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Treatment for Infective Endocarditis

Curator: Larry H Bernstein, MD, FACP

UPDATED on 3/4/2019

WATCH VIDEO

https://consultqd.clevelandclinic.org/tricuspid-valve-reconstruction-for-infective-endocarditis-operative-highlights-video/amp/?__twitter_impression=true

Tricuspid Valve Reconstruction for Infective Endocarditis: Operative Highlights (Video)

There are no easy solutions for acute infective tricuspid valve endocarditis in IV drug users, as the risk of prosthetic endocarditis in this population is high. Complete valve resection without replacement is feasible but leads to progressive right-sided heart failure. Reconstruction of the tricuspid valve with autologous pericardium is an alternative option, as demonstrated in the video case study below.

A 29-year-old female drug abuser with fever, hemoptysis and MRSA bacteremia was started on IV antibiotics. She looked frail and had prominent jugular venous pressure as well as 95 percent saturation on 2 liters of nasal cannula oxygen. She was not on inotropes and had a pulmonary artery pressure of 40/20 mmHg with a good cardiac index. Chest CT showed a large left pleural effusion with associated atelectasis of the left lung. The right lung had manifestations of septic emboli and a smaller pleural effusion.

A Cleveland Clinic surgical team led by cardiothoracic surgeon Faisal Bakaeen, MD, proceeded to excise the patient’s extensive infected and devitalized tissue around the tricuspid valve, leaving only a portion of the anterior leaflet to serve as a reference for reconstruction using autologous pericardium. Dr. Bakaeen walks us through the essential surgical steps — and their underlying rationale — in the narrated operative video below.

SOURCE

https://consultqd.clevelandclinic.org/tricuspid-valve-reconstruction-for-infective-endocarditis-operative-highlights-video/amp/?__twitter_impression=true

 

An article that appeared in NEJM compares early surgery versus conventional treatment for infective endocarditis.
Early Surgery versus Conventional Treatment for Infective Endocarditis
Duk-Hyun Kang, Yong-Jin Kim, Sung-Han Kim, Byung Joo Sun, et al.

N Engl J Med June 28, 2012; 366:2466-2473. http://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1112843

Background and Purpose: While current guidelines advocate surgical management for complicated left-sided infective endocarditis and early surgery for patients with infective endocarditis and congestive heart failure, the indications for surgical intervention to prevent systemic embolism remain unclear. Surgery is favored by experience with complete excision of infected tissue and valve repair, and low operative mortality, but it does not remove concerns about residual active infection, which results in two sets of guidelines, the 2006 ACC-AHA for class IIa indication only for recurrent emboli and persistent vegetation, and the 2009 ESC guidelines for class IIb indication for very large, isolated vegetations. The Early Surgery versus Conventional Treatment in Infective Endocarditis (EASE) trial was conducted to determine whether early surgical intervention woulddecrease rate of death or embolic events.

Patient Enrollment: The study enrolled 76 consecutive patients, 18 years of age or older, with left-sided, native-valve infective endocarditis and a high risk of embolism. For all patients with suspected infective endocarditis, blood cultures were obtained and transthoracic echocardiography was performed within 24 hours after hospitalization. Patients were only eligible for enrollment if they had received a diagnosis of definite infective endocarditis and had severe mitral valve or aortic valve disease and vegetation with a diameter greater than 10 mm. Patients were excluded if they had moderate-to-severe congestive heart failure, infective endocarditis complicated by heart block, annular or aortic abscess, destructive penetrating lesions requiring urgent surgery, or fungal endocarditis, or were over 80 years age, or coexisting major embolic stroke with a risk of hemorrhagic transformation at the time of diagnosis, and a serious coexisting condition. Patients were also excluded if they had infective endocarditis involving a prosthetic valve, right-sided vegetations, or small vegetations (diameter, ≤10 mm) or had been referred from another hospital more than 7 days after the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.
The protocol specified that patients who were assigned to the early-surgery group should undergo surgery within 48 hours after randomization. Patients assigned to the conventional-treatment group were treated according to the AHA guidelines, and surgery was performed only if complications requiring urgent surgery developed during medical treatment or if symptoms persisted after the completion of antibiotic therapy. Details of the study procedures are provided in the Supplementary Appendix, available at NEJM.org.

Study End Points: The primary end point was a composite of in-hospital death or clinical embolic events that occurred within 6 weeks after randomization. An embolic event was defined as a systemic embolism fulfilling both prespecified criteria: the acute onset of clinical symptoms or signs of embolism and the occurrence of new lesions, as confirmed by follow-up imaging studies. Prespecified secondary end points, at 6 months of follow-up, included death from any cause, embolic events, recurrence of infective endocarditis, and repeat hospitalization due to the development of congestive heart failure.

