Posts Tagged ‘Mol Cell Cardiol’

Macrovascular Disease – Therapeutic Potential of cEPCs: Reduction Methods for CV Risk

Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

An Investigation of the Potential of circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells (cEPCs) as a Therapeutic Target for Pharmacological Therapy Design for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: A New Multimarker Biomarker Discovery

Research Sources

Aicher A, Heeschen C, Mildner-Rihm C, Urbich C, Ihling C, Technau- Ihling K, Zeiher AM, Dimmeler S, (2003). Essential role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase for mobilization of stem cell and progenitor cells. Nat Med., 9:1370-1376.

Anderson T. (1999). Assessment of treatment of endothelial dysfunction. J Am Coll of Cardiology, 34: 631- 8.

Andrew C. Li, Binder, CJ, Gutierrez, A, Brown, KK, Plotkin, CR, Pattison, JW, Valledor, AF, Davis, RA, Willson, TM, Witztum, JL, Palinski, W, Glass, CK. (2004). Differential inhibition of macrophage foam-cell formation and atherosclerosis in mice by PPAR-alpha, Beta/delta, and gamma. J. Clin. Invest. 114:1564-1576

Aoki, J., Serruys, P.W., van Beusekom, H., Ong, A.T., McFadden, E.P., Sianos, G., et al. (2005). Endothelial progenitor cell capture by stents coated with antibody against CD34: the HEALING-FIM (Healthy Endothelial Accelerated Lining Inhibits Neointimal Growth-First In Man) Registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 45 (10), 1574–1579.

Asahara T, Murohara T, Sullivan A, Silver M, van der Zee R, Li T, Witzenbichler B, Schatterman G, and Isner JM (1997). Isolation of putative progenitor endothelial cells for angiogenesis. Science 275: 964–967.

Asahara T, Murohara T, Sullivan A, Silver M, van der Zee R, Li T, Witzenbichler B, Schatteman G, Isner JM, (1997). Isolation of putatitve progenitor endothelial cells for angiogenesis. Science, 275:964 –967.

Asahara T, Masuda H, Takahashi T, Kalka C, Pastore C, Silver M, Kearne M, Magner M, Isner JM. (1999). Bone marrow origin of endothelial progenitor cells responsible for postnatal vasculogenesis in physiological and pathological neovascularization. Circ Res. 85:221–228.

Askari AT, Unzek S, Popovic ZB, Goldman CK, Forudi F, Kiedrowski M, Rovner A, Ellis SG, Thomas JD, DiCorleto PE, Topol EJ, Penn MS.(2003). Effect of stromal cell-derived factor 1 on stem cell homing and tissue regeneration in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Lancet, 362:697–703.

Assmus B, Schachlinger V, Teupe C, Britten M, Lehmann R, Dobert N, Grunwald F, Aicher A, Urbich C, Martin H, Hoelzer D, Dimmeler S, Zeiher AM, (2002). Transplantation of progenitor cells and regeneration enhancement in acute myocardial infarction (TOPCARE-AMI). Circulation, 106:3009 –3017

Bennett MR, O’Sullivan MO (2001). Mechanisms of angioplasty and stent restenosis: implications for design of rational therapy. Pharmacol Ther., 91:149 –166.

Ben-Shoshan, J and George, J. (2006). Endothelial progenitor cells as therapeutic vectors in cardiovascular disorders: from experimental models to human trials  Pharmacology Therapeutics (impact factor: 8.9). 08/2007; 115(1):25-36.

Bhattacharya V, Shi Q, Ishida A, Sauvage LR, Hammond WP, Wu MH.(2000). Administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor enhances endothelialization and microvessel formation in small caliber synthetic vascular grafts. J Vasc Surg., 32:116 –123.

Bonetti PO, et al. (2002). Reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry, a novel non-invasive index of peripheral vascular function, is attenuated in patients with coronary endothelial dysfunction. Circulation, 106:Suppl II:579.

