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Posts Tagged ‘intracardiac migration’


Inferior Vena Cava Filters: Device for Prevention of Pulmonary Embolism and Thrombosis

Reporter: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN

 

UPDATED on 7/18/2018

 

Original Investigation
Cardiology
July 13, 2018

Association of Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement for Venous Thromboembolic Disease and a Contraindication to Anticoagulation With 30-Day Mortality

JAMA Network Open. 2018;1(3):e180452. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.0452
Key Points

Question  What is the association of inferior vena cava filter placement with 30-day mortality in patients with venous thromboembolic disease and a contraindication to anticoagulation?

Findings  In this cohort study, using 2 different statistical methods with adjustment for immortal time bias, inferior vena cava filter placement in patients with venous thromboembolic disease and a contraindication to anticoagulation was associated with an increased risk of 30-day mortality.

Meaning  Randomized clinical trials are needed to define the role of inferior vena cava filter placement in patients with venous thromboembolic disease and a contraindication to anticoagulation.

 

Abstract

Importance  Despite the absence of data from randomized clinical trials, professional societies recommend inferior vena cava (IVC) filters for patients with venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) and a contraindication to anticoagulation therapy. Prior observational studies of IVC filters have suggested a mortality benefit associated with IVC filter insertion but have often failed to adjust for immortal time bias, which is the time before IVC filter insertion, during which death can only occur in the control group.

Objective  To determine the association of IVC filter placement with 30-day mortality after adjustment for immortal time bias.

Design, Setting, and Participants  This comparative effectiveness, retrospective cohort study used a population-based sample of hospitalized patients with VTE and a contraindication to anticoagulation using the State Inpatient Database and the State Emergency Department Database, part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, from hospitals in California (January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011), Florida (January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2013), and New York (January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2012). Data analysis was conducted from September 15, 2015, to March 14, 2018.

Exposure  Inferior vena cava filter placement.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were constructed with IVC filters as a time-dependent variable that adjusts for immortal time bias. The Cox model was further adjusted using the propensity score as an adjustment variable.

Results  Of 126 030 patients with VTE, 61 281 (48.6%) were male and the mean (SD) age was 66.9 (16.6) years. In this cohort, 45 771 (36.3%) were treated with an IVC filter, whereas 80 259 (63.7%) did not receive a filter. In the Cox model with IVC filter status analyzed as a time-dependent variable to account for immortal time bias, IVC filter placement was associated with a significantly increased hazard ratio of 30-day mortality (1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.22; P < .001). When the propensity score was included in the Cox model, IVC filter placement remained associated with an increased hazard ratio of 30-day mortality (1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.22; P < .001).

Conclusions and Relevance  After adjustment for immortal time bias, IVC filter placement was associated with increased 30-day mortality in patients with VTE and a contraindication to anticoagulation. Randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the efficacy of IVC filter placement in patients with VTE and a contraindication to anticoagulation.

 

Requiem for Liberalizing Indications for Vena Caval Filters?

Samuel Z. Goldhaber

Guidelines

However, it is premature to hammer nails into the coffin and to gather as a medical community for a requiem that celebrates no indication for liberalizing indications for placing an IVC filter. Instead, we need to shift the focus of the questions that we investigate and pour resources into further randomized and observational trials of IVC filter insertion in special highrisk populations.

There remain important groups of patients who may benefit from IVC filters with reduction in PE and PE-associated mortality (Table 2). In some cases, tantalizing data suggest that these populations warrant filters. In other cases, we lack data to guide us. Patients with massive PE—accompanied by cardiogenic shock requiring vasopressors to support blood pressure—are desperately ill. They are clinically unstable. An additional PE under these circumstances can be the fatal blow. Data from the National Inpatient Sample and the International Cooperative PE Registry suggest that filters in these patients may be lifesaving.

Patients with severe PE who undergo acute surgical pulmonary embolectomy are vulnerable to recurrent PE, especially during the early postoperative period where full anticoagulation cannot be immediately implemented. I have had personal experience managing this type of patient where the embolectomy is successful but the patient dies of recurrent PE.19

Table 1. Generally Accepted Consensus Recommendations for IVC Filter Insertion in Patients With VTE

  • Major bleeding on full-dose anticoagulation
  • Major contraindication to full-dose anticoagulation
  • New-onset acute PE (especially recurrent PE) despite well-documented fulldose anticoagulation for an existing VTE

IVC indicates inferior vena caval; PE, pulmonary embolism; and VTE, venous thromboembolism.

 

Table 2. Special Populations Where Benefits of IVC Filter Insertion May Outweigh Risks

  • Massive PE or high-risk submassive PE
  • Surgical pulmonary embolectomy
  • Cancer patients with VTE or at high risk of VTE with concomitant high risk of bleeding if anticoagulated
  • Surgical patients (especially during preoperative evaluation) at high risk of VTE with concomitant high risk of bleeding if anticoagulated

IVC indicates inferior vena caval; PE, pulmonary embolism; and VTE, venous thromboembolism.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.022730

References

1. Stein PD, Matta F, Hull RD. Increasing use of vena cava filters for prevention of pulmonary embolism. Am J Med. 2011;124:655–661. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.02.021.

2. Jia Z, Wu A, Tam M, Spain J, McKinney JM, Wang W. Caval penetration by inferior vena cava filters: a systematic literature review of clinical significance and management. Circulation. 2015;132:944–952. doi: 10.1161/ CIRCULATIONAHA.115.016468

3. Owens CA, Bui JT, Knuttinen MG, Gaba RC, Carrillo TC, Hoefling N, Layden-Almer JE. Intracardiac migration of inferior vena cava filters: review of published data. Chest. 2009;136:877–887. doi: 10.1378/ chest.09-0153.

4. Nicholson W, Nicholson WJ, Tolerico P, Taylor B, Solomon S, Schryver T, McCullum K, Goldberg H, Mills J, Schuler B, Shears L, Siddoway L, Agarwal N, Tuohy C. Prevalence of fracture and fragment embolization of Bard retrievable vena cava filters and clinical implications including cardiac perforation and tamponade. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:1827–1831. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2010.316.

5. Angel LF, Tapson V, Galgon RE, Restrepo MI, Kaufman J. Systematic review of the use of retrievable inferior vena cava filters. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2011;22:1522–1530.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jvir.2011.08.024.

19. Aklog L, Williams CS, Byrne JG, Goldhaber SZ. Acute pulmonary embolectomy: a contemporary approach. Circulation. 2002;105:1416–1419.

Other related articles published in this Open Access Online Scientific Journal include the follwoing:

 

Xarelto (Rivaroxaban): Anticoagulant Therapy gains FDA New Indications and Risk Reduction for: (DVT) and (PE), while in use for Atrial fibrillation increase in Gastrointestinal (GI) Bleeding Reported

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2012/11/04/xarelto-rivaroxaban-anticoagulant-therapy-gains-fda-new-indications-and-risk-reduction-for-dvt-and-pe-while-in-use-for-atrial-fibrillation-increase-in-gastrointestinal-gi-bleeding-reported/

Venous Thromboembolism (VTE): Blood Clots in Leg and Lungs – No. 3 Cardiovascular Killer Globally – Is Leading Cause of Premature Death and Disability in Hospitals

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2014/10/13/venous-thromboembolism-vte-blood-clots-in-leg-and-lungs-no-3-cardiovascular-killer-globally-is-leading-cause-of-premature-death-and-disability-in-hospitals/

The Relation between Coagulation and Cancer affects Supportive Treatments

https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/10/19/the-relation-between-coagulation-and-cancer-affects-supportive-treatments/

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