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Posts Tagged ‘angiotensin converting enzyme 2’


Three Stages to COVID-19 Brain Damage

Reporter: Irina Robu, PhD

According to a review published by Majid Fotuhi, PhD in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, the impact of COVID-19 on the nervous system can be classified in three stages. In stage 1, viral damage is limited to the epithelial cells of the nose and mouth; stage 2, blood clots that form in the lungs can travel to the brain and in stage 3, the virus crosses the blood brain barrier and invades the brain.

Dr. Fotuhi recognized that patients with COVID-19 should have a neurological evaluation and an MRI before leaving the hospital, to distinguish if there are any anomalies. It has become increasingly obvious that SARS-CoV-2 can cause neurologic manifestations, including anosmia, seizures, stroke, confusion, encephalopathy, and total paralysis, the authors write. As stated by authors of the review, the SARS-CoV-2 binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) that facilitates the conversion of angiotensin II to angiotensin. Subsequently ACE2 binds to respiratory epithelial cells, and then to epithelial cells in blood vessels, SARS-CoV-2 triggers the formation of a “cytokine storm.” The cytokines, increase vascular permeability, edema and widespread inflammation which can cause small or large blood clots that affect multiple organs.

They concluded, that If SARS-CoV-2 crosses the blood–brain barrier, directly entering the brain, it can contribute to demyelination or neurodegeneration. Scientists have limited information published about it, so doctors/scientists are uncertain why a virus this small can cause so many neurological things.

SOURCE

https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/933131

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