Bonetti PO, et al. (2003). Enhanced external counterpulsation improves endothelial function in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease. J Am Coll of Cardiology, 41:1761-8.

Britten MB, Abolmaali ND, Assmus B, Lehman R, Honold J, Schmitt J, Vogl TJ, Martin H, Schachinger V, Dimmeler S, Zeiher AM, (2003). Infarct remodeling after intracoronary progenitor cell treatment in patients with acute myocardial infarction (TOPCARE-AMI): mechanistic insights from serial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation, 108:2212–2218.

Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation in Type 2 Diabetics (BARI 2D) ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00006305, 2000-2007

http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00006305   retrieved on 6/20/2006

Caplice NM, Bunch TJ, Stalboerger PG, Wang S, Simper D, Miller DV, Russell SJ, Litzow MR, Edwards WD. (2003). Smooth muscle cells in human coronary atherosclerosis can originate from cells administered at marrow transplantation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 100: 4754–4759.

Chadwick , D.(2006) OrbusNeich’s Genous Bioengineered R-stent . Cath Lab Digest, 14 (1), 20-26

Cho H-J, Kim H-S, Lee M-M, Kim D-H, Yang H-J, Hur J, Hwang K-K, Oh S, Choi Y-J, Chae I-H, Oh, B-H, Choi Y-S, Walsh K, Park Y-B. (2003).  Mobilized endothelial progenitor cells by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor accelerate reendothelialization and reduce vascular inflammation after intravascular radiation. Circulation, 108:2918 –2925.

Choi J-H, Kim KL, Huh W, Kim B, Byun J, Suh W, Sung J, Jeon E-S, Oh H-Y, Kim D-K, (2004). Decreased number and impaired angiogenic function of endothelial progenitors in patients with chronic renal failure. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol., 24:1246 –1252.

Cinamon G, Shinder V, Alon R (2001) Shear forces promote lymphocyte migration across vascular endothelium bearing apical chemokines. Nature Immunology, 2:515

Dimmeler S, Aicher A, Vasa M, Mildner-Rihm C, Adler K, Tiemann M, Rutten H, Fichtlscherer S, Martin H, Zeiher AM, (2001). HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) increase endothelial progenitor cells via the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. J Clin Invest., 108:391–397.

Dimmeler S and Zeiher AM, (2004). Vascular repair by circulating endothelial progenitor cells: the missing link in atherosclerosis. J Mol Med. 82:671– 677.

Drexler H and Hornig B, (1999). Endothelial dysfunction in human disease. J Mol Cell Cardiol., 31:51– 60.

Dzau VJ, Braun-Dullaeus RC, Sedding DG. (2002). Vascular proliferation and atherosclerosis: new perspectives and therapeutic strategies. Nat Med.,  8:1249 –1256.

Dzau, VJ, Gnecchi, M, Pachori, AS, Morello F, Melo, LG.(2005).Therapeutic Potential of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Cardiovascular Diseases.Hypertension,246:7-18.

Edelberg JM, Tang L, Hattori K, Lyden D, Rafii. (2002). Young adult bone marrow-derived endothelial precursor cells restore aging-impaired cardiac angiogenic function. Circ Res., 90:e89–e93.

Endemann DH and Schiffrin EL, (2004). Endothelial dysfunction. J Am Soc Nephrol., 15:1983–1992.

Fadini, G, Avogaro A, Agostini C. (2004), Unambiguous Definition of Endothelial Progenitor Cells. Electronic Letter to the Editor of Heart in reference to article by Eizawa, T, Ikeda U, et al. Decreasing in circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with stable CAD, Heart, 2004; 90: 685-686,

http://heart.bmjjournals.com/cgi/eletters/90/6/685#310  retrieved on 6/26/2006

Fernandez-Aviles F, San Roman JA, Garcıa-Frade J, Fernandez ME, Penarrubia MJ, de la Fuente Luis, Gomez-Bueno M, Cantalapiedra A, Fernandez J, Gutierrez O, Sanchez PL, Hernandez C, Sanz R, Garcıa- Sancho J, Sa´nchez A, (2004). Experimental and clinical regenerative capability of human bone marrow cells after myocardial infarction. Circ Res., 95:742–748.