Clinical and Echocardiographic Characteristics of the Patients at Baseline, According to Treatment Group:

The mean age of the patients was 47 years, and 67% were men. The mitral valve was involved in 45 patients, the aortic valve in 22, and both valves in 9. Severe mitral regurgitation was observed in 45 patients, severe aortic regurgitation in 23, severe aortic stenosis in 3, severe mitral regurgitation and stenosis in 1, and both severe mitral regurgitation and aortic regurgitation in 4. The median diameter of vegetation was 12 mm (interquartile range, 11 to 17). All patients met the Duke criteria for definite endocarditis; the most common pathogens in both groups were viridans streptococci (in 30% of all patients), other streptococci (in 30%), and Staphylococcus aureus (in 11%). Characteristics of Antibiotic Therapy, According to Treatment Group: There were no significant between-group differences in terms of control of the underlying infection, the antibiotic regimen used, or the duration of antibiotic therapy.

Surgical Procedures: All patients in the early-surgery group underwent valve surgery within 48 hours after randomization; the median time between randomization and surgery was 24 hours (interquartile range, 7 to 45). Of the 22 patients with involvement of the mitral valve, 8 patients underwent mitral-valve repair and 14 underwent mitral-valve replacement with a mechanical valve. Of the 15 patients with involvement of the aortic valve or both the mitral and aortic valves, 14 underwent mechanical-valve replacement and 1 underwent valve replacement with a biologic prosthesis. Concomitant coronary-artery bypass grafting at the time of valve surgery was performed in 2 patients (5%).

Conventional Therapy: Of the 39 patients assigned to the conventional-treatment group, 30 (77%) underwent surgery during the initial hospitalization (27 patients) or during follow-up (3). The surgical procedures included 11 mitral-valve repairs, 6 mitral-valve replacements (with 5 patients receiving a mechanical valve and 1 a biologic prosthesis), 11 aortic-valve replacements (with 9 patients receiving a mechanical valve and 2 a biologic prosthesis), and 2 combined aortic-valve replacements (with 1 patient receiving a mechanical valve and 1 a biologic prosthesis) and mitral-valve repairs. In 8 patients (21%), indications for urgent surgery developed during hospitalization (median time to surgery after randomization, 6.5 days [interquartile range, 6 to 10]). Elective surgery was performed in an additional 22 patients owing to symptoms or left ventricular dysfunction more than 2 weeks after randomization. Surgical results are shown in the Supplementary Appendix.

Primary End Point: The primary end point of in-hospital death or embolic events within the first 6 weeks after randomization occurred in one patient (3%) in the early-surgery group, as compared with nine (23%) in the conventional-treatment group (hazard ratio, 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01 to 0.82; P=0.03). In the early-surgery group, one patient died in the hospital and no patients had embolic events; in the conventional-treatment group, one patient died in the hospital and eight patients had embolic events (Table 3TABLE 3).
http://www.nejm.org/na101/home/literatum/publisher/mms/journals/content/nejm/2012/nejm_2012.366.issue-26/nejmoa1112843/production/images/small/nejmoa1112843_t3.gif

At 6 weeks after randomization, the rate of embolism was 0% in the early-surgery group, as compared with 21% in the conventional-treatment group (P=0.005). No patient in either group had an embolic event or was hospitalized for congestive heart failure during follow-up. Recurrence of infective endocarditis within 6 months after discharge was not observed in any patient in the early-surgery group but was reported in 1 patient in the conventional-treatment group. Among the 11 patients (28%) in the conventional-treatment group who were treated medically and discharged without undergoing surgery, 1 (3%) died suddenly, 7 (18%) had symptoms related to severe valve disease or recurrence of infective endocarditis (3 of whom underwent surgery during follow-up), and 3 (8%) had no symptoms or embolic events (Table S3 in the Supplementary Appendix).
There was no significant difference between the early-surgery and conventional-treatment groups in all-cause mortality at 6 months (3% and 5%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.05 to 5.66; P=0.59) (Figure 2AFIGURE 2).
http://www.nejm.org/na101/home/literatum/publisher/mms/journals/content/nejm/2012/nejm_2012.366.issue-26/nejmoa1112843/production/images/small/nejmoa1112843_f2.gif
Kaplan–Meier Curves for the Cumulative Probabilities of Death and of the Composite End Point at 6 Months, According to Treatment Group.

At 6 months, the rate of the composite of death from any cause, embolic events, recurrence of infective endocarditis, or repeat hospitalization due to the development of congestive heart failure was 3% in the early-surgery group, as compared with 28% in the conventional-treatment group (hazard ratio, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.65; P=0.02). The estimated actuarial rate of end points was significantly lower in the early-surgery group than in the conventional-treatment group (P=0.009 by the log-rank test) (Figure 2B).

Conclusion: Early surgery performed within 48 hours after diagnosis reduced the composite primary end point of death from any cause or embolic events by effectively reducing the risk of systemic embolism. Moreover, these improvements in clinical outcomes were achieved without an increase in operative mortality or recurrence of infective endocarditis.

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