SNPs in 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes revealed significant association of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family with both intima-media thickness and plaque score independent of known coronary risk factors.

Conclusions—Genetic variants in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family jointly contribute to subclinical atherosclerosis in American Indians who participated in the SHFS. These variants may influence the susceptibility of atherosclerosis through pathways other than cigarette smoking per se.

SOURCE:

Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.2013; 6: 89-96

Published online before print December 22, 2012,

doi: 10.1161/ CIRCGENETICS.112.963967

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Endovascular Lower-extremity Revascularization Effectiveness: Invasive Intervention performed by

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Efficacy of stenting procedures in the early days of invasive PCI as a function of the expertise level of the interventionist provider is presented in

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/08/13/coronary-artery-disease-medical-devices-solutions-from-first-in-man-stent-implantation-via-medical-ethical-dilemmas-to-drug-eluting-stents/

Lower-extremity endovascular interventions for Medicare beneficiaries: comparative effectiveness as a function of provider specialty.

Authors

Zafar AM, Dhangana R, Murphy TP, Goodwin SC, Duszak R Jr, Ray CE Jr, Manolov NE.

Journal

J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2012 Jan;23(1):3-9.e1-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jvir.2011.09.005.

Affiliation

Vascular Disease Research Center, Rhode Island Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Alpert MedicalSchool, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA.

Comment in

Abstract

PURPOSE: Lower-extremity endovascular interventions are increasingly being performed by vascular surgeons (VSs) and interventional cardiologists (ICs) in addition to interventional radiologists (IRs). Regardless of specialty, well trained, experienced, and dedicated operators are expected to offer the best outcomes. To examine specialty-specific trends, outcomes of percutaneous lower-extremity revascularizations in Medicare beneficiaries were compared according to physician specialty types providing the service.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medicare Standard Analytical Files that contain longitudinal data of all services (physician, inpatient, outpatient) provided to a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries were studied. All claims for percutaneous angioplasty, atherectomy, and stent implantation of lower-extremity arteries during the years 2005–2007 were extracted, and the following outcomes were assessed: mortality, transfusion, intensive care unit (ICU) use, length of stay, and subsequent revascularization or amputation. Outcomes were compared by using regression models adjusted for age, sex, race, emergency department admission, and comorbid conditions.

RESULTS: Most outcomes were significantly worse if the service was provided by vascular surgeons compared with other vascular specialists. The in-hospital mortality rate for procedures performed by VSs was 19% higher than for those performed by others, but this difference was not significant (P =.351). Adjusted average 1-year procedure costs were significantly lower for IRs ($17,640) than for VSs ($19,012) or ICs ($19,096).

CONCLUSIONS: Medicare data show that endovascular lower-extremity revascularization by vascular surgeons results in more transfusion and ICU use, longer hospital stay, more repeat revascularization procedures or amputations, and higher costs compared with procedures performed by interventional radiologists.

22217499 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Full text: Elsevier Science

Why interventional cardiologists may be the most suitable specialists for the endovascular management of peripheral artery disease

Biondi-Zoccai G.

Minerva Cardioangiol. 2013 Jun;61(3):367-70.

Affiliation

Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies La Sapienza University, Rome,Latina, Italy – gbiondizoccai@gmail.com.

Peripheral artery disease has a major morbidity and mortality burden worldwide, and its impact is going to increase even further given the obesity and diabetes pandemic. Whereas medical therapy and open surgical therapy (e.g. bypass, endarterectomy, and aneurysmectomy) remain mainstays in the management of peripheral artery disease, endovascular (i.e. percutaneous or transcatheter) therapy is gaining ever increasing success among patients and physicians alike. However, endovascular interventions can be performed by cardiologists, radiologists, vascular surgeons and, possibly, others as well. Are all these specialists similarly likely to perform endovascular procedures in a safe and effective fashion? Can we identify a subset of specialists ideally equipped to perform endovascular interventions in the best manner? We indeed make the case in this article for the possible superiority of interventional cardiologists, for their background, training and clinical experience, in performing endovascular procedures

http://www.minervamedica.it/en/journals/minerva-cardioangiologica/article.php?cod=R05Y2013N03A0367

Endovascular repair of traumatic aortic injury: a novel arena in interventional cardiology.