Folsom, A.R. Chambless, L.E. Ballantyne, C.M. Coresh, J. Heiss, G. Wu, K.K. Boerwinkle, E. Mosley, T.H. Sorlie, P. Diao, G. Sharrett, A.R. (2006). An Assessment of Incremental Coronary Risk Prediction Using C-Reactive Protein and Other Novel Risk Markers – The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Arch Intern. Med. 166, 1368-1373.

Fuujiyama S, Amano K, Uehira K, Yoshida N, Nishiwaki Y, Nozawa Y,  Jin D, Takai S, Miyazaki M, Egashira K, Imada T, Iwasaka T, Matsubara H, (2003). Bone marrow monocyte lineage cells adhere on injured endothelium in a monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-dependent manner and accelerate reendothelialization as endothelial progenitor cells. Circ Res., 93:980-989.

George F, Brisson C, Poncelet P, Laurent JC, Massot O, Arnoux D, Ambrosi P, Klein-Soyer C, Cazenave JP, and Sampol J (1992). Rapid isolation of human endothelial cells from whole blood using S-Endo 1 monoclonal antibody coupled to immunomagnetic beads: demonstration of endothelial injury after angioplasty. Thromb Haemost, 67:147–153.

George J, Herz I, Goldstein E, Abashidze S, Deutch V, Finkelstein A, Michowitz Y, Miller H, Keren G.(2003). Number and adhesive properties of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with in-stent restenosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol., 23:e57– e60.

George J, Goldstein E, Abashidze S, Deutsch V, Shmilovich H, Finkelstein A, Herz I, Miller H, Keren G., (2004). Circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with unstable angina: association with systemic inflammation. Eur Heart J., 25:1003–1008.

George, J., Goldstein, E., Abashidze, S., Wexler, D., Hamed, S., Shmilovich, H., et al. (2005). Erythropoietin promotes endothelial progenitor cell proliferative and adhesive properties in a PI 3-kinase-dependent manner. Cardiovasc Res 68(2), 299-306.

George J, Shmilovich H, Deutsch V, Miller H, Keren G, Roth A. (2006). Comparative Analysis of Methods for Assessment of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Tissue Engineering 12 (2) 331-335

Gerhard-Herman M, et al. (2002). Assessment of endothelial function (nitric oxide) at the tip of a finger. Circulation, 106:Suppl II:170.

Gill M, Dias S, Hattori K, Rivera ML, Hicklin D, Witte L, Girardi L, Yurt R, Himel H, Rafii S, (2001). Vascular trauma induces rapid but transient mobilization of VEGFR2/AC133 endothelial precursor cells. Circ Res., 88:167–174.

Goon, P.K.Y. Lip G.Y.H, Boos, CJ, Stonelake, PS, Blann, AD. (2006). Circulating Endothelial Cells, Endothelial Progenitor Cells, and Endothelial Microparticles in Cancer, Neoplasia, 8:79-88.

Griese DP, Ehsan A, Melo LG, Kong D, Zhang L, Mann MJ, Pratt RE, Mulligan RC, Dzau VJ, (2003). Isolation and transplantation of autologous circulating endothelial cells into denuded vessels and prosthetic grafts: implications for cell-based vascular therapy. Circulation, 108: 2710–2715.

Heeschen C, Aicher A, Lehmann R, Fichtlscherer S, Vasa M, Urbich C, Mildner-Rihm C, Martin H, Zeiher AM, Dimmeler, (2003). Erythropoietin is a potent physiological stimulus for endothelial progenitor cell mobilization. Blood, 102:1340 –1346.

