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Posts Tagged ‘AFP’


Reporter and Curator: Ritu Saxena, PhD

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in clinical diagnostics, for a rapidly growing number of indications. The MRI technique is non-invasive and can provide information on the anatomy, function and metabolism of tissues in vivo (Strijkers GJ, et al, Anticancer Agents Med Chem, May 2007;7(3):291-305). Basic contrast in the MRI image scans is as a result of contrast generated by differences in the relaxation times between different regions. Since the intrinsic contrast generated between regions is limited to allow clear and specific diagnosis, MRI contrast agents administered intravenously are increasingly being used to alter image contrast.

Gadoxetic acid, a gadolinium-based compound, is a recently developed hepatobiliary-specific contrast material for MRI that has high sensitivity in the detection of malignant liver tumors. Its salt, gadoxetate disodium, is marketed as Primovist in Europe and Eovist in the United States by Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals. Gadoxetic acid is taken up by hepatocytes and then excreted into the bile ducts (Schuhmann-Giampieri G, et al, Radiology, Apr 1992;183(1):59-64). Therefore, hepatic focal lesions without normal hepatobiliary function are depicted as hypointense areas compared with the well-enhanced hyperintense background liver in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid–enhanced MR imaging. In addition, gadoxetic acid can be used in the same way as gadopentetate dimeglumine to evaluate the hemodynamics of hepatic lesions in the dynamic phase after an intravenous bolus injection (Kitao A, et al, Radiology, Sep 2010;256(3):817-26).

Recently, researchers from Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, (Kanazawa, Japan) analyzed the correlation among biologic features, tumor marker production, and signal intensity at gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). The findings were published in Radiology journal. The research was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (21591549) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; and by Health and Labor Sciences Research Grants for “Development of novel molecular markers and imaging modalities for earlier diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.”

Research significance: HCC is the most frequent primary malignant tumor of liver and is the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide. It is the most Hepatocellular.

The accurate detection and characterization of HCC focal lesions is crucial for improving prognosis of patients with HCC.

Research problem: Gadoxetic acid–enhanced MR imaging is highly accurate for diagnosing HCC lesions. As discussed earlier, in this imaging process, hepatic focal lesions without normal hepatobiliary are hypointense as compared with the well-enhanced hyperintense background liver. However, approximately 6%–15% of hypervascular HCCs demonstrate isointensity or hyperintensity (Kitao A, et al, Eur Radiol, Oct 2011;21(10):2056-66).

Hypothesis: The reason for hyperintensity in some HCC lesions was previously shown to be due to overexpression of organic anion transporting polypeptide 8 (OATP8) (Kitao A, et al, Radiology, Sep 2010;256(3):817-26). The authors speculated that there might be a correlation of the tumor marker production and signal intensity (SI) on hepatobiliary phase images, which would reflect distinct genomic and proteomic expression of HCC. Thus, authors stated that “the purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation among the pathologic and biologic features, tumor marker production, with signal intensity (SI) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid–enhanced MR images of HCC” (Kitao A, et al, Radiology, Dec 2012;265(3):780-9).

Experimental design: From April 2008 to September 2011, 180 surgically resected HCCs in 180 patients (age, 65.0 years ± 10.3 [range, 34–83 years]; 138 men, 42 women) were classified as either hypointense (n = 158) or hyperintense (n = 22) compared with the signal intensity of the background liver on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid–enhanced MR images (Abstract of the study).

Pathologic features were analyzed.

Serum analysis and immunohistochemical staining was performed and following were compared:

  1. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) – is a main tumor marker of HCCs. AFP is the most abundant plasma protein found in the human fetus and plasma levels decrease rapidly after birth. A level above 500 nanograms/milliliter of AFP in adults can be indicative of hepatocellular carcinoma, germ cell tumors, and metastatic cancers of the liver.
  2. Absence of protein induced by vitamin K or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) – is a clinically important serum tumor marker. PIVKAII is an incomplete coagulation factor prothrombin II whose production is related to the absence of vitamin K or the presence of the antagonist of vitamin K, which is the cofactor of g carboxylase that converts precursor into prothrombin.

Serum levels of both AFP and PIVKA-II correlate with HCC malignancy and prognosis (Miyaaki H, et al, J Gastroenterol, Dec 2007;42(12):962-8).

Results: The hyperintense HCCs showed significantly higher differentiation grade than the hypointense HCCs (P = .028). There was a significant difference in the proliferation pattern between the hypointense and hyperintense HCCs (P < .001) and the hyperintense HCCs showed a significantly lower rate of portal vein invasion than that of hypointense HCCs (P = .039). The serum levels of tumor markers AFP, AFP-L3, and PIVKA-II were significantly lower in the patients with hyperintense HCCs than in those with

hypointense HCCs (P = .003, .004, and .026). In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of FP and PIVKA-II was lower in hyperintense than in hypointense HCCs (both P < .001). Also, hyperintense HCCs showed lower recurrence rate than hypointense HCCs (P = .039).

Conclusion: Variation was observed within differently stained lesions of HCC in the hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid–enhanced MR images as evident in tumor marker expression, proliferation pattern, differentiation grade, immunohistochemical analysis and recurrence.  The results lead to the hypothesis that hyperintense HCCs in the hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid–enhanced MR images might represent a particular type of HCC that is hypervascular and biologically less aggressive as compared to hypovascular HCCs. Interestingly, this research is another great example where tumor heterogeneity has been brought to light (similar to genetic heterogeneity in triple negative breast cancer deciphered by Lehmann BD, et al, 2011). The heterogeneity might be the basis of answers to why a particular therapy fails in a certain tumor type and fortifying evidence for appropriate analysis of the tumor for obtaining the desired tumor response from a particular drug.

Reference:

Kitao A, et al, Radiology, Dec 2012;265(3):780-9

Strijkers GJ, et al, Anticancer Agents Med Chem, May 2007;7(3):291-305

Schuhmann-Giampieri G, et al, Radiology, Apr 1992;183(1):59-64

Kitao A, et al, Radiology, Sep 2010;256(3):817-26

Kitao A, et al, Eur Radiol, Oct 2011;21(10):2056-66

Kitao A, et al, Radiology, Sep 2010;256(3):817-26

Miyaaki H, et al, J Gastroenterol, Dec 2007;42(12):962-8

Lehmann BD, et al, J Clin Invest, 2011;121(7):2750–2767

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