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Titanium-nitric-oxide-coated bioactive stents in acute coronary syndrome

Reporter: Larry Bernstein, MD, FCAP

SOURCE: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/256607204_Stent-oriented_versus_patient-oriented_outcome_in_patients_undergoing_early_percutaneous_coronary_intervention_for_acute_coronary_syndrome_2-year_report_from_the_BASE-ACS_trial

REBLOG

Titanium-nitric-oxide-coated bioactive stents in acute coronary syndrome: towards a more clear landscape!

 Assisstant Professor of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt

With full interest, we read the Editorial “Nitric-oxide Coated Bioactive Titanium Stents: Safer and More Effective Than Second-generation Drug-eluting Stents?” by Sabaté et al 1. I’d like to commend the authors for publishing this interesting analysis of recently published studies – including the BASE ACS randomized controlled trial– comparing titanium-nitric-oxide-coated bioactive stents (NO-BAS) with drug-eluting stents. Yet, since I’m one of the authors of the BASE ACS trial, I’d like to clarify some points. First, the BASE ACS trial was adequately powered to detect a difference of the primary composite endpoint at 12 months (827 patients), with a formal statistical power calculation 2. Second, as the authors reported, the NO-BAS were non-inferior to cobalt-chromium-based everolimus-eluting stents (EES) for the primary composite endpoint of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) that included cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization, in patients presenting with the full spectrum of acute coronary syndrome at 12-month follow-up 2. The 12-month rates of the individual secondary endpoints of non-fatal MI and definite stent thrombosis (ST) were lower in patients who received NO-BAS versus those who received EES (2.2% versus 5.9%, and 0.7% versus 2.2%, p= 0.007 and 0.07, respectively) 3. And whereas the definition of MI adopted by the BASE ACS trial (based on CK MB or troponin ≥2 times the upper reference limit) was different from that employed in the EXAMINATION trial (extended definition of the World Health Organization), it cannot be held responsible for the difference in MI rates between NO-BAS and EES in the same BASE ACS trial, since the definition was equally applied to the two trial arms 2,3. Third, the early (within 30 days) divergence of safety endpoints between the 2 stent arms is hard to explain merely in view of peri-procedural bivalirudin monotherapy. In fact, out of 9 cases (2.2%) of definite ST in the EES arm, 3 were acute (within 24 hr); out of these 3, only 2 received peri-procedural bivalirudin as a sole anticoagulant 2. Moreover, peri-procedural bivalirudin use was comparable between the 2 stent arms: 14.1% versus 15.1% in NO-BAS versus EES arms, respectively. Furthermore, angiographic success was achieved in 99.8% in both stent arms; hence, technical issues (distal dissection, stent underexpansion) were probably similar in the 2 stent arms 2. More importantly, the rates of non-fatal MI and definite ST continued to diverge after one year: at 2-year follow-up, they were 2.9% versus 7.1%, and 1.0% versus 2.7%, p= 0.005 and 0.05, for NO-BAS versus EES, respectively 4. Since technical issues generally operate early (within 1 month) after stent implantation; therefore, they cannot fully account for the ‘very late’ events. References

1. Sabaté M, Brugaletta S. Nitric-oxide Coated Bioactive Titanium Stents: Safer and More Effective Than Second-generation Drug-eluting Stents? Rev Esp Cardiol. 2014;67:511-3. 2. Karjalainen PP, Niemela M, Airaksinen KEJ, et al. A prospective randomized comparison of titanium-nitride-oxide-coated bioactive stents with everolimus-eluting stents in acute coronary syndrome: the BASE-ACS trial. EuroIntervention. 2012;8:1769–74. 3. Sabate M, Cequier A, In˜iguez A, et al. Everolimus-eluting stent versus bare-metal stent in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (EXAMINATION): 1 year results of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2012;380:1482–90. 4. Romppanen H, Nammas W, Kervinen K, et al. Stent-oriented versus patient-oriented outcome in patients undergoing early percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome: 2-year report from the BASE-ACS trial. Ann Med. 2013;45:488-93.

additional:

 Pooled Analysis of Two Randomized Trials Comparing Titanium-nitride-oxide-coated Stent Versus Drug-eluting Stent in STEMI. Petri O. Tuomainenab, Jussi Siac, Wail Nammasb, Matti Niemeläd, Juhani K.E. Airaksinene, Fausto Biancarif, Pasi P. Karjalainen. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2014;67(7):531-7  http://dx.doi.org:/10.1016/j.rec.2014.01.024

KeywordsBioactive stents. Everolimus-eluting stents. Paclitaxel-eluting stents. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Outcome.

Pooled Analysis of Two Randomized Trials Comparing Titanium-nitride-oxide-coated Stent Versus Drug-eluting Stent in STEMI

Petri O. Tuomainenab, Jussi Siac, Wail Nammasb, Matti Niemeläd, Juhani K.E. Airaksinene, Fausto Biancarif, Pasi P. Karjalainenb, a Department of Internal Medicine and Heart Center, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland b Department of Cardiology, Satakunta Central Hospital, Pori, Finland c Department of Cardiology, Kokkola Central Hospital, Kokkola, Finland d Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland e Department of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland f Division ofCardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Oulu, Finland

Refers to

Keywords

Bioactive stents. Everolimus-eluting stents. Paclitaxel-eluting stents. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Outcome.

Abstract

Introduction and objectivesWe performed a pooled analysis based on patient-level data from the TITAX-AMI and BASE-ACS trials to evaluate the outcome of titanium-nitride-oxide-coated bioactive stents vs drug-eluting stents in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction at 2-year follow-up. MethodsThe TITAX-AMI trial compared bioactive stents with paclitaxel-eluting stents in 425 patients with acute myocardial infarction. The BASE-ACS trial compared bioactive stents with everolimus-eluting stents in 827 patients with acute coronary syndrome. The primary endpoint for the pooled analysis was major adverse cardiac events: a composite of cardiac death, recurrent myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization at 2-year follow-up. ResultsThe pooled analysis included 501 patients; 245 received bioactive stents, and 256 received drug-eluting stents. The pooled bioactive stent group was associated with a risk ratio of 0.85 for major adverse cardiac events (95% confidence interval, 0.53-1.35; P = .49) compared to the pooled drug-eluting stent group. Similarly, the pooled bioactive stent group was associated with a risk ratio of 0.71 for cardiac death (95% confidence interval, 0.26-1.95; P = .51), 0.44 for recurrent myocardial infarction (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.97; P = .04), and 1.39 for ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization (95% confidence interval, 0.74-2.59; P = .30), compared to the pooled drug-eluting stent group. These results were confirmed by propensity-score adjusted analysis of the combined datasets. ConclusionsIn patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, bioactive stents were associated with lower rates of recurrent myocardial infarction compared to drug-eluting stents at 2-year follow-up; yet, the rates of cardiac death and ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization were similar.

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