Heeschen C, Lehman R, Honold J, Assmus B, Aicher A, Walter DH, Martin H, Zeiher AM, Dimmeler S. (2004). Profoundly reduced neovascularization capacity of bone marrow mononuclear cells derived from patients with chronic ischemic heart disease. Circulation, 109:1615–1622.

Heissig B, Hattori K, Dias S, Friedrich M, Ferris B, Hackett NR, Crystal RG, Besmer P, Lyden D, Moore MA, Werb Z, Rafii S., (2002). Recruitment of stem and progenitor cells from the bone marrow niche requires MMP-9 mediated release of kit-ligand. Cell ;109: 625-637.

Hiasa K, Ishibashi M, Ohtani K, Inoue S, Zhao Q, Kitamoto S, Sata M, Ichiki T, Takeshita A, Egashira K. Gene transfer of stromal cell-derived factor 1 enhances ischemic vasculogenesis and angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor/endothelial nitric oxide synthaserelated pathway: next generation chemokine therapy for therapeutic neovascularization. Circulation, 109:2454 –2461.

Hill JM, Zalos G, Halcox JPG, Schenke WH, Waclawin MA, Quyyumi A, Finkel T. (2003). Circulating endothelial progenitor cells, vascular function and cardiovascular risk. N Engl J Med., 348:593– 600.

Hillebrands J-L, Klatter FA, van DijK WD, Rozing J. (2003). Bone marrow does not contribute substantially to endothelial-cell replacement in transplant arteriosclerosis. Nat Med., 8:194 –195.

Hu Y, Davison F, Zhan Z, Xu Q. (2003). Endothelial replacement and angiogenesis in arteriosclerotic lesions of allografts are contributed by circulating progenitor cells. Circulation, 108:3122–3127.

Hur, J., Yoon, C.H., Kim, H.S., Choi, J.H., Kang, H.J., Hwang, K.K., et al. (2004). Characterization of two types of endothelial progenitor cells and their different contributions to neovasculogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24(2), 288–293.

Imanishi, T., Hano, T. & Nishio, I. (2005) Estrogen reduces endothelial progenitor cell senescence through augmentation of telomerase activity. J Hypertens 23(9):1699-1706.

Iwaguro H, Yamaguchi J, Kalka C, Murasawa S, Masuda H, Hayashi S, Silver M, Li T, Isner JM, Asahara T, (2002). Endothelial progenitor cell vascular endothelial growth factor gene transfer for vascular regeneration. Circulation, 105:732–738.

Kalka C, Tehrani H, Laudernberg B, Vale P, Isner JM, Asahara T, Symes JF, (2000a). Mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells following gene therapy with VEGF165 in patients with inoperable coronary disease. Ann Thorac Surg., 70:829–834.

Kalka C, Masuda H, Takahashi T, Gordon R, Tepper O, Gravereaux E, Pieczek A, Iwaguro H, Hayashi S-I, Isner JM, Asahara T (2000b). Vascular endothelial growth factor165 gene transfer augments circulating endothelial progenitor cells in human subjects. Circ Res., 86:1198 –1202.

Kalka C, Masuda H, Takahashi T, Kalka-Moll WM, Silver M, Kearney M, Li T, Isner JM, Asahara T, (2000c). Transplantation of ex vivo expanded endothelial progenitor cells for therapeutic neovascularization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97:3422–3427.

Kang H-J, Kim H-S, Zhang S-Y, Park K-W, Cho H-J, Koo B-K, Kim Y-J, Lee DS, Sohn D-W, Han K-S, Oh B-H, Lee M-M, Park Y-B, (2004). Effects of intracoronary infusion of peripheral blood stem cells mobilized with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor on left ventrricular systolic function and restenosis after coronary stenting in myocardial infarction: the MAGIC cell randomized clinical trial. Lancet, 363:751–756.

Kawamoto A, Gwon H-C, Iwaguro H, Yamaguchi J, Uchida S, Masuda H, Silver M, Ma H, Kearney M, Isner JM, Asahara T, (2001). Therapeutic potential of ex vivo expanded endothelial progenitor cells for myocardial ischemia. Circulation, 103:634–637.