Authors

Patel JH, et al. Show all

Journal

J Interv Cardiol. 2013 Feb;26(1):77-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8183.2012.00761.x. Epub 2012 Sep 10.

Affiliation

Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Section, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of endovascular repair of traumatic aortic injuries performed by interventional cardiologists in collaboration with cardiothoracic surgeons.

BACKGROUND: Traumatic aortic injury (TAI) represents a significant cause of mortality in trauma patients. Endovascular techniques have recently come into play for the management of TAI and are usually performed by a multidisciplinary team consisting of a thoracic or vascular surgeon and/or interventional radiology. With extensive expertise in catheter-based interventions, interventional cardiologists may have a pivotal role in this important procedure.

METHODS: From January 2009 to July 2011, we reviewed the TAI endovascular repair outcomes performed by a team of interventional cardiologists in collaboration with cardiothoracic surgery at our institution. The charts of these patients were reviewed to collect desired data, which included preoperative, procedural, and follow-up details.

RESULTS: Twenty patients were identified in our series. Most of these patients developed TAI from motor vehicle accidents. Technical success for endovascular repair of TAI was achieved in all patients. Two patients developed endoleak, of which one patient required subsequent open repair. Two patients expired in the hospital from coexistent injuries.

CONCLUSIONS: Our series of endovascular repair for TAI performed by interventional cardiologists with the collaboration of cardiothoracic surgeons showed excellent outcomes. Our experience may give further insight in the collaborative role of interventional cardiology and cardiothoracic surgery for endovascular repair of TAI.

High risk of ‘failure’ among emergency physicians compared with other specialists: a nationwide cohort study.

Authors

Lee YK, et al. Show all

Journal

Emerg Med J. 2013 Apr 25. [Epub ahead of print]

Affiliation

Emergency Department, Buddhist Tzu Chi Dalin General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The intensive physical and psychological stress of emergency medicine has evoked concerns about whether emergency physicians could work in the emergency department for their entire careers. Results of previous studies of the attrition rates of emergency physicians are conflicting, but the study samples and designs were limited.

OBJECTIVE: To use National Health Insurance claims data to track the work status and work places of emergency physicians compared with other specialists. To examine the hypothesis that emergency physicians leave their specialty more frequently than other hospital-based specialists.

METHODS: Three types of specialists who work in hospitals were enrolled: emergency physicians, surgeons and radiologists/pathologists. Every physician was followed up until they left the hospital, did not work anymore or were censored. A Kaplan-Meier curve was plotted to show the trend. A multivariate Cox regression model was then applied to evaluate the adjusted HRs of emergency physicians compared with other specialists.

RESULTS: A total of 16 666 physicians (1584 emergency physicians, 12 103 surgeons and 2979 radiologists/pathologists) were identified between 1997 and 2010. For emergency physicians, the Kaplan-Meier curve showed a significantly decreased survival after 10 years. The log-rank test was statistically significant (p value <0.001). In the Cox regression model, after adjusting for age and sex, the HRs of emergency physicians compared with surgeons and radiologists/pathologists were 5.84 (95% CI 2.98 to 11.47) and 21.34 (95% CI 8.00 to 56.89), respectively.

CONCLUSION: Emergency physicians have a higher probability of leaving their specialties than surgeons and radiologists/pathologists, possibly owing to the high stress of emergency medicine. Further strategies should be planned to retain experienced emergency physicians in their specialties

23620503 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
REFERENCES

2011 ASA/ACCF/AHA/AANN/AANS/ACR/ASNR/CNS/SAIP/SCAI/SIR/SNIS/SVM/SVS guideline on the management of patients with extracranial carotid and vertebral artery disease: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American Stroke Association, American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, American College of Radiology, American Society of Neuroradiology, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, Society of Atherosclerosis Imaging and Prevention, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Interventional Radiology, Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery, Society for Vascular Medicine, and Society for Vascular Surgery. Developed in collaboration with the American Academy of Neurology and Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography.

Authors

Brott TG, et al. Show all

Journal

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2013 Jan 1;81(1):E76-123. doi: 10.1002/ccd.22983. Epub 2011 Feb 3.