Khan SS, Solomon MA, and McCoy JP Jr, (2005). Detection of circulating-  endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells by flow cytometry. Cytometry B Clin Cytom 64:1–8.

Kiernan, T.(2006). Endothelial progenitor cells in 2006 – Where are we now? http://www.irishheart.ie/iopen24/catalog/pub/Heartwise/2006/Spring/endothelial.pdf retrieved 6/22/2006.

Kim, DH, Leu, HB, Ott, HC & Taylor, DO, Bertolini, F, Mancuso, P & Kerbel, RS, Boos, CJ, Goon, PKY, Lip, GYH, (2005). Multiple comments – Correspondence to the Editor on Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells. NEJM, 353:24, 2613-2616

Kleinman, ME, Blei, F, Gurtner, GC, (2005). Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Vascular Anomalies, Lymphatic Research and Biology, 3;4: 234-239.

Kocher AA, Schuster MD, Szabolcs MJ, Burkhoff D, Wang J, Homma S, Edwards NM, Itescu S. (2001). Neovascularization of ischemic myocardium by human bone-marrow-derived angioblasts prevents cardiomyocyte apoptosis, reduces remodeling and improves cardiac function. Nat Med., 7:430–436.

Kong D, Melo LG, Gnecchi M, Zhang L, Mostoslavski G, Liew CC, Pratt RE, Dzau VJ. (2004a). Cytokine-induced mobilization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells enhances repair of injured arteries. Circulation, 110:2039 –2046.

Kong D, Melo LG, Mangi AA, Zhang L, Lopez-Ilasaca M, Perrella MA, Liew CC, Pratt RE, Dzau VJ, (2004b). Enhanced inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia by genetically engineered endothelial progenitor cells. Circulation, 109:1769 –1775.

Kuvin JT, et al. (2003a). Assessment of peripheral vascular endothelial function with finger arterial pulse wave amplitude. Am Heart J, 146:168-74.

Kuvin JT, et al. (2003b). Peripheral arterial tonometry during hyperemia is blunted in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll of Cardiology, 41:Suppl:269A.

Lapidot T, and Petit, I (2002) Current understanding of stem cell mobilization: The roles of chemokines, proteolytic enzymes, adhesion molecules, cytokines, and stromal cells. Experimental Hematology, 30:973–98

Laufs U, Werner N, Link A, Endres M, Wassmann S, Jurgens K, Miche E, Bohm M, Nickenig G, (2003). Physical training increases endothelial progenitor cells, inhibits neointima formation, and enhances angiogenesis. Circulation, 109:220 –226.

Laufs U, Werner N, Link A, Endres M, Wassmann S, Jurgens K, Miche E, Bohm M, and Nickenig G (2004). Physical training increases endothelial progenitor cells, inhibits neointima formation, and enhances angiogenesis. Circulation 109: 220–226.

Llevadot J, Murasawa S, Kureishi Y, Uchida S, Masuda H, Kawamoto A, Walsh K, Isner JM, Asahara T, (2001). HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor mobilizes bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells. J Clin Invest., 108:399–405.

Lloyd-Jones, D. and Tian, L. (2006). Predicting Cardiovascular Risk, So What Do We Do Now?. Arch Intern. Med, 166, 1342-1343.

Loomans CJM, de Koening EJP, Staal FJT, Rookmaaker MB, Verseyden C, de Boer HC, Verhaar MC, Braam B, Rebelink TJ, van Zonneveld A-J. (2004). Endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction. A novel concept in the pathogenesis of vascular complications of type I diabetes. Diabetes, 53:195–199.

Losordo DW, Isner JM, Diaz-Sandoval LJ, (2003). Endothelial Recovery. The next target in restenosis prevention. Circulation, 107:2635–2637.