23281092 [PubMed – in process]

National trends in lower extremity bypass surgery, endovascular interventions, and major amputations

Presented at the New England Society for Vascular Surgery, Newport, RI, October 3-5, 2008.
  • a Section of Vascular Surgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH
  • b VA Outcomes Group, White River Junction, Vt
  • c Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH
  • d JLM Data, Inc., Chicago, Ill

Introduction

Advances in endovascular interventions have expanded the options available for the invasive treatment of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Whether endovascular interventions substitute for conventional bypass surgery or are simply additive has not been investigated, and their effect on amputation rates is unknown.

Methods

We sought to analyze trends in lower extremity endovascular interventions (angioplasty and atherectomy), lower extremity bypass surgery, and major amputation (above and below-knee) in Medicare beneficiaries between 1996 and 2006. We used 100% samples of Medicare Part B claims to calculate annual procedure rates of lower extremity bypass surgery, endovascular interventions (angioplasty and atherectomy), and major amputation between 1996 and 2006. Using physician specialty identifiers, we also examined trends in the specialty performing the primary procedure.

Results

Between 1996 and 2006, the rate of major lower extremity amputation declined significantly (263 to 188 per 100,000; risk ratio [RR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6-0.8). Endovascular interventions increased more than threefold (from 138 to 455 per 100,000; RR = 3.30; 95% CI: 2.9-3.7) while bypass surgery decreased by 42% (219 to 126 per 100,000; RR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.5-0.7). The increase in endovascular interventions consisted both of a growth in peripheral angioplasty (from 135 to 337 procedures per 100,000; RR = 2.49; 95% CI: 2.2-2.8) and the advent of percutaneous atherectomy (from 3 to 118 per 100,000; RR = 43.12; 95% CI: 34.8-52.0). While radiologists performed the majority of endovascular interventions in 1996, more than 80% were performed by cardiologists and vascular surgeons by 2006. Overall, the total number of all lower extremity vascular procedures almost doubled over the decade (from 357 to 581 per 100,000; RR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.5-1.8).

Conclusion

Endovascular interventions are now performed much more commonly than bypass surgery in the treatment of lower extremity PAD. These changes far exceed simple substitution, as more than three additional endovascular interventions were performed for every one procedure declined in lower extremity bypass surgery. During this same time period, major lower extremity amputation rates have fallen by more than 25%. However, further study is needed before any causal link can be established between lower extremity vascular procedures and improved rates of limb salvage in patients with PAD.

Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects over 8 million Americans, with significant associated morbidity and mortality.1234 and 5 Until recently, the treatment of these patients primarily consisted of peripheral arterial bypass surgery, such as femoral-popliteal bypass.3 However, advances in catheter-based technology have made endovascular interventions, such as balloon angioplasty or percutaneous atherectomy (removal of intra-arterial plaque using catheter-based devices) a commonly utilized alternative.3 and 6 In fact, many physicians now advocate an “endovascular first” strategy.78 and 9

This change has occurred in the setting of limited and often conflicting evidence. For example, in the early 1990s, population-based data from Maryland led many vascular surgeons to argue that the use of angioplasty was not effective, and instead resulted in even higher utilization of peripheral bypass surgery.10In contrast, the only randomized trial prospectively comparing the effectiveness of endovascular interventions with open surgery reported similar short-term outcomes between the two treatments.7Nonetheless, while many believe a shift towards endovascular interventions has occurred, two uncertainties remain. First, it is not yet known if endovascular interventions are performed as a substitute for bypass surgery, or in addition to bypass surgery. Second, it is unknown if these temporal changes in the use of lower extremity revascularization (both open and endovascular) have also been associated with changes in the incidence of major lower extremity amputation.

To further examine changes in utilization of endovascular interventions, as well as its relationship to rates of bypass surgery and major amputation, we examined recent trends in lower extremity vascular procedures in the United States using the national Medicare claims database.

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Effect of Hospital Characteristics on Outcomes of Endovascular Repair of Descending Aortic Aneurysms in US Medicare Population

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Carotid Stenting: Vascular surgeons have pointed to more minor strokes in the stenting group and cardiologists to more myocardial infarctions in the CEA cohort.
Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

Improved Results for Treatment of Persistent type 2 Endoleak after Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: Onyx Glue Embolization

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Writer, Curator

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/06/28/onyx-glue-for-the-treatment-of-persistent-type-2-endoleak/

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