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Massa M, Rosti V, Ferrario M, Campanelli R, Ramajoli, Rosso R, De Ferrari GM, Ferlini M, Goffredo L, Bertoletti A, Klersy C, Pecci A, Moratti R, Tavazzi, (2005). Increased circulating hematopoietic and endothelial progenitor cells in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction. Blood,105:199 –206.

Orlic D, Kajstura J, Chimenti S, Limana F, Jakoniuk I, Quaini F, Nadal-Ginard B, Bodine DM, Leri A, Anversa P. (2001). Mobilized bone marrow cells repair the infarcted heart, improving function and survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 98:10344 –10349.

Peichev M, Naiyer AJ, Pereira D, Zhu Z, Lane WJ, Williams M, Oz MC, Hicklin DJ, Witte L, Moore MA, and Rafii S (2000). Expression of VEGFR-2 and AC133 by circulating human CD34+ cells identifies a population of functional endothelial precursors. Blood 95: 952–958.

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Powell TM, Paul JD, Hill JM, Thompson M, Benjamin M, Rodrigo M, McCoy JP, Read EJ, Khuu HM, (2005). Leitman SF, Finkel T, Cannon RO III. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor mobilizes functional endothelial progenitor cells in patients with coronary artery disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol., 25:1– 6.

Rafii S, Lyden D (2003). Therapeutic stem and progenitor cell transplantation for organ vascularisation and regeneration. Nat Med 9: 702–712.

Rauscher FM, Goldschmidt-Clermont PJ, Davis BH, Wang T, Gregg D, Ramaswami P, Pippen AM, Annex BH, Dong C, Taylor DA, (2003). Aging, progenitor cell exhaustion, and atherosclerosis. Circulation, 108:457–463.

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Schachinger V, Assmus B, Britten MB, Honold J, Lehman R, Teupe C, Abolmaali ND, Vogt TJ, Hofmann WK, Martin H, Dimmeler S, Zeiher AM, (2004). Transplantation of progenitor cells and regeneration enhancement in acute myocardial infarction: final one-year results of the TOPCARE-AMI trial. J Am Coll Cardiol., 44:1690 –1699.

Schatteman GC, Hanlon HD, Jiao C, Dodds SG, Christy BA. (2000). Blood derived angioblasts accelerate blood flow restoration in diabetic mice. J Clin Invest., 106:571–578.

Scheubel RJ, Zorn H, Rolf-Edgar S, Kuss O, Morawietz, Holtz J, Simm A. (2003). Age-dependent depression in circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. J Am Col Cardiol., 42:2073–2080.

Segal, M.S., Shah, R., Afzal, A., Perrault, C.M., Chang, K., Schuler, A., et al. (2006). Nitric oxide cytoskeletal-induced alterations reverse the endothelial progenitor cell migratory defect associated with diabetes. Diabetes 55(1), 102-109

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Shintani S, Murohara T, Ikeda H, Ueni T, Honma T, Katoh A, Sasaki K, Shimada T, Oike Y, Imaizumi T, (2001). Mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Circulation, 103:2776 –2779.

Shirota, T., Yasui, H., Shimokawa, H. & Matsuda, T. (2003). Fabrication of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-seeded intravascular stent devices and in vitro endothelialization on hybrid vascular tissue. Biomaterials 24(13), 2295–2302.

Simper D, Wang S, Deb A, Holmes D, McGregor C, Frantz R, Kushawa SS, Caplice NM, (2003). Endothelial progenitor cells are decreased in blood of cardiac allograft patients with vasculopathy and endothelial cells of non cardiac origin are enriched in transplant atherosclerosis. Circulation, 107:143–149.

Spyridopoulos I, Haendeler J, Urbich C, Brummendorf TH, Oh H, Schneider MD, Zeiher AM, Dimmeler S, (2004). Statins enhance migratory capacity by upregulation of the telomere repeat-binding factor TRF2 in endothelial progenitor cells. Circulation, 110:3136 –3142.

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Strehlow K, Werner N, Berweiler J, Link A, Dirnagl U, Priller J, Laufs K, Ghaeni L, Milosevic M, Bohm M, Nickenig G, (2003). Estrogen increases bone-marrow derived endothelial progenitor cell production and diminishes neointima formation. Circulation, 107:3059 –3065.

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Tepper OM, Galiano RD, Capla JM, Kalka C, Gagne PJ, Jacobwotiz GR, Levine JP, Gurtner GC. (2002). Human endothelial progenitor cells from type II diabetes exhibit impaired proliferation, adhesion, and incorporation into vascular structures. Circulation, 106:2781–2786.

Tse HF, Kwong YL, Chan JK, Lo G, Ho CL, and Lau CP (2003). Angiogenesis in ischaemic myocardium by intramyocardial autologous bone genesis marrow mononuclear cell implantation. Lancet 361: 47–49.

Tung, R, Kaul, S, Diamond, GA, Shah, PK (2006). Drug-Eluting Stents for the Management of Restenosis: A Critical Appraisal of the Evidence. Annals of Internal Medicine, 144;12: 913-919.

Valenzuela-Fernandez A, Planchenault T, Baleux F, et al. (2002) Leukocyte elastase negatively regulates stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF)/CXCR4 binding and functions by amino-terminal processing of SDF-1 and CXCR4.  J Biol Chem 277:156

Valgimigli M, Rigolin GM, Fucili A, Della Porta M, Soukhomovskaia O, Malagutti P, Bugli AM, Bragottu LZ, Francolini G, Mauro E, Castoldi G, Ferrari R, (2004). CD34 and endothelial progenitor cells in patients with various degrees of congestive heart failure. Circulation, 110:1209–1212.

Vasa M, Fichtlscherer S, Adler K, Aicher A, Martin H, Zeiher AM, Dimmeler S. (2001a). Increase in circulating endothelial progenitor cells by statin therapy in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Circulation, 103:2885–2890.

Vasa M, Fichtlscherer S, Aicher A, Adler K, Urbich C, Martin H, Zeiher AM, Dimmeler S. (2001b). Number and migratory activity of circulating endothelial progenitor cells inversely correlates with risk factors for coronary artery disease. Circ Res., 89:e1– e7.

Vasan, RS, (2006). Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease: Molecular Basis and Practical Considerations, Circulation, 113:2335-2362.

Verma S, Kukiszewski MA, Li S-H, Szmitko PE, Zucco L, Wang C-H, Badiwala MV, Mickle DAG, Weisel RD, Fedak PWM, Stewart DJ, Kutrik MJB, (2004). C-reactive protein attenuates endothelial progenitor cell survival, differentiation, and function. Circulation, 109:r91–r100.

Verma, S. and Marsden, P.A. (2005). Nitric Oxide-Eluting Polyurethanes – Vascular Grafts of the Future? New England Journal Medicine, 353 (7), 730-731.

Verma S, Szmitko, PE, (2006). The vascular biology of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: Modulation of atherosclerosis. Can J Cardiol, 22 (Suppl B):12B-17B.

Walter DH, Rittig K, Bahlmann FH, Kirchmair R, Silver M, Murayama T, Nishimura H, Losordo DW, Asahara T, Isner JM, (2002). Statin therapy accelerates reendothelialization: a novel effect involving mobilization and incorporation of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells. Circulation, 105:3017–3024.

Werner N, Junk S, Laufs L, Link A, Walenta K, Bohm M, Nickenig G., (2003).  Intravenous transfusion of endothelial progenitor cells reduces neointima formation after vascular injury. Circ Res., 93:e17– e24.

Werner N, Kosiol S, Schiegl T, Ahlers P, Walenta K, Link A, Böhm M, Nickenig G. (2005a). Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Cardiovascular Outcomes, NEJM, 353: 999-1007

Werner, N & Nickenig, G. (2005b). Authors Reply to Correspondence to the Editor on Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells. NEJM, 353:24, 2613-2616

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